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Published online in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). DOI:10.1002/tee.21971

Paper

A Discrete Wavelet Transform Approach to Discriminating among Inrush

Current, External Fault, and Internal Fault in Power Transformer using

Low-Frequency Components Differential Current Only

Atthapol Ngaopitakkula , Non-member

Chaiyan Jettanasen, Non-member

This paper proposes an algorithm based on discrete wavelet transform (DWT) for discriminating among inrush current,

internal fault, and external fault in power transformers. Fault conditions are simulated using the Alternative Transients

Program/Electromagnetic Transients Program (ATP/EMTP). Daubechies4 (db4) is employed as the mother wavelet to decompose

low-frequency components from fault signals. The ratio between per unit (p.u.) differential current and p.u. time is suggested as

an index. The numerator of the ratio is the difference between the maximum differential current and the minimum differential

current in terms of p.u. with a base value selected at the transformer-rated current. The ratio is calculated for all three phases,

and from a trial and error process the indices for the separation among the internal fault condition, the external fault condition,

and inrush condition are defined. The results obtained from the proposed technique show good accuracy for discriminating faults

in the considered system. In addition, the proposed algorithm uses data of the differential current with a time of quarter cycle

under the analysis. 2014 Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Keywords: interturn fault, power transformer, discrete wavelet transforms, inrush current

1. Introduction

A reliable supply of electric power is essential, and a failure

of any part of the installed equipment is expensive not only

for utilities but also for the manufacturing industry. A power

utility may lose revenues and incur penalties for nondelivery,

while the failure of an industrial transformer, for example, may

lead to lengthy and therefore costly downtime. The differential

relaying principle is used for the protection of medium and

large power transformers. In the literature for fault detection,

several decision algorithms [142] have been developed to be

employed in the protective relay for preventing maloperation

of the protective equipment under different nonfault conditions,

including magnetizing inrush current, ratio mismatch, throughfault current, etc. There are many techniques [142] for detecting

faults, such as artificial neural networks (ANNs) [12,30,39,40],

transient-based protection [13,1820], finite element [14], fuzzy

logic [35], hybrid systems [14,32], and so on. An algorithm for

protecting a transformer with three windings using the increments

of flux linkages (IFLs) has been proposed by Kang et al . [2]. Nine

detectors and a rule are suggested for fault detection, the faulted

phase, and winding identification. Mathematical morphology has

been proposed to identify the inrush current [3]. It is able to

discriminate between inrush and internal fault currents even in

the case of an inrush with a low second-harmonic component and

an internal fault current with a high second-harmonic component.

A novel technique to distinguish the inrush currents from internal

faults in a power transformer is proposed by Ma et al . [4] using

the normalized grille curve (NGC). NGC is an effective tool for

transient signal analysis. The NGC calculation method is first

a

knatthap@kmitl.ac.th

Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkuts Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520, Thailand

and the internal fault in the respective time and frequency domains

are developed in detail. This technique is able to identify inrush

currents rapidly and can be implemented with only a small amount

of computation. A method for distinguishing the fault-originated

transients from the switching transients has been developed [6].

The decision trees (DTs), hidden Markov models (HMM), and

probabilistic neural network (PNN) techniques were compared, and

the PNN classifier gave the best classification results. In Ref. [7],

an index is proposed to discriminate external faults, incipient

faults, inrush currents, and internal faults by using the hyperbolic

S-transform-based method. This method has two steps; in the first

step, external faults are discriminated from other disturbances. If

an internal disturbance is detected, then the absolute deviation

of the S-transform matrix values will be applied. In Ref. [30],

a support vector machine (SVM) classification technique for the

detection of minor internal turn-to-turn faults was presented. The

discrimination between internal turn-to-turn fault, external fault,

and the inrush condition can be made within one-half cycle

from the fault inception time using this technique. According

to this technique, one-half-cycle post-fault current samples are

the inputs for the SVM classifier. In Ref. [37], an online sweep

frequency-response analysis (SFRA) was developed to detect

winding interturn faults of power transformers in service using

the transfer function method.

The idea of application of wavelet transform to fault diagnosis is

not new, and there are a number of research papers related to this

idea [1127]. In Ref. [12], the development and hardware implementation of the wavelet transform and HMM-based classifiers to

distinguish between the transients originating from faults and from

other types of transients was presented. The transient recognition

scheme uses wavelet transforms for the extraction of features, and

the HMM is used for the classification. In Ref. [13], the transient

signal analysis with discrete wavelet transform (DWT) was used

2014 Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

DISCRIMINATING AMONG INRUSH CURRENT, EXTERNAL FAULT, AND INTERNAL FAULT IN POWER TRANSFORMERS

to identify and correctly differentiate inrush current from incipient internal faults. The decision algorithm is based on a ratio

index quantified in a certain window of analysis. The ratio index

is defined as the relation between the maximum coefficient from

the first detail of the DWT decomposition and the spectral energy

of the other frequency components present in the same detail.

In addition, different mother wavelets were compared, and the

Daubechies wavelet was found to give excellent performance and

high efficiency in the discrimination of simulated disturbances. An

implementation of d q axis components and wavelet packet transform (WPT) based hybrid technique was introduced by Aktaibi

et al . [2527]. This technique is based on extracting the highfrequency subband contents present in the d q axis components

of the differential currents. It requires only one level of WPT for

the synchronously rotating reference frame (d q axis) components

of the differential current to accurately discriminate inrush currents

from all types of the internal fault currents. In previous research

works [20], the low-frequency component obtained from DWT of

differential current is analyzed. The proposed decision algorithm

gave more satisfactory results for the separation between internal fault and external fault, but the case studies were made with

a power transformer that was connected with Y-Y configuration.

