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Introduction to Wireline Logging Acquisition

Yogyakarta, 14 Dec 2014


Pradipta Gora Kusuma
Reservoir Evaluation Wireline Field Engineer
Schlumberger
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Agenda
Preface
The Wireline Logging History

Basic Wireline Acquisition System


GR
Resistivity

Density
Neutron
Sonic

Conclusion

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Objectives
Course Objectives :
Understanding the scope and background

Understanding Basic Wireline Acquisition System


Understanding Principle of GR Acquisition
Understanding Principle of Resistivity Acquisition
Understanding Principle of Density Acquisition
Understanding Principle of Neutron Acquisition
Understanding Principle of Sonic Acquisition
Being able to do Quality Control and Conclusion

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The History of Wireline Logging

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The History
Conrad
Schlumberger
1878 to 1936

Marcel
Schlumberger
1884 to 1953

Marcel will bring to


Conrad his
remarkable
competence as an
engineer and his
common sense.
Conrad on the other
hand will be the man
of science. I will

support them
Paul Schlumberger, 1919
KR-WLH-GT-BW
22-Jun-15
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The History
If we continue to
anticipate
the future needs of the oil
industry in oil well logging
and provide oil men with
services which solve their
problems, we will never

have to worry about our


own future.
Henri Doll, 1950

KR-WLH-GT-BW
22-Jun-15
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The History

1912: Conrad conceives the idea for electrical


measurements
1919: Marcel joins his brother first work in Normandy
1920: First office opens in Paris
1923-1926: Geophysical surveys in Romania, Belgium,
Serbia, Canada, South Africa, Congo, US
1927: First electrical log in Pechelbronn, France

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Basic Wireline Acquisition System

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Basic Wireline Acquisition System


What is Logging ?
The measurement versus depth or time, or both, of
one or more physical quantities in or around a well

What is it for ?
To help our customers find and produce oil and gas
more efficiently

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Basic Wireline Acquisition System


Why We Log ?
Identifying Reservoir
Determining Fluid Type
and its Saturation
Determining Type of Fluid
will flow and what rate
Time Depth Conversion
Reservoir Optimization

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Basic Wireline Acquisition System


How We Log ?
Logging Unit
Cable
Logging Tools
Acquisition System

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Basic Wireline Acquisition System


Offshore Logging Unit

Land Logging Unit


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Basic Wireline Acquisition System


Logging Tools

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Basic Wireline Acquisition System


Logging Schematic

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Basic Wireline Acquisition System


Outside Logging Unit
DEPTH - IDW

TOOLS
Logging Cable

TENSION - CMTD

Inside Logging Unit


PROCESSOR
& DISPLAY

WFMD
INTERFACE

WFAD

Tool Power

TGRP
PRINTER

WFDD
Depth/Tension DISPLAY

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Natural Formation
Gamma Ray
Logging

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GR (Natural Gamma Ray) and SP


What is GR ?
Massless, charge less bundles of high-frequency
electromagnetic energy

What is it for ?
To help our customers find reservoir rock

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GR (Natural Gamma Ray) and SP


Rock formation

Rock formation

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GR (Natural Gamma Ray) and SP


Gamma Rays :
Massless, charge less bundles of high-frequency
electromagnetic energy emitted when an atom passes from an
excited state to a less excited/ground state
The 3 main radioactive series in nature:

Potassium (K40) - decays to stable K39


Thorium (Th232) - decays to Pb208
Uranium (U238). - decays to Pb208

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GR (Natural Gamma Ray) and SP


There are naturally occurring radioactive elements in the
formation (K, Th & U)
K, Th & U are primarily concentrated in shales
Gamma rays are produced by the disintegration of these elements

These gamma rays may further interact with the formation losing
energy on the way
The detector sees these gamma rays and measures the total
count rate
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GR (Natural Gamma Ray) and SP


Log affected by :

Hole Size (BS or Cali) and Status (OH or CH)

Mud weight

Casing weight

Cement weight

Barite in Mud (Yes or No)

Tool Position (Centered or Eccentered) and Standoff

*Correction charts and software needed

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GR (Natural Gamma Ray) and SP


Limitation ???

