Welding cost calculation variables and procedures

© All Rights Reserved

53 tayangan

Welding cost calculation variables and procedures

© All Rights Reserved

- Example of Cost Calculation in Welding
- How to Estimate Pipe Welding _ eHow
- BP
- S 74DX Manual
- Maximizing Strength of Friction Stir Spot Welded Bimetallic Joints of AA6061 Aluminum Alloy and Copper Alloy by Response Surface Methodology
- Lincoln R3R - 500
- Welding
- Epp
- Mig Handbook (Despark)
- Comparison Between ASME and RCC-M Requirements for Welding and NDT
- art%3A10.1007%2Fs00170-012-4513-5.pdf
- is.4682.7.1974
- GMAW Handbook Miller
- Avoidance of Premature Weld
- a5356tds
- WELDING GUIE---gen-26883g Filler Metal Databook Us 2016
- TS-FT
- sec-B
- JUN M. DE LEON
- Butt Logbook Finished..

Anda di halaman 1dari 7

determining welding costs and the factors that affect them are

examined. Three simple methods for computing costs are

presented: the cost per unit; the cost per length; and the cost

per weight methods are described and illustrated with sample

calculations.

Duane K. Miller, Sc. D., P.E., The Lincoln Electric Company

a work cell and that may

require a number of small,

short welds, are ideal

applications for using the cost

per unit method.

thoroughly evaluated their welding costs? Or that they have never analyzed

the contribution of welding to their over-all manufacturing process?

According to a recent study published jointly by the American Welding

Society (AWS) and the Edison Welding Institute (EWI), the answer is "yes."

The report further states that with regard to welding, most manufacturers

lack an under-standing of how much they are spending, what they are

spending it on, or why. The good news is, the same study found that

companies with a good understanding of welding economics and the value

added by the technology can and do compete successfully in domestic and

global markets.

join the stiffeners to the web,

and the web to the flanges, on

this bridge girder. This makes

the cost per length method

appropriate for this application.

Peter Drucker said "If you can't measure it, you can't manage it." An obvious

corollary is that if you're not measuring it, you're not managing it. In a

nutshell, that's the message of the AWS/EWI study. That most companies in

the metals fabrication business are not even looking at welding costs, let

alone managing them.

In this first article of two, the fundamentals of welding cost determination

will be examined. Part two will explore the implications of which cost system

is used, including the consequences of selecting the wrong method.

Reasons for Determining Welding Costs

Hardfacing applications

requiring significant quantities

of metal to be replaced by

welding lend themselves to the

"cost per weight" method.

Knowing which factors affect welding costs can enable a company to focus its

energies on changes that will reduce costs, enabling the business improve its competitiveness and profitability. An

accurate cost model can permit comparisons of manufacturing options (for example, comparing the effect of a change

of welding processes on overall costs). A correct cost model will permit the estimation of savings that will accrue with

automation, so that the projected savings can be used to justify the automation capital investment.

What should be considered when determining welding costs?

In reality, every operation resulting from the decision to weld can be legitimately charged to weld fabrication. The

greater the number of factors considered when calculating welding costs, the more accurate the results will be. Also,

considering all the relevant factors increases the opportunities for cost reduction.When determining whether a

specific manufacturing cost should be charged to welding, it is helpful to ask: Would this cost be incurred if the

product wasn't welded?

When this question is objectively answered, then all of the following factors may be considered to be part of the cost of

welding:

Time to prepare the material for welding (blasting, removal of oils, etc.).

Cost of electrodes.

Of the 20 items identified in the preceding list, 15 begin with the word "time." Unless the application requires

unusually expensive alloys, or is a highly automated operation, the time associated with welding operations and the

wages that must be paid to skilled personnel will typically dominate welding costs.

Simplified Cost Models

Two different approaches may be used to determine welding costs: complex and simple. There are the complex,

computer-based models that attempt to capture every contributing factor; and there are simplified models. Both have

inadequacies, but are useful nevertheless. Only the simplified models will be discussed in this article.

In the simplified models, welding costs are estimated based upon:

In most cases, the cost of power is negligible and accordingly ignored. A variety of costs are often attributed to

"overhead," including plant and equipment, supervision, indirect labor, etc. These are significant costs, often

exceeding direct labor costs by a factor of 2 - 4 times. A simplifying assumption is to tie an overhead factor to the

direct labor cost. Thus, a single cost per hour is used for "labor and overhead" (L&O) in simplified models.