In fact, power transformers connected with -Y are more widely

employed than those connected with Y-Y in power systems, so the

decision algorithm should be proved to discriminate in both -Y

and Y-Y connections.

Therefore, in this paper we develop a decision algorithm for

detecting and discriminating between inrush current, internal fault,

and external fault for a power transformer. The decision algorithm is based on DWT as an alternative to or improvement

upon the existing protective relaying functions. The simulations

and analyses are performed using the Alternative Transients Program/Electromagnetic Transients Program (ATP/EMTP) and MATLAB. ATP/EMTP is a universal program for digital simulation of

transient phenomena of electromagnetic as well as electromechanical nature, thus ATP/EMTP is probably the most widely used

power system transients program in the world today. The scheme

under investigations is a part of Thailands electricity transmission

and distribution system. In addition, the transformer model with

stray capacitances is used.

Power transformer

(a)

Ioperating coil = 0

Power transformer

(b)

Fault

Ioperating coil

(a) Normal condition. (b) Internal fault condition

f(n)

50100 kHz

HF

LF

1

2550 kHz

HF

LF

2

12.525 kHz

fs = 200 kHz

HF

LF

3

6.2512.5 kHz

HF

LF

4

3.1256.25 kHz

HF

LF

03.125 kHz

can be finely adjusted so that both the high- and low-frequency

components are precisely detected. The results from the wavelet

transform are shown in both the time domain and the frequency

domain. The wavelet transform can expand signals by using either

a shift or a translation time as well as a compression in time or

a dilation of a fixed wavelet function referred to as the mother

wavelet. The wavelet transform that scales the results of the

analysis by a factor of two is called a DWT as expressed in (1).

n k 2m

1

f (k )

(1)

DWT(m, n) =

2m

2m

2. Theory

2.1. Differential protection The differential principle,

as applied for protecting power transformers, can be described

with the help of Fig. 1. The levels of currents in the primary

and secondary sides of the power transformer are reduced by the

current transformers (CTs). The outputs of these CTs are compared.

The ratios of the primary and secondary CTs are selected such

that the CTs produce the same secondary current for nominal line

current.

The operating coil of the relay is connected to the secondary

windings of the two CTs in such a way that the net current flowing

through it is equal to the difference between the secondary currents

of CTs provided on the two sides of the power transformer. The

net current through the operating coil of differential relay is zero

for normal operation and external faults. An internal fault in the

power transformer breaks this balance and causes a current to flow

in the relays operating coil. This is shown in Fig. 1(b).

nk 2m

2m

where

is selected as the mother wavelet).

Referring to Fig. 2, the original input signal is split up into

two parts in the first stage (scale 1) by passing the signal from

a high-pass and a low-pass filter, which results in two different

versions of the same signal: the portion of the signal corresponding

to low-frequency components of the signal to analyze the low

frequencies is called approximations (low-pass portion), while

the portion of the signal corresponding to the high-frequency

components of the signal to analyze the high frequencies is called

details (high-pass portion). The coefficients of approximations and

details can be calculated by iterating or cascading the single-stage

filter bank to obtain a multiple-stage filter bank. The coefficients

of approximations contain most of the information content of

the original input signal or the general trend. The coefficient of

wave of a particular shape and finite duration that has an average

value of zero. The wavelet transform is a tool that splits up data,

functions, or operators into different frequency components, and

then studies each component with a resolution adjusted to its

scale. The advantage of the transform is that the analysis band

303

a

true input and the value of the reconstructed input if it has to

be reconstructed from only the information given in the lowpass output. After passing these data through the filter functions,

the output of the low-pass filter (coefficients of approximations)

consists of the average of every two samples, and the output of

the high-pass filter (coefficient of details) consists of the difference

of every two samples. The high-pass filter obviously contains less

information than the low-pass output. If the signal is reconstructed

by an inverse low-pass filter of the form, then the result is a

duplication of each entry from the low-pass filter output.

For other stages (scale 2, . . . , scale 5), the filters of each

stage have different cut-off frequencies and bandwidths, while the

processed signal is still unchanged. The frequency bandwidth of

the band decreases with growing level scale, which means that

the frequency resolution becomes higher by increasing the level

scale. However, the higher the scale, the longer is the processing

time of the signal. The increase in processing time is a problem

when the scale is high. In general, higher order wavelets tend to

put more information into the low-pass output, and vice versa. If

the average amplitude of the high-pass output is low enough, then

the high-pass half of the signal may be discarded without greatly

affecting the quality of the reconstructed signal.

a

Phase A

Phase A

Phase B

3

Phase B

Phase C

5

Phase C

Primary

Secondary

Primary

Secondary

Fig. 3. The modification on ATP/EMTP model [43] for a threephase transformer with internal faults

Chl

Chg

Clg

3.1. Transformer winding models For a computer

model of a two-winding three-phase transformer having primary

and secondary windings in each phase, BCTRAN is a wellknown subroutine on ATP/EMTP. To study internal faults of the

transformer, Bastard et al . [43] proposed a modification of the

BCTRAN subroutine. Normally, the BCTRAN uses a matrix of

inductances with a size of 6 6 to represent a transformer, but

with the internal fault conditions the matrix is adjusted to be of

size 7 7 for winding-to-ground faults and of 8 8 for interturn

faults [43]. In the research work of Bastard et al . [43], the model

was proved to be validated and accurate as shown by a comparison

with measurement results. However, the effects of high-frequency

components that may occur during the faults are not included in

such a model. Islam and Ledwich [44] described the characteristics

of high-frequency responses of a transformer due to various faults.

