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AQA Physics A (2540)

Fields and
Further
Mechanics
A2 Module questions

Student name:

The Licensed Victuallers' School

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1.

A toy locomotive of mass 0.50kg is initially at rest on a horizontal track. The locomotive is
powered by a twisted rubber band which, as it unwinds, exerts a force which varies with time as
shown in the table.
time/s

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

7.0

8.0

force/N

0.20

0.18

0.15

0.12

0.10

0.08

0.05

0.02

0.00

(a)

(i) On the graph paper plot a graph of force against time for the rubber band
power source. Time/s on the x-axis and force /N on the y-axis.

(ii)

State what is given by the area between the graph and the time axis.
...........................................................................................................................
(4)

(b)

The rubber band is wound up and released to power the locomotive. Use your graph to
show that the speed of the locomotive 8.0s after the twisted rubber band is released is
1
l.6 m s . Ignore the effects of air resistance and energy losses due to friction.
.....................................................................................................................................
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(2)

(c)

8.0s after release the locomotive collides with and couples to a toy truck, initially at rest,
which has a mass of 1.50kg.
(i)

Calculate the speed of the coupled locomotive and truck after collision.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................

(ii)

Calculate the combined kinetic energy of the locomotive and truck immediately
after collision.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................

(iii)

Show, with the aid of a calculation, whether or not the collision is elastic.
...........................................................................................................................
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(5)
(Total 11 marks)

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2.

(a) (i)
Give an equation showing how the principle of conservation of
momentum applies to the colliding snooker balls shown in the diagram.
u
m

v
m

...........................................................................................................................

(ii)

State the condition under which the principle of conservation of momentum


applies.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)

(b)

A trolley, A, of mass 0.25 kg and a second trolley, B, of mass 0.50 kg are held in contact
on a smooth horizontal surface. A compressed spring inside one of the trolleys is released
1
and they then move apart. The speed of A is 2.2 m s .
(i)

Calculate the speed of B.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................

(ii)

Calculate a minimum value for the energy stored in the spring when compressed.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(4)

(c)

The rotor blades of a helicopter sweep out a cross-sectional area, A. The motion of the
blades helps the helicopter to hover by giving a downward velocity, , to a cylinder of air,
density . The cylinder of air has the same cross-sectional area as that swept out by the
rotor blades.
Explaining your reasoning,
(i)

derive an expression for the mass of air flowing downwards per second, and

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...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(ii)

derive an expression for the momentum given per second to this air.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................

(iii)

Hence show that the motion of the air results in an upward force, F, on the
helicopter given by
2

F = A .
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(5)

(d)

A loaded helicopter has a mass of 2500 kg. The area swept out by its rotor blades is
2
180m . If the downward flow of air supports 50% of the weight of the helicopter, what
speed must be given to the air by the motion of the rotor blades when the helicopter is
3
hovering? Take the density of air to be 1.3 kg m .
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
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(3)
(Total 15 marks)

3.

A machine gun fires bullets of mass 0.050 kg at a speed of 450 m s


(a)

Calculate the momentum of a bullet as it emerges from the gun.


.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

(i) Explain why a soldier holding the machine gun will experience a force from
the gun whilst it is firing bullets
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(ii)

The maximum steady horizontal force a soldier can exert on the gun is 150 N.
Calculate the maximum number of bullets the gun can fire every second.
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...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 6 marks)

4.

(a) State the principle of conservation of linear momentum for two colliding bodies.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

G
2 0 0 m s 1

h
G

A bullet of mass 0.010 kg travelling at a speed of 200 m s strikes a block of wood of


mass 0.390 kg hanging at rest from a long string. The bullet enters the block and lodges in
the block. Calculate
(i)

the linear momentum of the bullet before it strikes the block,


...........................................................................................................................

(ii)

the speed with which the block first moves from rest after the bullet strikes it.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(4)

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(c)

During the collision of the bullet and block, kinetic energy is converted into internal
energy which results in a temperature rise.
(i)

Show that the kinetic energy of the bullet before it strikes the block is 200 J.
...........................................................................................................................

(ii)

Show that the kinetic energy of the combined block and bullet immediately after
the bullet has lodged in the block is 5.0 J.
...........................................................................................................................

(iii) The material from which the bullet is made has a specific heat capacity of
1 1
250 J kg K . Assuming that all the lost kinetic energy becomes internal energy in
the bullet, calculate its temperature rise during the collision.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(5)

(d)

The bullet lodges at the centre of mass G of the block. Calculate the vertical height h
through which the block rises after the collision.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 13 marks)

5.

(a) Collisions can be described as elastic or inelastic. State what is meant by an inelastic
collision.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(b)

A ball of mass 0.12 kg strikes a stationary cricket bat with a speed of 18 m s . The ball is
in contact with the bat for 0.14 s and returns along its original path with a speed of
1
15 m s .
Calculate
(i)

the momentum of the ball before the collision,


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................

(ii)

the momentum of the ball after the collision,


...........................................................................................................................
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(iii)

the total change of momentum of the ball,


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................

(iv)

the average force acting on the ball during contact with the bat,
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................

(v)

the kinetic energy lost by the ball as a result of the collision,


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(6)
(Total 7 marks)

6.

The diagram represents part of an experiment that is being used to estimate the speed of an air
gun pellet.

p e lle t

The pellet which is moving parallel to the track, strikes the block, embedding itself. The trolley
and the block then move along the track, rising a vertical height, h.
(a)

Using energy considerations explain how the speed of the trolley and block immediately
after it has been struck by the pellet, may be determined from measurements of h.
Assume frictional forces are negligible.
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(3)

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(b)

The following data is collected from the experiment


mass of trolley and block
mass of pellet
speed of trolley and block immediately after impact

0.50 kg
0.0020 kg
1
0.40 m s

Calculate
(i)

the momentum of the trolley and block immediately after impact,


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................

(ii)

the speed of the pellet just before impact.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(4)

(c)

(i)

State what is meant by an inelastic collision.

...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(ii)

Use the data from part (b) to show that the collision between the pellet and block is
inelastic.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 11 marks)

7.

A girl kicks a ball along the ground at a wall 2.0 m away. The ball strikes the wall normally at a
1
velocity of 8.0 m s and rebounds in the opposite direction with an initial velocity of
1
6.0 m s . The girl, who has not moved, stops the ball a short time later.
(a)

Explain why the final displacement of the ball is not 4.0 m.


.....................................................................................................................................
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(1)

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(b)

Explain why the average velocity of the ball is different from its average speed.
.....................................................................................................................................
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(2)

(c)

The ball has a mass of 0.45 kg and is in contact with the wall for 0.10 s. For the period of
time the ball is in contact with the wall,
(i)

calculate the average acceleration of the ball.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................

(ii)

calculate the average force acting on the ball.


...........................................................................................................................

(iii) state the direction of the average force acting on the ball.
...........................................................................................................................
(5)
(Total 8 marks)

8.

(a) State two quantities that are conserved in an elastic collision.


quantity 1: ..................................................................................................................
quantity 2: ..................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

A gas molecule makes an elastic collision with the walls of a gas cylinder. The molecule
1
is travelling at 450 m s at right angles towards the wall before the collision.
(i)

What is the magnitude and direction of its velocity after the collision?
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................

(ii)

Calculate the change in momentum of the molecule during the collision if it has a
26
mass of 8.0 10 kg.
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(4)

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(c)

Use Newtons laws of motion to explain how the molecules of a gas exert a force on the
wall of a container.
You may be awarded additional marks to those shown in brackets for the quality of
written communication in your answer.
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(4)
(Total 10 marks)

9.

A chemical centrifuge consists of two test-tube holders which can be spun round in a horizontal
circular path at very high speed as shown. The centrifuge runs at a steady speed of 3000
revolutions per minute and the test-tube holders are horizontal.

a x is o f ro ta tio n
95 m m

te s t-tu b e h o ld e rs
(i)

Calculate the angular speed of the centrifuge in rad s

....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
(ii)

Calculate the magnitude of the acceleration at a point on the centrifuge 95 mm from the
axis of rotation.
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................

(iii) State the direction of the acceleration in part (ii).


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(Total 5 marks)

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10.
P

250 m m

A 150 g mass is attached to one end of a light inextensible string and the other end of the string
is fixed at a point P as shown in the diagram above. The mass is held at point A so that the string
is taut and horizontal. The mass is released so that it moves freely along a circular arc of 250
mm radius.
When the string moves through the vertical position, the mass is at point B. Neglecting the
effect of air resistance, calculate
(i)

the kinetic energy of the mass,


.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................

(ii)

the velocity of the mass,


.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................

(iii) the centripetal force acting on the mass,


.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(iv)

the tension in the string.


.....................................................................................................................................
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(Total 6 marks)

11.
l
X

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12

A simple pendulum consists of a bob of mass m on the end of a light string of length l. The bob
is released from rest at X when the string is horizontal. When the bob passes through Y its
velocity is and the tension in the string is T. Which one of the following equations gives the
correct value of T?
A

T = mg

T=

T + mg =

m 2
l

T mg =

m 2
l

m 2
l

(Total 1 mark)

12.

A body is in simple harmonic motion of amplitude 0.50 m and period 4 seconds. What is the
speed of the body when the displacement of the body is 0.30 m?
A

0.10 m s

0.15 m s

0.20 m s

0.40 m s

(Total 1 mark)

13.

A girl of mass 40 kg stands on a roundabout 2.0 m from the vertical axis as the roundabout
rotates uniformly with a period of 3.0 s. The horizontal force acting on the girl is approximately
A

zero.

3.5 10 N.

7.2 10 N.

2.8 10 N.

2
2
4

(Total 2 marks)

14.

