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History of Cartography - Geography - Oxford Bibliographies

History of Cartography
Matthew H. Edney

Introduction
Until the 1980s, the study of the history of cartography was defined by two idealizations: (1) that maps are strictly factual
statements and (2) that cartography is an innately progressive science that serves as a surrogate for Western civilization as a
whole. Then, the recognition that maps are actually cultural texts made for specific functions transformed map history into an
exciting, interdisciplinary field of study. Scholars across the humanities and social sciences now seek to understand how past
peoples thought about and acted in their particular worlds. The result is a substantial literature, which in many respects
resembles a multifaceted iceberg: each disciplinary perspective reveals only the tip. In taking a series of selective and topical
cuts through the recent literature, this bibliography cannot take every new perspective into account. Necessarily excluded are the
older literature, which despite its conceptual flaws, contains a wealth of important information; narratives of the development of
maps of specific regions (The Mapping of X); and cartobibliographies (mostly regional in scope).

General Overviews
Many single-author, single-volume accounts of the history of cartography have presented, over the last century, the powerful and
idealized narrative of the progress of cartography and so of Western civilization itself, from Antiquity to the present. Since 1980,
scholars who resist the urge to oversimplify the function of maps have produced multi-author and multi-volume accounts that
promote the detailed and critical study of maps and cartography across all societies and cultures. These multi-author works have
much relevance to specific topics and should be revisited often. In particular, scholars should always make a point of consulting
Harley and Woodward 19872021 and the international journal Imago Mundi. At the same time, there have also appeared
several conceptual overviews of the field and complex retellings of how particular parts of the world have been mapped.

Harley, J. B., and David Woodward, eds. The History of Cartography. 6 vols. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987
2021.
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Founded by J. B. Harley and David Woodward, this thoroughly fact-checked reinterpretation of map history has been the highly
effective vanguard of the reformed, post-1980 field. Volumes 13 are available for free online.
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Imago Mundi.
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The only international journal dedicated to the history of cartography, founded by Leo Bagrow in 1935.
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MULTI-AUTHOR AND MULTI-VOLUME WORKS

Any research in the history of cartography must also begin with the following works, which all take a broadly social and cultural
perspective toward maps and map making. As an encyclopedia, Kretschmer, et al. 1986 provides brief statements; the synthetic
essays in Akerman and Karrow 2007 are fuller; the volumes Montaner 19902001 are the most informative.

Akerman, James R., and Robert W. Karrow, eds. Maps: Finding Our Place in the World. Chicago: University of Chicago
Press, 2007.
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These essays address broad themes: maps and navigation; maps of the world; maps of parts of the world; cartographic
dimensions of American history; maps and scientific visualization; mapping imaginary worlds; and map consumption.
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Kretschmer, Ingrid, Johannes Drflinger, and Franz Wawrik, eds. Lexikon zur Geschichte der Kartographie von den
Anfngen bis zum ersten Weltkrieg. 2 vols. Section C of Enzyklopdie der Kartographie. Vienna: Franz Deuticke, 1986.
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Prepared as part of a larger effort to define cartography as an autonomous discipline, this comprehensive encyclopedia pays
special attention to the development of cartographic concepts and to modern mapping activities.
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Montaner, Carme, ed. Cicle de conferncies sobre Histria de la Cartografia. 10 vols. Barcelona: Institut Cartogrfic de
Catalunya, 19902001.
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The first nine volumes address the mapping of (and cartographic practices in) different European countries and Spanish
America: (1) Introducci general a la histria de la cartografia (1990); (2) La Cartografia de la Pennsula Ibrica i la seva
extensi al continent Americ (1991); (3) La cartografia Italiana (1993); (4) La cartografia dels Pasos Baixos (1994); (5) La
cartografia Francesa (1996); (6) La cartografia dels pasos de parla AlemanyaAlemanya, ustria i Sussa (1997); (7) La
cartografia Anglesa (1997); (8) La cartografia eslava (unpublished); (9) La cartografia Iberoamericana (2000); and (10) La
cartografia Catalana (2000). The constituent essays, by experts, are mostly in English.
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CLASSIC SINGLE-VOLUME, SINGLE-AUTHOR HISTORIES

Single-volume histories each enshrine the simplistic narrative that cartography is an innately progressive science that serves as
a surrogate for Western civilization. They provide much useful information, but their outmoded conceptual framework means that
their information must be used with great care. Brown 1949, Bagrow 1964, Thrower 2008, Wilford 1981 all remain popular and
have been frequently reprinted or reissued in new editions. By contrast, Hodgkiss 1981 avoids the standard triumphant narrative
and appeared in just the one edition.
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Bagrow, Leo. History of Cartography. Translated by D. L. Paisley. Rev. and enl. R. A. Skelton. London: C. A. Watts, 1964.
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Focuses almost entirely on early modern European maps. Bagrow had completed his original text by 1939, although it was not
published until 1951 (as Die Geschichte der Kartographie [Berlin]). Paisleys initial translation appeared in 1960. Despite its age,
it remains very popular and was most recently reprinted in 2010.
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Brown, Lloyd A. The Story of Maps. Boston: Little, Brown, 1949.


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Brown wrote this hugely successful history of the development of the science and technology of cartography as an historical
introduction to the massive postwar remapping of the world. He accordingly rearranged or obscured key developments in order
to construct a neatly progressive history. A 1979 reprint has perpetuated its influence.
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Hodgkiss, Alan G. Understanding Maps: A Systematic Enquiry of their Use and Development. Folkestone, UK: Dawson,
1981.
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In this thematically organized work, Hodgkiss discussed the history of each of several cartographic modes (geographical maps,
sea charts, urban maps, topographic map series, etc.). Unfortunately, each section is too brief for sustained historical analysis.
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Thrower, Norman J. W. Maps and Civilization: Cartography in Culture and Society. 3d ed. Chicago: University of Chicago
Press, 2008.
DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226799759.001.0001 Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation
A short review of the highlights of the development of the cartography, drawing on the established frameworks of Bagrow 1964
and Brown 1949, originally published in 1972 as Maps and Man. The later editions add some treatment of non-Western mapping
and modern digital mapping technologies.
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Wilford, John Noble. The Mapmakers: The Story of the Great Pioneers in Cartography from Antiquity to the Space Age.
New York: Vintage, 1981.
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Borrowing heavily from Brown 1949, Wilford celebrates the modern triumph of cartographic science: a stirring tale, but not good
history. A popular work (last reprinted in 2000), it has markedly shaped subsequent popular literature.
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INTERPRETIVE OVERVIEWS

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The reconfiguration of map studies since 1980 was led by Brian Harley, whose main essays were collected in Harley 2001.
Much of the new scholarship was directed toward the cartographys contemporary conditions; Pickles 2004 is the most
historically minded of that literature. Specifically historical interpretations have been written from different perspectives: for
example, Cosgrove 1999 addresses art and landscape history, Jacob 2006 looks at comparative cultural history, Turnbull 1993
studies the sociology of science, and Woodward, et al. 2001 is on material culture.

Cosgrove, Denis, ed. Mappings. London: Reaktion, 1999.


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A collection of essays that, while diverse, address acts of visualizing, conceptualizing, recording, representing and creating
spaces (p. 1). The result is an extended consideration of the aesthetics of graphic understanding and of the complexity and
variety of mapping.
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Harley, J. B. The New Nature of Maps: Essays in the History of Cartography. Edited by Paul Laxton. Baltimore: Johns
Hopkins University Press, 2001.
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This collection of most of Harleys important essays from the 1980swhich contributed significantly to the reconfiguration of map
history as a critical field of studyis uncomfortably prefaced by the one lengthy critique of Harleys conceptual works by an
unreconstructed empiricist, J. H. Andrews (originally published in 1994).
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Jacob, Christian. The Sovereign Map: Theoretical Approaches in Cartography throughout History. Translated by Tom
Conley. Edited by Edward H. Dahl. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006.
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A phenomenological history of the things that modern Europeans (but few others) have called maps. In particular, he argues
that such graphics, with their textual extensions, function by making visible the invisible, even in environments experienced daily.
The result is compelling and poetic. Originally published in French in 1992.
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Pickles, John. A History of Spaces: Cartographic Reason, Mapping and the Geo-Coded World. London: Routledge, 2004.
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A Foucauldian genealogy of the relations among institutions, discourses, and practices that together constitute modern
cartography. Its primary concern is with ideology rather than particular practices.
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Turnbull, David. Maps are Territories: Science is an Atlas: A Portfolio of Exhibits. Chicago: University of Chicago Press,
1993.
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A critical, constructivist examination of maps, mapping, and map making from the perspective of the sociology of knowledge. At
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its heart lies the comparison of spatial experiences and conceptions among indigenous peoples (mostly Australian Aboriginals)
with those of modern Europeans.
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Woodward, David, Catherine Delano Smith, and Cordell D. K. Yee. Plantejaments i Objectius duna Histria Universal de la
Cartografia/Approaches and Challenges in a Worldwide History of Cartography. Cicle de conferncies sobre Histria de la
Cartografia 11. Barcelona: Institut Cartogrfic de Catalunya, 2001.
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These thought-provoking essays (in English) address the prospect for a world history of cartography; the analysis of maps as
artifacts and as images; understanding the nature of small maps; and challenges for the future.
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MODERN REGIONAL STUDIES

Much of the traditional scholarship in the history of cartography was organized by region: how has each region (defined
moreover by modern boundaries) been progressively mapped over time? Such works were strongly bibliographic in nature,
ordered as narrative lists of maps. In the early 21st century, however, the basic question is slowly being reconsidered in line with
the new critical perspectives to trace the history of cartography as it pertains to particular regions. Four corrective strategies have
been followed: Dym and Offen 2011 presents a series of vignettes and eschews narrative altogether; Fleet, et al. 2011 augments
the standard narrative with social considerations; Delano Smith and Kain 1999 breaks the main narrative into parallel narratives
organized by cartographic mode; Carrera 2011 creates a new narrative around broader cultural and political themes.

Carrera, Magali M. Traveling from New Spain to Mexico: Mapping Practices of Nineteenth-Century Mexico. Durham, NC:
Duke University Press, 2011.
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The cartographic and iconographic delineation of Mexico is a complexly layered palimpsest, built atop concepts of New Spain
and incorporating various degrees of Creolization and national identity. This work exemplifies how recent scholarship embraces
both state building and constructions of national identity.
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Delano Smith, Catherine, and Roger J. P. Kain. English Maps: A History. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1999.
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Rewrites the otherwise progressive history of the mapping of a region by breaking the narrative down into different modes of
mapping. Separate chapters address regional mapping, property mapping, maps and mobility, urban mapping, and the cultures
of mapping, from the Middle Ages through the 19th century.
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Dym, Jordana, and Karl Offen, eds. Mapping Latin America: A Cartographic Reader. Chicago: University of Chicago Press,
2011.
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A pioneering, multidisciplinary volume intended for university students. Its essays address the many ways in which maps can be
studied within historyas tools of statecraft and empire, as intellectual works, as works fostering nationalist sentiments, etc.
and balance textual readings with contextual analyses.
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Fleet, Christopher, Margaret Wilkes, and Charles W. J. Withers. Scotland: Mapping the Nation. Edinburgh: Birlinn, 2011.
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In this heavily illustrated book, the traditional narrative of how the country has been mapped is supplemented by thematic
chapters addressing the various functions of early maps and so how they can be read to understand Scotlands past landscapes
and cityscapes, infrastructure, and national identity.
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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARIES

These reference works are handy for basic information. French, et al. 19992004 is general; more dedicated works along the
lines of Worms and Baynton-Williams 2011 are needed for proper prosopographic studies.

French, Josephine, et al., eds. Tooleys Dictionary of Mapmakers. 4 vols. Tring, UK: Map Collector, 19992004.
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A complete reworking and expansion of R. V. Tooleys original dictionary (19791985), each entry identifies basic biographical
details and major works.
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Worms, Laurence, and Ashley Baynton-Williams. British Map Engravers: A Dictionary of Engravers, Lithographers and
their Principal Employers to 1850. London: Rare Book Society, 2011.
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An essential but unindexed guide to the early British map trade, from Thomas Abernathie to Joseph Zanetti. The introduction
concerning the nature of the London guilds and the apprenticeship process is crucial.
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Overviews by Period and Culture


In addressing the broader character of cartography in particular eras and societies, the published volumes of History of
Cartography (Harley and Woodward 1987 [cited under Ancient and Medieval Worlds], Harley and Woodward 1992 [cited under
Traditional Asian Societies], Harley and Woodward 1994 [cited under Traditional Asian Societies]; Woodward 2007 [cited under
Map Printing]; Woodward and Lewis 1998 [cited under Indigenous Societies]) provide significant context for more specific
studies. They are being progressively supplemented and updated by further general reviews.
PREHISTORIC CULTURES

Prehistoric mapsi.e., maps made before the development of scriptshave traditionally been treated in the same breath as
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those of indigenous peoples in the contemporary world, as both are presumed to be primitive, preliterate, and childlike. But
just as Indigenous Societies mappings entail sophisticated cultural processes, so too would prehistoric works. The problem, of
course, is to identify an images spatial significance when its cultural context can only be loosely understood. Delano Smith 1987
and Delano Smith 1994 are well aware of the problem; Meece 2006 provides an important critique.

Delano Smith, Catherine. Cartography in the Prehistoric Period in the Old World: Europe, the Middle East, and North
Africa. In Cartography in Prehistoric, Ancient, and Medieval Europe and the Mediterranean. Vol. 1 of The History of
Cartography. Edited by J. B. Harley and David Woodward, 54101. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987.
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A groundbreaking work that drew extensively on archaeological analysis to identify early maps. Some of Delano Smiths
identifications of images as maps are convincing but, given the fundamental lack of knowledge about the cultural context,
others are debatable.
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Delano Smith, Catherine. Prehistoric Cartography in Asia. In Cartography in the Traditional East and Southeast Asian
Societies. Vol. 1 of The History of Cartography. Edited by J. B. Harley and David Woodward, 122. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press, 1994.
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A supplement to Delano Smith 1987.
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Meece, Stephanie. A Birds Eye View of a Leopards Spots: The atalhyk Map and the Development of Cartographic
Representation in Prehistory. Anatolian Studies 56 (2006): 116.
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A notable cautionary tale. In 1967, archaeologists identified a Neolithic painting as a map because it looked like their own
maps of the site. Meece advances a basic principlethat we cannot presume that other peoples would make maps in the same
way as modern Westerners wouldand a convincing alternative explanation.
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THE ANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL WORLDS

Harley and Woodward 1987 truly invigorated the study of ancient and medieval cartography, leading to collections such as
Talbert and Unger 2008. The essays in Talbert 2012a present the new state of the history of ancient and classical cartography;
Morse 2007 further refined our general understanding of medieval cartography. Reference should also be made to Talberts
2012b bibliography.

