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The McCabe-Thiele method of distillation design is a graphical method of design that dates back to

the early 20th century. It is used as an introductory method to teach the design of distillation and is

still in use today by engineers who design distillation columns. The McCabe-Thiele method

considers binary distillations but can also be used for what are called pseudo-binary mixtures (i.e.

mixtures that are treated as binary by identifying light and heavy key components).

1. Introductory Concepts. The main features of the McCabe-Thiele method are that it:

a.

b.

Is a graphical approach.

c.

d.

e.

Binary Distillation. The easiest way to understand the McCabe-Thiele method is graphically. To do

this, we begin with a slightly more detailed schematic of a distillation column than shown in Fig. 1

of Tutorial I.

This schematic is interpreted as follows: There are N stages in the distillation column including the

reboiler and condenser and they are numbered from bottom to top. A feed mixture enters the column

at some stage f between the top and the bottom and can be liquid, vapor, or a mixture of both. The

collection of trays above the feed stage is called the rectifying section of the distillation column and

distillate product is generally withdrawn from the top of the column. Trays below the feed stage

comprise the stripping section of the column and bottoms product is withdrawn from the reboiler.

Vapor, which is generated by adding heat to the reboiler, flows up the column because the pressure at

the bottom of the column is (slightly) higher than that at the top. Liquid, on the other hand, flows

down the column and is generated by condensing some of the vapor that enters the condenser. The

portion of the liquid from the condenser that is returned to the distillation column is called reflux

while the vapor that is generated in the reboiler is called vapor boil-up.

2. The McCabe-Thiele Method. One of the key features of the McCabe-Thiele method (as well as

other distillation design methods) is that it is assumed that vapor entering from the stage below and

liquid entering from the tray above come in contact with each other and leave any given stage in

equilibrium. Before presenting the equations of the McCabe-Thiele method we illustrate it

graphically for a 50-50 % mixture of saturated liquid ethylene and ethane at 100 psia. We will call

this column a C2 splitter. Finally, we specify the reflux ratio to be r = 3.9. We suggest that you

follow each step by referring to Fig. 2 below.

1.

Draw the yx diagram for the binary mixture of interest at the operating pressure of the

distillation column. Typically y and x refer to the mole fraction of the light component.

2.

3.

Draw the feed line based on the quality (or energy content of the feed). For saturated liquid,

this is a vertical line running from the feed composition through the equilibrium curve. For

saturated vapor, this line is a vertical line from the feed composition to the 45-degree line,

then a horizontal line from the 45-degree line through the equilibrium curve. Other feed

conditions can also be drawn with the aid of a simple equation and will be discussed later in

this tutorial in the section on feed quality.

4.

Place the desired bottoms composition, xB, and the desired distillate composition, xD, on the

x-axis.

5.

For a specified reflux ratio, r, draw the 'rectifying' line. This rectifying line begins at the

point xD on the 45-degree line and has a slope of

r / (r+1).

6.

Draw the 'stripping' line by connecting the intersection of the feed line and the rectifying

line and the point xB on the 45-degree line. The slope of the stripping line is related to r

because r fixes the point of intersection of the rectifying line and the feed line. This

intersection and xB uniquely fix the stripping line and thus its slope. We usually denote the

slope of this line by (s+1) / s where s is the vapor boil-up ratio. In this example, s works out

to be 4.5.

7.

Beginning at the point xD on the rectifying line, draw a horizontal line to the equilibrium

curve and then a vertical line to the operating (rectifying or stripping) line.

8.

Repeat step 7 forming a staircase until you reach or pass the point xB on the 45-degree line.

9.

Each point where the staircase intersects the equilibrium curve denotes one stage in the

column.

We can also begin stepping off stages in any distillation column by starting at the point x B on the 45degree line and moving upward. It is also possible to specify a desired boil-up ratio, s, instead of a

desired reflux ratio, r.

Practice Exercises. Understanding the graphical nature of the McCabe-Thiele method is an

important first step in understanding distillation design. Consider a 30-70 % mixture of ethane and

propane at 150 psia where the feed is saturated liquid at its bubble point. Suppose the desired

bottoms composition is xB = 0.05 and the desired distillate composition is xD = 0.99. Let the boil-up

ratio be specified at s = 2. Answer the following:

1.

Use the McCabe-Thiele graphical procedure and determine the reflux ratio r.

2.

Determine the number of equilibrium stages that are required for this distillation.

3.

Compute the temperatures of the feed, bottoms, and distillate by determining their

Figure 2

Just press play. (The image requires Adobe Flash Player 8.0 or higher.)