Hole Status (OH or CH)

Air Drilled Well

WBM Well

OBM Well

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GR (Natural Gamma Ray) and SP


Typical Response :
1. ???
2. ???

3. ???
4. ???

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Resistivity Logging

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Resistivity
What is Resistivity ?
Resistance material of unit length and unit cross
sectional area. (ohm-meter2/meter or ohm-m)
R = (V / I) x k
Resistance (r) property of an object
Cable
Resistivity (R) property of a material
Copper

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Resistivity
How does it work ?
R = k * (Vt / I A0)

Whats the parameter ?


Caliper
Centralizer

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Resistivity
When should it be run ?
Rt/Rm

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Resistivity
Log Example :

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Density Logging

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GR (Natural Gamma Ray) and SP


What is GR ?
Amount of mass in a volume unit

What is it for ?

Density
Porosity
Lithology
Synthetic Log

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Density Logging
Pair Production
High energy >1.02MeV gamma ray is
transformed into an electron-positron pair

+
Ray

Ray

Ray

Compton Scattering
An elastic collision between a free electron
and a GR of 75 keV to 10 MeV

Primary Interaction for Density Meas

Photoelectric Absorption

A low energy GR <75 KeV is annihilated

Primary Interaction for Lithology Meas

Photon

Density Logging
An insignificant
amount of GRs are
emitted by the
rock.

1) GRs are
emitted
from the source
at 662 KeV.
2) Some GRs are Captured

Photoelectric Absorption

3) GRs arriving at the


detectors have lost
energy

Compton Scattering
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Density Logging
Stabilization sources (Cs137) are
located near the detectors.

GSR
(Cesium 137)

Gamma-Rays are
emitted from the
source at 662 KeV
Some GammaRays are
Captured
along the way.

Energy (KeV)

700
600
500
400
300
200
100

One Gamma-Ray is
detected at a time.
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Density Logging
Each Cube has the same volume. (Say 1m3)
Which one has the lowest density?

2650 Kg/m3

>

2485 Kg/m3 > 2320 Kg/m3

> 2145 Kg/m3

Density 1/

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Density Logging

rf

rb = rma (1 ) + rf

r ma r

r ma r

1-

rma

MDEN RHOZ
DPHZ
MDEN FD

RHOZ is the bulk density output from the tool (Data Channel)
MDEN is the matrix density of the formation (Parameter)
FD is the fluid density of the formation (Parameter)
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Density Logging

Density Logging
Hinge
Joints

Tool is positively
eccentered with its
own caliper

Hinge
Joints

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Density Logging
Mnemonic

Long Name

NPRM

Nuclear Processing Mode

BARI

Barite Mud Presence Flag

DFD

Drilling Fluid Density

DHC

Density Hole Correction

BS
FD
MDEN

Bit Size
Fluid Density
Matrix Density

Value
0 = None
1 = HiRes
2 = <StdRes>
3 = Very HiRes
4 = Monosensor
<YES>
NO
User Imput
None
<BS>
Caliper
WellSite Data
1
2.65 / 2.71 / 2.85

Units

None

Lb/g

Inches
gr/cc
gr/cc

Density Logging
Response in known conditions
Formation
Sandstone
Limestone
Dolomite
Anhydrite
Coal
Salt
Shale

Density gm/cc
2.65
2.71
2.85
2.98
1.3 1.7*
2.03
2.1 2.8

PEF
1.8
5.1
3.1
5.1
0.2**
4.6
1.8 6.3

Density Logging
Barite Check
1. Check your PEFZ curve. Does it read too high?
2. Look at the reconstruction errors. All the curves should
average around 0, with no noticeable offset or bias in the
readings.
3. Look at the GREZ output
4. High reading of PEA

Neutron Logging

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Neutron Logging
What is Neutron Porosity (pu or v/v) ?
Amount of void in rock volume