It has been shown that the fault types and fault locations have an

influence on the frequency responses of the transformer [44]. As

a result, in this paper the combination of the transformer models

proposed by Bastard et al . [43], as shown in Fig. 3, with the highfrequency model including stray capacitances of the transformer

recommended by IEEE working group [45], as shown in Fig. 4, is

used for simulations of internal faults in the transformer windings.

From Fig. 3, for the phase winding of the transformer with

internal faults, the winding is divided into two parts in case of

winding-to-ground faults and three parts in case of interturn faults.

The process for simulating internal faults based on the BCTRAN

routine of EMTP can be summarized as follows:

First step: Compute matrices [R] and [L] of the power transformer from manufacturers test data [20,31,46] without considering the internal faults [26].

R1 . . . 0

..

..

[R] = ...

.

.

0 R6

L1 L12 L16

L21 L2 L26

[L] = .

..

..

..

..

.

.

.

L61 L62 L6

Primary

115/23 kV Secondary

50 MVA

capacitances

Second step: Modify (4) and (5) to obtain the new internal

winding fault matrices [R] and [L] as illustrated in (4) and

(5) [43].

Ra

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0 Rb 0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

R

c

0

0

0

0

0

0 R2 0

(4)

[R] =

0

0

0

0

0

0 R3 0

0

0

0

0

0 R4 0

0

0

0

0

0

0 R5 0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0 R6

La

Mab Mac Ma2 Ma3 Ma4 Ma5 Ma6

Mba

Lb

Mbc Mb2 Mb3 Mb4 Mb5 Mb6

Mca Mcb

Lc

Mc2 Mc3 Mc4 Mc5 Mc6

L2

M23 M24 M25 M26

(5)

[L] =

M3a M3b M3c M32

L3

M34 M35 M36

L4

M45 M46

L5

M56

M6a M6b M6c M62 M63 M64 M65

L6

Third step: The inter-winding stray capacitances and earth capacitances of the high-voltage (HV) and low-voltage (LV) windings

can be simulated by adding lumped capacitances connected to the

terminals of the transformer, as shown in Fig. 4.

The capacitances shown in Fig. 4 are as follows:

Chg = stray capacitance between the high-voltage winding and

ground

Clg = stray capacitance between the low-voltage winding and

ground

Chl = stray capacitance between the high-voltage winding and

the low-voltage winding.

(2)

(3)

304

DISCRIMINATING AMONG INRUSH CURRENT, EXTERNAL FAULT, AND INTERNAL FAULT IN POWER TRANSFORMERS

3.2. Simulation case studies In this paper, the combination between the transformer models proposed by Bastard

et al [43] and the high-frequency model including capacitances

of the transformer recommended by IEEE working group [45] is

used for simulations of faults in the transformer windings. The

scheme under investigations is a part of Thailand electricity transmission and distribution system as depicted in Fig. 5. A 50-MVA,

115/23-kV three-phase two-winding transformer was employed in

simulations with all parameters and configuration provided by the

manufacturer [20,31,46].

EGAT

RE

PEA

115/23 kV

50 MVA

MK

R+jX

Primary side

current

Secondary side

current

Load

(a)

RLC

115/23

Line

RL +/0

RLC

RLC

Line

RL+/0

RLC

(b)

RLC

115/23

RLC

RLC

Line

RL+/ 0

RLC

Line

RL+/0

RLC

(c)

80

20

Line

RL+/0

115/23

80

20

Line

RL+/0

Line

RL+/0

RLC

RLC

Line

RL+/0

RLC

RLC

(d)

I

115/23

RLC

Line

RL+/0

v

Line

RL+/0

RLC

RLC

Fig. 6. Components of a proposed simulation model implemented in ATP/EMTP. (a) The winding-to-ground fault case. (b) The interturn

fault case. (c) The external fault case. (d) The inrush case

305

external fault

winding to ground fault

Parameter of

winding-to-ground

fault

Phase in which

fault occurs

Transformer

winding

Angles of fault

inception

Fault position

Detail

Number

of case

studies

Phases A, B, and C

(primary and secondary)

0 330 (each step is 30 ) and

phase A voltage is reference

1090% (each step is 10%)

measured from the line end

of the windings as shown in

Fig. 7(a).

Parameter of

external fault

Phase in which

fault occurs

Transformer side

Angles of fault

inception

Type of fault

12

9

Fault location

Table II. Number of case studies and parameters for case of

interturn fault

Parameter of

interturn fault

Phase in which

fault occurs

Transformer

winding

Angles of fault

inception

Fault position of

point ZAF

Fault position of

point ZINF

Detail

Phases A, B, and C

High voltage and low voltage

(primary and secondary)

0 330 (each step is 30 ) and

phase A voltage is reference

1080% (each step is 10%)

measured from the line end

of the windings as shown in

Fig. 7(b).

1080% (each step is 10%)

measured from the line end

of the windings as shown in

Fig. 7(b).

Fault resistance

Number

of case

studies

Detail

Number

of case

studies

Phase A

(primary and secondary)

0 330 (each step is 30 ) and

phase A voltage is reference

single line-to-ground, double

line-to-ground, line-to-line,

and three-phase faults (AG,

ABG, AB, and ABC)

20, 40, 60, and 80% measured

from the power transformer

5

2

12

4

4

1

inrush current

3

Parameter of

inrush current

2

12

Angles of fault

inception

36

Magnetizing fluxes

Detail

and phase A voltage is

reference

80, 90, 100, 110, and 120%

Number

of case

studies

12

current in all three phases, and the zero sequence are calculated,

and the resulting current signals are employed to decompose

the high-frequency (details) and low-frequency (approximations)

components from the simulated current signals using the mother

wavelet daubechies4 (db4) [1820].