Harley, J. B., and David Woodward, eds. The History of Cartography. Vol. 1, Cartography in Prehistoric, Ancient, and
Medieval Europe and the Mediterranean. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987.
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This pioneering volume included chapters on Babylonian, Egyptian, Greek, Roman, and Hellenistic cartography. For medieval
Europe, major chapters addressed world maps (mappaemundi), sea charts, and maps of parts of the world. Available for free
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download from the UCP website.


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Morse, Victoria. The Role of Maps in Later Medieval Society: Twelfth to Fourteenth Century. In Cartography in the
European Renaissance. Vol. 3 of The History of Cartography. Edited by David Woodward, 2552. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press, 2007.
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A reconsideration of the adoption of mapping across Europe in the later medieval era, drawing extensively on new archival work
stimulated in Harley and Woodward 1987, that corrects the traditional belief in the rebirth of cartographic activity only in the
Renaissance.
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Talbert, Richard J. A., ed. Ancient Perspectives: Maps and Their Place in Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, and Rome.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012a.
DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226789408.001.0001 Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation
A collection of essays that update Harley and Woodward 1987.
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Talbert, Richard J. A. Maps. In Oxford Bibliographies: Classics. Edited by Dee Clayman. 2012b.
DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780195389661-0075 Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation
A thorough bibliography of studies of ancient maps and also of the modern practice of mapping the ancient world.
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Talbert, Richard J. A., and Richard W. Unger, eds. Cartography in Antiquity and the Middle Ages: Fresh Perspectives, New
Methods. Technology and Change in History 10. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2008.
DOI: 10.1163/ej.9789004166639.i-300 Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation
An important collection of new interpretations of classical and medieval cartography.
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TRADITIONAL ASIAN SOCIETIES

Maps from the several traditional Asian cultures have been studied by Western map historians only sporadically, and then within
Eurocentric narratives; Harley and Woodward 1992 and Harley and Woodward 1994 began to reform this situation.

Harley, J. B., and David Woodward, eds. The History of Cartography. Vol. 2.1, Cartography in the Traditional Islamic and
South Asian Societies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.
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An extensive reinterpretation of traditional mapping activities in South Asia, emphasizing cosmographical mapping, and the
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Islamic societies of Southwest Asia and North Africa. Available for free download from the UCP website.
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Harley, J. B., and David Woodward, eds. The History of Cartography. Vol. 2.2, Cartography in the Traditional East and
Southeast Asian Societies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.
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An extensive reinterpretation of traditional mapping activities in eastern and southeastern Asia. Available for free download from
the UCP website.
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EUROPEAN RENAISSANCE TO C. 1650

The European Renaissance has long been the main focus of map historians: not only did Europeans dare all odds to explore
and map the rest of the world and then widely publicize their findings in the new technology of print, but cartography in this era
stands for the very heart of modern science and civilization. The post-1980 reconfiguration of the field has necessarily required
this narrative to be reconsidered, leading to new interpretations in Harvey 1993 and Buisseret 2003. Among new detailed works,
Karrow 1993 reconsidered the place of maps in print culture and Woodward 2007 the whole sweep of European mapping in the
two centuries after 1450.

Buisseret, David. The Mapmakers Quest: Depicting New Worlds in Renaissance Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press,
2003.
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A short reexamination of Renaissance cartography by considering basic map functions: elite consumption, European expansion,
military practice, and rural property.
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Harvey, P. D. A. Maps in Tudor England. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993.


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Although focused on one small and peripheral country, this small text nicely distinguishes the variety of maps produced and
consumed in the Renaissance.
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Karrow, Robert W. Mapmakers of the Sixteenth Century and Their Maps: Bio-Bibliographies of the Cartographers of
Abraham Ortelius, 1570. Chicago: Speculum Orbis Press, 1993.
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An amazing study of the careers and works of those identified as the authors of maps printed in the first edition of the first
modern atlas: Orteliuss Theatrum orbis terrarum (1570). It provides a broad overview of the many kinds of people engaged in
regional mapping in Renaissance Europe.
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Woodward, David, ed. The History of Cartography. Vol. 3, Cartography in the European Renaissance. Chicago: University
of Chicago Press, 2007.
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A truly huge account of mapping in Europe, 14501650. Addresses the general political, commercial, technical, artistic, literary,
and scientific contexts within which maps were produced and used; these are all innovative and important essays. Available for
free download from the UCP website.
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MODERN CARTOGRAPHY

Before 1980, historians rarely addressed 20th-century cartography; this situation is, however, slowly changing. Monmonier and
Woodward 2002 is a series of essays produced in initial preparation of the 20th-century volume of History of Cartography.

Monmonier, Mark, and David Woodward, eds. Exploratory Essays: History of Cartography in the Twentieth Century.
Special Issue: Cartography and Geographic Information Science 29.3 (2002): 133321.
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This was commissioned in an effort to develop interest in the history of cartography in the 20th century. It is not comprehensive in
content but does address many of the key issues for modern cartography.
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INDIGENOUS SOCIETIES

This section is placed after Modern Cartography to emphasize that the maps of indigenous peoples cannot be equated to
prehistoric maps because of their supposedly common primitive and childlike nature. Ethnographic studies reveal that maps
made by indigenous peoples are the products of complex cultural processes: there is actually nothing primitive about them.
Rundstrom 1991 demonstrates that that all mapping is performative, not just indigenous mapping; this realization is central to the
recent critical cartography movement. Woodward and Lewis 1998 offers a comprehensive and global perspective to
indigenous mappings in past cultures. Almost all such activities are known through encounters with Europeans; Lewis 1998
reveals issues of cartographic contact to be of interest to New World scholars. Specific studies of indigenous and encounter
mappings can be found in other sections of this article (simply search for the word indigenous).

Lewis, G. Malcolm, ed. Cartographic Encounters: Perspectives on Native American Mapmaking and Map Use. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 1998.
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The archive of early Native American maps mostly comprises works produced in contact situations; their history is thus
inseparable from the encounter between Europeans and Native Americans. These essays, most originating in the 1993
Nebenzahl lectures, include an extensive bibliographic review.
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Rundstrom, Robert A. Mapping, Postmodernism, Indigenous People and the Changing Direction of North American
Cartography. Cartographica 28.2 (1991): 112.
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DOI: 10.3138/5J46-51T2-7M42-316G Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation


Although not specifically historical, this essay lays the foundation for understanding indigenous mapping as process: the act of
creating a map is as (or more) important than the final product. Indeed, all maps, not just indigenous, should be understood as
part of processes (becoming) rather than as things (being).
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Woodward, David, and G. Malcolm Lewis, eds. The History of Cartography. Vol. 2.3, Cartography in the Traditional African,
American, Arctic, Australian, and Pacific Societies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998.
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This remarkable volume opened up the history of cartography to the ethnographic study of the performative, some might say
ritualistic, character of indigenous mapping practices. The books scope is global. Available for free download from the UCP
website.
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The Field of Study


This section includes guides to the widely diverse scholarship undertaken in the history of cartography since the early 1800s.
The Map History Gateway and Kupk 2011 provide useful information about the current state of the field. Of general importance
are the facsimile reproductions that have been published since the 1840s to make early maps available to the wider scholarly
community. The technology employed to make facsimile reproductions has varied, as have the quality and scale of the
facsimiles: a particular subgenre is the expensive facsimile created for antiquarian map collectors that mimics the entire artifact,
not just the map image. Most recently, since 2000, the creation of facsimiles has shifted to online, digital technologies. The
printed facsimile genre is discussed in detail by some of the Historiographies and Bibliographies; online, the genre is introduced
by Map History Gateway.

Kupk, Ivan. Vademekum. In Alte Landkarten von der Antike bis zum Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts: Ein Handbuch zur
Geschichte der Kartographie. By Ivan Kupk, 139198. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2011.
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A useful overview of resources as well as bibliographies of published descriptions of various map collections, conferences,
methodologies, etc.
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Map History Gateway.


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An incredibly useful website, maintained since 1996, that covers much of the fields institutional resources (journals,
conferences, funding opportunities, etc.), and especially the many websites that offer high-resolution digital facsimiles of early
maps as well as accounts of early maps.
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HISTORIOGRAPHY
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Historiography has been the mark of three separate phases of reformist map history: Corteso 1969 and Skelton 1972 were
prompted to think of a formal discipline of the history of cartography by the 1960s expansion of academia; Blakemore and Harley
1980 and Harley 1987, informed by the 1980s cultural turn, presented an established discipline in desperate need of reform.
Edney 2005 has since reassessed the success of that cultural turn and the validity of its historiography.

Blakemore, Michael J., and J. B. Harley. Concepts in the History of Cartography: A Review and Perspective. Edited by
Edward H. Dahl. Cartographica 17.4 (1980): Monograph 26.
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This manifesto for a new, theoretically informed discipline reviewed the state of the field and proposed new, replacement
approaches grounded on linguistic and art historical concepts. See Edney 2005.
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Corteso, Armando. Cartography and its Historians. In History of Portuguese Cartography. 2 vols. By Armando
Corteso, 170. Lisbon, Portugal: Junta de investigaces do ultramar, 1969.
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Corteso began his final work by defining some basic terms and then listing over one hundred prominent (and deceased) map
historians, with brief accounts of their publications, in lieu of a formal and comprehensive bibliography to the field.
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Edney , Matthew H. The Origins and Development of J. B. Harleys Cartographic Theories. Cartographica 40.12 (2005):
Monograph 54.
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An analysis of the leading theorist of map history during the 1980s. It is effectively a history of cartographic history as practiced in
the Anglophone world in the later 20th century.
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Harley, J. B. The Map and the Development of the History of Cartography. In Cartography in Prehistoric, Ancient, and
Medieval Europe and the Mediterranean. Vol. 1 of The History of Cartography. Edited by J. B. Harley and David Woodward,
142. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987.
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An essential account of the pursuit of map history, starting in the 18th century; emphasis is on attempts since 1945 to establish
the history of cartography as an autonomous discipline.
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Skelton, R. A. Maps: A Historical Survey of their Study and Collecting. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1972.
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A key study of the development of map collecting and the associated study of early maps. Skelton focused pragmatically on the
tasks, especially the unification of the literature and coordination of efforts in cataloging and facsimile publishing, needed to give
coherence to a new discipline of map history.
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BIBLIOGRAPHIES ON THE HISTORY OF CARTOGRAPHY

In addition to the references cited in general works and historiographies, the following sources give access to the older literature
on the history of cartography. Krogt, et al. 1993 and Zgner 1984 are devoted to specific national traditions of historical
scholarship. Edney 2007 and Kupk 2011 focus on the most recent literature; the older literature is identified in Ristow 1973,
Hodgkiss and Tatham 1986, and Karrow 1997. The Imago Mundi bibliographies may be rather difficult to use but worthy of
consultation.

Edney , Matthew H. Recent Trends in the History of Cartography: A Selective, Annotated Bibliography to the English-
Language Literature. Coordinates: Online Journal of the Map and Geography Round Table, American Library Association,
Series B 6 (2007).
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An annotated bibliography of about 160 works, including many detailing the intellectual development of academic cartography
and critical cartography, as well as recent works specifically on the history of cartography.
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Hodgkiss, Alan G., and A. F. Tatham. Annotated Bibliography of Reference Sources: History of Cartography. In Keyguide
to Information Sources in Cartography. By Alan G. Hodgkiss and A. F. Tatham 79127. New York: Facts on File, 1986.
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Of particular note is the list of 333 entries on the mapping of specific regions.
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Imago Mundi.
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The primary journal specializing in the history of cartography, published since 1935. Every issue has a bibliography of recent
literature; together these make a substantial and essential guide to the field.
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Karrow, Robert W. Concise Bibliography of the History of Cartography: A Selected, Annotated List of Works on Old Maps
and Their Makers, and on their Collection, Cataloging, Care, and Use. Chicago: Newberry Library, 1997.
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Of the 312 entries in this bibliography, based on the Newberry Librarys extensive reference collections, just over one hundred
are catalogues and works of Cartobibliography, arranged by region. The other entries are organized topically.
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Krogt, Peter van der, Marc Hameleers, and Paul van den Brink, eds. Bibliografie van de Geschiedenis van de Kartografie
van de Nederlanden; Bibliography of the History of the Cartography of the Netherlands. Utrecht, The Netherlands: HES and
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De Graaf, 1993.
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A detailed bibliography of over 4,500 works specifically on Netherlandic mapping generally, on the great commercial atlases,
land and river surveying, and more recent topographical mapping.
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Kupk, Ivan. Bibliographie. In Alte Landkarten von der Antike bis zum Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts: Ein Handbuch zur
Geschichte der Kartographie. By Ivan Kupk, 199274. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2011.
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This essential bibliography lists some 2,000 works on map history published since 19861987. It does list sixty-seven general
works from 19501986, as opposed to nearly two hundred published since. Most of the bibliography deals with specific types of
mapping by period (pp. 207252) and with the mapping of particular regions (pp. 253274).
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Ristow, Walter W. Guide to the History of Cartography: An Annotated List of References on the History of Maps and
Mapmaking. Washington, DC: Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress, 1973.
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This is the third and last edition (with 398 entries) of a bibliography (also Guide to Historical Cartography) first published in 1954.
It serves as a concise summary to Library of Congress (1973).
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Zgner, Lothar. Bibliographie zur Geschichte der Deutschen Kartographie. Bibliographia cartographica Sonderheft 2.
Munich: K. G. Saur, 1984.
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An excellent and detailed listing of 20th-century work, with 3,319 entries focusing on the history of German cartography.
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BIBLIOGRAPHIES ON CARTOGRAPHY

As bibliographies of the general literature (post-1800) on cartography, both Library of Congress 19731980 and Bibliographia
Cartographica identify overtly historical works as well as works about mapping activities that now serve as primary sources for
modern map history. Acta Cartographica is included here as a similar resource, albeit not a bibliography per se.

Acta Cartographica. 19671981.


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This journal reprinted, in a disorganized and unindexed manner, 453 essays on cartography and the history of cartography from
19th- and early-20th-century journals.
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Bibliographia Cartographica. Munich: Verlag Dokumentation, 1974.


