A Model of Friction for a Pin-On-disc Configuration With Imposed Pin Rotation

© All Rights Reserved

27 tayangan

A Model of Friction for a Pin-On-disc Configuration With Imposed Pin Rotation

© All Rights Reserved

- Engineering Plastics in Industrial Application
- 3.3 9 - Modeling and Simulation of Wear in a Pin on Disc Tribometer
- Design of elements machine, bearing, shaft, spur gear and others, superficie profile, lubrication, friction
- Densit Wear Flex Details
- SampleFloorSpecification Mesh
- watermellon
- R07P
- How Tribology Has Been Helping Us to Advance and t
- 333292059 EG Tribology Course PDH File5681
- Forging
- science (6)
- Fretting Wear in Lubricated Systems
- g992_8803120702750081391.pdf_3
- Wear2
- sergio 4
- 1-s2.0-S004316481630792X-main
- Trib1
- Surface
- Tribological Properties of Additives for Water-bas
- Densit Catalogue-dikonversi.docx

Anda di halaman 1dari 18

j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w. e l s ev i e r. c o m / l o c a t e / m e c h m t

A. Torres Prez a,, G. Garca-Atance Fatj a, M. Hadeld a, S. Austen b

a

b

Sustainable Design Research Centre, Bournemouth University, Fern Barrow, Talbot Campus, Poole, Dorset BH12 5BB, UK

Royal National Lifeboat Institution, Poole, UK

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:

Received 19 October 2010

Received in revised form 17 May 2011

Accepted 4 June 2011

Available online 7 July 2011

Keywords:

Pin-on-disc

Adhesive wear

Friction

Model

ECR

Conductance

a b s t r a c t

A friction model is developed by considering the Coulomb friction model, a probabilistic

approach of wear prediction, the kinematics of the pin-on-disc configuration and the elastic

theory of bending. The model estimates the magnitude and direction of the frictional force, the

pin torque, the probability of asperity contact and the real area of contact distinguishing

between the part due to elastic and plastic asperity contacts respectively. Therefore, the

proposed model is suitable for the prediction of adhesive wear. It can be applied to metal

contacts for conductance characterisation through the plastically deformed asperities which is

of great interest for electrical contact resistance studies.

2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

The pin-on-disc conguration is a common test for the study of sliding wear. The pin on disc tester measures the friction and

sliding wear properties of dry or lubricated surfaces of a variety of bulk materials and coatings [1]. For polymer testing, special pin

on disc machines is used to report the wear rates produced using different pin-on-disc congurations [2]. Two basic pin-on-disc

congurations are typically found depending of the loading of the pin along its major axis, which can be either in a direction

normal (horizontal conguration) or parallel (vertical conguration) with the axis of rotation of the disc[2]. If the rotation of the

pin is controlled by an actuator two new categories appear horizontal conguration with imposed pin rotation and a vertical

conguration with imposed pin rotation respectively [3]. The interest of the former machines is that kinematically they are

generalisation versions of the usual pin-on-disc machine where the pin is xed. The kinematic study of this machine was reported

in Ref. [4] and it is the fundamental pillar to devise the probabilistic friction and adhesive wear prediction models for the pin-ondisc apparatus.

In sliding contacts, adhesive wear mechanisms always occur [5]. Friction causes the asperities on one surface to become cold

welded to the other surface. The volume of material transferred for adhesive wear is proportional to the real area of contact and the

sliding distance. Several probabilistic models based on the Archard Adhesive Wear Law [6] for dry and lubricated contacts are

found in the literature [7]. A complete review of the probabilistic approach for wear prediction in lubricated sliding contacts can be

found in Ref. [8].

An initial study to model the friction is shown in Ref. [4]. Several improvements with respect to the former model are achieved

by a frictional model based on the following assumptions:

The pin is an elastic deformable body.

The real area of contact changes with the ratio between the angular velocity of the pin and the angular velocity of the disc.

The real area of contact depends on the compression and bending stresses acting on the pin.

Corresponding author. Tel.: + 44 1202 965560; fax: + 44 1202 965314.

E-mail address: atperez@bournemouth.ac.uk (A. Torres Prez).

0094-114X/$ see front matter 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.mechmachtheory.2011.06.002

1756

The interfacial shear strength is not a function of the magnitude of the local relative displacement [4].

A sequential methodology is followed which discusses the steps to be taken in order to develop the proposed model.

2. Kinematic analysis of the pin-on-disc conguration with imposed rotation of the pin

The kinematic analysis of the pin-on-disc setup with imposed rotation of the pin was developed in Ref. [4]. As a result, the pinon-disc conguration with imposed rotation of the pin is kinematically equivalent to the pin-on-plate conguration assuming a

pin sliding along a straight line with velocity V = dr and simultaneously rotating about its centre, Op with angular velocity p. The

same conclusions can be drawn analysing the kinematics of the velocity vectors

u,

s in one instant of time according to the

system of reference XY of Fig. 1.