From our previous paper, the coefficient details of the resulting

current signals obtained from the DWT are squared. It is clearly

seen that when a fault occurs, the coefficients of high-frequency

components from each scale have a sudden change compared

with those before the occurrence of the faults. This sudden

change is used as an index for the occurrence of faults using

comparison of the coefficients details from each scale. However,

the similarity between the waveforms of the internal faults

and the external fault signals and from coefficients of highfrequency components can be seen obviously. To overcome this

problem, the comparison of the coefficients of the low-frequency

components from each phase is considered. Examples of the

approximated signal of the extracted waveform using DWT for

the differential currents from scale 1 to scale 5 are illustrated in

Figs 1215.

After applying the DWT, Figs 1215 show several examples

of extraction using DWT for the differential currents and zero

sequence current from scale 1 to scale 5. Figs 12 and 13 show a

case of an internal fault at 20% of the winding length and a fault

inception angle of 120 . An example of an external fault case at

20% of the length of the transmission line and fault inception angle

of 120 is illustrated in Fig. 14, while an example of the inrush

current condition is illustrated in Fig. 15.

Generally, during normal condition the amplitude of each phase

must be nearly treated as zero, but during fault condition the

amplitude of phase in which the fault occurs has a sudden change.

By considering Fig. 12(a), when 20% of the length of the highvoltage winding with connection is considered as an example,

in Fig. 6; it can be seen that the transformer, which is a step-down

transformer, is connected between two subtransmission sections.

The BCTRAN model based on test data can be obtained from

the transformer manufacturers. Supporting routine of BCTRANS

can be used to derive a linear representation for three-phase

transformer, using test data of both the excitation test and the

short-circuit test. The magnetizing branch is represented by a

hysteretic nonlinear inductor model generated by the HYSDAT

supporting routine of ATP. To implement or study the transformer

model, simulations were performed with various changes in system

parameters, as shown in Tables I IV.

The primary and secondary current waveforms can then be

simulated using ATP/EMTP, and these waveforms are interfaced

to MATLAB/Simulink for the construction of the fault diagnosis

process. The fault signal in each phase is obtained from the primary

and secondary currents of the transformer, as shown in Figs 811.

The data in these figures correspond to the two protection zones.

The differential currents, which are the difference between the

primary current and the secondary current in all three phases, and

the zero sequence are calculated, and the resulting current signals

are extracted using the DWT.

From the simulated signals, the differential currents, which are

the difference between the primary current and the secondary

306

DISCRIMINATING AMONG INRUSH CURRENT, EXTERNAL FAULT, AND INTERNAL FAULT IN POWER TRANSFORMERS

(a)

(b)

ZAF

Fault

A

1

ZAF

4

5

1

ZCF

ZINF

ZCF

Fig. 7. Modification on an ATP/EMTP model for a three-phase transformer. (a) The winding-to-ground fault case. (b) The interturn fault

case

(a)

Primary current

x 104

(b)

A

C

A

B

0

500

0.5

1

500

(A)

(A)

0.5

Primary current

1000

0.025

0.05

0.075

1000

0.1

0.025

0.05

Time (s)

0.075

0.1

0.075

0.1

Time (s)

Secondary current

Secondary current

A B

2000

5000

(A)

(A)

1000

0

1000

2000

0

0.025

0.05

0.075

5000

0.1

0.025

0.05

Time (s)

Time (s)

Fig. 8. Primary and secondary currents obtained from simulation for a case of winding-to-ground fault (fault at 20% of winding length

and inception angle of 120 ). (a) The high- and (b) low-voltage winding fault cases

x 104

(a)

Primary current

A

(b)

1500

(A)

(A)

Primary current

3000

0

1500

1

0

0.025

0.05

0.075

3000

0.1

0.025

0.05

Time (s)

Secondary current

A

0.1

0.075

0.1

Secondary current

3000

1500

(A)

(A)

2000

0.075

Time (s)

0

1500

2000

0

0.025

0.05

0.075

0.1

Time (s)

3000

0.025

0.05

Time (s)

Fig. 9. Primary and secondary currents obtained from simulation for a case of interturn fault (fault between 10 and 20% of winding length

and inception angle of 120 ). (a) The high- and (b) low-voltage winding fault cases

the input differential current signal is plotted in the top trace of

the figure. It can be observed that the amplitude of each phase is

different because the phases A and C (coil 1, as shown in Fig. 7(a))

are the ones in which the fault occurs so that the amplitude of

phases A and C increases immediately after the fault occurrence

and has a value more than the other phase (phase B). This indicates

that the decision algorithm can benefit from variations of the

coefficient approximations.

In addition, by considering Fig. 12(a), the input signal implementation is a multisignal trace from each low-pass filter, which

corresponds to a particular scale parameter, as shown in Fig. 12(a).

The traces labeled scale 1, scale 2, . . . , scale 5 in this figure

correspond to the filter output of Fig. 2. It can be seen that the

related to the frequency banks according to the scale. As a result,

by observing Figs 1215, it is clear that the coefficients of the

low-frequency components have a sudden change when a fault

occurs compared to those before a fault occurrence at 0.04 s.