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An annual bibliography including a section on the history of cartography. This series continues Bibliotheca Cartographica, 30
vols. (Bad Godesburg, West Germany: Bundesforschungsanstalt fr Landeskunde und Raumordnung, 19571972) and Hans
Peter Kosack and Karl-Heinz Meine, Die Kartographie, 19431954: Eine Bibliographische Ubersicht (Lahr-Schwarzwald, West
Germany: Astra, 1955).
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Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division. The Bibliography of Cartography. 7 vols. Boston: G. K. Hall, 19731980.
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A facsimile of the c. 90,000 cards of the catalogue begun by P. Lee Phillips in 1900 and maintained by the Map Division until
1980. Coverage begins with the early 19th-century. The catalogue includes any work (especially journal articles) about
cartography, whether historical or contemporary.
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CARTOBIBLIOGRAPHY

The basic methodology of map history is cartobibliography, i.e., the identification and listing of maps. Cartobibliographies have,
by default, been arranged by region and then by chronology, but this practice is slowly changing. Note that terminology of
editions and issues, etc., has been inconsistent; Verners 1974 system of identifying plates and states is now widely
applied but was seriously criticized in Tanselle 1982. In addition to Kandoian 2007, cited under Bibliographies on Cartography
for lists of cartobibliographies.

Kandoian, Nancy. Cartobibliography for Catalogers: Reference Materials to Support the Identification of Early Printed
Maps. Journal of Map and Geography Libraries 3.2 (2007): 4578.
DOI: 10.1300/J230v03n02_04 Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation
An annotated bibliography of sixty-eight cartobibliographies, including some other resources, designed to help catalogers of
early maps in their work.
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Tanselle, G. Thomas. The Description of Non-Letterpress Material in Books. Studies in Bibliography: Papers of the
Bibliographical Society of the University of Virginia 35 (1982): 142.
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A detailed analysis of the flaws and limitations of the art historical scheme of identifying plates and states of prints, both in terms
of basic principles and how Verner 1974 applied it to early maps. Tanselles arguments have not, however, been widely adopted
by map historians.
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Verner, Coolie. Carto-Bibliographical Description: The Analysis of Variants in Maps Printed from Copperplates.
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American Cartographer 1.1 (1974): 7787.


DOI: 10.1559/152304074784107890 Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation
The key presentation of the argument that the art historical scheme of identifying prints by plates and states to early maps.
This scheme has become the default for identifying versions of early maps.
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Technical Aspects of Map Making


Some historians of cartographybut remarkably few, overallhave paid attention to the development of the technical aspects of
map making. Andrews 2009 is a comprehensive overview; other works are more focused by area of technique, whether
surveying, printing, or design. Reference should also be made to the works listed in General Overviews.

Andrews, J. H. Maps in Those Days: Cartographic Methods before 1850. Dublin, UK: Four Courts, 2009.
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This remarkable book is Andrewss summa of his knowledge about the creation of maps, from survey through design and
reproduction. For more than forty years, Andrews studied the surveying and mapping of Ireland from the 16th to the 20th
centuries.
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SURVEYING AND INSTRUMENTATION

The history of land surveying has tended to be the preserve either of professional surveyors or curators of museum collections of
scientific instruments. Bennett 1987 exemplifies the traditional emphasis on the instruments rather than on how those
instruments were used, but Richeson 1966 remains useful in this regard.

Bennett, J. A. The Divided Circle: A History of Instruments for Astronomy, Navigation, and Surveying. Oxford: Phaidon,
1987.
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The definitive history of angle measuring instruments used in the field. Bennett is especially good in discerning between
innovative designs for instruments and the kinds of instruments generally used by surveyors of all kinds.
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Richeson, A. W. English Land Measuring to 1800: Instruments and Practices. Society for the History of Technology,
Monograph 2. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1966.
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Although focused on English practices, Richeson provides a useful overview of early modern practices in property mapping.
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LONGITUDE AND THE DETERMINATION OF LOCATION


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The common misconception is that cartography is, at root, the science of location; the result is a marked overemphasis in the
general and popular literatures about the importance of the techniques to determine location and especially the determination of
longitude at sea. The basic narrativethat mariners and map makers alike were flailing about until John Harrison perfected his
chronometer and then all was perfectis fundamentally flawed. Jullien 2002 presents a more balanced perspective and, with
Andrewes 1996, serves as a good introduction to the extensive literature in the history of science on issues of longitude.

Andrewes, William J. H., ed. The Quest for Longitude: The Proceedings of the Longitude Symposium, Harvard University,
Cambridge, Massachusetts, November 46, 1993. Cambridge, MA: Collection of Historical Scientific Instruments, Harvard
University, 1996.
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While emphasizing the horologic solution to determining longitude at sea, this nonetheless gives the best overview of the various
technologies and their application both at sea and on land, before and after the 18th centurys achievements.
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Jullien, Vincent, ed. Le calcul des longitudes: Un enjeu pour les mathmatiques, lastronomie, la mesure du temps et la
navigation. Rennes, France: Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2002.
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Essays on the terrestrial and marine determination of longitude in the 18th and 19th centuries, including suggested techniques
for using magnetic variation.
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GEODESY

The measurement of the size and shape of the earth, geodesy is fundamental to modern cartography and geophysics. The
science has long had a historical component. Greenberg 1995 and Terrall 2002 address the triumphs of the 18th-century
confirmation of Isaac Newtons theories; Warner 2002 addresses the 19th-century proliferation of arc measures and the
refinement of mathematical approximations to the geoid (the earths irregular gravimetric surface). But, as King 2000 reminds
us, geodesy has not been a preserve solely of modern Europeans.

Greenberg, John L. The Problem of the Earths Shape from Newton to Clairaut: The Rise of Mathematical Science in
Eighteenth-Century Paris and the Fall of Normal Science. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1995.
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A detailed history of the scientific debates in Paris concerning the earths size and shape and the resultant measures by French
scientists, focusing on the nature of scientific dispute in the Enlightenment.
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King, D. A. Too Many Cooks . . . A New Account of the Earliest Muslim Geodetic Measurements. Suhayl: Journal for the
History of the Exact and Natural Sciences in Islamic Civilisation 1 (2000): 207242.
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A good place to start on the history of the first actual measurement made of the earths size, by Islamic astronomers in the plains
of what is now northern Iraq, c. 830 CE. (Eratosthenes, c. 200 BCE, only calculated the earths size.)
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Terrall, Mary. The Man Who Flattened the Earth: Maupertuis and the Sciences in the Enlightenment. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press, 2002.
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Terralls biography of the natural philosopher who championed Newtons ideas about the shape of the earth in Paris provides a
useful counterpoint to Greenberg 1995, in that she considers the larger cultural and scientific significance of the earths figure.
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Warner, Deborah Jean. Political Geodesy: The Army, the Air Force, and the World Geodetic System of 1960. Annals of
Science 59.4 (2002): 363389.
DOI: 10.1080/0003790110044756 Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation
An account of the dramatic push by the US government after 1945 to determine precisely the earths size and shape in order to
permit the accurate targeting of ballistic missiles and the determination of satellite orbits. (In the event, those orbits now define a
fixed shell within which we define the geoid.)
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MAP PROJECTIONS

The history of map projections was one of the first thematic subjects to be studied by map historians in the 19th century; Watson
2008 explores some of the implications of those early studies. Most early scholarship distinguished between the projections
used for world and regional maps, sea charts, and for topographical map series. The analytical treatment after 1880 of all map
projections as mathematical transformations led to the decline of such distinctions. Snyder and Steward 1988 and Snyder 1993
provide fundamental guides; Monmonier 2004 is a useful introduction to some of the cultural questions of map projection choice.

Monmonier, Mark. Rhumb Lines and Map Wars: A Social History of the Mercator Projection. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press, 2004.
DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226534329.001.0001 Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation
Much has been written since 1980 about the evils of Gerhard Mercators world projection (1569), mostly influenced by the
misrepresentations of Arno Peters. Monmonier explains how and why the projection is misunderstood.
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Snyder, John P. Flattening the Earth: Two Thousand Years of Map Projections. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993.
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The sole recent history of map projections, with a strongly mathematical perspective that emphasized properties and form rather
than usage.
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Snyder, John P., and Harry Steward. Bibliography of Map Projections. US Geological Survey Bulletin 1856. Washington,
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DC: United States Government Printing Office, 1988.


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A comprehensive guide to the extensive literature, from both historical and contemporary perspectives.
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Watson, Ruth. Cordiform Maps since the Sixteenth Century: The Legacy of Nineteenth-Century Classificatory Systems.
Imago Mundi 60.2 (2008): 182194.
DOI: 10.1080/03085690802024273 Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation
A useful historiographic analysis of how early studies of map projections have shaped historians treatment of heart-shaped
maps.
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MAP COMPILATION

Makers of geographical mapsmaps of regions and the worldare intellectually omnivorous, using information from any and all
sources: written, graphic, itinerary, scientific, marine, artistic, etc. (They especially copy from existing geographical maps.) Jacob
1999 noted the common aspect of critical or positive geographers to be located in centers of calculation where such
knowledge accumulates. Berggren and Jones 2000, Dawson and Vincent 2000, and Haguet 2011 explore how geographers
then fit these multiple data together, often within the graticules of map projections; for Laboulais-Lesage 2004, this process
creates a persistent tension between the data and white space. Working in the studio, geographers do not always understand
explorers reports, as evinced in Withers 2004, and can create myths that can persist for centuries; Bassett and Porter 1991 thus
trace a mountain range and region that appeared on maps of west Africa for two centuries, while Lewis 1991 explores the early
modern belief in a river flowing across North America.

Bassett, Thomas J., and Philip W. Porter. From the Best Authorities: The Mountains of Kong in the Cartography of West
Africa. Journal of African History 32.3 (1991): 367413.
DOI: 10.1017/S0021853700031522 Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation
A demonstration of cartographic inertia: a fictitious feature (the mountain chain) is created with the best of intentions by a
geographer (James Rennell) in his studio and, once on the map, proves persistent (morphing c. 1900 into a region that further
persistent for a century).
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Berggren, J. Lennart, and Alexander Jones. Ptolemys Geography: An Annotated Translation of the Theoretical Chapters.
Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000.
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A fresh translation of the major work of Hellenistic cartography, Claudius Ptolemys Geographia, from the 2nd century CE.
Ptolemys fundamental techniques are the conceptual basis of modern geographical mapping.
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Dawson, Nelson-Martin, and Charles Vincent. LAtelier Delisle: LAmerique du Nord sur la table a dessin. Sillery, QC:
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Septentrion, 2000.
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A detailed analysis of the processes followed by the great Guillaume Delisle, in Paris, in mapping North America, the sources he
used, and how he compiled them.
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Haguet, Lucile. J.-B. dAnville as Armchair Mapmaker: The Impact of Production Contexts on His Work. Imago Mundi 63.1
(2011): 88105.
DOI: 10.1080/03085694.2011.521335 Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation
DAnville was the premier geographer in the mid-18th century, whose productions exemplified the critical (or positive) work of
carefully sifting and comparing multiple sources to achieve a true and definitive image of regions and the world (see Jacob
1999). Haguet considers the ideal within pragmatic economic contexts.
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Jacob, Christian. Mapping in the Mind: The Earth from Ancient Alexandria. In Mappings. Edited by Denis Cosgrove, 24
49. London: Reaktion, 1999.
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A convincing argument of the facilitation of critical geographywhether by Ptolemy in 2nd-century Alexandria, al-Idrisi in 12th-
century Sicily, or dAnville in 18th-century Parisby the geographers location in cultural crossroads where knowledge
accumulates.
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Laboulais-Lesage, Isabelle, ed. Combler les blancs de la carte: Modalits et enjeux de la construction des savoirs
gographique (XVIIe-XXe sicle). Strasbourg, France: Presses Universitaires de Strasbourg, 2004.
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A series of essays on the nature of white space on maps and its importance. Useful in overturning the historiographic myth that
white space manifests the scientific nature of modern map making.
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Lewis, G. Malcolm. La grande rivire et fleuve de louest: The Realities and Reasons Behind a Major Mistake in the 18th-
Century Geography of North America. Cartographica 28.1 (1991): 5487.
DOI: 10.3138/Q801-3138-H2W4-7443 Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation
Lewis traces the sequence of transformations undergone by a geographical report from an indigenous oral source to a printed
map made in Paris. An account of a short river was transmuted into a major river running across North America, in lieu of a
Northwest Passage, and establishing a tradition that would lead Thomas Jefferson to send out Lewis and Clark in 1803.
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Withers, Charles W. J. Mapping the Niger, 17981832: Trust, Testimony and Ocular Demonstration in the Late
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Enlightenment. Imago Mundi 56.2 (2004): 170193.


DOI: 10.1080/0308569032000172950 Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation
An analysis of the treatment by early modern geographers of source materials, which ones to trust (and follow), which ones to
use conditionally, and which to reject.
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ART AND DESIGN

The realization that the look of a map is unrelated to its content (plain maps are not necessarily accurate; ornate ones are not
necessarily fanciful) has led some to consider the history of cartographic aesthetics, notably in the revelatory essays collected in
Woodward 1987. There remains much to be done in this topic; one way forward, the application of color theory to maps, is
suggested in Schfer-Weiss and Versemann 2005.

Schfer-Weiss, Dorothea, and Jens Versemann. The Influence of Goethes Farbenlehre on Early Geological Map
Colouring: Goethes Contribution to Christian Kefersteins General Charte von Teutschland (1821). Imago Mundi 57.2
(2005): 164180.
DOI: 10.1080/03085690500094990 Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation
The allocation of colors to geological strata was significantly influenced by Goethes theory of colors.
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Woodward, David, ed. Art and Cartography: Six Historical Essays. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987.
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This pioneering collection rejected the long-standing narrative in which the art of maps was progressively displaced by the
science of maps. Instead, Woodward suggests a deceptively simple analytical matrix: maps as art, maps in art, art as maps, and
art in maps.
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MAP PRINTING

The processes of map printing have been studied by academic cartographers in terms of their influence on map design.
Woodward 1975 remains the best overview, but more recent studies have extended and corrected its presentation, especially
Woodward 2007 concerning Renaissance techniques and Cook 1995, Woodward 1977, and Mumford 1998 concerning 19th-
century techniques. Carhart 2004 provided a new slant by locating map printing within the early modern craft system.