The system of reference XY is xed to the disc. The velocity eld is analysed in the instant of time when the centre of the pin is

aligned to the axis Y. XY is a local system of reference centred at (X,Y) = (0,R) for convenience. The disc rotates with an angular

velocity d and the pin rotates with an angular velocity p according to Fig. 1.

From Fig. 1, the eld of velocities represented by the components

u,

s of a point P within the pin for the instant of time when

the centre of the pin is in (X,Y) = (0,R) are shown in Eq. (1).

u = d R + d p y

s = d + p x

x = r cos

y = r sin

u = d R + d p r sin

s = d + p r cos

Where

R

r

d

p

Distance from the centre of the pin Op to the centre of the disc Od (m)

Distance of a point P on the pin from its centre Op (m)

Angular velocity of the disc about its centre, Od (rad/s).

Angular velocity of the pin about its centre, Op (rad/s).

Fig. 1. Velocity vectors at point P within the pin with imposed rotation p in the pin-on-disc conguration. The system of reference (X,Y) is xed to the disc.

1757

The rst step to devise the nal model is to assume the following: the real contact area (Ar) is proportional to the contact area

(A), the real area of contact (Ar) does not change with , and it is uniformly distributed within the contact area (A). Under such

conditions, the probability of asperity contact can be dened with a new parameter p = Ar/A. The real contact area and the

probability of asperity contact are proportional to the local contact pressure. This is a result of the combination of Coulomb friction

model and adhesive models as shown in Eq. (3).

FR = N; FR = Ar =

Ar

N N

A

z

Ap = r

=

A

A A

A

Where p is the local relation between the real contact area and the contact area. This p is a parameter that can be

experimentally obtained.

According to the adhesion model of friction, each differential of the contact area (dA) contributes to the force acting on the pin

by the contribution of the differential real contact area (pdA) and the interfacial shear stress, (). The sense of the friction force is

opposite to the resultant force acting on the pin, where is the angle of the resultant force acting on the pin [4]. The friction forces

are shown in Eq. (4).

FRx = p cos dA = rp 2 p cosrddr

0 0

A

FRy = p sindA =

r

2

0p 0 p sinrddr

p d r cos

s

sin = q = s

2

u2 + s2

2d R2 + 2Rrd d p sin + d p r2

d R + d p r sin

u

cos = q

2

= s

2

u + s2

2d R2 + 2Rrd d p sin + d p r2

A

The previous expressions can be written in more elegant form using the parameter = p/d, Eq. (5).

r

p 2

R + 1r sinr

FRx = p q

drd

0 0

R2 + 2Rr1sin + 12 r2

p 2

1r cos

FRy = pq

2

drd

0 0

R + 2Rr1sin + 12 r2

The differential friction force which contributes to the differential friction torque is shown in Eq. (6):

d FR = dFRx x + dFRy y

d TF =

r d FR

2

p 2

R + 1r sinr sin

TF = pq

2

drd

0 0

R + 2Rr1sin + 12 r2

p 2

1r cos

pq

drd

2

0 0

R + 2Rr1sin + 12 r2

Assuming a uniform distribution of the real contact area, the y-component of the frictional force is 0. This conclusion can be

drawn visualising that the sum of all velocities along y direction is 0. This is because the eld of velocities along y is an odd

function in respect to the x component which fulls Eq. (9).

sx; y = sx; y

As a result, the y component of the force acting on the pin is 0 according to this model.

1758

The integrals of Eqs. (4) and (8) are graphically determined for a wide range of input conditions using a suitable normalisation

criterion. This normalisation criterion consists on dividing the Eqs. (4) and (8) by the pin area multiplied by the probability of

asperity contact (p) and by the interfacial shear stress (). Results are shown in Figs. 25 for a distance R from the centre of the disc

to the centre of the pin of 25 mm and positive values of . Results for negative values of are shown in Figs. 69.

When is positive, the disc and the pin angular velocities have the same sense otherwise when is negative, the angular

velocities of the disc have opposite senses.

When N 0:

Fx is proportional to the contact area of the pin

Fx tends to be maximum when b 1 or |d|NN|p|

Fx tends to be 0 when |p|NN|d|

When N 0:

The frictional torque is 0 for = 1 (The pin does not rotate in the pin on plate equivalent model)

Frictional torque is negative for b 1

Frictional torque is positive for N 1

The frictional torque T is proportional to the pin radius.

When b 0:

Fx tends to be maximum when |d|N N |p|

Fx tends to be 0 when |p|N N |d|

When b 0:

The sense of the frictional torque TF does not change for all values of .

The frictional torque is maximum if |p|N N | d|

The frictional torque TF is proportional to the pin radius.