However, by performing many case studies, the patterns in the

raw data are hard to discriminate. To overcome this problem,

the ratio between per-unit differential current and per-unit time is

calculated and Phmax , Phsum , and Zchk are performed as comparison

indicators in order to discriminate between the internal fault

condition and the external fault condition. Hence, the complexity

of the patterns is significantly reduced. The ratio is calculated as

follows:

307

(a)

(b)

Primary current

600

Primary current

1000

0

300

600

500

(A)

(A)

300

0

500

0.025

0.05

0.075

1000

0.1

0.025

0.05

Time (s)

0.1

0.075

0.1

Secondary current

Secondary current

2000

0.075

Time (s)

5000

(A)

(A)

1000

0

1000

2000 0

0.025

0.05

0.075

0.1

5000

0.025

0.05

Time (s)

Time (s)

Fig. 10. Primary and secondary currents obtained from simulation for a case of external fault (fault at 20% of transmission line and

inception angle of 120 ). (a) The high- and (b) low-voltage side fault cases

diff

Xmin

= the minimum coefficient from the approximated differential signal of DWT

diff_x

tmax

= the time at which the maximum coefficient of the

approximated differential signal occurs

diff_x

tmin

= the time at which the minimum coefficient of the

approximated differential signal occurs

diff

Xchk

= comparison indicator for separation between internal

fault condition and external fault condition

Irated = rated current of the power transformer

T = the period of the power frequency of the system

Zchk = zero sequence current of comparison indicator for

separation between internal fault condition and external fault

condition

diff

Phmax = maximum value of comparison indicators (Xchk

) used

in classifying the fault condition

diff

Phsum = summation value of comparison indicators (Xchk

) used

in classifying the fault condition

The numerator of the ratio is the difference between the

maximum differential current and the minimum differential current

in terms of per unit with a base value selected at a transformers

rated current. The denominator of the ratio is the difference

diff_x occurs and the time when t diff_x

between the time when tmax

min

occurs, with a quarter cycle of power frequency (in this case,

power frequency = 50 Hz).

Primary current

1000

(A)

500

0

500

1000

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.09

0.1

0.07

0.08

0.09

0.1

Time (s)

Secondary current

2000

C

1000

(A)

0

1000

2000

0

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

Time (s)

for a case of inrush condition (inception angle of 120 )

diff

Xchk

=

diff X diff )

(Xmax

min

Irated

diff_x

diff_x

(tmax tmin )

T

(6)

where

diff

Xmax = the maximum coefficient from the approximated- differential signal of DWT

Phase C

Zero sequence

50

50

100

100

200

200

0.5

0.5

50

50

100

100

200

200

0.5

0.5

50

50

100

100

200

200

0.5

0.2

50

50

100

100

200

200

0.2

0.2

50

50

100

100

0

0

0.05

0.2

0.1

0

0

0.05

50

0.1

0

Time (s)

Scale 1

0

0.5

0.5

Scale 2

0

200

200

200

(b)

100

Scale 3

50

Scale 4

Scale 1

Scale 2

Scale 3

Scale 4

Scale 5

Phase B

0.5

200

0

0.05

100

0.1

0

Phase A

Phase B

0.05

0.1

Phase C

Zero sequence

10

0

0.5

0

10

0

0.1

0

10

10

0

0.5

0.5

0

10

10

0

0.1

0.1

0

10

10

0

0.5

0.5

0

10

10

0

0.1

0.1

0

10

10

0

0.5

0.5

0

10

10

0

0.1

0.1

0

10

10

0.5

0.2

0

10

10

0

0.1

0.1

0

0.2

0.2

0

10

10

0

0.1

0.02

0

10

10

0

Scale 5

Phase A

(a)

10

0.05

0.1

0.2

0.05

10

0.1

0

Time (s)

0.05

0.02

0.1

0

0.05

0.1

Fig. 12. DWT of differential currents for internal fault case (winding phase A-to-ground fault at 20% of winding length and inception

angle of 120 ). Fault occurring at (a) high-voltage winding and (b) low-voltage winding

308

DISCRIMINATING AMONG INRUSH CURRENT, EXTERNAL FAULT, AND INTERNAL FAULT IN POWER TRANSFORMERS

0.2

0

0.2

200

0

200

0.02

0

0.02

200

0

200

0.2

0

0.2

200

0

200

0.02

0

0.02

0.2

0

0.2

200

0

200

0.01

0

0.01

0.2

0

0.2

200

0

200

5

0

5

Scale 5

200

0

200

200

0

200

0.05

0.1

0.05

0.1

0

Time (s)

0.05

0.1

Scale 1

200

0

200

Scale 2

0.02

0

0.02

Scale 3

200

0

200

Scale 4

0.2

0

0.2

Scale 4

200

0

200

x 10

0

0.05

Phase A

(b)

Zero sequence

0.02

0

0.02

Scale 1

Phase C

200

0

200

Scale 2

Phase B

0.2

0

0.2

Scale 3

Phase A

200

0

200

Scale 5

(a)

0.1

50

0

50

50

0

50

50

0

50

50

0

50

50

0

50

50

0

50

0.05

Phase B

0.1

0.5

0

0.5

0.5

0

0.5

0.5

0

0.5

0.5

0

0.5

0.2

0

0.2

0.2

0

0.2

0.05

Phase C

50

0

50

50

0

50

50

0

50

50

0

50

50

0

50

50

0

50

0.1

0

Time (s)