Carhart, George S. How Long Did It Take to Engrave an Early Modern Map? A Consideration of Craft Practices. Imago
Mundi 56.2 (2004): 194197.
DOI: 10.1080/0308569042000238082 Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation
Studies of the engraving process have been skewed by the partial nature of surviving archives. This is a useful reminder that
engravers and printers were craftsmen who worked much faster than previously thought.
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Cook, Karen Severud. From False Starts to Firm Beginnings: Early Colour Printing of Geological Maps. Imago Mundi 47
(1995): 155172.
DOI: 10.1080/03085699508592818 Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation
A good introduction to the development of color printing, as applied to geological maps, over the course of the 19th century. The
key issue, of course, was to be able to reproduce precise areas of consistent color.
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Mumford, Ian. Lithography for Maps: From Senefelder to Hauslab. Journal of the Printing Historical Society 27 (1998):
6987.
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A review of the application to maps of lithography, from the technologys initial creation (1799) by Alois Senefelder (b. 1771
d. 1834) to the perfection of color printing of topographic maps by the Austro-Hungarian General, Franz Ritter von Hauslab
(b. 1798d. 1883).
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Woodward, David. The All-American Map: Wax-Engraving and its Influence on Cartography. Chicago: University of Chicago
Press, 1977.
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A detailed study of the technology of cerography, or wax engraving, which gave US atlases in the 19th and 20th century a
distinctive look.
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Woodward, David. Techniques of Map Engraving, Printing, and Coloring in the European Renaissance. In Cartography in
the European Renaissance. Vol. 3 of The History of Cartography. Edited by David Woodward, 591610. Chicago: University
of Chicago Press, 2007.
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An updated statement on map reproduction during the Renaissance, in many respects the summa of Woodwards extensive
research on the subject.
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Woodward, David, ed. Five Centuries of Map Printing. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1975.
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The starting point for any research on how maps have been reproduced in print (before 1914). Separate essays address the
major techniques of map printing (relief/woodcut, intaglio/copper, planar/lithography), the profusion of other printing technologies
in the 19th century, and the means of reproducing type in print.
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MAP SIGNS
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Map signs (often inappropriately called symbols) are the graphic marks that denote specific features, such as rivers or towns.
They have not been consistently studied by historians of cartography. Dainville 1964 is a pioneering study that has been
followed only in Delano Smith 2007.

Dainville, Franois de. Le langage des gographes: Termes, signes, couleurs des cartes anciennes, 15001800. Paris: A.
et J. Picard, 1964.
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Dainvilles primary goal was the development of a consistent geographical nomenclature, in which terms were illustrated by both
quotations from contemporary texts and map signs. The result is nonetheless useful, especially for the 18th century from which
most of his examples were drawn.
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Delano Smith, Catherine. Signs on Printed Topographical Maps, ca. 1470ca. 1640. In Cartography in the European
Renaissance. Vol. 3 of The History of Cartography. Edited by David Woodward, 528590. Chicago: University of Chicago
Press, 2007.
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In addition to exploding several misconceptions about the standardization of map signs in the Renaissance, and the
development of a distinctive look to printed maps, Delano Smith provides an important discussion on terminology and the ways
in which map historians have misunderstood how signs function.
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AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY AND REMOTE SENSING

The history of aerial photography, photogrammetric techniques, and remote sensing from orbital platforms has long been a
standard feature of introductory chapters to educational manuals and is also a feature of various histories of official survey
agencies. In the early 21st century, however, the subject has been critically addressed by historians of technology. With respect
to aerial photography, Barber 2011 gives a thorough overview of technological developments (in platforms, camera systems, and
interpretation), and Dyce 2013 and Haffner 2013 represent the growing critical studies of the deployment of aerial photography
for governmental purposes. With respect to satellite imagery, Mack 1990 is now something of a classic study for the development
of the basic civil system of Landsat. Reference must also be made to the works in Modern Cartography.

Barber, Martyn. A History of Aerial Photography and Archaeology: Mata Haris Glass Eye and Other Stories. Swindon, UK:
English Heritage, 2011.
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A detailed history, starting with 19th-century ballooning, of the development of aerial photography and mapping, focusing on
their application to archaeology. The key figure is the archaeologist O. G. S. Crawfurd who, between the wars, proselytized
remote sensing as a fundamental tool of landscape analysis.
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Dyce, Matt. Canada between the Photograph and the Map: Aerial Photography, Geographical Vision and the State.
Journal of Historical Geography 39 (2013): 6984.
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DOI: 10.1016/j.jhg.2012.07.002 Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation


An analysis of the increasing dependency by Canadian authorities, from the 1920s on, on aerial photography as an efficient
means to map and assess the resources of areas remote from the main population centers.
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Haffner, Jeanne. The View from Above: The Science of Social Space. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2013.
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Haffner explores the role of aerial photography in the development, among 20th-century French geographers and other social
scientists, of the concept of social space (the idea that spatial form and social life are inextricably intertwined).
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Mack, Pamela Etter. Viewing the Earth: The Social Construction of the Landsat Satellite System. Cambridge, MA: MIT
Press, 1990.
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A detailed study of the competing demands of scientists, map makers, and intelligence agencies that shaped the development of
the Landsat that has become the primary supplier of satellite imagery to present-day map makers (including Google).
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DIGITAL MAPPING TECHNOLOGIES

The development of digital computers has had, since the 1970s, a revolutionary effect on mapping practices. The history of this
particular moment remains limited. Monmonier 1985 and Petchenik 1988 provide useful early statements. Chrisman 2006 gives
a blow-by-blow account of the co-evolution of software and hardware capabilities. Reference must also be made to the works in
Modern Cartography.

Chrisman, Nicholas R. Charting the Unknown: How Computer Mapping at Harvard Became GIS. Redlands, CA: ESRI Press,
2006.
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A detailed study of the work of the Harvards Laboratory for Computer Graphics and Spatial Analysis within the Graduate School
of Design (19651991), starting with Howard Fishers SYMAP.
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Monmonier, Mark. Technological Transition in Cartography. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985.
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A concise history of the practices of cartography and their repeated reconfiguration by the development of new technologies,
culminating in an early statement of the history of computer cartography.
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Petchenik, Barbara Bartz, ed. Reflections on the Revolution. Special Issue: American Cartographer 15.3 (1988): 245
322.
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A collection of essays by six figures within Anglophone academia reflecting on their roles as leaders in the analogue to digital
revolution in mapping/GIS.
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Map Forms
Historians of cartography have long paid attention to particular physical packaging of maps, whether in Atlases or as Globes. The
Wall Maps has, as a phenomenon, recently begun to receive attention as well.
ATLASES

Holding their maps within protective bindings, atlases have been the primary means by which early maps have been preserved,
at least until many were broken in the 19th and 20th century and their contents dispersed by antiquarian dealers. As such,
historians of cartography have long studied them. Wolter and Grim 1997 focuses on supposed national traditions that are also
enshrined in bibliographies of atlasesthe latter are exemplified here by van der Krogt 1997. See Bibliographies on
Cartography for many more. Van den Broecke, et al. 1998 and Besse 2009 are the most recent works to seek to reinterpret the
nature and early development of atlases. But, as van der Krogt 1996 and Winearls 1995 both indicate, it is not appropriate to
presume a stable design for any early modern atlas. Akerman 1995 adds a further refinement to the history of atlases as books.

Akerman, James R. The Structuring of Political Territory in Early Printed Atlases. Imago Mundi 47 (1995): 138154.
DOI: 10.1080/03085699508592817 Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation
Early modern world atlases followed a common organizational structure that in turn shaped European ideas of the territorial
nature of states. It is essential to understand atlases not as works of reference into which the author dips as needed but as
narrative works akin to other books that were read as such.
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Besse, Jean-Marc. The Birth of the Modern Atlas: Rome, Lafreri, Ortelius. In Conflicting Duties: Science, Medicine and
Religion in Rome, 15501750. Edited by Maria Pia Donato and Jill Kraye, 3557. Warburg Institute Colloquia, 15. London:
Warburg Institute, 2009.
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Besse explores the practices of composite atlas production in the 16th century and its influence on Orteliuss concept of a
collection of maps whose system is imposed by the publisher not the consumer.
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van den Broecke, Marcel P. R., Peter van der Krogt, and Peter H. Meurer. Abraham Ortelius and the First Atlas: Essays
Commemorating the Quadricentennial of his Death, 15981998. t Goy-Houten, The Netherlands: HES and De Graaf, 1998.
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Orteliuss 1570 Theatrum orbis terrarum is celebrated as the first (modern) atlas, and its implications are explored by a variety of
experts.
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van der Krogt, Peter. Amsterdam Atlas Production in the 1630s: A Bibliographers Nightmare. Imago Mundi 48 (1996):
149160.
DOI: 10.1080/03085699608592837 Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation
This detailed review of the results of Van der Krogts analytical bibliography of the huge Dutch atlases of the 17th century, such
as Willem Jansz. Blaeus eleven-volume Atlas Maior, reveals that the idea of a modern atlas as a necessarily stable collection (or
edition) of maps is historically inept.
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van der Krogt, Peter. Koemans Atlantes Neerlandici. 2d ed. 10 vols. t Goy-Houten, The Netherlands: HES and De Graaf,
1997.
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The reference to this as a second edition of Cornelis Koemans Atlantes Neerlandici (19671971) is a complete misnomer. Van
der Krogt has started from scratch in this immensely detailed, analytical bibliography of the many atlases produced by Dutch
publishers from the 16th through the 18th century.
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Winearls, Joan, ed. Editing Early and Historical Atlases: Papers Given at the Twenty-Ninth Annual Conference on Editorial
Problems, University of Toronto, 56 November 1993. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1995.
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A useful collection of essays that deal with the idea, nature, and history of atlases. To some degree it suffers from historians
usual conflation of maps from the past with maps of the past (thus the focus on early and historical atlases).
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Wolter, John A., and Ron E. Grim, eds. Images of the World: The Atlas through History. Washington, DC: Library of
Congress, 1997.
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Although a great place to start in learning about the history of atlases, the commissioning of these essays reaffirmed the
outmoded sequence of golden ages for different national traditions of European cartography: 16th-century Italians, 17th-century
Dutch, 18th-century French and British, etc.
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GLOBES

Globesas scientific instruments, pedagogic devices, works of art, and powerful allegorical devices in arthave long fascinated
historians; indeed, globes warrant their own dedicated journal, Globe Studies. But as large material objects, interpretive globe
studies are dominated by analyses based on large museum collections, such as Allmayer-Beck 1997, Dekker 1999, and Dahl
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and Gauvin 2000. Only van der Krogt 1993 seeks to move beyond the museum context, albeit still within a nationalist framework.
Finally, there is some recognition that globes were made in cultures other than post-1450 Europe, represented here in
Ramaswamy 2007.

Allmayer-Beck, Peter E., ed. Modelle der Welt, Erd- und Himmelsgloben: Kulturerbe aus sterreichischen Sammlungen.
Vienna: Bibliophile Edition, 1997.
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Analyses and interpretations based on early globes in Austrian collections.
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Dahl, Edward H., and Jean-Franois Gauvin. Sphr Mundi: Early Globes at the Stewart Museum. Montreal: McGill-
Queens University Press, 2000.
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Analyses and interpretations based on early globes in a Canadian collection.
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Dekker, Elly. Globes at Greenwich: A Catalogue of the Globes and Armillary Spheres in the National Maritime Museum,
Greenwich. Oxford: Oxford University Press and the National Maritime Museum, 1999.
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Analyses and interpretations based on early globes in the NMM collection.
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Globe Studies: The Journal of the International Coronelli Society.


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Originally known as Der Globusfreund (19521998), this is the only journal dedicated to the study of globes; it provides an
essential resource for the history of globes. A full list of contents can be found on the societys website.
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Ramaswamy, Sumathi. Conceit of the Globe in Mughal Visual Practice. Comparative Studies in Society and History 49.4
(2007): 751782.
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A fascinating study of the iconography of globes beyond Western culture.
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van der Krogt, Peter. Globi Neerlandici: The Production of Globes in the Low Countries. Utrecht, The Netherlands: HES and
De Graaf, 1993.
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A detailed bibliographical study of Dutch early modern production of globes, complementing the authors analyses of Dutch
atlases.
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WALL MAPS

The practice of placing maps on walls has not received concerted study, certainly by comparison to other map forms. Fiorani
2005 and Barber 2010 do, however, provide an excellent beginning.

Barber, Peter. Magnificent Maps: Power, Propaganda and Art. London: British Library, 2010.
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A careful analysis of the function of wall maps based on where they have been hung, moving outward from a monarchs rooms to
public streets. The study shows that the significance of a wall map is defined more by its location than by its (often barely visible)
content.
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Fiorani, Francesca. The Marvel of Maps: Art, Cartography and Politics in Renaissance Italy. New Haven, CT: Yale
University Press, 2005.
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A glorious exploration of the place of wall mapsand in particular the mural map cyclesin Renaissance Italy. These great
maps, of Italy, and of other parts of the world, were displayed in public and less-public spaces to present, in line with
contemporary symbolic strategies, an organized vision of the world and the patrons place therein.
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Cartographic Modes or Ways of Acting with Maps


Cartography is actually a creation of the modern ideal that presupposes just one endeavor for turning the world into paper.
When one considers the different ways in which humans have thought about the world, different functions requiring different
conceptual scales, one can recognize how humans have accordingly pursued different sets of processes to produce, circulate,
and consume maps. In 1993, the author of Edney 2011 called each set a mode, a way of acting with maps. See also the works
identified in General Overviews.

Edney , Matthew H. Cartography without Progress: Reinterpreting the Nature and Historical Development of
Mapmaking and Progress and the Nature of Cartography. In Classics in Cartography: Reflections on Influential
Articles from Cartographica. Edited by Martin Dodge, 305342. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011.
DOI: 10.1002/9780470669488 Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation
The first attemptpublished originally in 1993to break apart the early modern endeavor of cartography and to distinguish the
several modes by which Europeans conceptualized and mapped the world had flaws, as outlined in this commentary.
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PROPERTY MAPPING

There is a vast and varied literature on property mappingmapping that understands the world as fragmented into discrete
parcels of real propertywhich cannot be easily summarized. Most studies are place specific. Buisseret 1996 is representative
of the few comparative accounts, DeRogatis 2003 and Sullivan 1998 of cultural interpretations of property mapping. Some
studies have situated surveying and mapping within the larger array of inscriptive practices for property, including written
accounts and monumentation: Aguilar-Robledo 2009 in the context of colonial New Spain, Brown 1987 in early modern Japan,
Fletcher 1995 in early modern England, and Pearce 2004 in colonial New England. Works on specifically cadastral mapping
(i.e., mapping in aid of taxes) are listed under Government, Politics, and Cartography.

