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TUM School of Management

Production and Supply Chain Management


Prof Martin Grunow

Technische Universitt Mnchen

Measurement Theory - Parameters


Using the understanding of the process, the parameters
which influence the process and affect the quality can be
identified.
In a process improvement program, these input parameters
will be then prioritized based with respect to their degree of
impact on desired output or outputs.
We now need to decide how to measure these parameters so
that we obtain unbiased and meaningful measures in a costeffective way that can then be applied in a quality
improvement program.
Holly Ott

Quality Engineering & Management Module 4

TUM School of Management


Production and Supply Chain Management
Prof Martin Grunow

Technische Universitt Mnchen

Measurement Theory Sampling Plan


Measurements must be descriptive, selective and objective.
The conditions of the measurement must be controlled so
that the data can be interpreted and the underlying
relationships between inputs and outputs understood.
Next the sampling plan must be constructed such that the
sample is sufficient to establish the effect of any input
changes and to give an acceptable level of certainty about
this effect.
The variability of the measured outputs will affect the
sampling plan.
Holly Ott

Quality Engineering & Management Module 4

TUM School of Management


Production and Supply Chain Management
Prof Martin Grunow

Measurement
Error

Technische Universitt Mnchen

Measured Process
Variability

Inherent Process Variability

Long-term
Process Variation

Measurement Bias

Short-term
Process Variation

Measurement Errors

Sampling Errors

Measurement
Reliability

Measurement
Validity

Measurement Precision

Resolution

Repeatability

Stability

Reproducibility

Linearity

Reiner Hutwelker
Holly Ott

Quality Engineering & Management Module 4

TUM School of Management


Production and Supply Chain Management
Prof Martin Grunow

Technische Universitt Mnchen

Measurement Error - Repeatability


Repeatability is variation due to
repeated tests
of the same parts
with the same operator
using the same measrrement system

Operator A

Measurement Repetition

Variation from repeatability


Reiner Hutwelker
Holly Ott

Quality Engineering & Management Module 4

TUM School of Management


Production and Supply Chain Management
Prof Martin Grunow

Technische Universitt Mnchen

Measurement Error - Reproducibility


Reproducibility is the variation due to

repeated tests
of the same parts
with different operators
using the same measurement system
Reproducibility

Operator B

Operator A

Operator C

Streuung bei Nachvollziehbarkeit der Messung


Reiner Hutwelker
Holly Ott

Quality Engineering & Management Module 4

TUM School of Management


Production and Supply Chain Management
Prof Martin Grunow

Technische Universitt Mnchen

Sampling Plans
Prioritized input and process parameters and outputs are
specified exactly
Specification of the goal of the measurement, the sample
size, the data type and the sampling frequency.
Necessity for a measurement system analysis or not.
Identification of the hypotheses to be tested: what should be
tested and with which methods.

Holly Ott

Quality Engineering & Management Module 4

TUM School of Management


Production and Supply Chain Management
Prof Martin Grunow

Technische Universitt Mnchen

Sampling Plans
Two commonly used sampling techniques are:
Simple random sampling
Stratified random sampling

Simple
Random
Sampling

Stratified
Random
Sampling

Population

Population

x xx
x xx x
x
xx x x x
x xx x
x xx
x x x
AA B
A
BBB
A AA B
C C
DDDC C
DD C C
D C

Sample

Sample

xxxxxx

AABBCCDD

Each element in the


population has an equal
chance of being included
A fixed /proportionate amount
will be randomly selected from
each strata

Reiner Hutwelker
Holly Ott

Quality Engineering & Management Module 4

TUM School of Management


Production and Supply Chain Management
Prof Martin Grunow

Technische Universitt Mnchen

Coming Up
Lecture 4.2: Descriptive vs. Inferential Statistics

Holly Ott

Quality Engineering & Management Module 4