For a particle moving in a circle with uniform speed, which one of the following statements is
incorrect?
A

The velocity of the particle is constant.

The force on the particle is always perpendicular to the velocity of the particle.

There is no displacement of the particle in the direction of the force.

The kinetic energy of the particle is constant.


(Total 2 marks)

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15.

0 .8 m

A model car moves in a circular path of radius 0.8 m at an angular speed of

1
rad s .
2

What is its displacement from point P, 6 s after passing P?


A

zero

1.6 m

0.47 m

1.6 m
(Total 2 marks)

16.

A particle of mass m moves in a circle of radius r at uniform speed, taking time T for each
revolution. What is the kinetic energy of the particle?
A

2m r
T2
2m r 2
T2
2 2 m r 2
T

2 2 m r 2
T2
(Total 2 marks)

17.

A fairground roundabout makes nine revolutions in one minute. What is the angular speed of
the roundabout?
A

0.15 rad s

0.34 rad s

0.94 rad s

2.1 rad s

(Total 2 marks)

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15

18.

(a) State what is meant by


(i)

a free vibration,
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................

(ii)

a forced vibration.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

A car and its suspension can be treated as a simple mass-spring system. When four people
of total weight 3000 N get into a car of weight 6000 N, the springs of the car are
compressed by an extra 50 mm.
(i)

Calculate the spring constant, k, of the system.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................

(ii)

Show that, when the system is displaced vertically and released, the time period of
the oscillations is 0.78 s.
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...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)

(c)

The loaded car in part (b) travels at 20 ms


(i)

along a road with humps spaced 16 m apart.

Calculate the time of travel between the humps.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................

(ii)

Hence, state and explain the effect the road will have on the oscillation of the car.
...........................................................................................................................
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(3)
(Total 8 marks)

19.

(a) A vibrating system which is experiencing forced vibrations may show resonance.
Explain what is meant by
forced vibrations .......................................................................................................

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....................................................................................................................................
resonance....................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
(3)

(b)

(i)

Explain what is meant by damping.

...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(ii)

What effect does damping have on resonance?


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 5 marks)

20.

A spring, which obeys Hookes law, hangs vertically from a fixed support and requires a force
of 2.0 N to produce an extension of 50mm. A mass of 0.50kg is attached to the lower end of the
spring. The mass is pulled down a distance of 20mm from the equilibrium position and then
released.
(a)

(i)

Show that the time period of the simple harmonic vibrations is 0.70 s.

...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(ii)

Sketch the displacement of the mass against time, starting from the moment of
release and continuing for two oscillations. Show appropriate time and distance
scales on the axes.

(5)

(b)

The mass-spring system described in part (a) is attached to a support which can be made
to vibrate vertically with a small amplitude. Describe the motion of the mass-spring
system with reference to frequency and amplitude when the support is driven at a
frequency of

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(i)

0.5 Hz,
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................

(ii)

1.4 Hz.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 8 marks)

21.

Which one of the following statements always applies to a damping force acting on a vibrating
system?
A

It is in the same direction as the acceleration.

It is in the same direction as the displacement.

It is in the opposite direction to the velocity.

It is proportional to the displacement.


(Total 1 mark)

22.

A simple pendulum and a mass-spring system are taken to the Moon, where the gravitational
field strength is less than on Earth. Which line, A to D, correctly describes the change, if any, in
the period when compared with its value on Earth?
period of pendulum

period of mass-spring system

decrease

decrease

increase

increase

no change

decrease

increase

no change
(Total 2 marks)

23.

A body moves with simple harmonic motion of amplitude A and frequency

b
.
2

What is the magnitude of the acceleration when the body is at maximum displacement?
A

zero

4 Ab

Ab

4 2 A
b2

(Total 2 marks)
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24.

200 g

500 g
F ig u r e 1

(a)

F ig u r e 2

When a 200 g mass is suspended from a spring, as in Figure 1, it produces an extension


of 3.5 cm. Calculate the spring constant, k, for this spring.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

A spring identical to that in part (a) is joined to the lower end of the original one and a
500 g mass is suspended from the combination, as shown in Figure 2.
(i)

State the value of the new spring constant for this combination of two springs.
...........................................................................................................................

(ii)

When the 500 g mass is displaced it performs small vertical oscillations. Calculate
the number of oscillations made in one minute.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 5 marks)

25.

A mass M hangs in equilibrium on a spring. M is made to oscillate about the equilibrium


position by pulling it down 10 cm and releasing it. The time for M to travel back to the
equilibrium position for the first time is 0.50 s. Which line, A to D, is correct for these
oscillations?

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19

amplitude/cm

period/s

10

1.0

10

2.0

20

2.0

20

1.0
(Total 2 marks)

26.

To celebrate the Millennium in the year 2000, a footbridge was constructed across the River
Thames in London. After the bridge was opened to the public it was discovered that the
structure could easily be set into oscillation when large numbers of pedestrians were walking
across it.
(a)

What name is given to this kind of physical phenomenon, when caused by a periodic
driving force?
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

Under what condition would this phenomenon become particularly hazardous? Explain
your answer.
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(4)

(c)

Suggest two measures which engineers might adopt in order to reduce the size of the
oscillations of a bridge
measure 1 ...........................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
measure 2 ...........................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 7 marks)

27.

A simple pendulum consists of a 25 g mass tied to the end of a light string 800 mm long. The
mass is drawn to one side until it is 20 mm above its rest position, as shown in the diagram.
When released it swings with simple harmonic motion.

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20

800 m m

20 m m

(a)

25 g

Calculate the period of the pendulum.


.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

Show that the initial amplitude of the oscillations is approximately 0.18 m, and that the
1
maximum speed of the mass during the first oscillation is about 0.63 m s .
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(4)

(c)

Calculate the magnitude of the tension in the string when the mass passes through the
lowest point of the first swing.
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.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 8 marks)

28.

When the length of a simple pendulum is decreased by 600 mm, the period of oscillation is
halved. What is the original length of the pendulum?
A

800mm

1000mm

1200mm

1400mm
(Total 2 marks)

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29.

An electric motor in a machine drives a rotating drum by means of a rubber belt attached to
pulleys, one on the motor shaft and one on the drum shaft, as shown in the diagram below.

d ru m
d r u m p u lle y

(a)

e le c tr ic
m o to r

m a c h in e

m o to r
p u lle y

ru b b e r b e lt

The pulley on the motor shaft has a diameter of 24 mm. When the motor is turning at
50 revolutions per second, calculate
(i)

the speed of the belt,


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................

(ii)

the centripetal acceleration of the belt as it passes round the motor pulley.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(5)

(b)

When the motor rotates at a particular speed, it causes a flexible metal panel in the
machine to vibrate loudly. Explain why this happens.
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.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 7 marks)

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30.

What is the angular speed of a point on the Earths equator?


5

7.3 10 rad s

4.2 10 rad s

2.6 10 rad s

15 rad s

(Total 2 marks)

31.

(a) A body is moving with simple harmonic motion. State two conditions that must be
satisfied concerning the acceleration of the body.
condition 1 ...................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
condition 2 ............................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

A mass is suspended from a vertical spring and the system is allowed to come to rest.
When the mass is now pulled down a distance of 76 mm and released, the time taken for
25 oscillations is 23 s.
Calculate
(i)

the frequency of the oscillations,


.............................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................

(ii)

the maximum acceleration of the mass,


.............................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................

(iii)

the displacement of the mass from its rest position 0.60 s after being released.
State the direction of this displacement.
.............................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................
(6)

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(c)
v e lo c ity

2T

tim e

Figure 1
Figure 1 shows qualitatively how the velocity of the mass varies with time over the first
two cycles after release.
(i)

Using the axes in Figure 2, sketch a graph to show qualitatively how the
displacement of the mass varies with time during the same time interval.

d is p la c e m e n t

2T

tim e

Figure 2
(ii)

Using the axes in Figure 3, sketch a graph to show qualitatively how the potential
energy of the mass-spring system varies with time during the same time interval.
p o te n tia l
e n e rg y

0
T

2T

tim e

Figure 3
(4)
(Total 12 marks)

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32.

lo u d s p e a k e r

l
a ir

w a te r
g la s s
tu b e

ta p
A small loudspeaker emitting sound of constant frequency is positioned a short distance above a
long glass tube containing water. When water is allowed to run slowly out of the tube, the
intensity of the sound heard increases whenever the length l (shown above) takes certain values.
(a)

Explain these observations by reference to the physical principles involved.


You may be awarded marks for the quality of written communication in your answer.
.....................................................................................................................................
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(4)

(b)

With the loudspeaker emitting sound of frequency 480 Hz, the effect described in part (a)
is noticed first when l = 168 mm. It next occurs when l = 523 mm.
Use both values of l to calculate

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25

(i)

the wavelength of the sound waves in the air column,


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................

(ii)

the speed of these sound waves.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 8 marks)

33.

(a) Give an equation for the frequency, f, of the oscillations of a simple pendulum in
terms of its length, l, and the acceleration due to gravity, g.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
State the condition under which this equation applies.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

The bob of a simple pendulum, of mass 1.2 10 kg, swings with an amplitude of
51 mm. It takes 46.5 s to complete 25 oscillations. Calculate
(i)

the length of the pendulum,


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................

(ii)

the magnitude of the restoring force that acts on the bob when at its maximum
displacement.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(6)
(Total 8 marks)

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26

34.

(a) State, in words, Newtons law of gravitation.