The basic cost-estimating formulas, therefore, will take on the form of: Welding Costs = (L&O) + (Consumables

Costs)

The Operating Factor

A review of the cost factors listed previously reveals there are various "times" listed other than the time required for

welding. Any time the welder's arc is not struck represents time that the joining process is not progressing. Since the

total hours worked are always more than the total hours spent welding, the ratio of hours spent welding to total hours

worked is called the operating factor.

As the basis of any cost formula, it must be determined accurately. Since arc time is always divided by a larger

number, the ratio is always less than 1.0, and therefore a decimal. For convenience in referring to operating factors,

the ratio is multiplied by 100 and expressed as a percentage. Thus, one hears references to operating factors of 30, 40

or 50 percent. When using an operating factor in a cost formula, however, it must be given in the decimal form, so

that a 40% operating factor would be expressed as 0.40 in a cost formula.

Three Basic Approaches

Welding costs can be estimated using one of three basic approaches:

Cost per weight. The application will determine which approach is most appropriate.

One caveat: with any of the cost calculation methods, it is critical that the variables used result in an equation that is

dimensionally correct. For example, if the wire feed speed is measured in inches per minute, and it is multiplied by

the weight of the electrode per length, the weight per length must be in units of pounds per inch. If this is done, the

resultant product will be pounds per minute. However, if the weight is measured in pounds per foot, the resultant

product would be inch-pounds per foot-minutes. Obviously, this is a meaningless dimension. It can be corrected,

however, by multiplying the product by "1 foot/12 inches," returning the dimensions to pounds per minute, and

correcting the numerical value by a factor of 12.

Cost Per Unit

The cost per unit method is most effective when the application involves pieces that move through a workstation. The

types and sizes of the welds are immaterial with this method fillet welds, groove welds, plug welds, etc., can all be

combined when the cost per unit is determined, since time (the most costly aspect of welding) is measured directly.

This makes the per unit method the most accurate of the three approaches. It measures the key cost variable directly,

and does not require the use of the operating factor variable. If the process involves wire fed electrode, it is easy to

find the cost of the welding materials. It is somewhat harder to calculate consumable costs when

SMAW (stick) is used. The cost per unit of production, in dollars per unit, can be estimated using the following

formulas:

Cost/unit = (L&O/unit) + (filler metal and shielding material cost/unit)

L&O/unit = (welding-related time/unit) x (L&O rate)

For wire fed processes:

Filler metal cost/unit = (wire feed speed) x (welding time) x (weight of electrode/inch) x (electrode cost/pound)

Filler metal cost (SMAW) = [{(electrode meltoff rate) x (welding time) x (weight of electrode/inch)}/(% of electrode

used)]

Shielding gas cost/piece = (flow rate) x (welding time) x (gas cost/ft. 3 )

SAW flux cost/piece = (wt. of flux used) x (cost of flux/lb.)

Cost Per Length

This method, appropriate for estimating the cost of long welds, is best applied to single pass welds of a prescribed

size. The values determined by this method will differ for welds of different sizes. The important variable of time is

captured through measurement of travel speed (ft./unit of time). Though good for single pass welds, the method is

harder to use for multipass welds. These formulas can be used to estimate the cost per length:

Cost/length = (L&O cost/length) + (filler metal and shielding cost/length)

L&O cost/length = (L&O rate)/(travel speed)(operating factor)

Filler metal cost/length (wire fed processes) = {(wire feed speed) x (wt. of electrode/in.) x (cost of electrode/lb.)}/

(travel speed)

Filler metal cost/length (SMAW) = (melt off rate) x (wt. of electrode/length) x (cost of electrode/lb.)/(travel speed)

(% of electrode used)

Shielding gas cost/length = (gas flow rate) x (gas cost/ft. 3 )/(travel speed)

Shielding cost/length (flux) = (wt. of weld metal/length) x (ratio of flux to weld metal) x (cost of flux/lb.)