3. Equations of the McCabe-Thiele Method. There are a number of important equations that come

from the McCabe-Thiele method that are related to mass and energy balancing. These equations

include the operating lines (i.e. rectifying and stripping lines), the feed line, the relationship between

reflux ratio and boil-up ratio, and the determination of heating and cooling requirements.

Mass Balance Considerations. Mass balancing is an important part of distillation column design,

analysis, and simulation. Suppose we return to our C2 splitter illustration, which is fed with 100

lbmol/h of a 50-50 % mixture of ethane and ethylene, has a feed that is saturated liquid at its bubble

point, and operates at 100 psia. The desired composition of the bottoms product is xB = 0.05 and the

composition of the distillate is xD = 0.98. We now illustrate how mass balancing determines the

rectifying and stripping lines in the McCabe-Thiele method.

Operating Lines. Go back to Fig. 1 and draw an imaginary (mass balance) box that encloses the

reboiler and all stages up to and including stage j in the bottom section of the column so that only the

bottoms product and the streams entering or leaving stage j cross this imaginary box. This imaginary

box is often called a mass balance envelope. If we now write a total mass balance for this imaginary

box we get

Lj+1 = Vj + B

(2.1)

If we also write a component mass balance for ethylene, which we will call component 1, we get

Lj+1xj+1 = Vjyj + BxB

(2.2)

yj = [Lj+1 / Vj] xj+1 [B / Vj] xB

(2.3)

Now let's use Eq. 2.1 to eliminate Lj+1 from Eq. 2.3. To do this simply substitute Vj + B for Lj+1 in Eq.

2.3. This gives

yj = [(Vj + B) / Vj] xj+1 [B / Vj] xB

(2.4)

If we define s, the stripping or boil-up ratio, to be s = V/B, then Eq. 2.4 can be re-written as

yj = [1 + B / Vj] xj+1 [B / Vj] xB = [1 + 1 / s] xj+1 [1 / s] xB

(2.5)

Finally, we can substitute s/s for 1 in the first term on the far right of Eq. 2.5 and get

yj = [(s + 1) / s] xj+1 [1 / s] xB

which is called the stripping line. Now it is important for you to see that the slope of this line is

(2.6)

(s+1)/s and that it intersects the 45-degree line at the point xB. First, we consider Eq. 2.6 to define yj

as a function of xj+1. Thus Eq. 2.6 can be written in the familiar form y = mx + b. If you then

compare Eq. 2.6 to y = mx + b, the slope is (s+1)/s. Understanding why Eq. 2.6 intersects the 45degree line at xB is a little harder. Here you must realize that intersecting the 45-degree line at xB

means yj = xj+1 = xB. So if we set yj = xB in Eq. 2.6 and do some simple algebra we should get that xj+1

= xB.

Let's do that.

xB = [(s + 1) / s] xj+1 [1 / s] xB

Adding [1 / s]xB to each side of Eq. 2.7 gives us

[1 + 1/s] xB = [(s + 1) / s] xj+1

(2.7)

(2.8)

However, from Eq. 2.5 we know that the last term in Eq. 2.8 can also be written as [1 + 1/s]x j+1.

Therefore, Eq. 2.8 can be written as

[1 + 1/s] xB = [1 + 1/s] xj+1

(2.9)

By dividing both sides of Eq. 2.9 by [1 + 1/s], we see that xj+1 = xB.

Practice Exercises. To strengthen your mass balancing skills, answer the following.

1.

Mimic the analysis we have just done to show that the equation for the rectifying line in the

top section of the distillation column is

yj = [r / (r+1)] xj+1 + [1 / (r+1)] xD, where r = L/D.

2.

Show that this rectifying line intersects the 45-degree line at xD.

Energy Considerations in the McCabe-Thiele Method. Remember we said that distillation can

use large amounts of energy. This energy is supplied in the form of heat to the reboiler and cooling

to the condenser. Although it's not obvious, the McCabe-Thiele method does take into account

energy considerations in an approximate way through the boil-up and reflux ratios s and r

respectively. The definition of s is s = V/B where B is the bottoms product flow rate and V is the

flow of vapor from the reboiler. Using a total mass balance around the reboiler (see Fig. 1) we see

that the total amount of liquid material entering the reboiler is

L=V+B

(2.10)

Since liquid bottoms B and vapor V both leave the reboiler, V represents the amount of entering

liquid L that is vaporized by adding heat. We can express this portion in terms of the boil-up ratio s

as follows. Dividing both sides of Eq. 2.10 by V we get

L/V = 1 + 1/s = (s + 1) / s

(2.11)

V = L[s / (s+1)]

(2.12)

which shows that V is just L multiplied by the fraction s/(s+1). Note that s/(s+1) must lie between 0

and 1. For s = 0, there is not vapor flow since Ls = 0 and this is consistent with the fact that s = V/B

= 0 means V = 0. For s = 0.5, the amount of vapor is V = [0.5/1.5]L = L/3 . This says the vapor flow

is one third that of the liquid flow to the reboiler when s = V/B = 0.5. Note that it also says (by mass

balance) that B = 2V. Double checking these results with the overall mass balance for the reboiler

shows that

L = V + B = L/3 + 2V = L/3 + 2L/3 = L

so everything is fine.

