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1

Ultimate Guitar (Grade 4)


Introduction:
The next step.
If you have completed Ultimate Guitar (Grade 3), then you are ready
to launch into this book. For maximum benefit to be gained from
this book you will need a good working knowledge of note reading in
1st position, reading in 5th position, basic theory concepts and simple
chord chart reading. If any of these areas are unfamiliar to the
student then a short remedial course should be undertaken before
continuing.
What is in this book?
The Ultimate Guitar series seeks to provide a continuation in
teaching methodology and logical layout. To that end you will find
this book continues with music reading skills by gradually
introducing notes in the higher positions.
The minor pentatonic, major pentatonic and blues scales are
introduced with an emphasis on improvisation.
The accompanying CD provides tuning notes, examples and pieces.
The recording is made in split stereo so you can use the balance
control on your CD player to play the melody or the accompaniment
separately. Melody is recorded on the right channel and
accompaniment is recorded on the left channel.
CD 1
Exercises or pieces are marked with
to show that the
piece is recorded onto CD and the track is number 1.
As in all of the Ultimate Guitar series books, lessons have an
integrated theory component under the heading of Brain Stuf.
These are in a workbook format and should be completed before
continuing to the next lesson.

For the Teacher:

Grade 4 has been designed as a continuation in the study of music


reading, theory, rhythm guitar, chord melody and musicianship that
was begun in earlier grades of this course.
Scales for improvisation are included, but rather than present them
in the usual way with dots on a fingerboard grid, I have found it
beneficial for students when the scales are presented in lower
positions where they need to read the notes off the staff. This also
allows for the introduction of higher position notes and, in particular,
the replacement of open notes with alternate position notes.
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Considerable material is presented to encourage students to


experiment with chordal additions and extensions to add colour to
the sound of their rhythm playing.
Barre chords knowledge and skills are developed further and a barre
chord chart is included for reference.
As students become more confident in their rhythm playing I
recommend using the Frameworks Volume 2 play-a-long book and
CD set. It contains blues oriented tracks that are fun to jam with but
also give students some rhythmic backing to work with as they
experiment with new strums and chord voicings.
There is also a blues based supplement that was formerly available
as a stand-a-lone product but is now integrated into this course. It
provides students with the basics of blues rhythm guitar concepts
and the use of the primary chords.
The Brain Stuf sections are strategically placed within the course
to coincide with theory topics and concepts being presented. These
written theory exercises allow the teacher to maintain continuity
with theory concepts and provide an easy way for the student to
become acquainted with music in its written form.
It is my desire to present the finest teaching materials to tutors and
students and hope this series of books plays a part in developing
your students abilities to enable them to play at the highest level
and find enjoyment in their music making efforts.
Andrew Hobler

Tuning notes can be found on


CDthe
1 CD

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Lesson 1
Objectives:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

To learn the A minor pentatonic scale.


To learn the hammer-on technique.
To learn to use the sus4 chord extension.
To learn to read more syncopated rhythms.
To review major scales and build the minor pentatonic
scale.

A Minor Pentatonic scale


Scales are the building blocks of music and are a necessary tool for
the guitarist interested in soloing.
The minor pentatonic scale (penta =5) is one of the most useful
scales. It is formed from the 1, b3, 4, 5 and b7 of the major scale.
The A minor pentatonic scale contains A C D E G A and is shown
below.
CD 2
Practice ascending (going up) and descending (going down) the

scale.

PRACTICE DRILLS
2 TIMES EACH NOTE

(EIGHTH NOTES)

CD 3

3 TIMES EACH NOTE

CD 4

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(TRIPLETS)

4 TIMES EACH NOTE

(SIXTEENTH NOTES)

CD 5

2 TIMES EACH NOTE

(SHUFFLE or SWING)

CD 6

Kitchen Sync Blues

CD 7

The Hammer-On

The hammer-on is one of the guitarists secret weapons. It allows


us to play more smoothly with the notes connecting without the
sound of the pick attack. It also allows us to play faster as not every
note is picked.
Lets look at how its done.
The hammer-on occurs between 2 notes such as G and A on the 3rd
string.

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H.O stands for hammer-on and is sometimes abbreviated to H.


1. Play the open G and with as much finger speed as you can,
smash the 2nd finger of your left hand onto the A note without
picking it.
2. Play it again; this time make sure that the first note goes for 1 full
beat before beginning the hammer.
3. You might find that the hammered note is not as loud as the
picked note. This is quite normal as it takes practice to develop
the finger speed required.
4. Play the following exercise and keep an accurate sense of
rhythm.
CD 8

Try putting some hammers into Aura Lee. Using a familiar song
helps with the rhythm aspect of hammer-ons.

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The sus 4 Chord Extension


Many of the concepts we cover here could be titled Easy Tricks
That Make you Sound Like A Pro.
The chord extension sus4 (or suspended 4th) is a common one that
guitar players love to use. It helps create movement (making it more
interesting to play and listen to) without requiring any difficult
techniques.
Firstly, some basic theory.
Suspended is simply the type of chord being used. (Like major,
minor, seventh etc).
The4 part is a little trickier but like so many music questions and
concepts it relates to scales.

Dsus4
The first of the Sus 4 chords you will learn is Dsus4. To understand
what the chord symbol is telling us we need to refer to the D scale.
D
1

E
2

F#
3

G
4

A
5

B
6

C#
7

D
8

The chord formula for a sus 4 is 1, 4, & 5.


The notes in a Dsus4 chord are D G and A.