0.05

Zero sequence

0.1

0.1

0

0.1

0.1

0

0.1

0.1

0

0.1

0.1

0

0.1

0.1

0

0.1

0.02

0

0.02

0.05

0.1

Fig. 13. DWT of differential currents for internal fault case (interturn fault between 10 and 20% of winding length and inception angle

of 120 ). Fault occurring at (a) high- and (b) low-voltage winding

Phase C

1

1

1

1

5

5

10

5

1

1

1

1

5

5

5

2

1

1

1

1

5

2

2

1

1

0.2

1

0.5

2

1

1

0.5

0.2

0.2

0.5

0.2

1

0.5

0.5

0.2

0.2

0.5

0.05

0.1

0.05

0.1

0

Time (s)

0.05

0.1

Scale 1

10

10

(b)

Scale 2

Scale 3

Zero sequence

Scale 4

Scale 1

Scale 3

Scale 2

Phase B

Scale 4

Scale 5

Phase A

10

Scale 5

(a)

0.05

0.1

Phase A

Phase B

Phase C

Zero sequence

0.5

0

0.2

0

0.5

0

0.1

0

0.5

0.5

0

0.2

0.2

0

0.5

0.5

0

0.1

0.1

0

0.5

0.5

0

0.2

0.5

0

0.5

0.2

0

0.1

0.1

0

0.5

0.5

0

0.5

0.5

0

0.2

0.2

0

0.1

0.1

0

0.5

0.2

0

0.5

0.2

0

0.2

0.2

0

0.1

0.1

0

0.2

0.2

0

0.2

0.2

0

0.2

0.2

0

0.1

0.02

0

0.2

0.05

0.1

0.2

0.05

0.2

0.1

0

Time (s)

0.05

0.1

0.02

0.05

0.1

Fig. 14. DWT of differential currents for external fault case (phase A-to-ground fault at 20% of transmission line and inception angle of

120 ). Fault occurring at (a) high- and (b) low-voltage sides

10

10

20

20

10

10

0.05

0.05

10

10

20

20

10

10

0.05

0.05

10

10

20

20

10

10

0.05

0.05

10

10

20

20

10

10

0.05

0.05

10

10

20

20

10

10

0.05

0.01

10

0.05

0.1

20

0.05

0.1

Time (s)

10

0.05

0.1

0.01

0.05

0.1

Phase B

Phase C

Zero sequence

10

0

10

20

0

20

10

0

10

Scale 1

Phase A

(b)

Zero sequence

0.05

10

0

10

20

0

20

10

0

10

0.05

0.05

0

0.05

Scale 2

Phase C

10

10

0

10

20

0

20

10

0

10

0.05

0

0.05

Scale 3

Phase B

20

10

0

10

20

0

20

10

0

10

0.05

0

0.05

Scale 4

Phase A

10

10

0

10

20

0

20

10

0

10

0.05

0

0.05

Scale 5

Scale 5

Scale 4

Scale 3

Scale 2

Scale 1

(a)

10

0

10

20

0

20

10

0

10

0.02

0

0.02

0.05

0.1

0.05 0.1

Time (s)

0.05

0

0.05

0.1

0.05

0.1

Fig. 15. DWT of differential currents for inrush current case (inception angle of 120 ). (a) The 100% and (b) 120% of magnetizing fluxes

The ratio is calculated for all three phases, and from a trial

and error process the indices for the separation among the internal

fault condition, the external fault condition, and inrush condition

are defined. The most appropriate form of the decision algorithm

from the case studies of the system under the investigations can

be given as a flowchart illustrated in Fig. 16.

By considering Fig. 16, in the first step [19,20], the coefficients

of the signals obtained from the DWT are used to discriminate

the inception of fault (time at which the fault occurs). It can be

seen that if the first step can detect the fault condition, the next

step will be carried out to discriminate between the internal fault

condition and the external fault condition, as shown in Fig. 16.

In the final step, Phmax and Phsum are performed to distinguish

between a fault that occurs at high voltage and that at low voltage.

By observing Fig. 16, if Phmax is greater than 40 and Phsum is

309

fault inception angle [19, 20]

And

(Phsum > 35)

And

(Phsum > 80)

No

Zchk > 5

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Zchk < 0.5

Winding to ground

fault at high

voltage winding

Yes

No

Interturn fault at

high voltage

winding

No

voltage winding

And

(Phsum > 15)

No

tripping

And

(Phsum > 0.5)

No

Yes

Zchk > 1

Yes

Winding to ground

fault at low

voltage winding

Yes

No

External fault at

high voltage

side

External fault at

low voltage

side

No

untripping

Inrush current

condition

(a)

0

200

10

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

Detail

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.09

0.1

4

Scale 1

Scale 1

0.01

0.005

0

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

Approximation

0.07

0.08

0.09

Scale 5

Scale 5

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.09

0.1

0.04

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0

5

0.04

0.045

0.05

Detail

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.09

0.1

0.05

0.06

Approximation

0.07

0.08

0.09

0.1

0.07

0.08

0.09

0.1

0.05

0.06

(x= -58.64

y=0.0450)

(x= 51.82

y= 0.0423)

200

0.0350

0.03

0

10

0.02

10

200

0

0.01

x 104

2

0

0.1

200

200

Differential

(b) 10

Differential

200

0.05

0.035

(x= 0.065

y= 0.0400)

(x= 4.72

y=0.0417)

0.04

0.045

0.05

Time (s)

Time (s)