Cost per weight

Calculating the cost per weight is the easiest cost estimating method, regardless of the welding process. Probably for

that reason, it is overused and misapplied. It is best used in applications in which significant volumes of weld metal

must be deposited, such as multipass applications. Hardfacing and overlay welding are ideal applications. The

variable of time is captured by measuring deposition rate (pounds of deposit per hour). This method is best for

estimating the cost of large, multipass welds. Cost per weight is good for evaluating changes in groove joint details. It

is not accurate when applied to single pass, small, short welds, and it does not account for overwelding. Cost per

weight can be estimated using the following formulas:

Cost/lb. = (L&O cost/lb.) + (filler metal and shielding cost/lb.)

L&O Cost/lb. = (L&O rate)/{(deposition rate) x (operating factor)}

Filler metal cost/lb. (any process) = (cost of filler metal/lb.)/(electrode efficiency)

Shielding cost/lb. (gas) = (shielding gas flow rate) x (cost of shielding gas/ft. 3 ) /(deposition rate)

Shielding cost/lb. (flux) = (cost of flux/lb.) x (ratio of flux to filler metal)

A welded subassembly is made in a discrete welding cell. The total cycle time for the part is 2 min.-45 sec. Five welds are made

on the part: two 1-in. long fillet welds, two plug welds, and one 3-in. long square edge groove weld. GMAW is used for all the

welds, using the same welding procedure, as follows: .035-in. E70S-3 electrode; 300 in./min. wire feed speed; 75% Ar/25% CO2

shielding gas; 35 ft. 3 /hour flow rate gas flow rate.

The welding time is 20 sec. each for the two fillet welds, 8 sec. each for the two plug welds, and 18 sec. for the groove weld.

Total "arc on" time is 74 sec. The remainder of the welding cycle time involves removal of parts from the bin, cleaning oil off the

parts, fixturing the pieces, manipulating the fixture, removing the part, cleaning off spatter, visually inspecting the welds, and

stacking the welded components onto a rack.

L&O/unit = (welding-related time/unit) x (L&O rate) = (2.75 min.) x (1 hr./60 min.) x ($45/hr.) = $2.0625/piece

Filler metal cost/unit (wire fed processes) = (wire feed speed) x (welding time) x (wt. of electrode/in.) x (electrode cost/lb.) =

(300 in./min.) x (74 sec.) x (1 min./60 sec.) x (0.000275 lb./in.) x (($2.00/lb.) = $0.2035/piece

Shielding gas cost/piece = (flow rate) x (welding time) x (gas cost/ft. 3 ) = (35 ft. 3/hr.) x (74 sec.) x (1 hr./3600 sec.) x

($0.15/ft. 3 ) = $0.108/piece

Cost/unit = (L&O/unit) + (filler metal + shielding material cost/unit) = $2.0625 + $0.2035 + $0.108 = $2.374/unit

A bridge girder is being fabricated using 5 /16-in. fillet welds for the web-to-flange connection, as well as the stiffenerto- web

connections. The girder is 130 ft. long, and 18 ft. deep. Stiffeners are placed every 10 ft. An operating factor of 40% is assumed.

All welds will be made with SAW, using the following parameters: 5 /64" EM13K electrode; F7A2 Flux, with a 1.5:1 ratio of flux

to electrode; 200 in./min. wire feed speed; and 10 in./min. travel speed

L&O cost/length = (L&O rate)/(travel speed)(operating factor) = ($45/hr.) x (1 hr./ 60 min.) / {(10 in./min.) x (1 ft./12 in.) x

(0.40)} =$2.250/ft.

Filler metal cost/length (wire fed processes) = {(wire feed speed) x (wt. of electrode/in.) x (cost of electrode/lb.)}/(travel speed)

= {(200 in./min.) x (0.00133 lb./in.) x ($1.75/lb.)}/ (10 in./min.) x (1 ft./12 in.) =$0.5586/ft.

Shielding cost/length (flux) = (wt. of weld metal/length) x (ratio of flux to weld metal) x (cost of flux/lb.) = (0.242 lb./ft.) x (1.5)

x ($1.20/lb.) =$0.4356/ft.

Cost/length = (L&O cost/length) + (filler metal and shielding cost/length) =$2.250/ft. + $0.5586/ft. + $0.4356/ft. =$3.2436/ft.