The shaded finger dot represents the not that is to be added to the
chord.
The 2nd finger usually stays in place as the Dsus4 chord is often
followed by the D chord.
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D sus4

X X
X

4th finger

Play this exercise and listen for clear sound on the 1st string.
CD 9

Use the same chords but change the rhythm.


CD 10

Add some syncopation. (Read on to discover more about


syncopation).
CD 11

Gsus4

X
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CD 31

Gsus4
8

4th finger

CD 12

CD 13

CD 14

Asus4

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CD 34

4th finger

Asus4
9

CD 15

Esus4
Esus4

4th finger

Syncopated Rhythms
Syncopated rhythms are often played quite naturally as they are
heard in music all the time and are therefore a familiar sound. The
difficulties with syncopation are most commonly related to the
notation of the rhythm.

In music, the strongest beats are usually those that are counted as
numbers.
(1

4).

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Strong beats.

10

The notes that fall on the and counts are considered the weak part
of the beat.
When notes land on two consecutive weak beats the rhythm is said
to be syncopated.
On the example below, place brackets around the counts where no
picking attack will occur. Play slowly and carefully.
CD 16

Syncopation adds lift to the music by being a little less predictable.


You can add your own syncopation to melodies.
You have already played Camptown Races without any
syncopation. Try this version where no new notes are added, but the
rhythms have been displaced to add interest to the sound.
Note the position shifts and where they occur.
Try to shift where there is an open string sounding to ensure the
notes stay connected.

CD 17

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Camptown Races

11

Notice how the piece lifts with the addition of syncopated rhythm.
Try some syncopations of your own on other pieces of music. You will
find that a metronome helps you keep time more accurately.

Two Fingered Blues

Lead Guitar

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CD 18

Rhythm Guitar

Brain Stuf 1

Firstly, a brief review of major scales.

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Scale
A scale is a series of notes that generally move in a stepwise
direction.
The most common of these is the major scale.
A C major scale contains these notes:
C

Scale Degrees
Scale notes can be numbered from 1 through to 8. These are called
scale degrees or scale step numbers.

Semitones & Tones (Half &Whole Steps)


A semitone is also called a half-step and is the interval between 2
consecutive notes on the chromatic scale.
C-C# is 1 semitone or half-step.
C#-D is 1 semitone or half-step.
A tone is also called a whole step and is the interval between 3
consecutive notes on the chromatic scale.
C-D is 1 tone or whole step.
D-E is 1 tone or whole step.

Major Scale Formula


The major scale formula is the set sequence that allows us to
accurately construct the major scale regardless of the starting note.
The formula for the major scale is:

There are always 2 semitones (or half-steps) between the 1st and
2nd scale degrees in the major scale.

Reference chart of all Major Scales

The following table shows all major scales and should be used as a
reference.

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Key

Ma

mi

mi

Ma

Ma

mi

dim

Ma

C
G
D
A
E
B
F#
C#
F
Bb
Eb
Ab
Db
Gb

D
A
E
B
F#
C#
G#
D#
G
C
F
Bb
Eb
Ab

E
B
F#
C#
G#
D#
A#
E#
A
D
G
C
F
Bb

F
C
G
D
A
E
B
F#
Bb
Eb
Ab
Db
Gb
Cb

G
D
A
E
B
F#
C#
G#
C
F
Bb
Eb
Ab
Db

A
E
B
F#
C#
G#
D#
A#
D
G
C
F
Bb
Eb

B
F#
C#
G#
D#
A#
E#
B#
E
A
D
G
C
F

C
G
D
A
E
B
F#
C#
F
Bb
Eb
Ab
Db
Gb

Minor Pentatonic Scales


You have already learned about the minor pentatonic scale earlier in
this lesson. We will now build the minor pentatonic based on various
root notes.
The formula is:
1

b3

b7

A minor pentatonic

Eb

Bb

C minor pentatonic

Ex. 1
Use the major scale reference chart and the formula for minor
pentatonic scales and build one based on each root note.
Key

b3

C
G
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b7

8
C
G

15

D
A
E
B
F#
C#
F
Bb
Eb
Ab
Db
Gb

D
A
E
B
F#
C#
F
Bb
Eb
Ab
Db
Gb

Project 1

Practice the A minor pentatonic scale.


Practice the hammer-on technique.
Practice the sus4 chord extension.
Complete Brain Stuff exercises.
Practice clamping technique from Grade 3.

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Lesson 2
Objectives:
1.
2.
3.
4.

To
To
To
To

learn the E, F and G notes on the 2nd string.


learn voice leading concepts.
improvise using the A minor pentatonic scale.
learn a relaxation stretch for the neck and shoulders.

E F and G Notes on the 2nd String


Lets continue learning the notes in higher positions by exploring the
2nd string.
Note that E F is still only 1 fret and F-G is 2 frets (as on the 1st

string).

5th fret

The next piece demonstrates how the addition of these notes to our
knowledge of the fingerboard helps avoid unnecessary position
changes.
We will also need to know the C note on the 3rd string. It is shown

below.
In order to use the most logical fingering for the following piece we
would also need to know the D note on the 3rd string. If you can find
it on the 3rd string then use it in place of the D on the 2nd string.
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Joy to the World


CD 19

CD 20

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Santa Lucia

18

Voice Leading
In this section we will look at how the chord voicings can be linked
together in a progression to provide smooth voice leading.
This simply means that the chord progression flows using common
notes and the smallest possible movements.
G - C is a very common chord sequence and rather than always
playing the open G and C chords it is often effective to play
smoothly connecting triads.
Play the two chord voicings that follow. Use the clamp technique to
play the 1st and 2nd strings together with the 1st finger.
G (G B D)

X X X

3rd fret

C (C E G)

X X

3rd fret

Notice how the G note is common to both chords. The D moves up


to E (1 tone) and the B moves up to C (1 semi-tone away).
This is usually easier to see in music notation.