0.9

FRx/(rp2)

0.8

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

10

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

-2

10-2

100

101

10

103

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

rp/R

Fig. 2. Normalised x-component of the friction force (3D). [10 2,103],rp/R [0.009,0.9].

0.1

0.2

0.009

0.1

1759

1

0.9

0.8

FRx/(rp2)

0.7

0.6

0.5

rp/R=0.0090

0.4

rp/R=0.0454

r /R=0.1181

0.3

r /R=0.2454

p

0.2

rp/R=0.5000

rp/R=0.6272

0.1

r /R=0.7545

p

r /R=0.9000

p

0

10-2

10-1

100

101

102

103

Fig. 3. Normalised x-component of the friction force (2D). [10 2,103],rp/R [0.009,0.9].

2

2

-3

Normalised friction torque required to rotate the pin: TF /(rp) when p =1 (N/m ) and R=2510 (m)

x10-3

14

FRx/(rp2)

x10-3

12

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

0

-2

-4

10

8

6

4

2

0

103

102

101

100

10-1

10

-2

0.009 0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

-2

0.8

-4

rp/R

Fig. 4. Normalised friction torque (3D). [10 2,103],rp/R [0.009,0.9].

2

2

-3

Normalised friction torque required to rotate the pin: T F /(rp) when p=1 (N/m ) and R=2510 (m)

0.015

r /R=0.0090

p

r /R=0.0454

p

0.01

rp/R=0.1181

rp/R=0.2454

rp/R=0.5000

r /R=0.6272

TF/(rp2)

0.005

rp/R=0.7545

rp/R=0.9000

-0.005

-0.01

10-2

10-1

100

101

102

103

1760

2

2

-3

Normalised friction force: F Rx /(rp) when p=1 (N/m ) and R=2510 (m)

0.9

FRx/(rp2)

0.8

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

-2

-10

-10-1

-100

-101

-102

-103

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.2

0.3

0.1

0.2

0.009

0.1

rp/R

Fig. 6. Normalised x-component of the friction force (3D). [ 103,10 2],rp/R [0.009,0.9].

2

2

-3

Normalised friction force: F Rx /(rp) when p=1 (N/m ) and R=2510 (m)

1

0.9

0.8

FRx/(r2p)

0.7

0.6

0.5

r /R=0.0090

p

r /R=0.0454

p

0.4

r /R=0.1181

p

rp/R=0.2454

0.3

rp/R=0.5000

0.2

rp/R=0.6272

rp/R=0.7545

0.1

r /R=0.9000

p

0

-10-2

-10-1

-100

-101

-102

-103

Fig. 7. Normalised x-component of the friction force (2D). [ 103,10 2],rp/R [0.009,0.9].

2

2

-3

Normalised friction torque required to rotate the pin: T F /(rp) when p=1 (N/m ) and R=2510 (m)

x10-3

14

x10-3

12

14

TF/(rp2)

12

10

10

8

6

4

2

4

-103

-10

-101

-10

-10-1

-10-2

0.009

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

rp/R

Fig. 8. Normalised friction torque (3D). [ 103,10 2],rp/R [0.009,0.9].

0.8

0.9

0.015

1761

2

2

-3

Normalised friction torque required to rotate the pin: TF /(rp) when p=1 (N/m ) and R=2510 (m)

r /R=0.0090

p

r /R=0.0454

p

r /R=0.1181

p

r /R=0.2454

p

r /R=0.5000

p

0.01

r /R=0.6272

p

TF/(rp2)

rp/R=0.7545

rp/R=0.9000

0.005

0

10-2

10-1

100

101

102

103

The experimental data is obtained from Ref. [4] and it is curve tted using different types of regression (Figs. 1012). Although

is reported in Ref. [4] as inverse proportional to , the experimental data must be directly proportional to to match the model

tendencies according to Figs. 29. The experimental points and the types of regression used in Matlab are represented in Table 1.

Using the experimental data provided in Ref. [4], the best value of p according to the x component of the frictional can be

obtained optimising the best value in least mean squares sense for the whole range of . The model predictions are shown in

Figs. 13,14 for a pin of 8 mm of diameter and positive values of and . The probabilities in such cases are shown in Table 2. The

model predictions are shown in Figs. 15,16 for a pin of 8 mm of diameter and negative values of and . The probabilities in such

cases are shown in Table 3.

The friction torque predictions for positive and negative are two orders of magnitude larger than the one reported in Ref. [4],

but the scale of predictions is within the expected range according to the values of Fx and a pin radius of 4 mm. The torque

tendencies are not exactly the same as the experimental ones.

The next step is the assumption of a real area of contact uniform distributed within the contact area that can vary with the ratio

of the angular velocity of the pin and the angular velocity of the disc (). This assumption is reasonable as the coefcient of friction

could change with the relative velocities within the contacting surfaces [11]. Therefore, the probability of asperity contact (p) is

expressed as a function of ().