What is it for ?
Saturation
Assisting in fluid determination
Fluid volume

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Neutron Logging
Effective Porosity - the pores
are connected, liquid can easily
flow through (sponge)

Ineffective Porosity - the holes


are not connected. Liquid cannot
find a path through; it just gets
stuck in the holes. (cork)

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Neutron Logging
Hydrogen index (HI) is the quantity of hydrogen per unit
of volume. The HI of fresh water is defined as 1
High HI -> most of the neutrons are slowed and captured
within a short distance from the source.
Low HI -> the neutrons travel farther from the source before
they are captured
The neutron population at any point during logging depends
mainly on the quantity of hydrogen between the source and
that point (HI)
HGNS Theory of Measurement
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Neutron Logging
Short Spacing Zone:
High borehole effects. The borehole
influences the measurement by
slowing neutrons quickly
Cross Over Zone:
Less sensitivity to porosity
Long Spacing Zone:
The count rate at each detector
increases for decreased hydrogen
concentration, and vice versa

HGNS Theory of Measurement


HGNS Theory of Measurement
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Neutron Logging
Applications :
1. Porosity analysis - by measuring the hydrogen index (HI)
of the formation fluids.
2. Gas detection - A noticeable drop in the neutron porosity
output can be seen due to gas has a smaller HI than oil or
water
3. Lithology identification and clay / shale analysis - They
are not a stand-alone lithology identifier or clay / shale
types, but Neutron porosity tools provide additional input for
these analyses.
HGNS Applications Quiz
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Neutron Logging

Gas Effect: Gas has a low HI leading to a


noticeable drop in the neutron porosity
HGNS Applications Quiz
HGNS Applications Quiz
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Neutron Logging

Shale Effect: Shale does not have true porosity


but contain a lot of bound water
HGNS Applications Quiz
HGNS Applications Quiz
48
HGNS Applications
6/22/201 Quiz
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Neutron Logging

Fresh Water

Salt Water

Oil

Gas

The real
pore space
is the same
but neutron
tool will read
the H
density so
the porosity
will differ

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Neutron Logging
The eight switch parameters which control TNPH and NPOR
environmental corrections are the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

HSCO: Hole size (or casing size) correction


BSCO: Borehole salinity correction(*)
PTCO: Pressure & Temperature correction
MWCO: Mud weight correction
SOCO: Standoff correction
FSCO: Formation salinity correction
MCCO: Mudcake correction
CCCO: Casing and cement thickness correction
Cased hole logging only
Oil
Gas
HGNS Logging

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Neutron Logging
HSCO: Hole Size Correction Option <Yes>, No
Set always to Yes
HSCO corrects for

Hole Size if BHS = OPEN


OR

Casing Size if BHS = CASED

GCSE: Generalized Caliper Selection = CALI if HILT caliper is available


BSCO: Borehole Salinity Correction Option <No>, Yes

BSAL: Borehole Salinity

HGNS Logging
HGNS Logging

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Neutron Logging
PTCO: Pressure/Temperature Correction Option <No>, Yes

DFT: Borehole Fluid Type = <WATER>, OIL, and AIR. DFT is used to
select the porosity algorithm (air- or liquid-filled transforms). It is also
used to select the pressure correction (OBM or WBM).

GTSE: General Temperature Selection


GTEMGeothermal Gradient / CTEM from HGNS

TVD from deviation survey is used to compute well pressure


MWCO: Mud Weight Correction Option <No>, Yes

BARI: Barite Mud Correction . Type of drilling mud used as an input to


the mud weight correction.
HGNS Logging

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HGNS Logging

Neutron Logging
SOCO: Standoff Correction <No>, Yes
Set SOCO=YES if HGNS is run with wear rings

SDAT: Standoff Data Source = <SOCN>, SA. Used as an input to the


Standoff Correction. SOCN is a value and SA is from the short arm of the PCD-B

SOCN: Standoff Neutron = Standoff value used in the HGNS neutron


correction algorithm if SOCO = Yes & SDAT = SOCN

Set this parameter to:


0.125 if it is run with wear rings
0 if it is run without wear rings

HGNS Logging
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Neutron Logging
FSCO: Formation Salinity Correction Option <No>, Yes

FSAL: Formation Salinity = Only used when the formation salinity is known

MCCO: Mud Cake Correction Option <No>, Yes

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Sonic Logging

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Sonic Logging
What is Sonic DT (ms/ft) ?
travel time in an unit length

What is it for ?
Porosity
Synthetic Log
Seismic ITT Calibration

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Sonic Logging
An acoustic pulse is sent into the
formation
The time it takes to reach each
receiver is measured
One path is 2ft longer than the
other.
The extra time that sound takes
to travel those 2ft is used to
determine rocks acoustic velocity

2 ft

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Sonic Logging
Transit time is:
The time it takes sound to
travel from the transmitter
to the receiver
Measured in s
It contains :
TTmud1+TTrock+TTmud2
Transit time depends
on the geometry of the
tool.
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TT3
TT4

Sonic Logging
Delta-T
Inverse of the rocks
acoustic velocity
The difference between two
transit times is the time it
takes for sound to travel
through a known distance
of rock
measured in
s/m or s/ft
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2ft

Sonic Logging
TT3 TT4
(TTmud1 + TT3,rock + TTmud2 ) (TTmud1 + TT4,rock + TTmud2 )
DTSingle

2ft
2ft
s
TTthrough 2ft of rock

ft
2ft
Far
Receiver

TTmud1 & TTmud2 cancel out ofTT -TT


3
4
the equation
(2 ft)
We are left with the time it
takes to travel through 2ft of
TT
rock

TTmud2

Near
Receiver
TT4,rock

3,rock

Transmitter
TTmud1

TT3

TT4

Sonic Logging
Far Receivers

Near Receivers

(TTFar TTNear ) s / ft
DT
2ft

DT2ft

Extra time required to travel 2ft farther


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Sonic Logging
Linear equation (Wyllie)

t log t f + (1 )t ma

t log t ma
t f t ma

Quadratic equation (Raymer- Gardner Hunt)

1
t c

(
1 )

+
2

t ma
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t f

t log t ma
t log

BHC Sonic Logging


Far Receivers
(TT1 & TT3)
Near Receivers
TT2

TT3

(TT2 & TT4)

TT1

TT4

DTx2ft

DT

DTLower + DTUpper

2
(TT1 TT2 ) + (TT3 TT4 )
DT
2 2ft

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BHC Sonic Logging


Sonde-Tilt

TTs, decreased and


separated
Zone of investigation is
larger than 2
Signal amplitude will be
dramatically smaller.
Detection becomes difficult

Deviated Well
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BHC Sonic Logging


Sonde-Eccentered
TTs, decreased.
Signal amplitude will be
dramatically smaller.
Detection becomes difficult.

BHC Sonic Logging


Large Boreholes
TTs, Increased.
Signal amplitude will be
dramatically smaller.
Detection becomes difficult
16 in is the max. hole size.

BHC Sonic Logging


Detection
The transit time is detected where the waveform amplitude
becomes larger than some threshold. This is called the First
Arrival
Threshold

E1

Transit Time

E2

For Open-Hole Logging, we look


for the second peak (E2), since it
is usually larger than the first (E1)

BHC Sonic Logging


E2 E4

Cycle Skip

Transit Time

Noise
Transit Time

Noise Peak

E2

BHC Sonic Logging


How are TTs and Borehole Size related?
Is DT affected by Borehole Size?
Far Receivers
TTfar

Near Receivers
TTnear

TTs are proportional


to borehole size

DTsmall hole 2ft


DT Larger hole
2ft

DT is not affected
By Borehole Size

Conclusion

GR Basic
Reservoir determination
Resistivity Basic
Sw solving
Assisting in fluid type determination
Density Basic
Porosity
Synthetic
Neutron
Porosity
Assisting in fluid type determination
Sonic
Synthetic

BHS Calibration
Porosity

Conclusion