Lets use these in a funk rhythm.


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CD 21

Mute here by lifting the fingers off the


fret.

This is usually written as follows.

Improvising with the A minor Pentatonic scale


Review the A minor pentatonic scale if you need to before
continuing.
Since we have learned an alternative for the open E string, we could
substitute this new position for the open E.
CD 22

Practice this with the following drills before continuing.

2 TIMES EACH NOTE


3 TIMES EACH NOTE
4 TIMES EACH NOTE
2 TIMES EACH NOTE
1 TIME EACH NOTE
1 TIME EACH NOTE
1 TIME EACH NOTE
1 TIME EACH NOTE

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PRACTICE DRILLS
(EIGHTH NOTES)
(TRIPLETS)
(SIXTEENTH NOTES)
(SHUFFLE or SWING)
(EIGHTH NOTES)
(TRIPLETS)
(SIXTEENTH NOTES)
(SHUFFLE or SWING)

20

Now you should have a good grasp of the new scale position.
Remember that the scales sound the same but the fingering allows
us to play the notes in a certain way.
Play the following chord progression and listen to the sound of the
chords.
CD 23

Tonality
Does the progression sound major, minor or bluesy?
The sound is minor (and more specifically; A minor).
Why do we need to know this?
The tonality of the chord combination gives an idea of what we
should use when we want to improvise (spontaneously compose!?)
a melody (lead guitar) over the chord progression.
More on tonality later, but for now we can trust that the Aminor
pentatonic scale will sound good over the Aminor chord
progression above.
The idea here is to work with small chunks of the scale while the
CD backing (Track 23) is playing in the background.
Begin with the following 3 notes.

Remember that A is the root note and will probably feature more
prominently than the others.
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21

Experiment with different rhythms, slides, hammers and picking


dynamics.
Feel free to let notes ring (sustain) without the need to be picking
all the time.
There are no right or wrong rhythms with this kind of playing so
have fun with it.
Lets look at the next 3 notes in the scale.

Replay the CD (Track 23) and use these 3 notes to improvise with.
Now include the first 3 notes and go for it! Use the slides, hammers
and different rhythms.
If you are playing an electric guitar, now would be a good time to
crank in a little overdrive to give the notes more sustain.

Relaxation Exercise 1 The Funky Chicken


Guitarists generally have a build-up of tension in forearms, wrists,
neck, back and shoulders. This tension can cause headaches, neck
pain, tiredness and damage to the playing apparatus.
This may be due to the actual posture of the player, or the long
hours spent practicing.
This is also a great exercise for people who work long hours in front
of a computer.
It is important to break regularly (every 20 mins) and perform some
of the exercises laid out in this book to relieve the muscles and
tendons.
The simple exercise outlined below eases tension in the neck and
shoulders.
Note that this is to be done gently.

The Funky Chicken


1.Look straight in front of you in either standing or sitting position.
2.Pull your face in to make a double chin without looking
downwards.
3.Hold the position for a count of 5.
4.Repeat 5 times.

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Brain Stuf 2
Intervals
An interval is the distance between 2 notes.
Intervals are always measured from the lowest pitch to the
highest.
They are named according to their relationship with the major
scale that starts on the lower of the 2 notes.

Quality
Each interval is named with a combination of quality and quantity.
The quality of an interval refers to the type of interval.
These are generally classified as:
major
minor
perfect
augmented
diminished

Quantity
The quantity is the size of an interval.
These are named:
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
6th
7th
8th (or Octave)
Since intervals are always measured relative to the major scale built
from the lowest note, the following chart should prove helpful.
The intervals in this example are based on the C major scale.

Lowes
t
C
C
C
C
C
C
C

Highest

Quality

Quantity

D
E
F
G
A
B
C

major
major
perfect
perfect
major
major
perfect

2nd
3rd
4th
5th
6th
7th
Octave

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23

Ex. 1
Which of the intervals on the chart above are perfect?
_____________________
Which of the intervals on the chart above are major?
______________________

Ex. 2
Write the quantity of each of the harmonic intervals listed below.
The first one has been completed for you.
Refer back to Brain Stuff 3 for the Major Scale Reference Chart if
you need to.
Remember to treat the lowest note of the two as the root note
of a major scale.

Project 2

Learn the E, F and G notes on the 2nd string.


Improvise using the A minor pentatonic scale.
Relax!!
Review all lessons.
Work with clamping.

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Complete all Brain Stuff exercises.

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Lesson 3
Objectives:
1. To learn more about the use of the A minor pentatonic
scale.
2. Review of Pick Axis technique.
3. To play a popular song progression using the sus 4 chord
shapes.
4. To learn the sus 2 chord extension.

More Uses Of The A Minor Pentatonic Scale


Lets try another common chord sequence and improvise with the
backing track. Notice how the progression is in Aminor. It sounds at
home when the chords return to Aminor.
I have included some licks for you to copy as part of the track.
Rather than writing them down, it is important to use your ear to
see if you can work them out.
CD 24

Play along with the track and try to copy some of the solo licks by
ear as well as making up your own.

Pick Axis

When we strum a chord on the guitar, we tend to start and finish


as shown by the white line on the diagram below.
Start
with pick
here.