The values of p can be obtained using the experimental x component of the total frictional force. The model predictions for

the y component are still null, so the experimental values cannot be used to determine p. According to this model, the real area of

contact and the contact pressure change with . The proposed model has the limitation of a real area of contact totally plastic or

6

Experimental data LDPE

LDPE model fit

Experimental data PP

PP model fit

Experimental data PMMA

PMMA model fit

FRx(N)

4

3

2

1

0

10-2

10-1

100

R

Fig. 10. Friction force FRx.

101

1762

0.6

Experimental data LDPE

0.5

Experimental data PP

PP model fit

0.4

FRy(N)

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

10-2

10-1

100

101

100

101

R

Fig. 11. Friction force FRy.

1.2

x10-3

1.1

1

0.9

TF(Nm)

0.8

LDPE model fit

Experimental data PP

PP model fit

Experimental data PMMA

PMMA model fit

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

10-2

10-1

R

Fig. 12. Pin friction torque TF.

Table 1

Experimental data obtained from [4].

Experimental conditions

FRx (N)

FRy (N)

TF (Nm)

Experimental conditions

FRx (N)

FRy (N)

TF (Nm)

Experimental conditions

FRx (N)

FRy (N)

TF (Nm)

PP (polypropylene)

Normal load = 10 N, R = 2510 3(m), = 13106(N/m2)

1 = 0.08

2 = 0.8

3=2

2.4

1.2

1

0.02

0.15

0.20

5

5

510

2210

2910 5

LDPE (low density polyethylene)

Normal load = 10 N, R = 2510 3(m), = 8.1106(N/m2)

1 = 0.15

2 = 1.5

3 = 2.5

4.5

3

2.5

0.03

0.14

0.18

610 5

4710 5

5710 5

PMMA (polymethyl metacrylate)

Normal load = 10 N, R = 2510 3(m), = 1.95108(N/m2)

1 = 0.035

2 = 0.35

3=1

5.4

4.3

3.1

0.05

0.24

0.35

410 5

2710 5

3410 5

4=8

0.75

0.23

3810 5

Type of regression

'power2'

'pchipinterp'

'pchipinterp'

4=7

1.4

0.24

7710 5

Type of regression

'exp2'

'pchipinterp'

'smoothingspline'

4 = 3.5

1.8

0.46

3810 5

Type of regression

'exp2'

'pchipinterp'

'pchipinterp'

1763

8

Experimental data PP

Model prediction PP

Experimental data LDPE

Model prediction LDPE

Experimental data PMMA

Model prediction PMMA

7

6

FRx(N)

5

4

3

2

1

0

10-2

10-1

100

101

R

Fig. 13. Friction force FRx acting on the pin. Positive .

12

x 10-3

Model prediction PP

Model prediction LDPE

Model prediction PMMA

10

TF(Nm)

8

6

4

2

0

-2

10-2

10-1

100

101

R

Fig. 14. Friction torque acting on the pin. Positive .

Table 2

Best values of p in least mean square sense (LMSE) for [10].

Optimisation LMSE

PP

LDPE

PMMA

2.504210 3

9.084610 3

4.243510 4

elastic depending on the contact pressure. A suitable criterion to classify the type of contact area consists on selecting an elastic

asperity contact if the contact pressure is less than 0.6H, H is the hardness and plastic asperity contact otherwise [9].

The PAC and torque predictions for this model are shown in Figs. 17, 18 for positive values and Figs. 19,20 for negative

values respectively. The torque predictions have the same tendencies of the experimental data.

If the pin behaves as an elastic deformable body, a simplied analysis of the stresses acting on the pin can be performed using

the elementary elastic bending theory. The contact pressure along the pin is higher in the vicinities of the leading edge than in

the trailing edge due to a slight bending produced by the friction force, Fig. 21.

1764

8

Model prediction PP

Model prediction LDPE

Model prediction PMMA

Experimental data PP

Model prediction PP

Experimental data LDPE

7

6

FRx(N)

5

4

3

2

1

0

10-2

10-1

100

101

R

Fig. 15. Friction force FRx acting on the pin. Negative .

0.012

Model prediction PP

Model prediction LDPE

Model prediction PMMA

0.01

TF(Nm)

0.008

0.006

0.004

0.002

0

-10-2

-10-1

-100

-101

R

Fig. 16. Friction torque acting on the pin. Negative .

A non uniform distribution of contact stress leads to a non uniform distribution of probability of asperity contacts within the contact

area. Therefore, this new distribution can produce a friction force in the direction of y-axis different to 0. The contact pressure is

obtained using the theory of elastic bending [10]. A bar under a bending couple has the stresses shown in Eq. (10).

z =

E

x y = x = xy = xz = yz = 0

R

10

where R is the radius of curvature and E is the Young's modulus. The value of z is a plane that contains the y axis.