Aguilar-Robledo, Miguel. Contested Terrain: The Rise and Decline of Surveying in New Spain, 15001800. Journal of
Latin American Geography 8.2 (2009): 2347.
DOI: 10.1353/lag.0.0058 Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation
An analysis of the changing conditions within colonial New Spain, where measured surveys steadily declined in importance.
Rather, hybrid colonial/indigenous mapping processes persisted.
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Brown, Philip C. The Mismeasure of Land: Land Surveying in the Tokugawa Period. Monumenta Nipponica 42.2 (1987):
115155.
DOI: 10.2307/2384949 Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation
A review of the complex practices for describing land in early modern Japan, revealing a marked lack of concern for precise
measurement.
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Buisseret, David, ed. Rural Images: Estate Maps in the Old and New Worlds. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.
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A broad discussion of the specific genre of estate map, emphasizing early modern England and colonial Jamaica.
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DeRogatis, Amy. Moral Geography: Maps, Missionaries, and the American Frontier. New York: Columbia University Press,
2003.
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Frontiers are morally ambiguous places; the Connecticut authorities accordingly divided up their Western Reserve in Ohio to
create an ordered, controlled, and therefore moral landscape in parallel with their religious missions.
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Fletcher, David H. The Emergence of Estate Maps: Christ Church, Oxford, 1600 to 1840. Christ Church Papers 4. Oxford:
Clarendon, 1995.
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The records of a major English landowner reveal that the adoption of measured, graphic survey plans for estate management
was not inevitable but was a function of personal preference by estate managers; many conservative managers had not adopted
graphic estate maps even in the early 19th century.
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Pearce, Margaret W. Encroachment by Word, Axis, and Tree: Mapping Techniques from the Colonization of New England.
Cartographic Perspectives 48 (2004): 2438.
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A summary of the intersections of indigenous and colonial practicesverbal (toponyms), physical (monumentation), and
inscriptivein describing and mapping property in 17th-century New England. The key difference was that only the English
colonists inscribed property in legal archives and, after 1700, graphic plans.
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Sullivan, Garrett A., Jr. The Drama of Landscape: Land, Property, and Social Relations on the Early Modern Stage.
Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1998.
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A study by a literary historian of the representation of agricultural life on the early stage: the mapping of properties plays a
prominent role as a highly visible point of contestation between landowners and their tenants.
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MAPPING PLACE AND LANDSCAPE

Graphic plans have been prepared as part of the suite of practices by which humans have determined and shaped the
uniqueness of places, of the process of discriminating one place as a coherent and meaningful site that differs from other places.
Casey 2002 is a thorough overview. Parmenter 1993 demonstrates that place mapping is not restricted to the European tradition.
Technically, such mapping should be known as topographical (meaning description/writing of place) although this term has
been widely applied to the representation of relief (hills and mountains), a key element in place mapping; this specific aspect
was the focus of Harvey 1980. Place mapping is closely aligned with other cultural practices for representing landscape, as
explored for example by Byerly 2007 and Charlesworth 2008 (artistic vision), Carlson 2010 and Conley 2011 (poetry), Anderson
2009 (engineering).

Anderson, Carolyn Jane. State Imperatives: Military Mapping in Scotland, 16891770. Scottish Geographical Journal
125.1 (2009): 424.
DOI: 10.1080/14702540902873899 Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation
Charged with maintaining fortifications in Scotland, the Royal Engineers focused their mapping efforts on the architecture of
fortresses and the landscapes around them. The territorial mapping of Scotland after 1745, in William Roys famous military
survey, was thus unrepresentative of the engineers institutional emphasis on place.
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Byerly, Alison. A Prodigious Map Beneath his Feet: Virtual Travel and the Panoramic Perspective. Nineteenth-Century
Contexts 29.23 (2007): 151168.
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DOI: 10.1080/08905490701584643 Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation


Byerly traces the influence of panoramas and the popular obsession with the idea of balloon travel on the explosion of birds-eye
views of landscapes and cities in the USA after 1870.
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Carlson, Julia S. Topographical Measures: Wordsworths and Crosthwaites Lines on the Lake District. Romanticism
16.1 (2010): 7293.
DOI: 10.3366/E1354991X10000887 Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation
Romanticism drew attention to emotional aspects of landscape perception, so it was inevitable that in celebrating particular
landscapes the romantic poets would also come to celebrate the act of representing and mapping the land.
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Casey, Edward S. Representing Place: Landscape Painting and Maps. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2002.
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This is a wide-ranging excursus on the extensive intersections of landscape art and place mapping, focusing on the early
modern era. Caseys argument is weakened by treating the modern cartographic idealwhich holds topographical mapping to
be the epitome and exemplar of all cartographyas a historical and cultural universal.
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Charlesworth, Michael. Landscape and Vision in Nineteenth-Century Britain and France. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2008.
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A wide-ranging study of vision (itself a huge topic), the representation of landscape, mapping of place, and the nature of
modernity.
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Conley, Tom. An Errant Eye: Poetry and Topography in Early Modern France. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press,
2011.
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Conley usefully extends the long-standing connection between landscape art and literature to maps and other visual,
emblematic representations of landscape and topography.
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Harvey, P. D. A. The History of Topographical Maps: Symbols, Pictures and Surveys. London: Thames and Hudson, 1980.
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A pioneering study that sought to explain, rather than enumerate and evaluate, early maps of place and landscape. Harvey
focused on different strategies for representing relief to trace the development of the abstract view from nowhere in modern
cartography.
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Parmenter, Ross. The Lienzo of Tulancingo, Oaxaca: An Introductory Study of a Ninth Painted Sheet from the
Coixtlahuaca Valley. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 83.7 (1993): 186.
DOI: 10.2307/1006660 Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation
An analysis that characterizes the lienzo, i.e., a map of the territory of meso-American communities, combining history and
topography, that was prepared during the colonial era in order to preserve communal lands in the face of external threats. Held
as secret documents, few are known and their use poses ethical issues. This is one of a small handful of studies of this map
genre.
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MAPPING TOWNS AND CITIES

The representation of cities as coherent places (as opposed to engineering and infrastructural nightmares that must be broken
down into their constituent parts to be understood, extended, and repaired) is really part of the general mode of mapping places
there is the same intersection of landscape imagery with mapping practicesbut it is necessary to treat the mapping of cities
as a separate mode because of the special character of urban places. Free from the constraints of feudal agricultural society,
often with their own governing bodies, cities have always been understood to be artificial, unnatural, and constructed places.
They have accordingly been used as metaphors for ideal societies (City upon a Hill, etc.). There is a vast literature on the
subject, often focused on the depiction of particular towns and cities. Buisseret 1998 presents case studies across a broad
chronology, but most generic studies emphasize the important periods of urbanization in the renaissance, as exemplified in Nuti
1994, Kagan 2000, and Miller 2003, and the industrial 19th century, as exemplified in Schein 1993 and Gilbert 2004.

Buisseret, David, ed. Envisioning the City: Six Studies in Urban Cartography. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998.
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A pioneering series of essays on the mapping of urban places in several different social and cultural contexts.
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Gilbert, Pamela K. Mapping the Victorian Social Body. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2004.
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This important study of the construction of space and community successfully integrates literary and cartographic histories to
explore the influence of mapping related to cholera epidemics in 19th-century London and British India on British conceptions of
themselves and of Indians as a distinctly different other.
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Kagan, Richard L. Urban Images of the Hispanic World, 14931793. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2000.
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Early modern urban imagesin Europe and the New Worldrepresented the city variously as urbs (built environment) or civitas
(the civic community), and further manifested differences between internal or external perspectives. The result integrates maps
and views with parades and portraiture. See also his chapter in Buisseret 1998.
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Miller, Naomi. Mapping the City: The Language and Culture of Cartography in the Renaissance. London and New York:
Continuum, 2003.
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A broad analysis of the urban plan and view in the later medieval and Renaissance eras, their function and their contribution to
Renaissance art.
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Nuti, Lucia. The Perspective Plan in the Sixteenth Century: The Invention of a Representational Language. Art Bulletin 76
(1994): 105128.
DOI: 10.2307/3046005 Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation
A thorough examination of the development of the city view in Renaissance Italy.
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Schein, Richard H. Representing Urban America: 19th-Century Views of Landscape, Space, and Power. Environment
and Planning D: Society & Space 11 (1993): 721.
DOI: 10.1068/d110007 Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation
A compelling analysis of late-19th century birds-eye views of US industrial cities as idealized constructions of community
based on an almost naked claim to be empowering, truthful imagery. However, Scheins arguments are not necessarily relevant
for similar views of non-industrial cities.
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REGIONAL MAPPING AND GEOGRAPHICAL CONCEPTIONS

Descriptions of regions (chorography) and of the world (geography) entail a specific intellectual goal, to know and organize the
world beyond the scope of the individual or community. In practice, geographical mapping uses the processes of Map
Compilation to combine multiple sources of information about the world. Such mapping of regions and the world has traditionally
constituted the default mode for the history of cartography. Post-1980 studies have emphasized how geographical conceptions
are constructed and disseminated, especially in political contexts (see Government, Politics, and Cartography). This section
contains mostly recent works. Johnson 2008 and Hiatt 2008 consider how cartographic and written texts function together to
create geographical knowledge of new worlds; Wolff 1994 and Pinto 2011 do the same, but for the old worlds. Hollis 2007 and
Pinto 2011 represent the increasing interest in the question of cartographic literacy and the groups of people that consumed
certain kinds of geographical representation; see Commerce, Public Discourse, and Identity Mapping.

Hiatt, Alfred. Terra Incognita: Mapping the Antipodes before 1600. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008.
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A history of the geographic myth of the antipodes (the opposite world) from its ancient origins, medieval expression, and
eventually its renaissance manifestation as the great southern land of Terra Australis.
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Hollis, Gavin. Give Me the Map There: King Lear and Cartographic Literacy in Early Modern England. Portolan 68 (2007):
825.
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A concise overview of the differential literacy of early modern populations in the context of the physical location of audience
members within early theaters.
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Johnson, Christine R. The German Discovery of the World: Renaissance Encounters with the Strange and Marvelous.
Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2008.
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A remarkable study of the intellectual circles in Renaissance Germany that through their writing and mapping sought to come to
terms with the discoveries made in the New World by the Spanish, Portuguese, French, and English.
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Pinto, Karen. The Maps Are the Message: Mehmet IIs Patronage of an Ottoman Cluster. Imago Mundi 63.2 (2011): 155
179.
DOI: 10.1080/03085694.2011.568703 Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation
Pinto explores the cultural significance of and systems of patronage behind a group of cartographically illustrated geographic
texts from 15th-century Turkey, which demonstrate the complexity of Ottoman culture.
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Wolff, Larry. Inventing Eastern Europe: The Map of Civilization on the Mind of the Enlightenment. Stanford, CA: Stanford
University Press, 1994.
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The innovative analysis of how western Europeans configured and reconfigured eastern Europe in the 18th century.
Cartographic representation played a significant role in constructing the new divide between East and West (which replaced the
older divide between north and south Europe).
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WORLD MAPPING AND COSMOGRAPHY

The mapping of the worldthe entire spatial scope of a cultureis an act of special cultural significance and has accordingly
attracted distinctive attention by historians. Cosgrove 2001, Lestringant 1994, and Brotton 2012 provide broad overviews of
world mapping in Europe; Talbert 2010 considers world mapping in ancient Rome. In particular, mapping of the world has often
extended from acts of geographical mapping into acts of cosmographical mapping: i.e., representations of the cosmos and of the
relationship of the physical and human worlds to the divine. Harvey 2006 and Edson 2007 consider medieval, cosmographical
mappaemundi, Scafi 2006 considers the mapped image of Eden; and Gartner 2011 extends the concern to indigenous North
American cosmography. Cosmographical mapping is a major element in the several works identified in the Overviews by Period
and Culture.

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Brotton, Jerry. A History of the World in Twelve Maps. London: Allen Lane, 2012.
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Explores world maps from c. 500 BCE to the present, deftly outlining their nature as cultural constructs that recursively define and
are defined by the worldview of their makers. Brotton is not concerned with the growth of knowledge of the world, but with
reading each map in their specific cultural contexts.
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Cosgrove, Denis. Apollos Eye: A Cartographic Genealogy of the Earth in the Western Imagination. Baltimore: Johns
Hopkins University Press, 2001.
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An analysis of (the mostly early modern) symbolic meaning of the globeof the image of the globeas an emblem of
knowledge, power, profanity, and terrestrial and human unity.
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Edson, Evelyn. The World Map, 13001492: The Persistence of Tradition and Transformation. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins
University Press, 2007.
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A history of the medieval Latin mappamundi, or world map, produced in several forms within different intellectual traditions, and
their interactions with other forms appropriated from classical sources in the later Middle Ages.
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Gartner, William Gustav. An Image to Carry the World Within It: Performance Cartography and the Skidi Star Chart. In
Early American Cartographies. Edited by Martin Brckner, 169247. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2011.
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The 18th-century Pawnee star chart is one of the few surviving indigenous maps from North America that do not derive from an
encounter with Europeans. Gartner reveals the maps cosmographical and ritualistic structure as a device that connected
multiple planes of existence.
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Harvey, P. D. A., ed. The Hereford World Map: Medieval World Maps and their Context. London: British Library, 2006.
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The large and complex mappamundi preserved at Hereford cathedral poses multiple problems for the historian: from its original
function, its content, and its preservation. This collection of essays summarizes the recent scholarship devoted to the map.
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Lestringant, Frank. Mapping the Renaissance World: The Geographical Imagination in the Age of Discovery. Translated by
David Fausett. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994.
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An interdisciplinary overview of the European response to the new discoveries in the Americas, Africa, and Asia, and the
resultant fixing of the intellectual practice of cosmography.
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Scafi, Alessandro. Mapping Paradise: A History of Heaven on Earth. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006.
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A comprehensive history of the concept and image of Eden, as at once a geographical and divine location, from medieval to
modern Europe.
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Talbert, Richard J. A. Romes World: The Peutinger Map Reconsidered. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press,
2010.
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A careful and detailed analysis of the famous Peutinger strip map, that argues that it originally comprised a single zone in a
much larger image of the world.
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MAPPING THE HEAVENS

Historians of astronomy and science have been the primary scholars interested in the history of celestial mapping. Most interest
has focused on Globes or on specific projects, such as Lane 2011, a study of the mapping of Mars; there have been few
overviews, but see Kanas 2012. Warner 1979 remains the best overview of the mapping of stars and constellations.

Kanas, Nick. Star Maps: History, Artistry, and Cartography. 2d ed. New York: Springer, 2012.
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It is perhaps an indication of the low level of interest in celestial cartography that this is the only recent overview of the subject,
albeit one heavily indebted to older accounts; it takes an especially bibliographical approach to its subject.
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Lane, K. Maria D. Geographies of Mars: Seeing and Knowing the Red Planet. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011.
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Mars putative canals were identified and mapped in 18801920 as an expression of popular anxieties about the possibility of
advanced life on the red planet. The resultant fanciful and fantastic maps were actually grounded in the logic of Regional
Mapping and Geographical Conceptions.
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Warner, Deborah J. The Sky Explored: Celestial Cartography, 15001800. New York: Alan R. Liss, 1979.
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A history of European early modern celestial mapping, in sheets and globes, from the specific point of view of their selection of
constellations, and of the manner of their representation of those constellations.
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TERRITORIAL MAPPING

Territorial mapping entails applying the techniques of place mapping, generally controlled by geodetic frameworks, to large
regions. Such mapping is the product of military and bureaucratic interests, beginning in the 18th century and expanding in the
19th and 20th centuries. Seymour 1980 and Pelletier 1990 represent the numerous institutional histories of state territorial
surveys. There is no historical overview of territorial mapping. More recent studies of territorial surveys are bound up with issues
of Government, Politics, and Cartography (see also General Overviews).