Finish
with pick
here.
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26

This means that most of the pressure from our strum arrives at
the bass strings and middle stings. (6th, 5th and 4th.)
The pick is aimed at the middle of the strings (between 4th and
3rd) and we start strumming. This is called the Pick Axis.
This is fine when the chord is using all 6 strings but with a chord
like Bm we need to be careful NOT to hit the 5th and 6th strings.
To do this we simply change the aim of the pick. (See following
diagram)

Start
with pick
here.

Finish
with pick
here.

Guitarists usually change pick axis all the time without even
realising it, as it is one way of varying the sound of the strum.
Instead of always hitting all 6 strings we can easily adjust pick
axis to lighten the sound of the strum.
We can aim at particular strings we want to emphasise as we
strum.

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27

Popular Progression 1
CD 25

The sus2 Chord Extension Dsus2


Like the sus 4 chord we learned in lesson 3, the sus2 extension is
another easy way to sound like a pro.
The first of the Sus 2 chords you will learn is Dsus2. It is sometimes
written as D(add9) or D(addE) or more recently D2. To understand
what the chord symbol is telling us we need once again to refer to
the D scale.
D
1

E
2

F#
3

G
4

A
5

B
6

C#
7

D
8

The chord formula for a sus 2 is 1, 2,3 & 5.


The notes in a Dsus2 chord are D E F# and A.
D sus2

X X

The following progression uses a combination of D and Dsus2


chords. Use the Dsus2 as a substitute for D in some of the songs you
have learned. Use Pick Axis technique to ensure that the 1st string is
emphasised.

CD 26

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Now try this combination of D Dsus2 and Dsus4 chords. Remember


to use Pick Axis.
CD 27

More sus2 Chord Voicings


Here are some more sus2 voicings to try.
Esus2

Asus2

X
Gsus2

X
Csus2

Project 3

Continue with clamping exercise and all riffs in this lesson.

Lesson 4
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Objective:
1.
2.
3.
4.

To
To
To
To

play a minor blues song.


learn about slash chords.
learn the harmonised C Major scale.
learn more relaxation stretches.

Wayfaring Stranger
CD 28

Slash Chords
It has become popular in recent times to notate some chords as
slash chords.
This enables the player to immediately associate the chord name
with the bass note required.
The slash chord always has the chord name on the left and the
bass note on the right side of the diagonal slash.
Example:
Cma7/E = Cmajor7th chord with an E note as the lowest pitch
in the chord.
Dm7/A = Dminor7th chord with an A bass note.

The slash chord is a vital part of much of todays music, (regardless


of style), as it enables us to write a fairly specific chord sound
without resorting to the sometimes cumbersome music notation.
It is not always necessary for the guitarist or pianist to play the bass
note as well as the chord as the bass note is often played by the
bass player.
Use the song Wayfaring Stranger to practice slash chords. You
should know enough about the positions of low notes and chord
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voicings to accomplish this task quite quickly. Write down any new
chord shapes you discover.

Relaxation Exercise 2 Fore


This stretches the muscles that straighten fingers and bend the
wrist.
Fore
1. Make a loose fist with your left hand while keeping your arms

down in front of you.


2. Without bending your left elbow, cradle your left hand with your

right hand and gently bend the wrist and fingers of this hand so
that you feel a stretch in the left forearm.
3. Hold for a count of 7.
4. Change arms and repeat.

Brain Stuf 4
Harmonising the Scale
The process of harmonising the scale is actually a very simple
one.
The major scale can have triads built from each step of the scale,
using only notes within that scale.
For example;
C major scale is harmonised only using notes from the C major
scale.
G major scale is harmonised only using notes from the G major
scale.

Ex 1.
(a) Write a C major scale on the staff below.
(b) Number the scale steps (degrees) 1-8.
(c) Above the note C write the 3rd and 5th notes of the scale.
(d) What type of triad have you formed?
Major, minor, diminished, or augmented.
(e) Write the name below the triad.
(f) Follow this same process with the other scale steps, in each
case put a 3rd and 5th above the scale tone.

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Ex. 2

Which of the triads on the staff above are major in quality? Write
the scale degree number. __________________________________

Which triads are minor in quality? ________________________

Which triad is diminished in quality? ____________________

2. Tonal Harmony
The chords that result from this process form the basis of tonal
harmony.
Many chord progressions, (and melodies) in music revolve around a
central tonality, or key centre.
In fact, many songs use only chords from a single harmonised scale.
An understanding of this simple process, (and the practical workings
of it), are the key elements in understanding chord/scale
(melody/harmony) relationships.

3. Formula of Major Scale Triad Qualities


1
ma

2
mi

3
mi

4
ma

5
ma

6
mi

7
dim

Ex. 3

Using the formula above, write out the names of the triads in
each key listed in the following table.

C ma
F ma
Bb ma
Eb ma
Ab ma
Db ma
Gb ma
G ma
D ma
A ma
E ma
B ma

1
C ma

2
Dm

3
Emi

Project 4

Complete Brain Stuff.


Practice Wayfaring Stranger

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4
F ma

5
Gma

6
Am

7
Bdim

32

Lesson 5
Objectives:
1. To discover B, C and D notes on the 3rd string.
2. To learn some commonly used variations of the G, C, D and
Em chords.
3. To learn Popular Progression 2.

B, C and D Notes on the 3rd String


Where would you find a B note on the 3rd string? Fret Number____
What about C on the 3rd string? Fret number_________
D is always 2 frets higher than C so would be on fret _________
Apply this new information by playing 4 songs you know and
replacing the 1st position notes with these ones. (Where possible).