.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

Some of the earliest attempts to determine the gravitational constant, G, were regarded as
experiments to weigh the Earth. By considering the gravitational force acting on a mass
at the surface of the Earth, regarded as a sphere of radius R, show that the mass of the
Earth is given by
M=

gR 2
,
G

where g is the value of the gravitational field strength at the Earths surface.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(c)

In the following calculation use these data.


radius of the Moon
gravitational field strength at Moons surface
mass of the Earth M
gravitational constant G

= 1.74 10 m
1
= 1.62 N kg
24
= 6.00 10 kg
11
2
2
= 6.67 10 Nm kg

Calculate the mass of the Moon and express its mass as a percentage of the mass of the
Earth.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 7 marks)

The Licensed Victuallers' School

27

35.

The gravitational field strength at the surface of a planet, X, is 19 N kg .


(a)

(i) Calculate the gravitational potential difference between the surface of X and a
point 10 m above the surface, if the gravitational field can be considered to be
uniform over such a small distance.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(ii)

Calculate the minimum amount of energy required to lift a 9.0 kg rock a vertical
distance of 10m from the surface of X.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................

(iii)

State whether the minimum amount of energy you have found in part (a)(ii) would
be different if the 9.0 kg mass were lifted a vertical distance of 10 m from a point
near the top of the highest mountain of planet X. Explain your answer.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)

(b)

Calculate the gravitational field strength at the surface of another planet, Y, that has the
same mass as planet X, but twice the diameter of X.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 5 marks)

36.

Take the acceleration due to gravity, gE, as 10 m s on the surface of the Earth.
g
The acceleration due to gravity on the surface of the Moon is E . An object whose weight on
6
Earth is 5.0 N is dropped from rest above the Moons surface. What is its momentum after
falling for 3.0s?
A

2.5 kg m s

6.2 kg m s

15 kg m s

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28

25 kg m s

(Total 1 mark)

37.

Both gravitational and electric field strengths can be described by similar equations written in
the form
a=

(a)

bc
.
d2

Complete the following table by writing down the names of the corresponding quantities,
together with their SI units, for the two types of field.
symbol
a

gravitational field
quantity
SI unit

electrical field
quantity
SI unit

gravitational
field strength

1
4 0

mF

c
d
(4)

(b)

Two isolated charged objects, A and B, are arranged so that the gravitational force
between them is equal and opposite to the electric force between them.
(i)

The separation of A and B is doubled without changing their charges or masses.


State and explain the effect, if any, that this will have on the resultant force
between them.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................

(ii)

At the original separation, the mass of A is doubled, whilst the charge on A and the
mass of B remain as they were initially. What would have to happen to the charge
on B to keep the resultant force zero?
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 7 marks)

38.

(a) The graph shows how the gravitational potential varies with distance in the region
above the surface of the Earth. R is the radius of the Earth, which is 6400 km. At the
1
surface of the Earth, the gravitational potential is 62.5 MJ kg

The Licensed Victuallers' School

29

d is ta n c e f r o m c e n tr e o f E a r th

g r a v ita tio n a l p o te n tia l/M J k g 1

2R

3R

4R

20

40

60

80

Use the graph to calculate


(i)

the gravitational potential at a distance 2R from the centre of the Earth,


...........................................................................................................................

(ii)

the increase in the potential energy of a 1200kg satellite when it is raised from the
surface of the Earth into a circular orbit of radius 3R.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(4)

(b)

(i) Write down an equation which relates gravitational field strength and
gravitational potential.
...........................................................................................................................
(ii)

By use of the graph in part (a), calculate the gravitational field strength at a
distance 2R from the centre of the Earth.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................

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30

(iii)

Show that your result for part (b)(ii) is consistent with the fact that the surface
1
gravitational field strength is about 10 N kg .
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(5)
(Total 9 marks)

39.

The following data refer to two planets.


radius/km

density/kg m

planet P

8000

6000

planet Q

16000

3000

1
The gravitational field strength at the surface of P is 13.4 N kg . What is the gravitational field
strength at the surface of Q?
1

3.4 N kg

13.4 N kg

53.6 N kg

80.4 N kg

(Total 1 mark)

40.

The gravitational potential difference between the surface of a planet and a point P, 10 m above
1
the surface, is 8.0 J kg . Assuming a uniform field, what is the value of the gravitational field
strength in the region between the planets surface and P?
A

0.80 N kg

1.25 N kg

8.0 N kg

80 N kg

(Total 2 marks)

41.

A satellite is in orbit at a height h above the surface of a planet of mass M and radius R. What is
the velocity of the satellite?
A

GM ( R h)
R
GM ( R h)
R

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31

GM
R h)

GM
( R h)
(Total 2 marks)

42.

The mass of the nucleus of an isolated copper atom is 63 u and it carries a charge of +29 e. The
10
diameter of the atom is 2.3 10 m.
P is a point at the outer edge of the atom.

n u c le u s

(a)

Calculate
(i)

the electric field strength at P due to the nucleus,


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................

(ii)

the gravitational potential at P due to the nucleus.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(5)

(b)

Draw an arrow on the above diagram to show the direction of the electric field at the
point P.
(1)
(Total 6 marks)

43.

(a) Complete the table of quantities related to fields. In the second column, write an SI
unit for each quantity. In the third column indicate whether the quantity is a scalar or a
vector.
quantity

SI unit

scalar or vector

gravitational potential
electric field strength
magnetic flux density
(3)

The Licensed Victuallers' School

32

(b)

(i) A charged particle is held in equilibrium by the force resulting from a vertical
9
electric field. The mass of the particle is 4.3 10 kg and it carries a charge of
12
magnitude 3.2 10 C. Calculate the strength of the electric field.
.......................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................
(ii)

If the electric field acts upwards, state the sign of the charge carried by the particle
.......................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 6 marks)

44.

(a) The Moons orbit around the Earth may be assumed to be circular. Explain why no
work is done by the gravitational force that acts on the Moon to keep it in orbit around the
Earth.
You may be awarded marks for the quality of written communication provided in
your answer.
................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................
(3)

(b)

Give an example of a situation where a body


(i)

travels at constant speed but experiences a continuous acceleration,


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................

(ii)

experiences a maximum acceleration when its speed is zero.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

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33

(Total 5 marks)

45.

The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a system of satellites that transmit radio signals which
can be used to locate the position of a receiver anywhere on Earth.
s a te llite

re c e iv e r

E a rth

(a)

A receiver at sea level detects a signal from a satellite in a circular orbit when it is passing
directly overhead as shown in the diagram above.
(i)

The microwave signal is received 68 ms after it was transmitted from the satellite.
Calculate the height of the satellite.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................

(ii)

Show that the gravitational field strength of the Earth at the position of the satellite
1
is 0.56 N kg .
mass of the Earth
mean radius of the Earth

=
=

24

6.0 10 kg
6400 km

...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(4)

(b)

For the satellite in this orbit, calculate


(i)

its speed,
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................

The Licensed Victuallers' School

34

...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(ii)

its time period.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(5)
(Total 9 marks)

46.

(a) Explain what is meant by the gravitational potential at a point in a gravitational field.
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

Use the following data to calculate the gravitational potential at the surface of the Moon.
mass of Earth = 81 mass of Moon
radius of Earth = 3.7 radius of Moon
gravitational potential at surface of the Earth = 63 MJ kg

.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
(3)

(c)

Sketch a graph on the axes below to indicate how the gravitational potential varies with
distance along a line outwards from the surface of the Earth to the surface of the Moon.

The Licensed Victuallers' School

35

g ra v ita tio n a l
p o te n tia l/M J k g
0

su rfa c e
o f E a rth

su rfa c e
of M oon
d is ta n c e

63

(3) (Total 8 marks)


47.

(a) (i)
Define electric field strength, and state whether it is a scalar quantity
or a vector quantity.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(ii)

Complete the diagram below to show the electric field lines in the region around
two equal positive point charges. Mark with a letter N the position of any point
where the field strength is zero.

(6)

(b)

Point charges A, of +2.0 nC, and B, of 3.0 nC, are 200 mm apart in a vacuum, as shown
by the figure. The point P is 120 mm from A and 160 mm from B.

160 m m

B
3 .0 n C

120 m m

A
(i)

+ 2 .0 n C

Calculate the component of the electric field at P in the direction AP.

The Licensed Victuallers' School

36

...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(ii)

Calculate the component of the electric field at P in the direction PB.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................

(iii)

Hence calculate the magnitude and direction of the resultant field at P.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(6)

(c)

(i) Explain why there is a point X on the line AB in part (b) at which the electric
potential is zero.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(ii)

Calculate the distance of the point X from A.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 16 marks)

48.

(a) Figure 1 shows a pair of parallel metal plates, A and B, fixed vertically 20 mm apart
with a potential difference of 1500 V between them.

The Licensed Victuallers' School

37

20 m m

fig u re 1
P

0 V

+1500 V
A

(i)

Draw the electric field lines in the space between the plates and calculate the
electric field strength at P.

(ii)

Sketch a graph showing the potential at different points in the space between the
plates.

p o te n tia l

0 V

d is ta n c e
(5)

(b)

Figure 2 shows a polystyrene ball of mass 5.0 10 kg suspended midway between the
plates by a long insulating thread. The ball has a conducting surface and carries an initial
charge of 3.0 nC.

The Licensed Victuallers' School

38

fig u re 2
3 .0 n C

0 V
(i)

20 m m

+1500 V

Calculate the force on the ball due to the electric field and hence show that the ball,
when released from rest, will take a time of approximately 0.2 s to reach one
conducting plate. State the direction of motion of the ball.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................

(ii)

Explain why the ball will subsequently shuttle backwards and forwards between
the plates.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(6)

(c)

The same charged ball described in part (b) is suspended at rest between the poles of a
magnet. State the magnitude and direction of the force (if any) on the ball and explain
your answer.
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 13 marks)

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10 kV
S
A

49.