Pelletier, Monique. La Carte de Cassini: LExtraordinaire Aventure de la carte de France. Paris: Presses de lcole
nationale des Ponts et chausses, 1990.
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The primary history of the survey of France that formed the model for subsequent surveys.
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Seymour, W. A., ed. A History of the Ordnance Survey. Folkestone, UK: Dawson, 1980.
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The British Ordnance Survey, begun c. 1790, is for many the exemplary modern survey. This is the primary institutional history of
the survey.
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BOUNDARY MAPPING

The mapping of boundaries between polities is a complex process of local negotiations between (indistinct) cultural groups and
not always an effective extension of government authority. The literature is large, especially in terms of the history of particular
boundary disputes. Maps play complex roles in boundary delimitation: boundary mapping combines the practices of detailed
place mapping with smaller-scale map compilation; further, as Chester 2009 exemplifies, maps play both intellectual and
instrumental roles. The act of surveying and delimiting a boundary is itself a complex negotiation, as discussed in Rebert 2001.

Chester, Lucy P. Borders and Conflict in South Asia: The Radcliffe Boundary Commission and the Partition of Punjab.
Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 2009.
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A thorough study of the use of maps in one of the most notorious boundary delimitations, the separation of India from Pakistan.
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Rebert, Paula. La Gran Lnea: Mapping the United States-Mexico Boundary, 18491857. Austin: University of Texas Press,
2001.
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The tensions within and between the US and Mexican commissioners, after the USA annexed half of Mexicos territory, reveal
that border delimitation is more political than technical.
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MARINE CHARTING AND HYDROGRAPHY

Marine charting comprises, broadly speaking, the mapping of the oceans by mariners for mariners and is a major element in
General Overviews. Generic histories of marine charting, as opposed to histories of navigation, are few; Howse and Sanderson
1973 remains useful in this regard. An abiding concern is with the original development and manner of use of the medieval
portolan chart, most recently seen in studies by Pujades i Bataller 2007 and Pflederer 2012. Chapuis 1999, Cook 2006, and
Shapinksy 2006 represent the other primary area of focus is on the development and use of charts in the early modern era.
Further attention is paid by historians of science to the extension after 1850 of the original concern for the location of coasts and
other navigational hazards to hydrographic analyses of the contents and nature of the oceans themselves, for example in Doel,
et al. 2006.

Chapuis, Olivier. A la mer comme au ciel: Beautemps-Beaupr et la naissance de lhydrographie moderne, 17001850:
Lmergence de la prcision en navigation et dans la cartographie marine. Paris: Presses de lUniversit de Paris-
Sorbonne, 1999.
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The growth of modern marine science and mapping is charted exhaustively in this detailed analysis of French charting across
the long 18th century.
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Cook, Andrew S. Surveying the Seas: Establishing the Sea Route to the East Indies. In Cartographies of Travel and
Navigation. Edited by James R. Akerman, 6996. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006.
DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226010786.001.0001 Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation
A useful reminder of the limitations of early modern marine travel and so of marine charting. Cook uses the example of the East
India Companys recording and charting of the routes to Asia to explore how most mariners used written pilot books and
experience, rather than charts, for navigation.
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Doel, Ronald E., Tanya J. Levin, and Mason K. Marker. Extending Modern Cartography to the Ocean Depths: Military
Patronage, Cold War Priorities, and the HeezenTharp Mapping Project, 19521959. Journal of Historical Geography 32.3
(2006): 605626.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jhg.2005.10.011 Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation
Marie Tharp (b. 1920d. 2006) was responsible for the highly detailed mapping of the sea floor, undertaken by the US Navy after
World War II, to permit the use of deep-diving nuclear submarines.
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Howse, Derek, and Michael Sanderson. The Sea Chart: An Historical Survey Based on the Collections of the National
Maritime Museum. Newton Abbot, UK: David and Charles, 1973.
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This remains the best single-volume book devoted to the history of marine charting, but it is quite out of date.
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Pflederer, Richard L. Finding Their Way at Sea: The Story of the Portolan Charts, the Cartographers Who Drew Them and
the Mariners Who Sailed by Them. Houten, The Netherlands: HES and De Graaf, 2012.
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The origins of the sea chart in the medieval portlan charts of the Mediterranean Sea, and their continuation and reconfiguration
in the Renaissance, are the subjects of this large, heavily illustrated, and comprehensive history.
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Pujades i Bataller, Ramon J. Les cartes portolanes: La representaci medieval duna mar solcada. Barcelona: Institut
Cartogrfic de Catalunya, 2007.
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A large and lavishly illustrated work that explores the development of portolan charts and how they were used, within the context
of the growing trade networks of the medieval Mediterranean. In Catalan with an extensive English prcis (pp. 401526).
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Shapinsky, Peter D. Polyvocal Portolans: Nautical Charts and Hybrid Maritime Cultures in Early Modern East Asia. Early
Modern Japan: An Interdisciplinary Journal 14 (2006): 426.
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A fascinating study of chart making in Japan and other parts of East Asia in the context of the interactions of European and Asian
mariners and the creation of hybrid cultures.
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MAPPING THE DISTRIBUTIONS OF PHENOMENA

The cartographic visualization of the spatial distribution of particular phenomena is very much a modern phenomenon, as
bureaucrats and social scientists have sought to understand populations and economies, and natural sciences the earths
atmospheres, biospheres, and lithospheres. Note that the term generally applied to such maps, thematic mapping, has been
frequently misused to mean any map that has a highly selective approach (including road maps; see Maps and Mobility).
Robinson 1982 and Friendly and Denis 2001 provide general overviews of the techniques of thematic mapping; Rudwick 1976
remains the fundamental study of the development of geological maps, although Winchester 2001 successfully lays out the
principles; Camerini 1993 and Koch 2005 deal with the development of other aspects of visualizing the natural world. The
mapping of social phenomena has largely been considered in Government, Politics, and Cartography; Palsky 2002 and Dando
2010 are provided as good examples.

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Camerini, Jane R. The Physical Atlas of Heinrich Berghaus: Distribution Maps as Scientific Knowledge. In Non-Verbal
Communication in Science prior to 1900. Edited by Renato G. Mazzolini, 479512. Florence: Olschki, 1993.
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Berghauss Physikalischer Atlas presented the lithosphere, biosphere, and atmosphere in a series of profoundly influential
thematic maps that defined modern scientific visualization.
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Dando, Christine Elizabeth. The Map Proves It: Map Use by the American Woman Suffrage Movement. Cartographica
45.4 (2010): 221240.
DOI: 10.3138/carto.45.4.221 Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation
Choropleth maps of the degree of adult female suffragewith white as full vote, black as no vote, gray for partial voteby state
were prominently used as icons across the suffrage movement, from letterhead to parade displays. The visual rhetoric was highly
racialized.
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Friendly, Michael, and Daniel J. Denis. Milestones in the History of Thematic Cartography, Statistical Graphics, and Data
Visualization. 2001.
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A fundamental resource for the history of different visualization techniques and their application.
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Koch, Tom. Cartographies of Disease: Maps, Mapping, and Medicine. Redlands, CA: ESRI Press, 2005.
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The history of mapping in the service of public medicine. It is especially notable for rejecting the myth that John Snow used maps
to visualize a cure and solution to cholera; rather, he used maps to present his epidemiological arguments.
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Palsky, Gilles. Emmanuel de Martonne and the Ethnographical Cartography of Central Europe (19171920). Imago Mundi
54 (2002): 111119.
DOI: 10.1080/03085690208592961 Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation
Ethnographic mapping underpinned the post-1917 reconfiguration of Europes political boundaries at the Treaty of Versailles.
This is the best introduction to the topic, which has spawned a considerable literature.
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Robinson, Arthur H. Early Thematic Mapping in the History of Cartography. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982.
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Robinsons summa of a career in teaching map design provides a solid foundation for study of this still somewhat neglected
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subject, in terms of the mapping of both physical and human phenomena.


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Rudwick, Martin J. S. The Emergence of a Visual Language for Geological Science, 17601840. History of Science 14
(1976): 149195.
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Geological mapping has not received a great deal of attention (at least until Winchester 2001). Rudwicks analysis remains the
best statement of the development of the cartographic representation of geological strata.
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Winchester, Simon. The Map that Changed the World: William Smith and the Birth of Modern Geology. New York:
HarperCollins, 2001.
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This popular account has made William Smith famous and has made clear how geological mapping exemplifies the crucial
function of maps both to interpolate data and to make phenomena visible.
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Government, Politics, and Cartography


A major theme in the post-1980 reconfiguration of the history of cartography has been the role of governments in driving
cartographic activities, both in imperial and state contexts (Akerman 1998). Much attention has accordingly been paid to the
desire of various polities to gain knowledge of their own extents and territories. Both Territorial Mapping and Property Mapping
are understood to be especially important in the institutional formation of modern polities, as manifested in Revel 1991 and Biggs
1999. Kain and Baigent 1992 and Ministerie de leconomie 20062008 consider property mapping in a governmental context,
which is generally called cadastral mapping, i.e., mapping undertaken in conjunction with tax registers. Akerman 2009,
Monmonier 2010, and Brckner 2011 lead the recent attempt to develop a more nuanced perspective on the relationship of
authority to cartography.

Akerman, James R., ed. Cartography and Statecraft: Studies in Governmental Mapmaking in Modern Europe and its
Colonies. Cartographica 35.34 (1998): Monograph 52.
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A variety of essays on multiple aspects of mapping in support of different states and empires.
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Akerman, James R., ed. The Imperial Map: Cartography and the Mastery of Empire. Chicago: University of Chicago Press,
2009.
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These essays consider a variety of imperial-cartographic moments, from religious ideologies of empire in 17th-century Russia,
via territorial mapping, to newspaper images of British and French empires ca. 1900.
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Biggs, Michael. Putting the State on the Map: Cartography, Territory, and European State Formation. Comparative
Studies in Society and History 41.2 (1999): 374405.
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A useful summary of territorial mapping by European states before 1815, arguing that the resultant maps are crucial in
configuring the way we think about the world and its divisions, and in particular the state.
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Brckner, Martin, ed. Early American Cartographies. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2011.
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An important collection of essays that addresses the wide variety of indigenous, imperial, colonial, and early post-independence
mapping activities across the Americas.
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Kain, Roger J. P., and Elizabeth Baigent. The Cadastral Map in the Service of the State: A History of Property Mapping.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.
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A broad history of state-sponsored, large-scale property mapping in western and northern Europe and in the early European
colonies. This work is a pioneering analysis of one cartographic mode across institutionally dissimilar states.
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Ministerie de leconomie. De lestime au cadastre en Europe. 3 vols. Paris: Comit pour lhistoire conomique et financire
de la France, 20062008.
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A three-volume series of essays under multiple editorsLe Moyen ge (2006); Lpoque moderne (2007); Les systmes
cadastraux aux XIXe et XXe sicles (2008)that together detail the cadastral institutions of Europe and their mapping activities.
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Monmonier, Mark. No Dig, No Fly, No Go: How Maps Restrict and Control. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010.
DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226534633.001.0001 Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation
Despite the general assumption that maps affect their readers, their effects are taken to be constructive. In this pioneering and
important work, Monmonier considers the wider processes and conditions within which maps can have a limiting effect on their
readers actions.
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Revel, Jacques. Knowledge of the Territory. Science in Context 4.1 (1991): 133161.
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An influential essay, especially among historians of science, that presents the Cassini surveys of 18th-century France as the
paradigm of state-sponsored territorial mapping.
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EARLY STATES

Pre-modern governments rarely supported mapping activities directly, but some intersections of mapping and statehood have
been discerned by Birkholz (Birkholz 2004) in medieval England, by Serchuk (Serchuk 2007) in France, and by Hu (Hu 2007) in
China.

Birkholz, Daniel. The Kings Two Maps: Cartography and Culture in Thirteenth-Century England. New York: Routledge,
2004.
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After religious/cosmographical interpretations of medieval world maps became standard, Birkholz reclaimed the possibility of
political functions for those maps produced within systems of royal patronage, under two 13th-century kings of England, Henry III
and Edward I.
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Hu, Bangbo. Cultural Images: Reflection of Political Power in the Maps of Chinese Administrative Gazetteers of the Song
Dynasty. Cartographica 42.4 (2007): 319334.
DOI: 10.3138/carto.42.4.319 Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation
During the Song dynasty (9601279 CE), administrative gazetteers included maps both to locate key places and to symbolize the
emperors power over specific territories.
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Serchuk, Camille. Ceste figure contient tout le royaulme de France: Cartography and National Identity in France at the
End of the Hundred Years War. Journal of Medieval History 33.3 (2007): 320338.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jmedhist.2007.07.005 Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation
Argues that a 15th-century manuscript map was indicative of a growing sense of French territory independent of fealty to the
French crown.
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EARLY MODERN STATES

The study of mapping by states of their territories, as extensions of official control, was energized by the authors of Konvitz 1987
and Buisseret 1992 and has led to extensive work. Of special note within all this work are Barber 2004 and Kivelson 2006, which
extend the state inward to the monarch and outward to the official Church.

Barber, Peter. Was Elizabeth I Interested in Mapsand Did It Matter? Transactions of the Royal Historical Society 6s.14
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(2004): 185198.
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A useful reminder that not all early modern monarchs were fascinated by maps, whether of their own or others lands. Elizabeth I
was often depicted with (and even standing on) maps and globes, and her ministers and courtiers were map enthusiasts, but she
herself seems to have lacked a visual and cartographic sensibility.
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Buisseret, David, ed. Monarchs, Ministers, and Maps: The Emergence of Cartography as a Tool of Government in Early
Modern Europe. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.
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This collection of essays opened up a whole new arena of historical research. Of special note are Barbers meticulously
referenced essays on the English bureaucracy and Vanns unfortunately brief essay on the territorial conceptions of the Austrian
Habsburg Empire.
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Kivelson, Valerie A. Cartographies of Tsardom: The Land and its Meanings in Seventeenth-Century Russia. Ithaca, NY:
Cornell University Press, 2006.
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Explores both property and geographical mapping as manifestations of the distinct character of the Russian state and of the
Orthodox faith. Maps were an important part of the Muscovite empires complex layering of territories and responsibilities.
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Konvitz, Josef W. Cartography in France, 16601848: Science, Engineering, and Statecraft. Chicago: University of Chicago
Press, 1987.
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A pioneering study of the interrelations between different arenas of cartographic activitysystematic surveys, territorial
reorganization, hydrography, engineering surveying, and thematic mappingand their intersections with government and state
administration.
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MODERN STATES

Increasingly intense control (or increasing desire for control) of territories and their populations was a crucial component of the
formation of the modern state after 1800. Winichakul 1994 is a pioneering study of Thailandrefracted in Bernstein 2007 and its
study of the Iowasand has spawned many recent studies, of both territorial and demographic mapping in the 19th and 20th
centuries, such as Hannah 2000, Schulten 2012, and Seegel 2012. Craib 2004 and Radcliffe 2009 indicate how such studies
have been especially important for the study of modern Latin America.