Common Variations to G C D and Em Chords


These chords are substitution chords for the usual G Em C and D
chords.
Experiment with using them.
G

C2

Emi7

Dsus 4

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Brain Stuf 3
The Triad
The triad is a 3 note chord.

The 4 different Triad types


There are 4 different chord types that are written as triads.
These are:
major
minor
augmented
diminished

Major Triad
The formula for a major triad is:

1, 3, 5 of the major scale.

Ex.

Build a major triad on each of the root notes given below. The
first one has been completed for you.

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Ex.

Name the triads on the staff below.

Ex.

Spell out the triads on the chart below by filling in the blanks.

Triad
1
3
5

D mi
D
F
A

Triad
1
3
5

Bb
Bb

Triad

Bm

1
3
5

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Gm

Ab

B aug

Cm

Eb

Em

F#

A#

D aug

F#

C#

B
D

Db

Am

G dim

A aug

Db

Bb
dim

E aug

Fm

F
C

35

Project 7

Blues Extra

Blues is the basis for a huge number of songs and music styles and
has influenced thousands of artists from all popular music genres.
The prominence of the guitar in blues music makes it a particular
favourite of guitarists.

12 Bar Blues
The 12 bar blues is the most common and well known form of the
blues and has a number of variations which we will study and
become familiar with.

12 BAR BLUES
4/4

1 chord

1 chord

1 chord

1 chord

4 chord

4 chord

1 chord

1 chord

5 chord

4 chord

1 chord

5 chord

1 chord is the 1st chord in the key.


4 chord is the 4 th chord in the key.
5 chord is the 5th chord in the key.
Substitute the chords from the table below into the appropriate
positions in the chart above.

Key
C
F
Bb
Eb
Ab
Db
Gb
G
D
A
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1 chord
C
F
Bb
Eb
Ab
Db
Gb
G
D
A

4 chord
F
Bb
Eb
Ab
Db
Gb
Cb
C
G
D

5 chord
G
C
F
Bb
Eb
Ab
Db
D
A
E

36

E
B

E
B

A
E

B
F#

We can now substitute the chords from the chart into the chord
progression below.
This example is in the Key of A, but of course any key is able to
be used.

12 BAR BLUES IN A
4/4

Write out and play the 12 bar blues in all keys.

Adding 7th Chords


The most common variation with this progression is to make the
chords into "7ths".
The MAJOR chords have a " happy" sound whereas the use of the
7th chord tends to give the blues progression a more dissonant
"BLUESY" sound.
The chord chart below shows the 12 bar blues progression in the
key of A with the 7ths added.

12 BLUES IN THE KEY OF A


4/4

A7

A7

A7

A7

D7

D7

A7

A7

E7

D7

A7

E7

Play the blues progression in each key with the 7ths added.

Quick Change
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Another common variation is sometimes called the "QUICK


CHANGE" blues.
The main difference is that the 2nd bar contains the 4 chord
before changing back to the 1 chord in bar 3.
The rest of the progression remains unchanged.
The chord chart below shows the 12 bar blues with the QUICK
CHANGE variation and 7ths added.
4/4

A7

D7

A7

A7

D7

D7

A7

A7

E7

D7

A7

E7

Play the "quick change" blues progression in all keys.

12 BAR BLUES IN C
4/4

C5

C5

C5

C5

F5

F5

C5

C5

G5

F5

C5

G5

Chuck Berry Style


Another guitarists technique is sometimes called the "Chuck
Berry" style or "Rockabilly" and can be played using either
moveable or non-moveable power chord shapes.
The diagrams below show the non-moveable shapes.

When adding the note with your 3rd finger the chord becomes a 6th.
This is occasionally written on music as A A6 A A6 etc.
The shapes below are moveable and you will notice the similarity
between these and the power chords of the same name.

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12 BAR BLUES IN A
4/4

Play the 12 bar blues progression in all keys with the "Chuck
Berry" style chords.
By this stage you should be very familiar with the 12 bar blues
progression in all keys. Review any section of this course that you
may be unfamiliar with.
Another common chord sequence in the blues is an 8 Bar Blues.

8 Bar Blues
8 BAR BLUES
4/4

1 chord

5 chord

4 chord

4 chord

1 chord

5 chord

1 chord

5 chord

1 chord is the 1st chord in the key.


4 chord is the 4 th chord in the key.
5 chord is the 5th chord in the key.
Substitute the chords from the table below into the appropriate
positions in the chart above as in the first lesson of the blues
pack supplement.
The power chord techniques and "Chuck Berry" style can be used
with this variation also.

Key
C
F
Bb
Eb
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1 chord
C
F
Bb
Eb

4 chord
F
Bb
Eb
Ab

5 chord
G
C
F
Bb

39

Ab
Db
Gb
G
D
A
E
B

Ab
Db
Gb
G
D
A
E
B

Db
Gb
Cb
C
G
D
A
E

Eb
Ab
Db
D
A
E
B
F#

8 BAR BLUES IN A
4/4

A7

E7

D7

D7

A7

E7

A7

E7

Write out and play the 8 bar blues in each key.

Minor Blues
Both of the blues progressions studied so far can be played using
minor chords instead of major or 7th chords.

12 BAR BLUES IN Gm
4/4

Gm

Gm

Gm

Gm

Cm

Cm

Gm

Gm

Dm

Cm

Gm

Dm

8 BAR BLUES IN Am
4/4

Am

Em

Dm

Dm

Am

Em

Am

Em

Play the 12 bar blues in all minor keys.