R
u n ifo rm
m a g n e tic fie ld

40m m

26

19

A positive ion with a mass of 3.4 10 kg and a charge of 3.2 10 C is initially at rest at a
point P, midway between two parallel conducting plates, A and B which are separated by 40
mm. The ion is accelerated and passes through a hole Q in plate B. It enters a magnetic field of
uniform flux density 0.10 T at R. After following a circular path the ion leaves the field at S.
Assume that the magnetic field is uniform everywhere within the dotted rectangle and that the
space within the solid rectangle is evacuated.
(a)

(i)

Calculate the electric field strength between the plates AB.

...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(ii)

Calculate the force on the ion due to the electric field.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................

(iii) Show that the speed of the ion just after it has passed through the hole at Q is
5
1
3.1 10 ms .
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(5)

(b)

(i)

State the direction of the magnetic field.

...........................................................................................................................
(ii)

Explain why the ion follows a circular path in the magnetic field.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................

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40

(iii) Show that the radius of the circular path is proportional to the momentum of the
ion and calculate the value of the radius.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(6)

(c)

Explain how, if at all, the trajectory would be different for an ion with a slightly greater
mass but carrying the same charge.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 13 marks)

50.

Which one of the following statements about electric potential and electric field strength is
correct?
A

Electric potential is zero whenever the electric field strength is zero.

Electric field strength is a scalar quantity.

Electric potential is a vector quantity.

Electric potential due to a point charge varies as

1
where r is the distance from the point
r

charge.
(Total 2 marks)

51.

Two identical conducting spheres on insulating supports carry charges of magnitude Q and 2Q
respectively. When separated by distance d, the electrostatic repulsive force is F. The spheres are
made to touch and then restored to their original separation d. If there is no loss of charge what
is the new force of repulsion?
A

F
2

3F
4

9F
8

4F
3
(Total 2 marks)

52.

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41

+ 4 C

120 m m
The diagram shows two charges, +4 C and 16 C, 120 mm apart. What is the distance from
the +4 C charge to the point between the two charges, where the resultant electric potential is
zero?
A

24 mm

40 mm

80 mm

96 mm
(Total 2 marks)

53.

Two parallel metal plates separated by a distance d have a potential difference V across them.
What is the magnitude of the electrostatic force acting on a charge Q placed midway between
the plates?
d
2

d
2
Q

2VQ
d

VQ
2d

VQ
d

Qd
V
(Total 2 marks)

54.

(a) For a capacitor of capacitance C, sketch graphs of charge, Q, and energy stored, E,
against potential difference, V.

V
g ra p h A

V
g ra p h B

What is represented by the slope of graph A?


..................................................................................................................................
(3)
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42

(b)

A capacitor of capacitance 0.68 F is charged to 6.0 V. Calculate


(i)

the charge stored by the capacitor,


.......................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................

(ii)

the energy stored by the capacitor.


.......................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 5 marks)

55.

(a) A 2.0 F capacitor is charged through a resistor from a battery of emf 4.5 V. Sketch a
graph on the axes below to show how the charge stored, Q, varies with the potential
difference, V, across the capacitor during the charging process. Mark appropriate values
on the axes of the graph.
V

0
0
(b)

(i)

Show that the energy stored by a charged capacitor is given by E =

(2)
1
2

QV.

...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(ii)

Calculate the energy stored by the capacitor in part (a) when the potential
difference across it is 1.5 V.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................

The Licensed Victuallers' School

43

...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(5)
(Total 7 marks)

56.

A camera flashgun uses the discharge of a capacitor to provide the energy to produce a single
flash. In a particular flashgun a 4700 F capacitor is initially charged from a 90 V supply.
(a)

Calculate
(i)

the charge stored by the capacitor when it is fully charged,


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................

(ii)

the energy stored by the fully-charged capacitor,


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................

(iii)

the average current which flows if total discharge of the capacitor takes place
effectively in 30 ms.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)

(b)

During a partial discharge of the capacitor the potential difference between its terminals
falls from 90 V to 80 V. Calculate the energy discharged to the flashgun.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 5 marks)

57.

A parallel plate capacitor consists of two smooth square metal plates with sides of length
0.35 m. The gap between the plates is filled completely with a sheet of mica of thickness
0.15mm. The plates of the capacitor are connected across the terminals of a 1.2 kV supply.
Refer to the Data Sheet for any additional information.
(a)

Calculate
(i)

the magnitude of the charge on the capacitor,


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................

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44

(ii)

the resistance of the mica sheet, i.e. the resistance between the plates.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(6)

(b)

When the capacitor is disconnected from the supply there is a leakage current through the
mica sheet and the charge reduces to zero in about 3 hours. Calculate the mean current
flowing during the loss of charge from the capacitor.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(c)

Explain why there is a limit to the magnitude of the potential difference that may be
applied between the plates of the capacitor.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 11 marks)

The Licensed Victuallers' School

45

58.

A student used a voltage sensor connected to a datalogger to plot the discharge curve for a
4.7 F capacitor. She obtained the following graph.

p o te n tia l d iffe re n c e /V 6

0
0

10

20

30

40

50
tim e /m s

60

Use data from the graph to calculate


(a)

the initial charge stored,


.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

the energy stored when the capacitor had been discharging for 35 ms,
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

(c)

the time constant for the circuit,


.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

(d)

the resistance of the circuit through which the capacitor was discharging.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 10 marks)

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46

59.

A 10 mF capacitor is charged to 10 V and then discharged completely through a small motor.


During this process, the motor lifts a weight of mass 0.10 kg. If 10% of the energy stored in the
capacitor is used to lift the weight, through what approximate height will the weight be lifted?
A

0.05 m

0.10 m

0.50 m

1.00 m
(Total 2 marks)

60.

(a) A capacitor is made from two parallel metal plates of the same area, separated by an
air gap. It is connected across a battery of constant e.m.f.
The plates are moved further apart, maintaining the same area of overlap, whilst the
battery remains connected. State and explain what change, if any, occurs to
(i)

the potential difference across the plates,


...........................................................................................................................

(ii)

the capacitance of the capacitor,


...........................................................................................................................

(iii) the charge on each plate of the capacitor,


...........................................................................................................................
(iv)

the energy stored by the capacitor.


...........................................................................................................................
(4)

(b)

A thunder cloud and the earth beneath it can be considered to form a parallel plate
2
capacitor. The area of the cloud is 8.0 km and it is 0.75 km above the earth.
(i)

Calculate the energy stored if the potential difference between the cloud and the
earth is 200 kV.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................

(ii)

The air suddenly conducts, allowing all the charge to flow to earth in 120 s.
Calculate the mean current flowing between the cloud and the earth when this
happens.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................

The Licensed Victuallers' School

47

...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(6)
(Total 10 marks)

61.

The diagram shows an arrangement in a vacuum to deflect protons into a detector using a
magnetic field, which can be assumed to be uniform within the square shown and zero outside
it.
The motion of the protons is in the plane of the paper.

d e te c to r

p a th o f p ro to n

p r o to n
m a g n e tic d e fle c to r
(a)

Sketch the path of a proton through the magnetic deflector. At any point on this path draw
an arrow to represent the magnetic force on the proton. Label this arrow F.
(2)

(b)

State the direction of the uniform magnetic field causing this motion.
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(c)

The speed of a proton as it enters the deflector is 5.0 10 ms . If the flux density of the
magnetic field is 0.50T, calculate the magnitude of the magnetic force on the proton.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(d)

If the path were that of an electron with the same velocity, what two changes would need
to be made to the magnetic field for the electron to enter the detector along the same
path?
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 7 marks)

The Licensed Victuallers' School

48

62.

An experiment is performed to investigate the magnetic field inside a 100 mm long solenoid of
500 turns. A small single loop of wire attached to a voltage recorder (data logger) is lowered
coaxially inside the solenoid, as shown in the diagram, until it is at the centre of the solenoid.

v o lta g e re c o rd e r
lo w e re d in s id e
s in g le lo o p

p o w e r s u p p ly

s o le n o id

The solenoid is supplied with a steady current of 0.50 A.


The magnetic flux density at a point on the axis well inside a long solenoid is given by
B=

0 NI
,
l

where N is the number of turns on the solenoid and l is its length. 0 and I have their usual
meanings.
(i)

Calculate the approximate value of the flux density at the centre of the solenoid on its
axis.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................

(ii)

The single loop of wire is positioned at the centre of the solenoid so that it is at right
2
angles to the magnetic field. If the loop has an area of 160 mm , calculate the magnetic
flux through the loop.
(Total 3 marks)

63.

(a) An electron beam enters a uniform magnetic field and leaves at right angles, as shown
in the diagram which is drawn to full-scale.

The Licensed Victuallers' School

49

c m g rid

b e a m e n te rs

P
u n ifo rm m a g n e tic f ie ld
in to th e p la n e o f th e g r id a t 9 0

b e a m le a v e s

(i)

Draw an arrow at P to show the direction of the force on an electron in the beam.

(ii)

Explain why the kinetic energy of the electrons in the beam is constant.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)

(b)

(i)

Measure the radius of curvature of the electron beam in the diagram

...........................................................................................................................
(ii)

The electron beam was produced by means of an electron gun in which each
electron was accelerated through a potential difference of 3.2 kV The magnetic flux
density was 7.6 mT. Use these data and your measured value of the radius of
curvature of the electron beam to determine the specific charge of the electron, e/m
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(6)
(Total 9 marks)

64.

The diagram shows a magnet placed on a top-pan balance. A fixed horizontal wire, through

The Licensed Victuallers' School

50

which a current can flow, passes centrally through the magnetic field parallel to the pole-pieces.
With no current flowing, the balance records a mass of 201.32g. When a current of 5.0A flows,
the reading on the balance is 202.86 g.
n o rth p o le
w ire
s o u th p o le
2 0 1 .3 2 g

(a)

to p -p a n b a la n c e

(i) Explain why the reading on the balance increased when the current was
switched on.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(ii)

State the direction of current flow and explain your answer.