Bernstein, David. We Are Not Now as We Once Were: Iowa Indians Political and Economic Adaptations during U.S.
Incorporation. Ethnohistory 54.4 (2007): 605637.
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DOI: 10.1215/00141801-2007-024 Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation


An attempt by the Iowas to map their territory in Western terms failed to persuade US commissioners of their claims and so failed
to resist encroachments by both the USA and other Indian groups.
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Craib, Raymond B. Cartographic Mexico: A History of State Fixations and Fugitive Landscapes. Durham, NC: Duke
University Press, 2004.
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An examination of mapping in the formation of the Mexican state, at both geographical and local scales: fixing national identity
and creating a geographical gazetteer; contested processes of delineating property within agrarian reforms.
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Hannah, Matthew G. Governmentality and the Mastery of Territory in Nineteenth-Century America. Cambridge Studies in
Historical Geography 32. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
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Michel Foucaults late idea of governmentality is a potent lens for tracing not only the development of the social sciences but also
of demographic mapping. See Schulten 2012.
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Radcliffe, Sarah A. National Maps, Digitalisation and Neoliberal Cartographies: Transforming Nation-State Practices and
Symbols in Postcolonial Ecuador. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 34.4 (2009): 426444.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-5661.2009.00359.x Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation
The adoption of digital mapping technologies has reconfigured but not challenged state control of cartography and spatial
information in present-day Ecuador.
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Schulten, Susan. Mapping the Nation: History and Cartography in Nineteenth-Century America. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press, 2012.
DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226740706.001.0001 Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation
The visual presentation of history and statistics (especially demographic) were major innovations in 19th-century America and
encompassed scientific, demographic, and educational institutions supported by the state and the public. Schulten provides a
useful counterpoint to Hannah 2000.
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Seegel, Steven. Mapping Europes Borderlands: Russian Cartography in the Age of Empire. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press, 2012.
DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226744278.001.0001 Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation
A compound study of several aspects of mapping within the Russian Empire of the 19th and 20th centuryethnographic
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surveys, frontier, and boundary mappingto consider the engineering of territory and popular resistance to the results.
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Winichakul, Thongchai. Siam Mapped: A History of the Geo-Body of a Nation. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1994.
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Winichakul detailed how the 19th-century Thai state promulgated, at least in discursive arenas controlled by the state, Western
political conceptions of territorial space in order to resist territorial encroachments by the British and French.
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EARLY MODERN EMPIRES

The function of maps to support imperial activitiesgeopolitical vision, colonial settlement, indigenous encountersin the early
modern world has attracted much attention, especially in the context of the Spanish New World. Such studies include Mundy
1996 on hybrid Spanish-indigenous mapping, Padrn 2004 on the intellectual image of Spanish America, Safier 2008 on the
regions scientific exploitation, Portuondo 2009 on the empires cartographic infrastructure, and Scott 2009 on spatial
contestation. Zandvliet 1998 and Hotstetler 2001 extend this interest to East Asia. Hornsby 2011 reminds us that early modern
and modern empires are distinguished less by a divide and more by a transition, as the British first applied systematic territorial
surveys to North America before their more famous surveys in British Empire in South Asia.

Hornsby, Stephen J. Surveyors of Empire: Samuel Holland, J. F. W. des Barres, and the Making of The Atlantic Neptune.
Montreal: McGill-Queens University Press, 2011.
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This history of the state-sponsored surveys of the North American Atlantic seaboard, which gave rise to the Atlantic Neptune,
gives insight into the future of British America had the revolution not occurred. Hornsby adopts an actor-network theory approach.
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Hotstetler, Laura. Qing Colonial Enterprise: Ethnography and Cartography in Early Modern China. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press, 2001.
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The consolidation of Qing (Manchu) Chinas control over the interior southern province of Guizhou in the 18th century entailed
cartographic and ethnographic surveys to embrace the province within a national Chinese identity.
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Mundy, Barbara E. The Mapping of New Spain: Indigenous Cartography and the Maps of the Relaciones Geogrficas.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.
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The questionnaires sent out by the Spanish government in the 16th century to gather knowledge about all the various parts of its
American empire stimulated the production of a huge body of texts and maps that reveal complex, syncretic societies.
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Padrn, Ricardo. The Spacious Word: Cartography, Literature, and Empire in Early Modern Spain. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press, 2004.
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Padrn narrates the slow process whereby the Spanish came to write and comprehendthrough plays and poetry as well as
maps and geographiestheir possessions in the Americas. In the process, he argues that the modern, singular idea of map is
itself a product of the imperial process of comprehending the New World.
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Portuondo, Mara M. Secret Science: Spanish Cosmography And the New World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press,
2009.
DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226675374.001.0001 Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation
A detailed account of the official institutions created in 15th- and 16th-century Spain to create, collect, and control knowledge of
the geography and history of the New World.
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Safier, Neil. Measuring the New World: Enlightenment Science and South America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press,
2008.
DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226733562.001.0001 Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation
Through a reinterpretation of the French expedition in the 1730s to measure the length of the degree at the Equator, Safier
explores the successive stages of knowledge creation and its elaboration and progressive effacement in the sequence of field
books, journals and maps, formal publications, and derivative works about the exhibition.
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Scott, Heidi V. Contested Territory: Mapping Peru in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. Notre Dame, IN: University
of Notre Dame Press, 2009.
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A study of the contests between Spanish conquerors and the indigenous peoples of Peru over knowledge of the landscape, and
of the diverse representational forms that resulted.
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Zandvliet, Kees. Mapping for Money: Maps, Plans and Topographic Paintings and Their Role in Dutch Overseas Expansion
during the 16th and 17th Centuries. Amsterdam: Batavian Lion International, 1998.
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The Dutch made extensive use of maps of regions and places in their colonial endeavors in the Americas (WIC) and the Far East
(VOC); Zandvliet delineates the institutional structures in the colonies and the metropolis for gathering and presenting
geographical knowledge.
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THE BRITISH EMPIRE IN SOUTH ASIA

The mapping of British India has recently attracted a great deal of academic attention. Edney 1997 began the move with a work
focused on British conceptions of their actions in India. The authors study has been challenged and extended, in particular by
the author of Raj 2001, who sought to rescue the cartographic work of the Indians themselves (see also, in this respect,
Ramaswamy 2004 and Ramaswamy 2010 cited under National Identity in the Modern Era). Barrow 2003 related British mapping
to history writing; Barrow 2008 further considered Sri Lanka in a comparative study. Michael 2012 stands as the most important
development, in successfully integrating precise mapping activities with the mutual processes of intensifying state control of
territory both in the British Company state and in the Gorkha state in Nepal.

Barrow, Ian J. Making History, Drawing Territory: British Mapping in India, c. 17561905. New Delhi: Oxford University
Press, 2003.
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A history of the imperial representations and mythologies of Indiaboth cartographic and historiographicconstructed by the
British.
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Barrow, Ian J. Surveying and Mapping in Colonial Sri Lanka, 18001900. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2008.
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The first analytical history of the surveying and mapping of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) in the first century of British rule.
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Edney , Matthew H. Mapping an Empire: The Geographic Construction of British India, 17651843. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press, 1997.
DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226184869.001.0001 Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation
A detailed study of the role of mapping and surveying in defining both the territorial and ethical conceptions of the British Empire
in India, and the (in)capacity of the British administration to know its empire.
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Michael, Bernardo A. Statemaking and Territory in South Asia: Lessons from the AngloGorkha War (18141816). London:
Anthem, 2012.
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A precise and important analysis of war and boundary delimitationand therefore of mappingin the mutual reinforcement of
British and Gorkha attitudes toward their territories and so the nature of their states in South Asia.
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Raj, Kapil. Colonial Encounters and the Forging of New Knowledge and National Identities: Great Britain and India, 1760
1850. Osiris 2.15 (2001): 119134.
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A study of the British mapping of India that places the weight of responsibility for shaping the cartographic and scientific
knowledge generated on the Indian workforce rather than the British officers who oversaw them.
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MODERN EMPIRES

Stone 1988 and Etherington 2007 provide overviews of the cartographic underpinnings of modern empires and colonies of
settlement. Critical interest has generally addressed all scales: Cook 1984 addressed the world image; Carter 1989, Burnett
2000, and Walker 2006, address regional surveys and explorations; DeRogatis 2003 addresses the creation of Western property
rights on the frontier. Biaas 1997 exemplifies composite analyses of all scales of imperial mapping.

Biaas, Zbigniew. Mapping Wild Gardens: The Symbolic Conquest of South Africa. Englischsprachige Literaten
Afrikas/African Literatures in English 13. Essen, Germany: Verlag Die Blaue Eule, 1997.
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A rewarding study of the interrelations of mapping and imperialism in a failed settler colony, which exemplifies the increasing
academic appreciation of cartographys cultural complexities.
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Burnett, D. Graham. Masters of All They Surveyed: Exploration, Geography, and a British El Dorado. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press, 2000.
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An interdisciplinary study of the role of the modern explorer and the creation of multiple layers of myth atop the legend of El
Dorado.
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Carter, Paul. The Road to Botany Bay: An Essay in Spatial History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989.
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The foundation for critical studies of mapping and empire. Carter introduces spatial history (the spaces of empire are
themselves created) as an antidote to the prevailing mode of imperial history (territory is an inert stage into which empires
expand).
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Cook, Terry. A Reconstruction of the World: George R. Perkins British Empire Map of 1893. Cartographica 21.4 (1984):
5365.
DOI: 10.3138/W310-G36N-14J8-5740 Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation
An early and overlooked analysis of the cartographic shaping of imperialistic sentiments through the active manipulation of the
world map.
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DeRogatis, Amy. Moral Geography: Maps, Missionaries, and the American Frontier. New York: Columbia University Press,
2003.
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DeRogatis reveals the significant religious and moral component to the rectangular land surveys of Ohios Western Reserve, and
to the promotion of frontier settlement.
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Etherington, Norman, ed. Mapping Colonial Conquest: Australia and Southern Africa. Crawley: University of Western
Australia Press, 2007.
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A series of studies of the use, variously, of regional and property mapping in the establishment of white settler colonies, their
infrastructures, and their rhetorical underpinnings.
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Stone, Jeffrey C. Imperialism, Colonialism and Cartography. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 13
(1988): 5764.
DOI: 10.2307/622775 Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation
Stone reexamines map historys key historiographic myththat Enlightenment consolidated cartography as a sciencethrough
the lens of the mapping of Africa; he demonstrates that the increasing absence of decoration (of images of elephants and lions,
etc.) was a matter of aesthetics and imperial attitudes rather than science.
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Walker, Brett L. Mamiya Rinzo and the Japanese Exploration of Sakhalin Island: Cartography and Empire. Journal of
Historical Geography 33.2 (2006): 283313.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jhg.2006.05.007 Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation
A fascinating study of the use of Western cartographic techniques for the Japanese mapping of northern islands in 18081809,
as establishing a space for imperial expansion.
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Commerce, Public Discourse, and Identity Mapping


The growth of Europes public spheres in the 17th and 18th century, and then the development of mass literacy in the 19th and
20th century, together sustained a progressively expansive market for maps and new forms of maps intended to serve mass
audiences. While some of this new market was instrumental in enhancing personal mobility, much was ideologically driven. In
particular, geographical maps played a prominent role within modern public discourse in shaping concepts of nation and
nationalism: Anderson 1991 and Withers 2001 are especially important in establishing the cartographic foundations of
nationalism.

Anderson, Benedict. Census, Map, Museum. In Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of
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Nationalism. 2d ed. Edited by Benedict Anderson, 163185. London: Verso, 1991.


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The revised edition of a crucial work on nationalism added this examination of three institutional mechanisms, maps in particular,
whereby communities were first imagined and then could imagine themselves. Anderson developed the key concept of the logo
map: the outline map that can be discursively imbued with meaning.
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Withers, Charles W. J. Geography, Science and National Identity: Scotland since 1520. Cambridge Studies in Historical
Geography 33. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
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Geographical knowledge and cartography contributed significantly to the creation of Scotlands identity as a distinctive and
coherent place and of the Scots as a nation.
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COMMERCE IN THE EARLY MODERN ERA

In addition to detailed studies of the work and output of particular map sellers and publishers, such as Van Egmond 2009, there
is a growing literature on the broader conditions of the map trade and of the role of commerce in cartography: Schilder 1986
analyzes the Dutch map trade, Johns 1998 looks at the growth of English commercial cartography, Pedley 2005 covers England
and France together, and Petto 2007 looks at France and the Netherlands. Woodward 1996, Delano Smith 2001, and De Groot
2006 exemplify the increasing attention being paid to issues of map consumption.