Play the 8 bar blues in all minor keys.
Quick change and half step substitutions still apply.

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Chord Substitution
A variation to the minor blues progression from the previous
lesson is to use a 7th chord in place of the 5 chord in the
progression.
This adds a very strong "pulling" sound.

12 BAR BLUES IN Gm
4/4

Gm

Gm

Gm

Gm

Cm

Cm

Gm

Gm

D7

(Cm)

Gm

D7

The Cm chord in bar 10 is sometimes left out to allow the full effect
of the D7 chord to be heard.

8 BAR BLUES IN Am
4/4

Am

E7

Dm

Dm

Am

E7

Am

E7

Play minor blues in both the 12 and 8 bar forms in each key using
the 7th chord as a substitution.

The Minor Triad


The formula for the minor triad is:

1, b3, 5 of the major scale.

Ex.

Build a minor triad on each of the given root notes.

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The Augmented Triad


The formula for the augmented triad is:

1, 3, #5 of the major scale.

Ex.

Build augmented triads on the following root notes.

The Diminished Triad


The formula for the diminished triad is:

1, b3, b5 of the major scale.

Ex.

Build diminished triads from the given root notes.

Lesson 8
Objectives:
1. To learn the key of Eb major.
2. To learn a moveable major scale fingering pattern.
3. To learn the minor7b5 chord.

Project 8

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Lesson 9
Objectives:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

To
To
To
To
To

learn
learn
learn
learn
learn

the C Major pentatonic scale.


Popular Progression 3.
more strumming patterns.
the vibrato technique.
to play the C Major triads on strings 1, 2 and 3.

Objectives:
1.
2.
3.
4.

To learn the E major and E minor barre chord frames.


To learn to use voice leading in chord changes.
To learn Popular Progression 4.
To use the C Major triads over the I, IV, V chord
progression.

Objectives:
1.
2.
3.
4.

To
To
To
To

learn
learn
learn
learn

and use the A Major Pentatonic scale.


the G, A and B notes on the 4th string.
the F#m11 and B7 chord change.
another stretch/relaxation exercise.

G, A and B notes on the 4th String

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Relaxation Exercise 3 Drop D


Another neck and shoulders stretch. This one is great for guitar
players whose posture is a little hunched. (Put your hand up if that
doesnt apply to you!)
1. Sitting down, lock your fingers together behind your head.
2. Gently drop your head to your chest and slowly turn your head to
3.
4.
5.
6.

the right. Keep your hands locked behind the head.


Hold for a count of 10.
Return your head to its usual position.
Repeat the exercise, turning the head to the left this time.
Do 2 times on each side.

Brain Stuf 8
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The Circle of 5ths

Project 11

Lesson 12
Objectives:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Applying the harmonic minor third interval.


More fingerpicking.
To learn to use slash chords and the descending bass line.
To learn Popular Progression 5.
To learn the key of Bb.

Project 12

OBJECTIVE: To learn the Secondary Chords in the key of G.


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In the previous lesson you studied the primary chords in the key of
G. These are G, C, and D.
Secondary Chords
The secondary chords are built from the 2nd, 3rd, 6 th and 7 th
steps of the major scale.

Primary
Secondar
y

1
G

Am

Bm

4
C

5
D

Em

F#di
m

8
G

These 7 different chords are used together often as a basis for songs
in the key of G.
When figuring out songs by ear," knowledge of this basic
theoretical concept is invaluable as it may enable you to predict
some probable chord movements.
Where possible you should try to associate the sound of a chord
movement with a song you have played or are familiar with.
For example; the chord sequence G-Bm is quite common and is the
progression used in the first line of Puff the Magic Dragon!! When I
hear those chords, (regardless of the key), it reminds me of that
song.
Play the chord changes below with some different rhythms.

Let us look at the triads from Lesson 2 again.


G (R1)

G (R2)

G (R3)

What would happen if one of the notes in the triad was changed?
In the root 1 shape move the note on the 3rd string down by 1 fret.
Listen to the sound of the chord. The result is a Gminor triad or
chord.
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Use the root 2 shape and move the note on the 1st string down by
1 fret. This gives a G minor triad or chord.
Use the root 3 shape and move the note on the 2nd string down by
1 fret. This gives a G minor triad or chord.
Gm (R1)

Gm (R2)

Gm(R3)

Work on the chord progression below using a combination of triad


shapes.
G

Em

Am

C Minor Pentatonic
Pattern 1

Blues Scale
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One of the most popular styles of music is of course the blues.


In this lesson you will learn the blues scale pattern that can be
applied when jamming with the blues chord patterns and in many
other musical situations. The 12 bar blues and some of its variations
have already been studied in the supplement for book 1 of this
course. Refer back to these if necessary.
The pattern shown below is the blues scale pattern 1.
C Blues
Pattern 1

Take special note of the root note (circled) of the scale as this will be
a valuable guide as this pattern is transposed up and down the
fingerboard.
The chart below shows the blues scale and the key that can be
found at each position when using the pattern 1 fingering. You will
refer back to this often through this course.
Pattern 1
Blues scale Chart
FRET #
KEY of
1
F
2
F or Gb
3
G
4
G# or Ab
5
A
6
A# or Bb
7
B
8
C
9
C# or Db
10
D
11
D# or Eb
12
E
13
F

For a blues in the key of A the chart shows that you may begin with
your 1st finger on the 5th fret of the 6th string and use those notes
from pattern 1.

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Record yourself playing a blues progression (any key) and play along
with the recording using this scale. Make sure you choose the
pattern carefully!!
Remember that the scale fingering simply gives correct note
choices but does not really sound too musical until we are able to
work with it to phrase the notes so that they make sense.
Practice with the drills laid out in previous Single String lessons.