As s increases, the amount of vapor increases from a minimum of 0 when s = 0 to a maximum of L

when s = infinity, s/(s+1) = 1, and B = 0.

Now that we have a way to calculate the vapor rate V, we can also compute the heat energy needed

to generate that vapor. To calculate the heat required, we need to first determine the heat of

vaporization of the bottoms product. To do this, we need the heats of vaporization of both

components in our mixture and we must also use a very common engineering approximation of

weight averaging. Suppose we denote the heat of vaporization of ethylene in our example by l1 and

the heat of vaporization of ethane by l2. The bottoms product has a composition xB, where xB is the

mole fraction of ethylene since it is the light component. Thus the mole fraction of ethane in the

bottom product is (1 xB). Calculating the heat of vaporization of the bottoms product by weight

averaging means that we use the following simple formula:

B = xB 1 + (1 xB) 2

(2.13)

where B is used to denote the heat of vaporization of the bottoms product. The amount of heat

required in the reboiler, which we denote by QR, can now be calculated using the equation

QR = VB

(2.14)

We can also determine the amount of cooling required in the condenser in much the same way that

we just determined the heating requirements for the reboiler. To do this we can simply use the weight

averaging formula

D = xD 1 + (1 xD) 2

(2.15)

where here D is the heat of vaporization of the distillate product, xD is the composition of ethylene

in the distillate product, and (1 xD) is the composition of ethane in the distillate. The amount of

cooling can be calculated using the formula

QC = VD

(2.16)

where V is the amount of vapor entering the condenser or the vapor from stage N-1. Note that this

assumes that all of the vapor stream entering the condenser is condensed and then split into liquid

reflux and liquid distillate.

Practice Exercises.

1.

Calculate the heat of vaporization of the bottoms and distillate products for the C2 splitter

2.

Determine the amount of heat required in the reboiler for a specified stripping ratio of s =

4.5.

3.

Energy Balances and CMO Behavior. There is a subtle but important energy consideration that is

associated with constant molar overflow.

Stages Other Than Feed Stages. For any distillation stage, say stage j, without an external feed

stream, CMO implies that

Lj+1 = Lj

(2.17)

Vj-1 = Vj

(2.18)

These equations result by drawing an imaginary energy balance envelope around any single stage in

the rectifying or stripping sections of the distillation column other than a feed stage as shown in

Fig. 3 in combination with some physical approximation.

Lj+1

Vj

Lj

Vj-1

Equations 2.17 and 2.18 can be interpreted physically by saying that CMO means that the heats of

vaporization of both components are equal. What this also means is that the amount of vapor

condensed at stage j is exactly balanced by the amount of liquid boiled at stage j resulting in no net

change in liquid or vapor entering and leaving stage j. Now this is not necessarily a good assumption

and can cause students to question the reliability of the McCabe-Thiele method. However, in many

cases the CMO assumption provides a reasonable approximation.

Quick Exercises. Determine how reasonable the CMO assumption is by answering the following:

1.

2.

3.

Repeat questions 1 and 2 for acetone and water assuming the same product compositions as

were used in the C2 splitter.

Feed Stages. The energy balance considerations around any stage that has an external feed must

take into account the thermal quality (or energy content) of the feed stream. By this we mean that the

energy content of the feed could be any of the following:

1.

2.

3.

A mixture of vapor and liquid (see the Txy diagrams from Tutorial I).

4.

5.

We use the symbol q to denote the feed quality, where q = LF/F and is the fraction of feed that is

liquid. Thus immediately we see that for saturated liquid, q = 1. For saturated vapor, q = 0. For a

mixture of liquid and vapor feed, 0 < q < 1. For sub-cooled liquid feed, q > 1 and for super-heated

vapor feed, q < 0.

1.

Saturated Liquid Feed. For saturated liquid feed at its bubble point temperature,

approximate energy balance considerations with the CMO assumption given the following

equations.

Lj+1 + F = Lj

2.

Vj-1 = Vj

3.

Saturated Vapor Feed. For vapor feed at its dew point we get a different set of equations

resulting from energy balance approximation. Here the equations are

Lj+1 = Lj

4.