.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................

(iii) If the length of the wire in the magnetic field is 60 mm, estimate the flux density of
the magnetic field.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(6)

(b)

Sketch a graph to show how you would expect the balance reading to change if the
current through the wire was changed.

b a la n c e re a d in g

c u rre n t

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(2)
51

(Total 8 marks)

65.

Protons and pions are produced in a beam from a target in an accelerator. The two types of
particles can be separated using a magnetic field.
(a)

State the quark composition of


(i)

a proton,
...........................................................................................................................

(ii)

a positive pion, .
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

A narrow beam consisting of protons and positive pions, all travelling at a speed of
7
1
1.5 10 m s , is directed into a uniform magnetic field of flux density 0.16 T, as
shown in the diagram.

p r o to n p a th
b e a m o f p ro to n s
a n d p io n s

u n if o rm m a g n e tic f ie ld
p e r p e n d ic u la r to th e p la n e
o f th e d ia g ra m
(i)

Calculate the radius of curvature of the path of the protons in the field.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................

(ii)

Sketch, on the diagram above, the path of the pions from the point of entry into the
field to the point of exit from the field.

(iii)

If the magnetic field were increased, how would this affect the paths of the

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52

particles?
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(7)
(Total 9 marks)

66.

Which line, A to D, correctly describes the trajectory of charged particles which enter, at right
angles, (a) a uniform electric field, and (b) a uniform magnetic field?
(a) uniform
electric field

A
B
C
D

(b) uniform
magnetic field

circular
circular
parabolic
parabolic

circular
parabolic
circular
parabolic
(Total 2 marks)

67.

(a) The equation F = BIl, where the symbols have their usual meanings, gives the
magnetic force that acts on a conductor in a magnetic field.
Given the unit of each of the quantities in the equation.
F ..............................

B ..............................

I ..............................

l ...............................

State the condition under which the equation applies.


.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

The diagram shows a horizontal copper bar of 25 mm 25 mm square cross-section and


length l carrying a current of 65 A.

65 A

l
65 A
(i)

Calculate the minimum value of the flux density of the magnetic field in which it
should be placed if its weight is to be supported by the magnetic force that acts
upon it.

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53

density of copper = 8.9 10 kg m

...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................

(ii)

Draw an arrow on the diagram above to show the direction in which the magnetic
field should be applied if your calculation in part (i) is to be valid. Label this arrow
M.
(5)
(Total 7 marks)

68.

(a) In an experiment to illustrate electromagnetic induction, a permanent magnet is


moved towards a coil, as shown in Figure 1, causing an emf to be induced across the coil.
Figure 1
c o il
N

p e rm a n e n t
m agnet

to
v o lta g e
sensor

Using Faradays law, explain why a larger emf would be induced in this experiment if a
stronger magnet were moved at the same speed.
You may be awarded additional marks to those shown in brackets for the quality of
written communication in your answer.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

(b)

A conductor of length l is moved at a constant speed v so that it passes perpendicularly


through a uniform magnetic field of flux density B, as shown in Figure 2.
Figure 2

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54

uniform
magnetic field
(perpendicular
to the plane of
the diagram)
over this region

(i)

Give an expression for the area of the magnetic field swept out by the conductor in
time t.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................

(ii)

Show that the induced emf, , across the ends of the conductor is given by
= Blv.

...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)

(c)

A simple electrical generator can be made from a copper disc, which is rotated at right
angles to a uniform magnetic field, directed into the plane of the diagram (Figure 3). An
emf is developed across terminals P (connected to the axle) and Q (connected to a contact
on the edge of the disc).
Figure 3
u n ifo rm m a g n e tic
fie ld (a c tin g in to th e
p la n e o f th e d ia g ra m )
o v e r th is re g io n

axel

c o n ta c t

M
copper
d is c

The radius of the disc is 64 mm and it is rotated at 16 revolutions per second in a uniform
The Licensed Victuallers' School

55

magnetic field of flux density 28 mT.


(i)

Calculate the angular speed of the disc.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................

(ii)

Calculate the linear speed of the mid-point M of a radius of the disc.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................

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56

(iii)

Hence, or otherwise, calculate the emf induced across terminals P and Q.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(5)
(Total 11 marks)

69.

A metal aircraft with a wing span of 42m flies horizontally with a speed of 1000 km h in a
direction due east in a region where the vertical component of the flux density of the Earths
5
magnetic field is 4.5 10 T.
(i)

Calculate the flux cut per second by the wings of the aircraft.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................

(ii)

Determine the magnitude of the potential difference between the wing tips, stating the
law which you are applying in this calculation.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................

(iii) What would be the change in the potential difference, if any, if the aircraft flew due west?
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(Total 6 marks)

70.

S
P

Q
N

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S
R

57

Three identical magnets P, Q and R are released simultaneously from rest and fall to the ground
from the same height. P falls directly to the ground, Q falls through the centre of a thick
conducting ring and R falls through a ring which is identical except for a gap cut into it. Which
one of the statements below correctly describes the sequence in which the magnets reach the
ground?
A

P and R arrive together followed by Q.

P and Q arrive together followed by R.

P arrives first, followed by Q which is followed by R.

All three magnets arrive simultaneously.


(Total 2 marks)

71.

A rectangular coil measuring 20 mm by 35 mm and having 650 turns is rotating about a


3
horizontal axis which is at right angles to a uniform magnetic field of flux density 2.5 10 T.
The plane of the coil makes an angle with the vertical, as shown in the diagrams.

S
N

fro n t v ie w

(a)

State the value of when the magnetic flux through the coil is a minimum.
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

Calculate the magnetic flux passing through the coil when is 30.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(c)

What is the maximum flux linkage through the coil as it rotates?


.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 5 marks)

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58

72.
X

u n ifo rm
m a g n e tic
fie ld

Y
The diagram shows a square coil with its plane parallel to a uniform magnetic field. Which one
of the following would induce an emf in the coil?
A

movement of the coil slightly to the left

movement of the coil slightly downwards

rotation of the coil about an axis through XY

rotation of the coil about an axis perpendicular to the plane of the coil through Z
(Total 2 marks)

73.
a x is

u n ifo rm
m a g n e tic
fie ld

c o il o f 8 5 0 tu rn s

Figure 1
A circular coil of diameter 140 mm has 850 turns. It is placed so that its plane is perpendicular
to a horizontal magnetic field of uniform flux density 45 mT, as shown in Figure 1.
(a)

Calculate the magnetic flux passing through the coil when in this position.
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
(2)

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59

(b)

The coil is rotated through 90 about a vertical axis in a time of 120 ms.
Calculate
(i)

the change of magnetic flux linkage produced by this rotation,


.............................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................

(ii)

the average emf induced in the coil when it is rotated.


.............................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 6 marks)

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60

Answers

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61

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62

1.

(a)

(i)

points plotted correctly (1) (1) (deduct one for each incorrect)
sensible scales chosen (1)
line of best fit (1)
(ii)

(b)

change in momentum [or impulse] (1) (accept 0.8)


4

max

area under graph = 0.800.05 (1) (kgms )

m
1
(1) = 1.6 ms
m

alternative:
state average force = 0.10(N) (1)
1
leading to correct derivation of 1.6ms (1)

(c)

(i)
m = 0 [or statement] (1)

= 0.40ms (1)

(ii)

kinetic energy = 0.16 J (1)

(iii)

initial kinetic energy = 0.64 (J) (1)


kinetic energy lost so inelastic (1)

5
[11]

2.

(a)

(i)

equation showing momentum before = momentum after (1)


correct use of sign (1)

(ii)

(b)

no external forces (on any system of colliding bodies) (1)

(i)
conservation of momentum m11 + m22 = 0)

(by

0.25 2.2 = ()0.502 (1)


l

2 = ()1.1(0)ms (1)

(ii)

= total k.e. =

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1
1
2
2
0.25 2.2 +
0.5 1.1 (1)
2
2
63

= 0.91J (1)

(c)

(i)
mass of air per second = A (1)
correct justification, incl ref to time (1)

(d)

(ii)

momentum per second (= M = A) = A (1)

(iii)

force = rate of change of momentum (hence given result) (1)


upward force on helicopter equals (from Newton third law)
downward force on air (1)

A =

mg
(for 50% support) (1)
2

1801.3 =

2500 9.81
(1)
2
1

gives = 7.2ms (1) (or 7.3, g taken as 10)


if not 50% of weight, max 1/3 provided all correct otherwise (gives 10.2)

3
[15]

3.

(a)
1

m = 0.050 450) = 23 (1) kg m s (1)

(b)

(i)
change in momentum of gun plus bullets (1)
change in momentum of bullet
force on gun =
(1)
t

(ii)

change in momentum of bullets in one second = N 23 (1)


F
1
N = 6(s )(1)
P

(i)
p(=
2

no

4
[6]

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64

4.