The moment created by the distribution of z is given by Eq. (11).

My = z xdA

11

Table 3

Best values of p in least mean square sense (LMSE) for [ 10,10 2].

Optimisation LMSE

p

PP

2.681310

LDPE

PMMA

9.088110 3

4.416410 4

1765

0.012

0.01

0.008

0.006

PAC

TF(Nm)

0.004

Model prediction PP

Model prediction LDPE

Model prediction PMMA

PAC (p) --> PP

0.002

PAC (p) --> PMMA

0

10-2

10-1

0

101

100

R

Fig. 17. Probability of asperity contact (PAC) is a function of . Obtained from the experimental x-component of the friction force acting on the pin. Positive values.

The determination of k1 is shown in Eq. (12). Fig. 22 helps to visualise the equivalent force system.

M = 0

h

k 2

k 2 rp

k 4

2

= z xdA = 1 x dA = 1 r cos rdrd = 1 rp

2

rp

rp 0 0

rp 4

12

+ FR

Although the contact pressure in contact theory is normally expressed as positive, in elasticity a compressive stress is expressed

as negative. In this study the contact pressure is positive.

Using the Principle of Superposition it is possible to divide the stress distribution in two different problems: the compression

and the bending, Fig. 21.

As a result, the contact pressure can be expressed as shown in Eq. (13):

z = k0 +

k1

rp

13

L

2FR h

k1 =

r2p

r3p

14

14

x 10-3

12

Model prediction PP

Model prediction LDPE

Model prediction PMMA

10

8

TF(Nm)

k0 =

6

4

2

0

-2

10-2

10-1

100

101

R

Fig. 18. Friction torque predictions if the PAC varies with . Positive values.

1766

0.015

Model prediction PP

Model prediction LDPE

Model prediction PMMA

PAC (p) --> PP

PAC (p) --> LDPE

PAC (p) --> PMMA

0.01

0.005

PAC

FRx(N)

0

10-2

10-1

0

101

100

R

Fig. 19. Probability of asperity contact (PAC) is a function of . Obtained from the experimental x-component of the friction force acting on the pin. Negative

values.

0.014

Model prediction PP

Model prediction LDPE

Model prediction PMMA

0.012

TF(Nm)

0.01

0.008

0.006

0.004

0.002

0

-10-2

-10-1

-100

-101

R

Fig. 20. Friction torque predictions if the PAC varies with . Negative values.

Fig. 21. Elastic model of the pin to obtain contact pressure. Principle of Superposition. L is the applied load.

1767

where L is the load, h is the height of the pin and FR is the resultant friction force.

It is possible to calculate a limit of height or a limit of friction force to ensure the whole pin surface is making contact with the

disc. This limitation is expressed in Eq. (15).

0k0 +

k1

x

rp

15

The condition of contacting surfaces separation occurs in the point where x is equal to the pin radius (rp), Eq. (16).

k0 k1

L

2F h Lrp

FR h

R3

2

r2p

rp

16

This limitation implies a pin can be separated from the disc if its height or the friction force is high enough.

The stress distribution on the counterface of the pin can be generalised for a resultant friction force that it is not parallel to the x-axis.

R is the angle between the x-axis and the resultant of the experimental friction force, hence the contact stress distribution is:

z = k0 +

k1

rp

cosR r

17

The friction forces and friction pin torque for this new model can be expressed as shown in Eq. (18):

r

p 2

R + 1r sinr

FRx = PACq

drd

2

0 0

R + 2Rr1sin + 12 r2

p 2

1r cos

FRy = PACq

2

drd

0 0

R + 2Rr1sin + 12 r2

p 2

R + 1r sinr sin

TF = PACq

2

drd

0 0

R + 2Rr1sin + 12 r2

18

p 2

1r cos

PACq

drd

2

0 0

R + 2Rr1sin + 12 r2

Fy

Fx

The probability of asperity contact for this model is shown in Eq. (19).

R = arctg

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

!

>

>

>

k1

>

>

p

k

+

r

cos

>

0

R

>

>

rp

<

PAC

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

:

!

k

if k0 + 1 r cosR 0

rp

r 0; rp 0; 2

The main improvements of this model in respect to the previous one are the predictions of:

The y component of the friction force.

The contact stress distribution within the pin.

19

1768

6

Model prediction PP

Model prediction LDPE

Model prediction PMMA

Max.PAC --> PP

Max.PAC --> LDPE

Max.PAC --> PMMA

0.025

0.02

3

0.015

2

PAC

FRx(N)

0.03

0.01

0.005

0

10-2

10-1

0

101

100

R

Fig. 23. Maximum value of the probability of asperity contact (PAC) is a function of . Obtained from the experimental x-component of the friction force acting on

the pin. Positive values.