Delano Smith, Catherine. Maps and Map Literacy. In Plantejaments i Objectius duna Histria Universal de la
Cartografia/Approaches and Challenges in a Worldwide History of Cartography. Edited by David Woodward, Catherine
Delano Smith, and Cordell D. K. Yee, 223262. Barcelona: Institut Cartogrfic de Catalunya, 2001.
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Small mapsthose simple, cheap, derivative, sketchy, and often unaesthetic mapshave much to reveal about the middling
sort and industrial masses who consumed them. Its parent work is available for free download from the ICC website.
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de Groot, Erlend. The World of a Seventeenth-Century Collector: The Atlas Blaeu-Van der Hem. Vol. 7 of The Atlas Blaeu-
Van der Hem of the Austrian National Library: Descriptive Catalogue. Translated by Andrew McCormick. t Goy-Houten,
The Netherlands: HES and De Graaf, 2006.
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A detailed study of the collecting of maps and prints by one lawyer in 17th-century Amsterdam.
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Egmond, Marco van. Covens & Mortier: A Map Publishing House in Amsterdam, 16851866. Houten, The Netherlands: Hes
and De Graaf, 2009.
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A thorough analysis of the Amsterdam publishing house that progressively monopolized commercial map production in the
Netherlands.
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Johns, Adrian. The Nature of the Book: Print and Knowledge in the Making. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998.
DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226401232.001.0001 Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation
A widely celebrated work that set the bar for understanding the role of print and commerce in shaping natural knowledge. His
particular examples include detailed analyses of the production in early modern London of celestial atlases.
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Pedley, Mary. The Commerce of Cartography: Making and Marketing Maps in Eighteenth-Century France and England.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005.
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A remarkable synthesis of the wealth of precise, empirical research into the financial and commercial aspects of cartography.
This is required reading for anyone interested in the economic underpinnings of print cartography.
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Petto, Christine M. When France was King of Cartography: The Patronage and Production of Maps in Early Modern France.
Lanham, MD: Lexington, 2007.
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A specific study through several legal disputes of the conditions of the French map trade in the 17th and 18th century.
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Schilder, Gnter. Monumenta Cartographica Neerlandica. 10 vols. Alphen aan den Rijn, The Netherlands: Canaletto, 1986.
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The leading example of archivally grounded map history addresses the cultures of map production and consumption in the
Netherlands during the 16th and 17th centuries. The facsimile portfolios are accompanied by detailed essays (bilingual, Dutch-
English).
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Woodward, David. Maps as Prints in the Italian Renaissance: Makers, Distributors and Consumers. London: British
Library, 1996.
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A short but rewarding analysis of the interrelation of maps artifactual nature and consumer status in renaissance Venice and
Rome. Recommended reading.
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POPULAR MAPPING AND MAP CONSUMPTION IN THE MODERN ERA

Mass literacy significantly extended map consumption across all levels of modern industrial societies and across the gender
divide, as Richards 2004 documented. Specific genres of maps were created specifically to reach new audiences; for example,
Lyon-Jenness 2008 closely analyzed the subscription practices of US county atlases. Indeed, as Hanna and Del Casino 2003
and Cosgrove 2005 first explored, there developed a popular cartography that relied for its effect by playing with the
conventions of modern, formal cartography, by mixing maps with artistic perspectives and cartoons. Reitinger 2008 established
how such popular cartography created satires on and allegories of modern life.

Cosgrove, Denis. Maps, Mapping, Modernity: Art and Cartography in the Twentieth Century. Imago Mundi 57.1 (2005):
3554.
DOI: 10.1080/0308569042000289824 Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation
Highlights the intersections of art and graphic design with mapping in popular imagery, focusing on maps in the Los Angeles
Times that presented theaters of war during World War II.
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Hanna, Stephen P., and Vincent J. Del Casino Jr., eds. Mapping Tourism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2003.
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A pioneering collection of essays on the tourist map and its objectification of the exotic, the spectacular, and the mundane.
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Lyon-Jenness, Cheryl. Picturing Progress: Assessing the Nineteenth-Century Atlas-Map Bonanza. In Mapping in
Michigan and the Great Lakes Region. Edited by David I. MacLeod, 209239. East Lansing: Michigan State University
Press, 2008.
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This detailed social analysis of the subscribers to county atlases, which included many views of farms and towns in late-19th-
century Michigan, reveals that those subscribers encompassed most elements of rural Midwestern society.
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Reitinger, Franz. Kleiner Atlas Amerikanischer berempfindlichkarten. Klagenfurt, Austria: Ritter Verlag, 2008.
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This small atlas of American hypersensibilities (as the title translates) is a truly remarkable analysis of the satirical and
allegorical maps produced in 19th-century America as moral statements of personal salvation, temperance, personal
relationships, and social progression. Deserves an English-language edition.
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Richards, Penny L. Could I but Mark Out My Own Map of Life: Educated Women Embracing Cartography in the
Nineteenth-Century Antebellum South. Cartographica 39.3 (2004): 117.
DOI: 10.3138/B5HV-8H1R-V628-3654 Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation
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Letters and diaries reveal the manner of cartographic consumption by Southern women in the first half of the 19th century, using
maps to trace the routes of their beloved husbands, brothers, or sons and so maintain some connection to them.
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LAND TRAVEL

See Marine Charting and Hydrography for marine navigation. Personal mobility have been a major means of promoting map use
and consumption in modern industrial states, whether by train, bicycle (Dando 2007), automobile, or foot (recreational hiking).
Akerman 2006 is the best guide to the broader histories of maps and travel; Delano Smiths essay in that collection is especially
important for explaining why maps were not important for medieval and early modern travel.

Akerman, James R., ed. Cartographies of Travel and Navigation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006.
DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226010786.001.0001 Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation
These essays reconsider how maps haveand have notvariously contributed to travel and navigation (according to period
and technology); there is also consideration of the significance of maps overtly intended for travel for other aspects of human life.
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Dando, Christina Elizabeth. Riding the Wheel: Selling American Women Mobility and Geographic Knowledge. ACME: An
International E-Journal for Critical Geographies 6.2 (2007): 174210.
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Explores the conflicting cultural and social parameters underpinning womens access to bicycles in the late 19th and early 20th
century, and the role of maps in enabling women liberty to travel.
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EARLY MODERN NATION FORMATION

The spread of regional map consumption from the upper classes and professionals to the middle classes in the early modern era
featured the development of political and place-based identities that together constituted early forms of nationalism: Helgerson
1992 and Conley 1996 explores this issue in Europe, Brckner 2006 in the fledgling USA, and Yonemoto 2003 in Japan.

Brckner, Martin. The Geographic Revolution in Early America: Maps, Literacy, and National Identity. Chapel Hill:
University of North Carolina Press, 2006.
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Maps and an autonomous tradition of geographical writing featured prominently in the efforts of educators to promote a national
American identity in the fledgling United States.
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Conley, Tom. The Self-Made Map: Cartographic Writing in Early Modern France. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota
Press, 1996.
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Conley relates the inherently spatial form of printed text to the inherently textual nature of spatial representations in Renaissance
France, which he sees as the basis of the formation of the sense of self that so clearly defines modernity.
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Helgerson, Richard. Forms of Nationhood: The Elizabethan Writing of England. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.
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This breakthrough text (the map chapter first appeared in 1986) demonstrated the multiple links between mapping, geography,
and other representational strategies (poetry, legal treatises, plays, religious tracts, and political economy) in the construction of
Englishness.
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Yonemoto, Marcia. Mapping Early Modern Japan: Space, Place, and Culture in the Tokugawa Period (16031868).
Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003.
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Geographical maps permeated several literary genres within Japanese print culture (compare with Helgerson 1992) including
gazetteers, travel literature, and satirical fiction. Yonemoto thus blurs the categories of map and writing.
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NATIONAL IDENTITY IN THE MODERN ERA

Commercially distributed maps have served a major role in the creation of the imagined community of the modern nation. The
widespread image of a coherent region, whose inhabitants might be construed as being essentially similar, was perhaps a
necessary precursor for the formation of nationalist sentiment. In the modern era, as print culture has expanded, so too have the
production of identities. Herb 1997, Schulten 2001, and Ramaswamy 2010 have discussed the mostly hegemonic character of
such mapping, in Germany, the USA, and India, respectively, but as Ramaswamy 2004 concludes, such mapping has also been
resistant of hegemonic identities.

Herb, Guntram Henrik. Under the Map of Germany: Nationalism and Propaganda, 19181945. London: Routledge, 1997.
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Herb addresses the role of scientific mapping in constructing a German sense of national territory after the division of the
empire, an ideological discourse common to all Germans, not just the National Socialists.
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Ramaswamy, Sumathi. The Lost Land of Lemuria: Fabulous Geographies, Catastrophic Histories. Berkeley: University of
California Press, 2004.
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Tamil nationalists in southern India have mapped the putative (but mythic) continent of Lemuria as the ancient Tamil homeland.
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Ramaswamy, Sumathi. The Goddess and the Nation: Mapping Mother India. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2010.
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This crucial supplement to Anderson 1991 (cited under Commerce, Public Discourse, and Identity Mapping) demonstrates how
independence and postcolonial movements adopted logo maps of South Asia, originally created by the British, and adapted
them to the needs of Hindu cultural forms and Indian nationalism.
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Schulten, Susan. The Geographical Imagination in America, 18801950. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001.
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An exploration of the relationship between geographical education, mapping, and the popular world images held by Americans,
tracing shifting geopolitical perceptions from isolationism to engagement after 1940.
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Maps and Historical Practice


Historians have long used maps as evidentiary sources, and they have also made mapshistorical maps per seof the
geographies and landscapes of past times. The two practices tend to blur together in historical practice, the one being the source
for the other, but are distinguished here.
MAPS AS EVIDENTIARY SOURCES

A fairly large literature has developed to instruct historians about different kinds of maps and how they can be used as sources of
information, especially for local history. Most of the literature has focused on the particular map genres by country: Buisseret
1990 for the USA, Hindle 1998 for the UK, Prunty 2004 for Ireland, Korsgaard 2006 for Denmark, and Horst 2008 for Germany.
The older general methodological statements in Skelton 1965 and Harley 1968 remain relevant.

Buisseret, David, ed. From Sea Charts to Satellite Images: Interpreting North American History through Maps. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 1990.
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A presentation of the many different kinds of maps available to historians of North America, with commentary on how they can be
read as sources.
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Harley, J. B. The Evaluation of Early Maps: Towards a Methodology. Imago Mundi 22 (1968): 6274.
DOI: 10.1080/03085696808592318 Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation
A broad discussion of using maps as evidence, drawing on standard concepts of studying their content (internal evidence) and
context (external evidence).
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Hindle, Paul. Maps for Historians. Chichester, UK: Phillimore, 1998.


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The latest of several guides to map use for local historians in Britain.
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Horst, Thomas. Die Altkarte als Quelle fr den Historiker: Die Geschichte der Kartographie als Historische
Hilfswissenschaft. Archiv fr Diplomatik, Schriftgeschichte, Siegel- und Wappenkunde 54 (2008): 309377.
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A review of map use for local historians in Germany.
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Korsgaard, Peter. Kort som kilde: en hndbog om historiske kort og deres anvendelse. Vejle, Denmark:
Sammenslutningen af Lokalarkiver, 2006.
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A review of map use for local historians in Denmark.
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Prunty, Jacinta. Maps and Map-Making in Local History. Maynooth Research Guides for Irish Local History 7. Dublin, UK:
Four Courts, 2004.
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A review of map use for local historians in Ireland.
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Skelton, R. A. Looking at an Early Map. University of Kansas Publications, Library Series 17. Lawrence: University of
Kansas Press, 1965.
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This pamphlet should be required reading for anyone who compares the visual outlines of features on early and modern maps:
Skelton revealed that this is a nave and utterly inadequate methodology.
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CARTOMETRY

Attempts to define the accuracy of early maps have a long history (see Blakemore and Harley 1980, cited under Historiography).
Maling 1989 reviews the full range of graphical and statistical techniques. Hessler 2006 and Lloyd and Lilley 2009 have
developed sophisticated means to model error in early maps. The development of digital technologies has driven a fascination
with fitting early maps to modern spatial frameworks, to which e-perimetron is dedicated. Implicit within this movement is the
rather naive desire to test and to correct the spatial inaccuracies of early maps, but see also Maps, History, and GIS.

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e-perimetron.
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This online journal is dedicated to, as it states, sciences and technologies affined to history of cartography and maps and
features many cartometric analyses.
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Hessler, John W. Warping Waldseemller: A Phenomenological and Computational Study of the 1507 World Map.
Cartographica 41.2 (2006): 101113.
DOI: 10.3138/N328-6721-3282-122N Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation
Presents a sophisticated statistical methodology to analyze the sources of Martin Waldseemllers 1507 world map (the first to
label any part of the New World as America).
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Lloyd, Christopher, and Keith Lilley. Cartographic Veracity in Medieval Mapping: Analyzing Geographical Variation in the
Gough Map of Great Britain. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 99.1 (2009): 2748.
DOI: 10.1080/00045600802224638 Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation
Presents a sophisticated analysis of the variation of spatial accuracy across a 13th-century map of Britain in aid of understanding
its probable source materials and site of construction.
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Maling, D. H. Measurements from Maps: Principles and Methods of Cartometry. Oxford: Pergamon, 1989.
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A useful summary of the practices and concerns of taking measurements from early and modern maps.
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MAPPING HISTORY

Black 1997, Goffart 2003, and Schraut 2011 narrate the history of the practice of making maps of past geographies and
landscapes, from the Renaissance mapping of Antiquity into the present. There has been no single label for this practice. It has
been a mark of the post-1980 reformed field to call it historical cartography, yet this term continues to bear its older and popular
meaning of history of cartography and is avoided here. See also Atlases.

Black, Jeremy. Maps and History: Constructing Images of the Past. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1997.
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A historical and critical review of historical cartography.
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Goffart, Walter. Historical Atlases: The First Three Hundred Years, 15701870. Chicago: University of Chicago Press,
2003.
DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226300726.001.0001 Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation
A detailed and international history of the practice of historical cartography, relating it to the development and themes of historical
practice, grounded in a detailed bibliography of historical atlases.
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Schraut, Sylvia. Kartierte Nationalgeschichte: Geschichtsatlanten im internationalen Vergleich. Frankfurt: Campus Verlag,
2011.
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A further study of the place of mapping within the practice of history and especially in the formation of national mythologies.
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MAPS, HISTORY, AND GIS

Gregory and Ell 2007 indicates how the growth of geographical information science (GIS) affords new and powerful technologies
for processing spatial data about the past, as exemplified by the case studies in Knowles 2002 and Knowles 2008. Of special
importance has been the ability to incorporate early maps into complex models for the analysis of geographical and
environmental change, for example in Rumsey and Punt 2004 and Tucci, et al. 2010. The works identified here can only
introduce this huge area of interest.

Gregory, Ian N., and Paul S. Ell. Historical GIS: Technologies, Methodologies, and Scholarship. New York: Cambridge
University Press, 2007.
DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511493645 Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation
Introduction to the basics of GIS, but enfolding a temporal component to the usual account of spatial databases.
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Knowles, Anne Kelly, ed. Past Time, Past Place: GIS for History. Redlands, CA: ESRI Press, 2002.
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Case studies in incorporating cliometric datasets into GIS for spatial analysis.
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Knowles, Anne Kelly, ed. Placing History: How Maps, Spatial Data, and GIS are Changing Historical Scholarship. Redlands,
CA: ESRI Press, 2008.
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More important case studies of new approaches to historical questionsand new questionspermitted by historical
geographical analyses in GIS.
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Rumsey, David, and Edith M. Punt. Cartographica Extraordinaire: The Historical Map Transformed. Redlands, CA: ESRI
Press, 2004.
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An introduction to incorporating digital versions of early maps into GISs for modeling geographical and environmental change.
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Tucci, Michele, Alberto Giordano, and Rocco W. Ronza. Using Spatial Analysis and Geovisualization to Reveal Urban
Changes: Milan, Italy, 17372005. Cartographica 45.1 (2010): 4763.
DOI: 10.3138/carto.45.1.47 Save Citation Export Citation E-mail Citation
A good example of the analysis of a series of early maps to understand the processes of urban change.
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DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780199874002-0032
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