(a)
momentum before collision = momentum after collision (1)
provided no external force acts (1)
(b)

(i)
m (1)

p=
3

10 10 200 = 2.(0) (1)


(ii)

(c)

(i)

kinetic energy =
=

(d)

mv

(allow e.c.f. from (i))

10 10 3 200 2
(1) (= 200 J)
2
0.40 5.0 2
(1)
2

(ii)

kinetic energy =

(iii)

Q = 200 5 = 195 (J) = mc (1)

195
= 78 K (1)
10 10 3 250

(= 5.0 J)

(allow e.c.f. for incorrect Q)

kinetic energy lost (= potential energy gained) = mgh (1)


h=

5.

kg ms (Ns) (1)

total mass after collision = 0.40 kg (1)


1
0.40 = 2.0 gives = 5.(0) ms (1)

5
0.40 9.8

1.3 m (1)

2
[13]

(a)
kinetic energy is not conserved (1)
(b)

(i)
mv gives) p = 0.12 18 = 2.2 N s (1)
(ii)

p = 0.12 (15) = 1.8 N s (1)

(iii)

p = 2.2 (1.8) = 4.0 N s (3.96 N s) (1)


(allow e.c.f. from(i) and(ii))

(iv)

(F =

1
(p =
(2.16 N s)

(mv)
3.96
gives) F =
(1)
t
0.14
= 28 N (1) (28.3 N)
(allow e.c.f from(iii))

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65

(v)

(Ek = mv gives) Ek = 0.5 0.12 (18 15 ) = 5.9 J (1)

6
[7]

6.

(a)
kinetic energy changes to potential energy (1)
potential energy calculated by measuring h (1)
equate kinetic energy to potential energy to find speed (1)
[or use h to find s (1)
use g sin for a (1)
2
2
use v = u + 2as (1)]
[or use h to find s (1)
time to travel s and calculate vav (1)
v = 2vav (1)]

(b)

(i)
1
mv) = 0.5(0) 0.4(0) = 0.2(0) (1) N s(or kg m s ) (1)

(ii)

p(=

(use of mpvp = mtvt gives) 0.002(0) v = 0.2(0) (1)


1

v = 100 m s (1)

(c)

(i)
kinetic energy is not conserved (1)
(ii)

initial kinetic energy =

0.002 100 = 10 (J) (1)


2

final kinetic energy = 1 2 0.5 0.4 = 0.040 (J) (1)


hence change in kinetic energy (1)
(allow C.E. for value of v from (b))

4
[11]

7.

(a)
displacement is a vector (1)
ball travels in opposite directions (1)
1

(b)

velocity is rate of change of displacement


average speed is rate of change of distance
velocity is a vector [or speed is a scalar)
velocity changes direction
any two (1) (1)

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max

2
66

(c)

(i)

a=

(6.0 8.0)
(1)
0.10
1

= ()140.m s (1)
(allow C.E. for incorrect values of v)

(ii)

F = 0.45 () 140 = () 63N (1)


(allow C.E for value of a)

(iii) away from wall (1)


at right angles to wall (1)
[or back to girl (1) (1)]
[or opposite to direction of velocity at impact (1) (1)]

5
[8]

(Total 2 marks)

8.

(a)
momentum (1)
kinetic energy (1)
(b)

(i)
1

450ms (1)
in the opposite direction (1)
p = 8.0 10
= 7.2 10

(c)

26

900 (1)

23

Ns (1)

force is exerted on molecule by wall (1)


to change its momentum (1)
molecule must exert an equal but opposite force on wall (1)
in accordance with Newton's second or third law (1)

4
[10]

9.

(i)

3000
= 50 (Hz) (1)
60
1
(= 2f) = 314 (rad s ) (1)
f

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67

(ii)

= (r )= 95 10 314 =9.4 10 ms (1)

(iii)

(inwards) towards axis of rotation (1)

5
[5]

10.

(i)
kinetic energy = mgh (1) = 0.37 J (1)
2E
1
(1) = 2.22 ms (1)
m

(ii)

(iii)

Fc = 2.9 N [or 3.0 N if g = 10 used] (1)

(iv)

T = Fc + W = 4.4 N (1)
[6]

11.

D
[1]

12.

C
[1]

13.

B
[2]

14.

A
[2]

15.

B
[2]

16.

D
[2]

17.

C
[2]

18.

(a)

(i)
free:

system displaced and left to oscillate (1)


(ii)

forced: oscillation due to (external) periodic driving force


[or oscillation at the frequency of another vibrating system] (1)

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68

(b)

(i)

k=

3000
4
1
= 6.0 10 Nm (1)
2
5.0 10

(ii)

(c)

9000
m
= 2
g 6.0 10 4
k
giving 0.78 s (1)
T = 2

(i)
s

(ii)

t=
=

16
= 0.80 s (1)
20

time period of free oscillations, resonance (1)


i.e. large amplitude oscillations (1)

3
[8]

19.

(a)
vibrations are forced when periodic force is applied (1)
frequency determined by frequency of driving force (1)
resonance when frequency of applied force = natural frequency (1)
when vibrations of large amplitude produced
[or maximum energy transferred at resonance] (1)

(b)

max 3

(i)
damping when force opposes motion [or damping removes energy] (1)
(ii)

damping reduces sharpness of resonance


[or reduces amplitude at resonant frequency] (1)

2
[5]

20.

(a)

2.0
(1) T = 2
50 10 3

The Licensed Victuallers' School

(i)
k=
0.5
(1) = 0.70 s
40

69

20
10
(ii)

tim e /s

0 .7 0 s
a correct (= 20mm) (1)
x = 20 mm at t = 0 (1)
T correct (= 0.70 s)(1)

(b)

(i)
vibrates at 0.5 Hz with low amplitude (1)
(ii)

vibrates with high amplitude (1)


at natural frequency (1)
resonates (1)
3

max
[8]

21.

C
[1]

22.

D
[2]

23.

C
[2]

24.

(a)

use of mg = ke gives k =
1

0.20 9.81
(1)
3.5 10 2

= 56 N m (1) [or kg s ]

(b)

(i)

(ii)

28 (N m ) (1) (unit to be given in either (a) or (b))


(allow C.E. from (a))

(use of T = 2

m
gives) T =2
k

0.50
= 0.84 (s) (1)
28

(allow C.E. for value of k from (b)(i))


number of oscillations per minute =
The Licensed Victuallers' School

60
= 71 (1)
0.84
70

(allow C.E. from (b)(ii))

3
[5]

25.

B
[2]

26.

(a)
forced vibrations or resonance (1)

(b)

reference to natural frequency (or frequencies) of structure (1)


driving force is at same frequency as natural frequency of structure (1)
resonance (1)
large amplitude vibrations produced or large energy transfer to structure(1)
could cause damage to structure [or bridge to fail] (1)
max 4

(c)

stiffen the structure (by reinforcement) (1)


install dampers or shock absorbers (1)
[or other acceptable measure e.g. redesign to change natural frequency
or increase mass of bridge or restrict number of pedestrians]

2
[7]

27.

(use of T = 2

(a)

l
0.80
gives) T = 2
(1)
g
9.81

= 1.8 s (1)

(b)

mgh = mv (1)
v=

-1

(2 9.81 20 10 3 ) (1) (= 0.63 m s )

vmax = 2fA =

2A
(1)
T

0.63 1.8
(1) (= 0.18m)
2
2
2
2
[or by Pythagoras A + 780 = 800
gives A = (800 2 -780 2 ) (1) ( = 180 mm)
(or equivalent solution by trigonometry (1) (1))
2A
vmax = 2fA or =
(1)
T
2 0.18
-1
=
(1) (= 0.63 m s )
1.8
A=

(c)

tension given by F, where F mg =

The Licensed Victuallers' School

mv 2
(1)
l

71

0.63 2

= 0.26 N (1)
9
.
81

F = 25 10
0.8

-3

2
[8]

28.

A
[2]

29.

(a)

(i)
r=

0.012 (m)
(use of v = 2fr gives) v = 250 0.012 (1)
1
1
= 3.8 m s (1) (3.77 m s )
(ii)

2
2
correct use of a = v or a = 3.8
(1)
r
0.012

= 1.2 10 m s

(1)

[or correct use of = r]


(allow C.E. for value of v from (i)

(b)

panel resonates (1)


(because) motor frequency = natural frequency of panel (1)

QWC 2
[7]

30.

A
[2]

31.

(a)
acceleration is proportional to displacement (1)
acceleration is in opposite direction to displacement, or
towards a fixed point, or towards the centre of oscillation (1)
(b)

(c)

(i)
25
1
= 1.1 Hz (or s ) (1)
23

f=
(1.09 Hz)

(ii)

(use of a = (2f) A gives)

(iii)

(use of x = A cos(2ft) gives)

a = (2 1.09) 76 10 (1)
2
2
= 3.6 m s (1)
(3.56 m s )
2
(use of f = 1.1 Hz gives a = 3.63 m s )
(allow C.E. for incorrect value of f from (i))
3

x = 76 10 cos(2 1.09 0.60) (1)


2
= ()4.3(1) 10 m (1)
(43 mm)
2
(use of f = 1.1 Hz gives x = ()4.0(7) 10 m (41 mm))
direction: above equilibrium position or upwards (1)

(i)

graph to show:

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72

correct shape, i.e. cos curve (1)


correct phase i.e. (cos) (1)
(ii)

graph to show:
two cycles per oscillation (1)
correct shape (even if phase is wrong) (1)
correct starting point (i.e. full amplitude) (1)
4

max
[12]

32.

(a)
reference to resonance (1)
air set into vibration at frequency of loudspeaker (1)
resonance when driving frequency = natural frequency of air column (1)
more than one mode of vibration (1)
stationary wave (in air column) (1) (or reference to nodes and antinodes)
maximum amplitude vibration (or max energy transfer) at resonance (1)
[alternative answer to (a):
first two marks as above, remaining four marks for
wave reflected from surface (of water) (1)
interference/superposition
(between transmitted and reflected waves) (1)
maximum intensity when path difference is n (1)
maxima (or minima) observed when l changes by /2 (1)]
QWC 1

(b)

Max 4

=
2

(i)
523 168 (1) (= 355 mm)
= 710 mm (1)
[if

(ii)

= 168, giving = 670 mm, (1) (1 max) (672 mm)]


4

c( = f) = 480 0.71 (1)


1
= 341 m s (1)
(allow C.E. for incorrect from (i))
1
1
[allow 480 0.67 = 320 m s (1) (1max) (322 m s )]

4
[8]

33.