Fig. 17. Responses to the winding-to-ground fault condition. Fault occurring at (a) high- and (b) low-voltage winding

greater than 80, then internal fault can occur at the high-voltage

winding. The differential relay must activate the trip circuits of

circuit breakers for isolating the faulted components from the rest

of the power system. However, the decision algorithm cannot

fault), so Zchk is performed to classify the type of fault (windingto-ground fault or interturn fault). This indicates a significant

difference between winding-to-ground fault and interturn fault. If

310

DISCRIMINATING AMONG INRUSH CURRENT, EXTERNAL FAULT, AND INTERNAL FAULT IN POWER TRANSFORMERS

(a)

Differential

0

200

50

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.09

0.1

0.02

0

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

Approximation

0.07

0.08

0.09

0.1

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

200

0.04

0.03

0.04

0.09

0.1

0.045

0.05

Detail

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.09

0.1

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

Approximation

0.07

0.08

0.09

0.1

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.07

0.08

0.09

0.1

0

50

0.05

0.06

40

(x= 137.57

y= 0.042)

0 (x= -0.85

y= 0.040)

200

0.035

0.02

50

0

200

0

0.01

x 103

0.5

Scale 5

200

Scale 5

0.05

Detail

Scale 1

Scale 1

0.04

Differential

(b) 50

200

(x= 27.27

y=0.0449)

0 (x= 0.034

y= 0.0400)

40

0.035

0.05

Time (s)

0.04

0.045

0.05

Time (s)

Fig. 18. Responses to the interturn fault condition. (a) Fault occurring at high- and (b) low-voltage winding

Differential

(a) 10

10

0.5

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.09

0.1

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

Approximation

0.07

0.08

0.09

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.09

(x= -0.169

y= 0.0400)

0.03

0.04

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.09

0.1

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

Approximation

0.07

0.08

0.09

0.1

0.04

0.045

0.05

0.05

Detail

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.07

0.08

0.09

0.1

0.2

0.2

(x= 0.11

0.1

y= 0.0417)

0

0.1

0.035

(x= 0.2017

y= 0.0401)

0.5

0.035

0.1

0.5

0

0.02

0.2

0

0.5

0.01

0.05

0.1

Scale 5

0.5

0.1

Scale 1

Scale 1

0.05

Detail

0.5

0

Differential

0.5

Scale 5

(b)

0.05

0.06

(x= 0.01

y=0.0443)

0.04

0.045

0.05

Time (s)

Time (s)

Fig. 19. Responses to the external fault condition. Fault occurring at (a) high- and (b) low-voltage sides

(a)

(b)

Differential

10

0

10

10

0

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.09

0.1

0.02

0

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

Approximation

0.07

0.08

0.09

0.1

0

10

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.09

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.09

0.1

0.05

Detail

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

Approximation

0.07

0.08

0.09

0.1

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.07

0.08

0.09

0.1

0.02

0

10

0

10

0.05

0.06

0.1

(x= 0.054

0 y= 0.0405)

1

0.035

0.04

Scale 5

10

Scale 5

0.05

Detail

Scale 1

Scale 1

0.04

Differential

10

(x= 0.55

0 y= 0.0408)

(x= -0.045

y=0.0406)

0.04

Time (s)

0.045

(x= -0.476

y=0.0406)

0.035

0.050

0.04

0.045

0.050

Time (s)

Fig. 20. Responses to the magnetizing inrush current condition. (a) The 100% and (b) 120% of magnetizing fluxes

considered, it can be observed that after the fault occurrence at

0.04 s, both the coefficient of detail (high-frequency components)

and approximation (low-frequency components) have a sudden

change compared to those before the occurrence of a fault, so

the inception of fault can be detected. It is found, according

the data presented in Table V, that Phmax , Phsum , and Zchk

are calculated and the all comparison indicators (Phmax , Phsum ,

and Zchk ) have a value greater than 80. This indicates that

Phmax , Phsum , and Zchk play an important role in the decision

algorithm.

Based on the data in Table VI, considering the interturn fault

at the high-voltage winding, it can be clearly seen that Phmax and

Phsum have still a value greater than 80 but Zchk has a value lower

than 5; this is due to the effect of the interturn fault. Based on a

Zchk is greater than 5, then it can be identified as a winding-toground fault at the high-voltage winding. On the other hand, an

interturn fault will be identified if Zchk is less than 5. Similarly, for

the internal fault occurring at low voltage, the decision algorithm

has a similar process.

To gain more understanding, one case of each type of faults

is considered as an example in Figs 1720. The proportion of

the spectral differential current signal, calculated between the

maximum and minimum value in a quarter cycle period of

analyzed data and the time deviation are shown in Figs 17 20.

The results illustrated in Tables VVIII are obtained from one

case of each type of faults as shown in Figs 17 20.