Vj-1 = Vj + F

5.

A Mixture of Vapor and Liquid Feed. In this case, we must either know the feed quality

or determine it. Nonetheless, since 0 < q < 1, we get the following approximate energy

balance results for a feed that is a mixture of liquid and vapor.

Lj+1 = Lj + qF

6.

Vj-1 = Vj + (1 - q)F

7.

Sub-Cooled Liquid Feed. To determine the heat effects of sub-cooled liquid, we must

know how sub-cooled the liquid is; therefore, we must know its temperature. Once we

know the feed temperature, we can then compare it to the bubble and dew point

temperatures of the feed to calculate a value of q using the formula

q = 1 [TF Tbp] / [Tdp Tbp]

8.

where TF is the temperature of the sub-cooled liquid feed. This equation is correct since for

any sub-cooled liquid feed, TF < Tbp and therefore the second term in Eq. 2.25 is actually

positive making q > 1.

9.

Super-Heated Vapor Feed. Equation 2.15 can also be used for determining q for any

super-heated vapor. Note in this case, TF > Tdp and therefore the second term in Eq. 2.25 is

actually negative and less than -1 making q < 0.

Now it is important to understand that Eqs. 2.23, 2.24, and 2.25 actually apply to all five cases of

feed quality. This is nice because then only one set of equations can be used to perform

approximated energy balance calculations and their impact on the changes in liquid and vapor flow

at any stage with an external feed.

Practice Exercises. In order to better understand Eqs. 2.23, 2.24, and 2.25, answer the following:

1.

For the C2 splitter example, determine the temperature of the saturated liquid feed. What do

you get for a value of q using Eq. 2.25?

2.

Suppose this feed was sub-cooled by 1.5 K. What would be the value of q?

3.

Suppose the feed was saturated vapor. What would be the value of q?

4.

What is the thermal quality of a feed that is at a temperature halfway between its bubble

point and dew point temperatures?

5.

q or the Slope of the Feed Line. To connect the previous discussions of approximate energy

balance, thermal quality of the feed and the McCabe-Thiele Method, we need to show that Eq. 2.25

together with the definition of q = LF/F can be placed on a McCabe-Thiele plot and make sense. For

this we need to understand that q is related to the slope of the feed line. This calculation of q is very

convenient and allows us to draw the feed line properly from the intersection of a vertical line drawn

from the feed composition and the 45-degree line.

Mathematically, the slope of the feed line is given by the simple equation

q / [q 1]

If you think about this for a minute and go back to your calculations for q, you will see that

(2.26)

1.

For a saturated liquid feed, q = 1 and the slope of the feed line is infinity. The feed line is a

vertical line.

2.

For saturated vapor feed, q = 0 and the slope of the feed line is also zero. The feed line is

horizontal and goes toward the equilibrium line in this case.

3.

For a mixture of liquid and vapor, 0 < q < 1 and the slope of the feed line is negative. The

feed line is a line between vertical and horizontal with a negative slope that goes toward the

equilibrium line.

4.

For sub-cooled liquid, q > 1 and the slope of the feed line is positive but less than infinity.

5.

For super-heated vapor, q < 0 and the slope of the feed line is also positive.

Quick Exercise. For the results from the last set of practice exercises, draw the feed line for

saturated liquid, saturated vapor, a mixture of liquid and vapor, sub-cooled liquid, and super-heated

vapor feed.

Energy Balance Relationship Between Reflux Ratio and Boil-up Ratio. Using an energy balance

around the entire distillation column, sometimes called an overall energy balance, it is possible to

show that the reflux ratio r and the boil-up ratio s are related by the following equation

s = (r + q)[xF xD] / [xB xF] + q 1

(2.27)

Thus the amount of vapor generated in the reboiler is tied to the amount of vapor condensed in the

condenser, which makes sense.

Summary Practice Exercises. Answer the following questions in order to practice what you have

learned in this second tutorial by considering the separation of propylene and propane (a C3 splitter)

at 200 psia. Let the feed be a 50-50 mol % mixture of saturated vapor and have a flow rate of 100

lbmol/h, xD = 0.99, and xB = 0.01. Also let the reflux ratio be r = 3.5.

1.

Make a yx plot for propylene and n-propane including the 45-degree line.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Calculate the boil-up ratio and make sure it is consistent with that shown on your McCabeThiele diagram.

6.

How much heat must be supplied to the reboiler for this separation to be performed as you

have designed it?

7.

8.

What are the liquid and vapor flow rates in the rectifying and stripping sections of the

distillation column?

9.

How many more stages would be required if we wanted product compositions of xD = 0.999

and xB = 0.001?

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