(a)
f

(b)

1
2

g
(1)
l
Oscillations must be of small amplitude (1)

(i)
25
0.53(8)( s 1 ) (1)
46.5

The Licensed Victuallers' School

f=

73

[or T =

46.5
= 1.8(6) (s)]
25

g
l
2
4 f

T 2 g 1.86 2 9.81
9.81

l
[or
] (1)
2
4 2 0.538 2
4 2
4

l = 0.85(9)m (1)
(allow C.E. for values of or T)
(ii)

amax{= ()(2f) A} = (2 0.538) 51 10 (1)


2

(= 0.583 ms )
(allow C.E. for value of from (i))
2

Fmax(= mamax) = 1.2 10 0.583 (1)


3

= 7.0 10 N (1)
3
(6.99 10 N)
[or Fmax(= mg sin max) where sin max=
2

=1.2 10 9.81

51
(1)
859

51
(1)
859

= 6.99 10 N (1)]

6
[8]

34.

(a)
attractive force between two particles (or point masses) (1)
proportional to product of masses and inversely proportional to
square of separation [or distance] (1)

(b)

(for mass, m, at Earths surface) mg =

GMm
(1)
R2

rearrangement gives result (1)

(c)

6 2
gR 2

= 1.62 (1.74 10 ) (1)

Mmoon
G
6.67 10 11

22
= 7.35 10 kg (1)
M moon
7.35 10 22
=
(= 0.0123) 1.23%
M earth
6.00 10 24

The Licensed Victuallers' School

3
[7]

74

35.

(a)

(i)

(b)

V
V
1
19 = ()
gives V = 190 (1) J kg (1)
x
10

(ii)

W(= mV) = 9.0 190 = 1710J [or mgh = 9.0 19 10 = 1710J] (1)

(iii)

on mountain, required energy would be less


because gravitational field strength is less (1)

max 3

1
1
GMm
(or F 2 or correct use of F =
) (1)
2
r
r
r2
19
1
g = 2 = 4.75(Nkg ) (1)
2
g

2
[5]

36.

A
[1]

37.

(a)
________

N kg

gravitational
constant

N m kg

mass
distance (from
mass to point)

kg
m

electric
field
strength
________

NC

or V m

(1)
1

________

(1)

(1)

charge
distance
(from
charge to
point)

(1)
4

(b)

(i)
(1)

none

both FE and FG
(ii)

1
(hence both reduced to 1 4 [ affected equally] (1)
r2

charge on B must be doubled (1)

3
[7]

8.

(a)

(i)
31
1

MJ kg (1)

The Licensed Victuallers' School

75

(ii)

increase in potential energy = mV (1)


6
= 1200 (62 21) 10 (1)
10
= 4.9 10 J (1)

The Licensed Victuallers' School

76

(b)

(i)
V

(1)
x

g=

62.5 10 6
(1)
4 6.4 10 6
1
= 2.44 N kg (1)

(ii)

g is the gradient of the graph =

(iii)

1
and R is doubled (1)
R2
9.81
1
expect g to be
= 2.45 N kg (1)
4
[alternative (iii)
1
g 2 and R is halved (1)
R
1
expect g to be 2.44 4 = 9.76 N kg (1)]

5
[9]

39.

B
[1]

40.

A
[2]

41.

C
[2]

42.

(a)

(i)
Q
29 1.6 10 19
)
=
(1)
4 0 r 2
4 8.85 10 12 (1.15 10 10 ) 2
12

-1

E (=

-1

= 3.15 10 Vm (or (NC ) (1)

(ii)

(b)

V(=

GM
6.67 10 11 63 1.66 10 27
) = ()
(1)
r
1.15 10 10
-26
-1
= () 6.07 10 (1) sign and J kg

arrow pointing to the right (1)

5
1
[6]

43.

(a)
quantity

SI unit
1

(gravitational potential)

J kg or N m kg

(electric field strength)

N C or V m

(magnetic flux density

T or Wb m or N A m

The Licensed Victuallers' School

scalar

1
1

vector
1

vector
77

6 entries correct (1) (1) (1)


4 or 5 entries correct (1) (1)
2 or 3 entries correct (1)

(b)

(i)
= EQ (1)

mg

mg 4.3 10 9 9.81

= 1.32 104 (V m1) (1)


12
Q
3.2 10

E
(ii)

positive (1)

3
[6]

44.

(a)
work = force distance moved in direction of force (1)
(in circular motion) force is perpendicular to displacement (1)
no movement in direction of force (1) (hence no work)
[or speed of body remains constant (although velocity changes) (1)
kinetic energy is constant (1)
potential energy is constant (1)]
[or gravitational force acts towards the Earth (1)
Moon remains at constant distance/radius from Earth (1)
since radius is unchanged, gravitational force does no work
or Ep of Moon is constant (1)]

QWC 1

(b)

(i)
suitable example of circular motion (1)
(ii)

any

any SHM example at maximum displacement (1)


[or any other suitable example, e.g. car starts from rest]

2
[5]

45.

(a)

(i)
h (=
8

ct) (= 3.0 10 68 10 ) = 2.0(4) 10 m (1)


(ii)

GM
(1)
r2
6
7
7
r (= 6.4 10 + 2.04 10 ) = 2.68 10 (m) (1)
(allow C.E. for value of h from (i) for first two marks, but not 3rd)
g = ()

The Licensed Victuallers' School

78

g=

6.67 10 11 6.0 10 24
(1)
(2.68 10 7 ) 2

(= 0.56 N kg )

2
(i) g = v (1)
r
7
v = [0.56 (2.68 10 )] (1)
3
1
3
1
= 3.9 10 m s (1) (3.87 10 m s )
(allow C.E. for value of r from a(ii)

(b)

2 GM
[or v = r = (1)

11
24

v = 6.67 10 67 10
2.68 10

= 3.9 10 m s

1/ 2

(1)

(1)]

7
T 2r = 2 2.68 10
(1)
v

3.87 10 3

(ii)

= 4.3(5) 10 s (1)
(12.(1) hours)
3
4
(use of v = 3.9 10 gives T = 4.3(1) 10 s = 12.0 hours)
(allow C.E. for value of v from (I)

[alternative for (b):


(ii)

(i)

2
T 2 4 r 3 (1)
GM

4 2
( 2.68 10 7 ) 3 = (1.90 109 (s2) (1)

11
24
6.67 10 6.0 10

4
T = 4.3(6) 10 s (1)

7
v 2r 2 2.68 10
(1)
T
4.36 10 4
3
1
= 3.8(6) 10 m s (1)]

(allow C.E. for value of r from (a)(ii) and value of T)

5
[9]

46.

(a)
work done/energy change (against the field) per unit mass (1)
when moved from infinity to the point (1)
(b)

GM E
GM M
and VM =
(1)
RE
RM
3.7
ME
3.7
VM = G

=
VE (1)
R
81
81
E
VE =

= 4.57 10 (63) = 2.9 MJ kg (1)


The Licensed Victuallers' School

(2.88 MJ kg )

3
79

(c)

S u rfac e o f
E a rth

S u rfa c e o f
M oon

63

limiting values (63,VM)


on correctly curving line (1)
rises to value close to but below zero (1)
falls to Moon (1)
from point much closer to M than E (1)
max
3
[8]

47.

(a)

(i)

force per unit positive charge (1)(1)


[force on a unit charge (1) only]
vector (1)

(ii)

overall correct symmetrical shape (1)


outward directions of lines (1)
spacing of lines on appropriate diagram (1)
neutral point, N, shown midway between charges (1)
6

(b)

(i)

Q
4 r 2
0

max

EAP

2 10 9
(1)
4 8.85 10 12 (0.12) 2

= 1250 V m (1)

(ii)

EPB =

3 10 9
1
= 1050Vm (1)
12
2
4 8.85 10 (0.16)

The Licensed Victuallers' School

80

1250

(iii)
(1)

1050

allow e.c.f. from wrong numbers in (i) and (ii)


1
E = 1250 2 1050 2 (1) 1630Vm (1)

= tan

1250

= 50.0 to line PB and in correct direction (1)


1050

max

(c)

(i)
potential due to A is positive, potential due to B is negative (1)
at X sum of potentials is zero (1)

(ii)

2 10 9
3 10 9
+
= 0 (1)
4 0 ( x )
4 0 (0.20 x )
gives AX (= x) = 0.080m (1) (only from satisfactory use of potentials)

4
[16]

48.

(a)

(i)

parallel (near centre), perpendicular to and touching plates (1)


arrows away from positive plate (1)
1500
V
4
1
1
E =
(1) = 75 10 V m [or N C ]
0.020
d

(ii)

d
The Licensed Victuallers' School

81

straight line from origin (1)

(b)

(i)
4

F(=Ee) = 7.5 10 3 10 (1)


4
= 2.25 10 (N) (1)
F
2.25 10 4
2
=
= 0.45 (m s ) (1)
4
m
5.0 10
2s
2 10 10 3
=
(= 0.20s) (1)
a
0.45
ball towards positive plate (1)
t=

(ii)

(c)

on contact, acquires same charge as plate (1)


hence repelled away [or attracted to other plate] (1)
at other plate, charge change again, process repeats (1)
6

no (resultant) force (1)


charge must be moving for magnetic force
[or weight balanced by tension] (1)

max

2
[13]

49.