OBJECTIVE:
To learn about tonality as it applies to pop music
and to apply the scales learned so far in some musical situations.
Tonality
Tonality is the name given to the sound of a chord progression or
song.
In pop music there are 3 different tonalities. These are major,
minor and blues.
The guitarist is often required to play an improvised solo or fill. The
tonality of the music plays an important role in determining the
choice of scale, appropriate phrasing and tone.
Phrasing
Phrasing and tone will be dealt with in the Guitar 1 Section 2
Supplement. Our focus at this point is on the choice of scale.
By this stage you would have noted that the 3 scales have the same
fingering pattern although the minor and blues begin on a different
fret than the major pentatonic.
To use the correct scale it is important to establish the key and
tonality of the chords you are wanting to play over.
Look at the chord progression below and play through it a few times.

So far this section of the course has covered the C major


pentatonic, the C minor pentatonic and the C blues scale in
pattern 1.

The table below shows 3 tonalities, 12 keys and 12 positions on the


fingerboard and is a useful reference guide.
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Pattern 1
Fret
1 or 13
2 or 14
3 or 15
4 or 16
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Blues
F
F#
G
G#
A
Bb
B
C
C#
D
Eb
E

Minor
F
F#
G
G#
A
Bb
B
C
C#
D
Eb
E

Major
Ab
A
Bb
B
C
Db
D
Eb
E
F
Gb
G

This chart contains a lot of information that will take some time to
learn thoroughly.
You will notice the 2 fret numbers. These give the scale position
exactly 12 frets (or 1 octave) higher than the original position.
Fingerboard Concept 1
At this point you will need to begin developing a picture of the
guitar fingerboard. Players see the fingerboard in many interrelated
ways. The use of scale-chord relationships, note reading and
harmony will develop your picture of the fingerboard.
Playing a few licks and riffs from tablature alone will be of no use in
this pursuit. Some general guidelines are written below and may
help you in this vital area of playing and understanding the guitar.
One of the most important goals for a guitarist is to know the
names of all the notes on the fingerboard. This appears quite a
daunting task at first but if tackled systematically and slowly, then
much can be achieved in a relatively short time.
One way to begin this process is to learn the notes on the 6th
string. These notes correspond with the root notes of the E frame
bar chords, root 6 power chords and pattern 1 blues scale
names you have learned.

Fingerboard Concept 2
Learn the notes on the 5th string with special emphasis on those
above the 5th fret. Remember that these correspond to the root 5
power chords and also the A frame bar chords.

Fingerboard Concept 3
Octave Landmark System
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By now your confidence should be growing in the area of naming the


notes being used.
The 3rd concept to introduce is the Octave Landmark System.
This is a very simple concept that is based on knowing the name of
1 note and through the use of some octave shapes, being able to
name another note on the fingerboard. This can save a great deal of
time in counting frets as recognition of the note name generally
occurs very quickly.
These shapes are diagrammed below.
Octave 6th string and 4th string

Octave 5th string and 3rd string

Octave 4th string and 2nd string

Octave 3rd string and 1st string

Work with these diagrams on your guitar and apply the information
with Fingerboard Concepts 1 and 2. Test yourself by randomly
choosing a note name and attempt to find it on each string using
the Octave Landmark System. Remember that the notes on the 6th
string have the same letter name as those on the 1st string at the
same fret number. For example; A on the 6th string is at the 5th fret.
A on the 1st string is also at the 5th fret.

Pattern 4 Blues Scale


The blues scale pattern below is known as pattern 4. Its naming
note is found on the fifth string. As with the other scales, it can be
freely moved around the fingerboard to put it into different keys
(transposed).
C Blues Scale Pattern 4
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The chart that follows shows how the pattern can be transposed and
which key will be played on each fret.
Pattern 4
Fret
Blues
Minor
Major
1 or 13 Bb
Bb
Db
2 or 14 B
B
D
3 or 15 C
C
Eb
4 or 16 Db
C#
E
5
D
D
F
6
Eb
Eb
Gb
7
E
E
G
8
F
F
Ab
9
Gb
F#
A
10
G
G
Bb
11
Ab
G#
B
12
A
A
C
Note that the most commonly used names for the keys are used. For
example; A blues tune in the key of Gb is more common than a
blues in the key of F#.

Play the major scale using the drills above. Be aware of the letter
names of the notes you are playing and of the key signature (how
many sharps or flats there are in the scale).

Fingerboard Concept 4
You will have noticed how time consuming and tedious it is to count
the notes on the guitar from fret 1. It is considerably easier to do if
you can begin on a higher fret. The fingerboard concept explained
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here is designed to eliminate much of the time we waste in working


up the fingerboard.
Simply memorize:
the note names of the 6 open strings.
the note names of the strings played at fret 5.
the note names of the strings played at fret 12.
Remember that the open strings and the notes at the 12th fret will
have the same letter name, although those at the 12th fret are an
octave higher in pitch.