The real contact area due to elastic and plastic asperity contacts according to the mentioned criteria of 0.6H.

7. Possible applications of the improved model

Several studies of adhesive wear in dry and lubricated contacts are reported in the literature [7,8]. The probabilistic models are

based on Archard Wear Law. Amongst them, the most complete in the literature predicts adhesive wear for lubricated contacts [7]

and it is shown in Eq. (20).

V=

q

1 + 3 2 L ke Ae + kp Ap

20

Where

the predicted volume of adhesive wear.

the coefcient of friction.

the fractional lm defect.

the sliding distance.

is the wear coefcient for non welded junctions

1.2

1

0.8

0.6

FRy(N)

L

ke

Model prediction PP

Model prediction LDPE

Model prediction PMMA

Experimental data PP

Model prediction PP

Experimental data LDPE

0.4

0.2

0

-0.2

-0.4

10-2

10-1

100

101

R

Fig. 24. Predictions of the y-component of the frictional force. Positive values.

16

1769

x 10-3

14

Model prediction PP

Model prediction LDPE

Model prediction PMMA

12

FRy(N)

10

8

6

4

2

0

-2

10-2

10-1

100

101

R

Fig. 25. Friction torque predictions of the proposed model. Positive values.

kp

Ae

Ap

the area of contact for elastic asperity contacts.

the area of contact for plastic asperity contacts.

Another application of the proposed model is the study of the electrical contact resistance (ECR). This is of special interest for

the assessment of the boundary layer formation under mixed and boundary lubrication regimes. The study can be carried out

assuming only the plastic asperity contacts are the main contributors for the nal conductance [9] as shown in Eq. (21).

Gp =

Ap

21

Where

The model predictions for a pin diameter of 8 mm, a pin height of 10 mm, a load of 10 N, a distance from the centre of the pin to

the centre of the disc of 25 mm and positive values are shown in Figs. 2325. Results for same input parameters and negative

6

Model prediction PP

Model prediction LDPE

Model prediction PMMA

Max.PAC --> PP

Max.PAC --> LDPE

Max.PAC --> PMMA

0.03

0.025

3

0.015

2

0.01

0

-10-2

PAC

FRx(N)

0.02

0.005

-10-1

-100

0

-101

R

Fig. 26. Maximum value of the probability of asperity contact (PAC) is a function of . Obtained from the experimental x-component of the friction force acting on

the pin. Negative values.

1770

1.4

1.2

Model prediction PP

Model prediction LDPE

Model prediction PMMA

Max.PAC --> PP

Max.PAC --> LDPE

Max.PAC --> PMMA

FRy(N)

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

-10-2

-10-1

-100

-101

R

Fig. 27. Predictions of the y-component of the frictional force. Negative values.

values are shown in Figs. 2628. The model predicts a y-component different than 0 but there is certain disagreement with the

experimental data.

The PAC values within the pin are shown in Fig. 29 for Polypropylene (PP) and positive values.

The proposed model results are in better agreement with the experimental data than the predictions of the previous models.

The combination of a variable PAC within the area of contact for different experimental conditions (d, p, rp, R, h, R) makes this

model a useful tool for the evaluation of adhesive wear models.

9. Conclusions

A new model has been developed using the kinematics of the pin-on-disc apparatus, the use of the probabilistic approach for

wear prediction and elastic bending theory which improves the previous study [4]. This new model predicts the different

components of the resultant force acting on the pin, the pin torque, the stress distribution along the contact area, the probability of

asperity contact and the real area of contact distinguishing between elastic and plastic area of contact. The proposed model is of

interest in electrical contact resistance (ECR) studies because it can predict the conductance using the predicted real contact area

due to plastic asperity contacts.

This model will be used in future work to assess the asperity contact theory and adhesion models since it predicts the pressure

distribution and the plastic and elastic real area distribution within the contact.

0.012

Model prediction PP

Model prediction LDPE

Model prediction PMMA

0.01

TF(Nm)

0.008

0.006

0.004

0.002

0

-10-2

-10-1

-100

-101

R

Fig. 28. Friction torque predictions of the proposed model. Negative values.

1771

1772

V

Op

p

u,

s

d

Od

R

r

rp

A

dA

Ar

p

FR

dFR

TF

dTF

PAC

H

M

k0, k1

L

h

FR

V

L

ke

kp

Ae

Ap

Gp

Linear velocity of the pin in the pin on plate model

Centre of the pin

Angular velocity of the pin

Velocity vectors

Angular velocity of the disc

Centre of the disc

Distance from the centre of the pin Op to the centre of the disc Od

Distance of a point P on the pin from its centre Op

Pin radius

Contact Area

Differential of the contact area

Real Area of Contact

Simplest denition of the probability of contact, ratio between Ar and A

Ratio between p and d

Angle of the resultant force acting on the pin

Resultant friction force acting on the pin

Differential friction force

Friction torque

Differential friction torque

Dimensionless number dened as 2rp/R

Probability of Asperity Contact

Hardness

Stress

Moment created by the distribution of

Constant of the proposed model

Applied load

Pin height

Resultant friction force

Predicted volume of adhesive wear

Coefcient of friction

Fractional lm defect

Sliding distance

The wear coefcient for non welded junctions

The wear coefcient for welded junctions

The area of contact for elastic asperity contacts

The area of contact for plastic asperity contacts

Conductance assuming plastic asperity contacts

Electric resistivity of the material

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) and the Royal National Lifeboat

Institution (RNLI) for funding this work.