This girder has four web-to-flange welds that are 130 ft. long, and 24 stiffeners (12 on each side). With two 18 ft. stiffener-to-web

welds, there are a total of (4 x 130) + (24 x 2 x 18) or 1,384 ft. of weld on each girder. The cost of making the 5 /16-in. fillet welds

In a weld overlay application, a 1-in. layer is to be applied to a 12-in. dia. roll that is 48-in. long. Two 5 /64-in. dia. electrodes are

to be used in a parallel electrode configuration, with the following welding parameters: 200 ipm (per electrode); 32 lb./hr.

deposit.

The build-up requires a volume of metal that can be estimated a follows: (final volume) - (initial volume) = {(142 /2 x 3.14) x

48} - {(122 /2 x 3.14) x 48} = 1960 in. 2

For steel, this would equate to 566 lb. of weld deposit.

L&O Cost/lb. = (L&O rate)/{(deposition rate) x (operating factor)} = {($45/hr.)/(32 lb./hr.) x 40%} = $3.516/lb.

Filler metal cost/lb. = (cost of filler metal/lb.)/(electrode efficiency) = $0.80/lb. x 100% = $0.80/lb.

Shielding cost/lb. (flux) = (cost of flux/lb.) x (ratio of flux to filler metal) = $0.60 x 1.5 = $0.90/lb.

Cost/lb. = (L&O cost/lb.) + (filler metal and shielding cost/lb.) = 3.5156/lb. + $0.80/lb. + $0.90/lb. $5.215/lb.

For 566 lb. of build-up, the cost would be:

(566 lb.) x ($5.215/lb.) = $2,952 per roll.

NOTE: The welding procedures in the examples, as well as specific numerical values used for

labor and overhead cost, and for the welding materials, are illustrative only. They are not

presented as accurate for any specific application, and are intended only to demonstrate cost

computations.

Conclusion

Determining the cost of welding is critical as manufacturers struggle to remain competitive in a global economy.

Simplified calculations make this task easier, although the simplifi-cation is not without risk. Next month, we'll

examine some of the pitfalls that can be encountered when the wrong equation is used, and when assumptions about

operating factors and overhead variables are incorrect.

Duane Miller is mamager of engineering services for The Lincoln Electric Company, Cleveland, OH.

- Example of Cost Calculation in WeldingDiunggah olehdip_maan
- How to Estimate Pipe Welding _ eHowDiunggah olehKalai Kumar
- BPDiunggah olehThiruvenkatasamy Elangovan
- S 74DX ManualDiunggah olehJim Longfield
- Maximizing Strength of Friction Stir Spot Welded Bimetallic Joints of AA6061 Aluminum Alloy and Copper Alloy by Response Surface MethodologyDiunggah olehAnonymous vQrJlEN
- Lincoln R3R - 500Diunggah olehBernardo Pitpitunge
- WeldingDiunggah olehgigiphi
- EppDiunggah olehIvan Dulic
- Mig Handbook (Despark)Diunggah olehIzad Bin Idris
- Comparison Between ASME and RCC-M Requirements for Welding and NDTDiunggah olehsusanweb
- art%3A10.1007%2Fs00170-012-4513-5.pdfDiunggah olehabraham silva hernandez
- is.4682.7.1974Diunggah olehBánh Cuốn Tôm Thịt
- GMAW Handbook MillerDiunggah oleharunrad
- Avoidance of Premature WeldDiunggah olehmahmoud_allam3
- a5356tdsDiunggah olehGeLoRa66
- WELDING GUIE---gen-26883g Filler Metal Databook Us 2016Diunggah olehHektor Rys
- TS-FTDiunggah olehSachin Kumar
- sec-BDiunggah olehPriyanka Chaudhary
- JUN M. DE LEONDiunggah olehHarry Demeterio
- Butt Logbook Finished..Diunggah olehDavid Nicholson
- SWMS.02.Boiler making.Welding.Grinding JHA Book.docDiunggah olehtedlawver
- Welding HandbookDiunggah olehAlessandro sergio de souza
- Boiler making.Welding.Grinding JHA Book.docDiunggah olehtedlawver
- welding.Grinding JHA Book.docDiunggah olehtedlawver
- SEETA Evidence GuideDiunggah olehChandan Aulakh
- 2 LG Manual engl.pdfDiunggah olehwayne1925
- Effect of Pulsing on Mechanical Properties of 7030 CuNi Alloy WeldsDiunggah olehKaushik Sengupta
- Welding Joint Design and Welding Symbols12Diunggah olehJACKMAAAA
- PIPEMASTER_70.pdfDiunggah olehportianita
- BI646644-00-EN HOIST DRUM REPAIR 2.pdfDiunggah olehNDT CALIDAD BACKUP