(a)

(i)
10000
V
5
1
E=
=
(1) = 2.5 10 V m (1)
3
d
40 10
5

(ii)

F = Eq = 2.5 10 3.2 10

(iii)

qV =

1
2

2
m or =

19

2qV
=
m
5

(1) = 8.0 10

14

2 3.2 10 19 5000
(1)
3.4 10 26
1

(= 3.1 10 m s )

(b)

(i)
(ii)

(iii)

N (1)

max 5

field into paper (1)


r

force motion in B-field (1)


directed towards centre of a circular path (1)

m
m 2
= Bq r =
(1)
Bq
r

The Licensed Victuallers' School

82

for B, q constant r m , momentum (1)


r=

(c)

3.4 10 26 3.1 10 5
= 0.33m (1)
0.10 3.2 10 19

greater mass, so smaller speed at Q (1)


greater momentum justified e.g. E =

p2
(E const) (1)
2m

greater radius (1)

max 2
[13]

50.

D
[2]

51.

C
[2]

52.

A
[2]

53.

C
[2]

54.

(a)
Q

(1 )

(b)

(ii)

(1 )

capacitance [or charge per volt or Q/V] (1)

(i)
CV (=0.68 6.0)=4.1C (1)

Q=

1
E QV 4.1 6.0 =12J (1)
2
2

2
[5]

55.

(a)
graph to show:
straight line from origin (1)
end point at 4.5 (V), 9.0 (F) (1)

The Licensed Victuallers' School

2
83

(b)

(i)
= V Q explained (1)
energy stored or total work done in charging = area under graph or
charge average voltage (1)

energy stored = work done (= QV) (1)

(ii)

Q = 2.0 1.5 = 3.0 (C) (1)


6
6
E (= QV) = 3.0 10 1.5 = 2.25 10 J (1)
2
6
2
6
[or E = (CV = 2.0 10 1.5 = 2.25 10 J]

5
[7]

56.

(a)

(i)
Q=

0.42(3)C (1)

(b)

(ii)

E = 19 J (1)

(iii)

I = 14A (1)

1
2
2
C (90 80 ) [or E80 = 15(J)] (1)
2
leading to 4.0 J

E=

2
[5]

57.

(a)

(i)
r =

6.3 (1)
12
1
0 = 8.910 (Fm ) (1)
A
8
C=
= 4.6 10 (F) (1)
d
5
Q = CV = 5.5 10 C (1)
(ii)

(b)

I=

14

= 10 (m)
l
11
R=
= 1.2 10 (1)
A

Q
(1)
t

5.5 10 5
9
= 510 A (1)
10800

The Licensed Victuallers' School

84

(c)

(as potential difference between plates increases)


electric field strength inside dielectric increases (1)
limit when breakdown occurs (1)
rapid discharge of capacitor (1)

3
[11]

58.

(a)
CV (1)
6
6
(= 4.7 10 6.0) = 28 10 C or 28 C (1)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Q=
2

E = CV (1)
6
2
= 4.7 10 2.0 (1)
6
= 9.4 10 J (1)
[or E = QV (1)
6
= 9.4 10 2.0 (1)
6
= 9.4 10 J (1)]

time constant is time taken for V to fall to

Vo
(1)
e

V must fall to 2.2 V (1)


time constant = 32 ms (1)
[or draw tangent at t = 0 (1)
intercept of tangent on t axis is time constant (1)
accept value 30 - 35 ms (1)]
[or V = V0 exp(t/RC) or Q = Q0 exp(t/RC) (1)
correct substitution (1)
time constant = 32 ms (1)]

time constant = RC (1)


32 10 3
= 6800 (1)
R
4.7 10 6
(allow C.E. for value of time constant from (c))

2
[10]

59.

A
[2]

60.

(a)

(i)

remains constant since connected to constant p.d. (1)


(ii)

decreases because C

The Licensed Victuallers' School

1
(1)
d

85

(iii)

decreases because Q = CV and C has decreased (1)

(iv)

decreases because E =

(b)

1
2
CV and C has decreased (1)
2

(i)
0 A
8.85 10 12 8.0 10 6
8

=
(1) (= 9.44 10 F)
3
d

0.75 10
1
1
2
8
3 2
E (= CV ) =
9.44 10 (200 10 ) (1)
2
2
= 1890J (1)

(ii)

Q
Q
9.44 10 8 200 10 3
I =
use of Q = CV (1) use of I =
(1)
6
t
t

120 10
= 157 A (1)

6
[10]

61.

(a)

(uniformly) curved path continuous with linear paths at entry and


exit points (1)
arrow marked F towards top left-hand corner (1)

(b)

into (the plane of) the diagram (1)

(c)

F(= BQ) = 0.50 1.60 10


13
= 4.0 10 N (1)

(d)

19

(not accept downwards)

B must be in opposite direction (1)


1

(1)
(much) smaller magnitude
2000

The Licensed Victuallers' School

5.0 10 (1)
2

86

62.

(i)
7
0 NI

= 4 10 500 0.50 = 3.14 103T (1)
l
0.10

(ii)

(= BA) = 3.14 10 1.6 10 (1) = 5.02 10 Wb (1)


[3]

63.

(a)

(i)

arrow pointing towards centre of curvature (1)


(ii)

velocity [or direction of motion] is perpendicular


to the direction of the force (1)
work done is force distance moved in the direction of the force (1)
no work done as there is no motion in the direction of the force (1)
3

(b)

max

(i)
25mm (1)

1
m 2 = eV (1)
2
m 2
Be (1)
r

2 3200
e
2V
11
1
2 2 (1) =
(1) 1.8 10 Ckg (1)
3 2
2
m B r
7.6 10
0.025

6
[9]

64.

(a)

(i)

interaction between current and B-field gives force on wire (1)


equal and opposite force on magnet (down) (1)
(ii)

force on wire must be up (1)


current right to left (1)
by left hand rule (1)

(iii)

(force = BIl = mg = change in mass 9.8)


3
B 5.0 0.060 = 1.54 10 9.8 (1)
B = 0.050 T [50.3 mT] (1)
6

The Licensed Victuallers' School

max

87

b a la n c e
re a d in g

(b)

I
straight line (1)
intercept, upward slope (1)

2
[8]

65.

(a)

(i)
uud

(1)

(ii)
(b)

u d (1)

(i)
mv
mv 2
] (1)
Bev [or r
Be
r
27
m = 1.67 10
(1)
27
7
mv 1.67 10 1.5 10
r
(1)

0.16 1.6 10 19
Be
= 0.98 m (1)

(ii)

pion path more curved than proton path (1)

(iii)

path more curved


[or radius (of path) smaller] (1)
for both paths (1)

7
[9]

66.

C
[2]

67.

(a)

units: F - newton (N), B - tesla (T) or weber metre


I - ampere (A), l - metre (m) (1)
condition: I must be perpendicular to B (1)

The Licensed Victuallers' School

(Wb m ),
2
88

(b)

(i)
3 2

mass of bar, m = (25 10 ) 8900 l (1)


weight of bar (= mg) = 54.6l (1)
mg = BIl or weight = magnetic force (1)
54.6l = B 65 l gives B = 0.840 T (1)
(ii)

(= 5.56l)

arrow in correct direction (at right angles to I, in plane of bar) (1)

5
[7]

68.

(a)
greater flux (linkage) or more flux lines (at same distance)
[or stronger magnet produces flux lines closer together] (1)
greater rate of change of flux (linkage)
[or more flux lines cut per unit time] (1)
emf rate of change of flux (linkage) (1)
[or using N

, where = A B, v and t are the same (1)


t

B is larger since magnet is stronger (1)


N and A are constant, is larger (1)]
(b)

(i)
swept out, A = lvt (1)

area

(= BA) = Blv t (1)



Blvt

(N )

gives result (1)
t
t

(c)

(i)

w(=2f) = 2 l6 (1)
1

= 101 rads (1)


3

1 (1)

(ii)

v(=rw) = 32 10 101 = 3.2(3)ms


(allow C.E. for value of w from (i))

(iii)

(= Blv) = 28 10 64 10 3.23 (1)


3
= 5.7(9) 10 V (1)
(allow C.E. for values of v from (ii))

5
3

(solutions using = Bfnr to give 5.7(6) 10 V acceptable)


[11]

69.

(i)
1

1000 km hr =

1000 10 3
1
ms
3600

The Licensed Victuallers' School

89

flux cut per second = B area swept out per second

10 4
5
or
4
.
5

10

42

(1)
36

= 0.52Wb (1)

(ii)

induced e.m.f. equals flux cut per second [or equation and symbols defined] (1)
E = 0.52V (1)

(iii)

direction of p.d. reversed (1)


[6]

70.

A
[2]

(71.

(a)
90 (or 270 or

(b)

(c)

3
or
) (1)
2
2

= BA cos (1)
3
3
3
6
= 2.5 10 35 10 20 10 cos 30 = 1.5 10 Wb (1)

max = 2.5 10 35 10 20 10 (Wb) (1) (= 1.75 10 )


6

flux linkage = 650 1.75 10 = 1.1(4) 10 (Wb turns) (1)

2
[5]

72.

C
[2]

73.

3 2

( = BA) = 45 10 (70 10 ) (1)


4
4
= 6.9 10 Wb (1)
(6.93 10 Wb)

(a)

2
4

N ( = NBA 0) = 850 6.93 10 (1)


= 0.59 (Wb turns) (1)
(0.589 (Wb turns))
4
(if = 6.9 10 , then 0.587 (Wb turns))
(allow C.E. for value of from (a))

(b)

(i)

(ii)

0.589

)=
(1)
t
0.12
= 4.9 V (1)
(4.91 V)
(allow C.E. for value of Wb turns from (ii)

induced emf ( = N

4
[6]

The Licensed Victuallers' School

90

The Licensed Victuallers' School

91

The Licensed Victuallers' School

92