By observing Fig. 17(a) and the data in Table V, when the fault

occurring at 20% of the length of the high-voltage winding is

311

High-voltage winding

Coefficient of DWT

Xmax diff

Xmin diff

tmax diff_x

tmin diff_x

Xchkdiff

Phsum

Phmax

Zchk

Result

51.8227

58.6477

0.0412

0.0450

118.945

Low-voltage winding

0.0592

12.8956

0.0722

14.7771

0.0449

0.0412

0.0400

0.0450

0.1059

29.7956

148.8469

118.945

Tripped

Zero

37.3422

42.3332

0.0412

0.0450

85.7877

85.7877

4.7263

0.0651

0.0417

0.0400

10.5936

0.0611

0.0075

0.0609

4.6632

0.0449

0.0400

0.0417

0.0419

0.1525

9.7306

20.4767

10.5936

Tripped

Zero

0.0134

0.0076

0.0400

0.0406

0.1312

0.1312

High-voltage winding

Coefficient of DWT

Xmax diff

Xmin diff

tmax diff_x

tmin diff_x

diff

Xchk

Phsum

Phmax

Zchk

Result

Low-voltage winding

Zero

Zero

137.57

0.856

42.25

40.01

247.19

0.0633

0.0524

44.17

40.17

0.12

494.61

247.31

0.8846

137.60

40.01

42.25

247.31

0.00220

0.000861

40.33

40.65

0.04

0.04

27.28

0.034

44.49

40.01

24.33

0.0632

0.0699

44.97

42.09

0.18

48.96

24.45

0.0441

27.34

40.01

44.49

24.45

0.00160

0.00670

40.01

40.65

0.14

0.14

Tripped

Tripped

High-voltage winding

Coefficient of DWT

Xmax diff

Xmin diff

tmax diff_x

tmin diff_x

diff

Xchk

Phsum

Phmax

Zchk

Result

A

0.2017

0.169

0.0401

0.0400

10.5914

Low-voltage winding

0.0645

0.012

0.0609

0.1111

0.0444

0.0403

0.0400

0.0406

0.1124

1.2387

11.9426

10.5914

Untripped

Zero

0.0749

0.1755

0.0403

0.0400

3.3386

3.3386

0.1166

0.016

0.0417

0.0443

0.1571

0.0651

0.0255

0.0622

0.0842

0.0449

0.0400

0.0417

0.0449

0.1591

0.100

0.4971

0.1591

Untripped

Zero

0.0099

0.0078

0.0400

0.0406

0.0916

0.0916

Inrush current 100%

Coefficient of DWT

Xmax diff

Xmin diff

tmax diff_x

tmin diff_x

diff

Xchk

Phsum

Phmax

Zchk

Result

A

0.5388

0.456

0.0404

0.0406

24.88

1.3926

0.4249

0.0038

1.4191

0.0450

0.0406

0.0400

0.0450

1.118

1.693

27.692

24.88

Untripped

Zero

0.0006

0.0059

0.0419

0.0448

0.0090

0.0090

0.555

0.0476

0.0408

0.0406

25.76

0.928

0.4428

0.0044

0.9499

0.0450

0.0406

0.0400

0.0450

0.7467

1.279

27.79

25.76

Untripped

Zero

0.0008

0.0046

0.0409

0.0448

0.0097

0.0097

Internal fault

Fault types

Number of case studies

Detection accuracy

External faults

HV winding

LV winding

HV side

LV side

Inrush current

1620

100.00%

1620

97.90%

192

98.96%

192

97.92%

60

96.67%

312

DISCRIMINATING AMONG INRUSH CURRENT, EXTERNAL FAULT, AND INTERNAL FAULT IN POWER TRANSFORMERS

fault can be detected and the differential relay must be activated.

When all conditions as stated in Section 3 are applied, the total

number of case studies is 3240 for internal faults condition, 384 for

external faults condition, and 60 for inrush condition. The accuracy

of the proposed decision algorithm for all case studies is shown in

Table IX.

winding by frequency response analysis. IEEJ Transactions on Power

and Energy 2010; 130(6):547550.

(11) Mokryani G, Haghifam MR, Latafat H, Aliparast P, Abdollahy A.

Detection of inrush current based on wavelet transform and LVQ

neural network. IEEE PES Transmission and Distribution Conference

and Exposition 2010; 1:15.

(12) Perera N, Rajapakse AD. Development and Hardware Implementation of a fault transients recognition system. IEEE Transactions on

Power Delivery 2012; 27(1):400412.

(13) Oliveira MO, Ferreira GD, Garcia FH, Bretas AS, Perrone OE,

Reversat JH. Adaptive differential protection for power transformer

based on transient signal analysis. IEEE Power and Energy Society

General Meeting 2012; 1:17.

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A wavelet-based technique for discrimination of inrush currents

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5. Conclusions

This paper proposed a technique for discriminating between

inrush current, external fault, and internal fault. The DWT algorithm was employed in the protection scheme. The simulations, analysis, and diagnosis were performed using ATP/EMTP

and MATLAB/Simulink. The current waveforms obtained from

ATP/EMTP were extracted to several scales with the DWT.

Daubechies4 (db4) was employed as the mother wavelet in order

to decompose the low-frequency components from fault signals.

The ratio between per-unit differential current and per-unit time

was calculated and used as comparative indicator in order to discriminate between inrush current, external fault, and internal fault.

The results obtained from the algorithm proposed in this paper can

detect and indicate the fault condition with an accuracy better than

95% as seen from Table IX. In addition, the proposed technique

uses data of the differential current with a time of a quarter cycle

for the analysis, which is less than that employed in a conventional

protection scheme.

Acknowledgments

The work presented in this paper is part of a research project sponsored

by the King Mongkuts Institute of Technology Ladkrabang Research Fund.

The authors would like to thank the sponsor for financial support.

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Atthapol Ngaopitakkul (Non-member) is currently an Assistant Professor with the Department of Electrical

Engineering, King Mongkuts Institute of Technology Laddrabang, Bangkok, Thailand. His

research interests include protection relays and

energy management.

M.Eng. degrees from the Institut National des

Sciences Appliquees (INSA) de Lyon, France,

in 2005, and the Ph.D. degree from Ecole Centrale de Lyon, France, in 2008. He is currently an Assistant Professor with the Electrical Engineering Department, King Mongkuts

Institute of Technology Laddrabang, Bangkok,

Thailand. His research interests include EMC in power electronic

systems.

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