- Coating TestDiunggah olehSriram Vj
- SGS Test Report-2Diunggah olehSriram Vj
- ASTM D4541 Coating Adhesion Testing in Accordance with.pdfDiunggah olehHaldirLeao
- Adhesion Testing MethodsDiunggah olehshivpsingh05
- Hempel 2014 Paint ManualDiunggah olehCelestino T. Lagman
- Expansion Joints for Chimney FluesDiunggah olehoundhakar
- Gutter CleaningDiunggah olehSriram Vj
- Work on Flat RoofsDiunggah olehSriram Vj
- Roof TilingDiunggah olehSriram Vj
- 1e. MS 05 DrainageDiunggah olehtrijokonugroho
- Lysaght Roofing Walling Installation ManualJul2015Diunggah olehSriram Vj
- Erection Method StatementDiunggah olehDilxan Fdo
- Welding MapDiunggah olehSriram Vj
- GATE Syllabus for Mechanical EngineeringDiunggah olehVaibhav Vithoba Naik
- Asme Viii CalcsDiunggah olehSriram Vj
- RAL_colour_groups.pdfDiunggah olehSriram Vj
- 0-006 - AIRLESS SPRAY APPLICATION _PROTECTIVE_.pdfDiunggah olehSriram Vj
- Safely lifting.docxDiunggah olehSriram Vj
- Print Control PageDiunggah olehSriram Vj
- Conversion FactorsDiunggah olehnaveenran
- 09849Diunggah olehSriram Vj
- Boiler Feedwater ControlDiunggah olehJonas Perater
- RT Films ClassesDiunggah olehMuzammilBashir

- Jdsu T-berd 6000a TesterDiunggah olehLe Viet Ha
- ProjectsDiunggah olehBalaji
- Embedded Linux on Arm 9 & PythonDiunggah olehSidhin Santhosh
- radius.pdfDiunggah olehAbhishek Jain
- eBook - Wind Power - Building a Homemade Vertical Axis Wind Turbine - Savonius Homescale VawtDiunggah olehYasser Hassan
- Zamboanga SOCIAL STUDIES 0317.pdfDiunggah olehPhilBoardResults
- 50+ Best Free C Programming Tutorials, PDF & eBooks _ FromDevDiunggah olehaamya
- How To Use Automotive Diagnostic Scanners (2015).pdfDiunggah olehAntonio M Palma
- How to Write ReportsDiunggah olehdiesel_here
- vespa.cosa.batt.pdfDiunggah olehAkbar
- DCS Hardwired Signal Interface (Requirement)_Rev1Diunggah olehPrasetiyo Hananto
- 44Diunggah olehAlShourbaji
- Buchan Trap - WikipediaDiunggah olehramthecharm_46098467
- 1 EGCP 3 LS Product SpecificationsDiunggah olehJunior Reis
- Advt 08-2014-15 Non-teaching FinalDiunggah olehPriyanka Chauhan
- Transfer Station Design for Iron OreDiunggah olehedmond1000
- pH Control SystemDiunggah olehyogitatanavade
- Digital App NotesDiunggah olehPragathi Tl
- HUAWEI MATE 8 User Guide%28V100R001_02%2CEN%2CNormal%29Diunggah olehAnonymous SWIQDivsZV
- Amantra the Crown Jewel of the New BkcDiunggah olehshalabh2381
- 175-270200Diunggah olehagip77
- F1AUTODiunggah olehnolly
- 105 Half Arrow CatDiunggah olehMarcel Baque
- Audio Revolution Tube Trap ReviewDiunggah olehCons Istituto
- Architecture 11g1Diunggah olehramxza
- Oracle CertificationDiunggah olehAditi Sharma
- D6873.1166550-1Diunggah olehkhudhayer1970
- 10628PDiunggah olehSaketr Bajaj
- NBP-SQGDiunggah olehAtif Ahmad Khan
- 6066_chap01Diunggah olehVipul Saxena