Fingerboard Concept 5
If you have worked on the exercises to improve your knowledge and
concept of the fingerboard, there should be a difference in how you
see the instrument. It is hoped that your view is becoming more
closely aligned with note names rather than just shapes.
The final of these concepts is most successful when practiced
without the guitar in your hands. Therefore, you will need to
visualize the fingerboard of your guitar.
The Exercise
1
Choose a fret. For example; fret 3.
2
Picture your finger playing the note on the 6th string at the
3rd fret.
3
Name the note you are visualizing.
4
Picture your finger playing the note on the 5th string at the
3rd fret.
5
Name the note you are visualizing.
6
Picture your finger playing the note on the 4th string at the
3rd fret.
7
Name the note you are visualizing.
etc., etc., etc.,.....
You may use this exercise for many years as there are variations
that you can do to improve the speed at which you are able to recite
these notes.
A useful variation is to:
1
Choose a note.
2
Attempt to find that note on each string. Start at the 6th
string.

As your confidence with chord spelling grows you can use your
knowledge of the fingerboard to build new chord shapes and
sounds. There are many combinations available.
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If you happen to find a good sounding chord that you have never
played before, you should take the time to figure out the name or at
least be able to write it down in music notation.
Do not neglect this part of your training as it is invaluable regardless
of the style of music you intend playing.

These 5 patterns are all part of a giant A minor pentatonic scale


that encompasses the entire fingerboard of the guitar. They weave
together in such a way that a simple slide can take the fingers from
one pattern to the next very easily. Ideally, the guitarist should
become as familiar with these scales as possible and endeavor to
see these small patterns as part of the total minor pentatonic
scale in each key.
A minor pentatonic
Pattern 1 root on 6th string

A minor pentatonic
Pattern 2 root on 4th string

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A minor pentatonic
Pattern 3 root on 5th string

A minor pentatonic
Pattern 4 root on 5th string

A minor pentatonic
Pattern 5 root on 6th string

The tables that follow show the scale pattern number, the fret
number, the tonality and the key.
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There is a great deal of information here and this is meant to be


used as a reference at this stage. Make use of the scale patterns by
attempting to jam with your favourite albums. You might be
surprised at how often this scale is used!!
There are a number of ways to become familiar with the
scales/keys/tonality/fret information. Attempt to play in one key, (for
example D minor), in all 5 patterns. Look (and listen) for the root
note D and make mental notes of where these are on the
fingerboard.

Pattern 1
Fret no.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

Blues
F
F#
G
G#
A
Bb
B
C
C#
D
Eb
E
F
F#
G

minor
F
F#
G
G#
A
Bb
B
C
C#
D
Eb
E
F
F#
G

Major
Ab
A
Bb
B
C
Db/C#
D
Eb
E
F
Gb
G
Ab
A
Bb

minor
Eb
E
F
F#
G
G#
A
Bb
B
C
C#
D

Major
Gb
G
Ab
A
Bb
B
C
Db/C#
D
Eb
E
F

minor

Major

Pattern 2
Fret no.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Blues
Eb
E
F
F#
G
G#
A
Bb
B
C
C#
D

Pattern 3
Fret no.

Blues

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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

C#
D
Eb
E
F
F#
G
G#
A
Bb
B
C

C#
D
Eb
E
F
F#
G
G#
A
Bb
B
C

E
F
Gb
G
Ab
A
Bb
B
C
Db/C#
D
Eb

Pattern 4
Fret no.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

Blues
Bb
B
C
C#
D
Eb
E
F
F#
G
G#
A
Bb
B
C

minor
Bb
B
C
C#
D
Eb
E
F
F#
G
G#
A
Bb
B
C

Major
Db/C#
D
Eb
E
F
Gb
G
Ab
A
Bb
B
C
Db/C#
D
Eb

Pattern 5
Fret no.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Blues
G#
A
Bb
B

minor
G#
A
Bb
B

Major
B
C
Db/C#
D

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8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

C
C#
D
Eb
E
F
F#
G

C
C#
D
Eb
E
F
F#
G

Eb
E
F
Gb
G
Ab
A
Bb

Chords in each key

Key
Signature

1
Ma

2
mi

C
D
1#
G
A
2#
D
E
3#
A
B
4#
E
F#
5#
B
C#
6#
F#
G#
1b
F
G
2b
Bb
C
3b
Eb
F
4b
Ab
Bb
5b
Db
Eb
6b
Gb
Ab
Chords in each key (with

Key
Signature
1#
2#
3#
4#
5#
6#
1b
2b
3b
4b
5b
6b

3
mi

4
Ma

E
F
B
C
F#
G
C#
D
G#
A
D#
E
A#
B
A
Bb
D
Eb
G
Ab
C
Db
F
Gb
Bb
Cb
7ths added)

5
Ma

6
mi

G
D
A
E
B
F#
C#
C
F
Bb
Eb
Ab
Db

A
E
B
F#
C#
G#
D#
D
G
C
F
Bb
Eb

1
Ma7

2
mi7

3
mi7

4
Ma7

5
7

6
mi7

C
G
D
A
E
B
F#
F
Bb
Eb
Ab
Db
Gb

D
A
E
B
F#
C#
G#
G
C
F
Bb
Eb
Ab

E
B
F#
C#
G#
D#
A#
A
D
G
C
F
Bb

F
C
G
D
A
E
B
Bb
Eb
Ab
Db
Gb
Cb

G
D
A
E
B
F#
C#
C
F
Bb
Eb
Ab
Db

A
E
B
F#
C#
G#
D#
D
G
C
F
Bb
Eb

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mi7b
5
B
F#
C#
G#
D#
A#
E#
E
A
D
G
C
F

8
Ma

7
mi7b
5
B
F#
C#
G#
D#
A#
E#
E
A
D
G
C
F

8
Ma

C
G
D
A
E
B
F#
F
Bb
Eb
Ab
Db
Gb

C
G
D
A
E
B
F#
F
Bb
Eb
Ab
Db
Gb

58

Repertoire Section

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