References

B. Bhushan, Modern Tribology Handbook, CRC Press. ISBN: (2000) 0-84938403-6.

B.J. Briscoe, T.A. Stolarski, Wear of polymers in the pin-on-disk conguration, American Chemical Society (1985) 303313.

B.J. Briscoe, T.A. Stolarski, Transfer wear of polymers during combined linear motion and load axis spin, Wear (1985) 121137.

T.A. Stolarski, Friction in a pin-on-disc conguration, Mechanism and Machine Theory 24 (1989) 373381.

Z. Lisowski, T.A. Stolarski, A modied theory of adhesive wear in lubricated contacts, Wear (1981) 333345.

J.F. Archard, Contact and rubbing of at surfaces, Journal of Applied Physics 24 (8) (1953) 981988.

T.A. Stolarski, Adhesive wear of lubricated contacts, Tribology International (1979) 169179.

T.A. Stolarski, A system for wear prediction in lubricated sliding contacts, Lubrication Science 84 (1996) 315351.

J.A. Greenwood, J.B.P. Williamson, Contact of nominally at surfaces, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A 295 (1966) 300319, doi:10.1098/

rspa.1966.0242.

[10] S.P. Timoshenko, J.N. Goodier, Theory of elasticity, McGraw Hill. ISBN: (1970) 0070858055.

[11] R.G. Bayer, Mechanical wear fundamentals and testing, Marcel Dekker. ISBN: (2004) 0824746201.

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

[7]

[8]

[9]

- Engineering Plastics in Industrial ApplicationDiunggah olehhudi_leksono
- 3.3 9 - Modeling and Simulation of Wear in a Pin on Disc TribometerDiunggah olehDanilo Souza
- Design of elements machine, bearing, shaft, spur gear and others, superficie profile, lubrication, frictionDiunggah olehIván Dasimu
- Densit Wear Flex DetailsDiunggah olehnsprasad88
- SampleFloorSpecification MeshDiunggah olehKrish Doodnauth
- watermellonDiunggah olehShile Usman
- R07PDiunggah olehintequab
- How Tribology Has Been Helping Us to Advance and tDiunggah olehGamini Suresh
- 333292059 EG Tribology Course PDH File5681Diunggah olehoperationmanager
- ForgingDiunggah olehshrikantghogale
- science (6)Diunggah olehnarayananx5
- Fretting Wear in Lubricated SystemsDiunggah olehvfrpilot
- g992_8803120702750081391.pdf_3Diunggah olehBayu Amarta
- Wear2Diunggah olehAlvin Anthony
- sergio 4Diunggah olehJosé santana
- 1-s2.0-S004316481630792X-mainDiunggah olehRajendra kumar
- Trib1Diunggah olehdevil3300
- SurfaceDiunggah olehmayuresh_6767
- Tribological Properties of Additives for Water-basDiunggah olehfolusho
- Densit Catalogue-dikonversi.docxDiunggah olehTopik
- 26-Hardox_600_the-_ultimate_wear_plate.pdfDiunggah olehlazaroccs
- Use of Topographic Polymeric Replica to Characterize Electric Corrosion FailureDiunggah olehjperdigon9634
- 4212Diunggah olehSahib Singh
- Arbor Est RopeDiunggah olehjonahsz
- Rubber Elastomeres-failure AnalysisDiunggah olehSantiago Molina
- 1-s2.0-S089069550600229X-mainDiunggah olehBro Edwin
- Tribological Testing Regime for Establishing Ficiency of Zddp in Presence of Wear Debris Under Lubricated Sliding Metallic Contacts-A ReviewDiunggah olehIAEME Publication
- A Review on “Machine tool design’’Diunggah olehiaetsdiaetsd
- Chapt 12 DynamicDiunggah olehSalim Bin Agil
- Zeit3700 Notes 3Diunggah olehavinash

