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steroid

Triterpenoid

2.Triterpenes belong to a large group of compounds arranged in a four or five ring


configuration of 30 carbons with several oxygens attached. Triterpenes are
assembled from a C5 isoprene unit through the cytosolic mevalonate pathway to
make a C30 compound and are steroidal in nature. Cholesterol is one example of a
triterpene.

eleutheroside: berada pada tanaman Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus)


berfungsi memberikan efek adaptasi pada tanaman

cucurbitacin B : Cucurbitaceae family Cucurbita foetidissima, bryonia


(Bryonia alba). toxic beneficial properties often taken advantage in
insecticidesCucurbitacins strengthen immunity, are anitleukemic, and are
believed to be anitcancergenic for cervical and nasopharyngeal
carcinomas

ginsenoside: ginseng (Panax ginseng) berfungsi memberikan efek adaptasi pada


tanaman

Eleutheroside A : Cucurbita foetidissima, hormonal modulation, anti-


inflammatory, diuretic, anti-microbial; stimulate mucosal secretion, and
emulsifier

3. A steroid is a terpenoid lipid characterized by its sterane core and additional


functional groups. The core is a carbon structure of four fused rings: three
cyclohexane rings and one cyclopentane ring. The steroids vary by the functional
groups attached to these rings and the oxidation state of the rings.

Vertebrate steroids
• Steroid hormones
○ Sex steroids are a subset of sex hormones that produce sex differences or support
reproduction. They include androgens, estrogens, and progestagens.
○ Corticosteroids include glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. Glucocorticoids
regulate many aspects of metabolism and immune function, whereas
mineralocorticoids help maintain blood volume and control renal excretion of
electrolytes. Most medical 'steroid' drugs are corticosteroids.
○ Anabolic steroids are a class of steroids that interact with androgen receptors to
increase muscle and bone synthesis. There are natural and synthetic anabolic
steroids. In popular language, the word "steroids" usually refers to anabolic
steroids.
• Cholesterol, which modulates the fluidity of cell membranes and is the principal
constituent of the plaques implicated in atherosclerosis.
• The Determination of Cholesterol by the
• Liebermann-Burchard Reaction
• BY A. P. KENNY
• Clinical Laboratorie8, The Victoria Infirmary of Glagow
• (Received 15 April 1952)
• The methods adopted for the determination of
• cholesterol in blood can be divided into two main
• groups. Those in the first group, in which the
• principal variation is in the manner ofextraction, all
• conclude with the application of the Liebermann-
• Burchard reaction (Liebermann, 1885; Burchard,
• 1889) to the final extract and comparison of the
• colour develcoped against a standard cholesterol
• solution similarly treated. Included in this are the
• methods of Myers & Wardell (1918), Leiboff (1924)
• and Sheftel (1944). In these methods the specimen
• is absorbed on a suitable absorbent and the cholesterol
• is extracted by means of a continuous extractor.
• With the methods of Sackett (1925) and
• Bloor (1928) the blood is extracted directly in a
• given volume ofmixed solvent. Attempts have also
• 39-2
• A. P. KENNY
• been made to estimate cholesterol directly in acid
• chloroform in the methods of Sols (1947) and
• Zuckerman & Natelson (1948).
• Into the second group can be gathered all the
• methods which entail precipitation of the extracted
• cholesterol as digitonide, which may either be
• weighed, as in the methods of Gardner & Gainsborough
• (1927), Boyd (1933) or Man & Gildea (1933),
• determined gasometrically as in that of Kirk, Page
• & Van Slyke (1934) or by oxidation as in the method
• ;of Okey (1928). The disadvantage of the weighing
• procedure lies in the relatively large volumes ofblood
• required, and of the gasometric and oxidation
• procedures in that special equipment and technical
• skill are essential. Schoenheimer & Sperry (1934)
• succeeded in applying the Liebermann-Burchard
• reaction to cholesterol isolated as digitonide from
• 0-2 ml. of blood.
• It has been found that techniques involving the
• Liebermann-Burchard reaction, like many of the
• older colorimetric methods, require a more specific
• set of conditions than was formerly recognized if
• they are to be adapted to a final absorptiometric
• determination. The object of this investigation has
• been to study the factors which influence colour
• development in chloroform solutions of cholesterol
• and its esters, with particular reference to the use of
• selective filters, the effect of time, temperature,
• exposure to light and the proportions of reagents,
• and to explain or eliminate the so-called spurious
• colours which so often develop and interfere with
• final evaluation. On the basis of these results it was
• hoped to evolve a method suitable for routine use in
• clinical laboratories and establish normal limits for
• such a method. A preliminary communication on
• part of this work has already been made