- ISO 18265Diunggah olehSoheil Mirtalebi
- Buehler Hardness Conversion ChartsDiunggah olehpsghoward
- DIN 10083-3Diunggah olehSoheil Mirtalebi
- DIN-EN 10083-2Diunggah olehSoheil Mirtalebi
- A fatigue life model for 5percent chrome work roll steel.PDFDiunggah olehSoheil Mirtalebi
- NdtDiunggah olehdarqm5
- DIN EN 10083-1 2006Diunggah olehMurat Varsat
- A Simulation of Wear Behaviour of High-speed Steel Hot Rolls by Means of High Temperature Pin-On-disctestsDiunggah olehSoheil Mirtalebi
- A study of mechanical alloying processes using reactive milling and discrete element modeling.pdfDiunggah olehSoheil Mirtalebi
- A Numerical Analysis of the Effects of Reinforcement Content on Strength and Ductility in Al(Sic), MmcsDiunggah olehSoheil Mirtalebi
- Deformed Steel Bar PropertiesDiunggah olehAlbert Pizarro
- A comparative study of some network approaches to predict the effect of the reinforcement content on the hot strength of Al–base compositesDiunggah olehSoheil Mirtalebi
- One-Step Synthesis of WO and OW Emulsifiers in the Presence of Surface Active Agents.pdfDiunggah olehSoheil Mirtalebi
- Aluminum Nanocomposites Having Wear Resistance Better ThanDiunggah olehSoheil Mirtalebi
- Ac.Voc.in.UDiunggah olehmalikotop
- 6063 RolledDiunggah olehJawad Ebrahim
- Amorphization of Selenium Induced by High-Energy Ball MillingDiunggah olehSoheil Mirtalebi
- Aluminium-base Nanocomposite Obtained by MeltspinningDiunggah olehSoheil Mirtalebi
- Analysis of the Microstructure of Thermal Spray CoatingsDiunggah olehSoheil Mirtalebi
- An Overview on the Characterization and Mechanical Behavior of Nanoporous GoldDiunggah olehSoheil Mirtalebi
- Demitrios Stamatis et al- Aluminum Burn Rate Modifiers Based on Reactive Nanocomposite PowdersDiunggah olehYamvea
- 642980Diunggah olehbabu319
- A novel macrokinetic approach for mechanochemical reactions.pdfDiunggah olehSoheil Mirtalebi
- A High-throughput Method for the Quantification of Iron Saturation in Lactoferrin PreparationsDiunggah olehSoheil Mirtalebi

- Hilti Profis Anchor 2 User Guide (US)Diunggah olehChris Evans
- strength and failure criteria.pptDiunggah olehAndres Rz
- BTP_viscoelasticity peDiunggah olehNavdeep Singh
- 02Diunggah olehMustafa Lagha
- Adhesive Restorative MaterialsDiunggah olehPuneet Jindal
- Lab Equipment CalibrationDiunggah olehjohn
- mod03lec02.pdfDiunggah olehmathjon
- Elastic Impression MaterialsDiunggah olehIrfan Ahmed
- Bond strength of reinforcement in splices in beams.pdfDiunggah olehVandhiyan Radhakrishnan
- pake 5.pdfDiunggah olehMifta Fauziah Felayati
- Material Science Youngs Modulus CW2.docxDiunggah olehNasir Hadran
- Carbopol Polymer PowderDiunggah olehTran My Tra My
- Clutch Solo y easypedalDiunggah olehaxoll
- GumihoDiunggah olehJerome Russel Publìcò
- On the Use of Characteristic Orthogonal Polynomials in the Free Vibration Analysis of Rectangular Anisotropic Plates With Mixed Boundaries and Concentrated MassesDiunggah oleh王轩
- CM 46-92Diunggah olehbcol4vr
- problemas geotecniafree1.docxDiunggah olehDario Lipa
- Analytical Model for the Effective Strain in FRP-wrapped Circular RC ColumnsDiunggah olehdxzaber
- soil penetration testDiunggah olehPrakash Mahandra
- Bake Hardening St 14 SteelDiunggah olehDavid Jendra
- Orthodontic Wires -Properties / orthodontic courses by Indian dental academyDiunggah olehindian dental academy
- Table of Contents Comparison Steel Design by William Segui 4th vs 5th EditionDiunggah olehnotevale
- A Method of Analysis of the Stability of Embankments Assuming Parallel Inter_slice ForcesDiunggah olehCostinel Cristescu
- Classification of SoilsDiunggah olehAminuddin Razak
- Why-SKF---SKF-Explorer-spherical-roller-bearings-for-vibratory-applications---06551_1-EN.pdfDiunggah olehWildan Priatna
- Products Wheeled ExtinguishersDiunggah olehAli AbdurrahmanSungkar0906631036
- ACI 234 R-96Diunggah olehArzenaNorega
- Tribology Module 01 NotesDiunggah olehVinayaka G P
- The Effect of Sheet Processing on the Microstructure, Tensile, And Creep Behavior of INCONEL Alloy 718Diunggah olehrashik072
- GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING-I.pdfDiunggah olehMopidevi Vijaya Kishore