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Nuclear Reactor Safety & Rooppur

Nuclear Reactor Safety & Rooppur

Abdul Matin

Although safety, safeguards and security are normally synonymous, nuclear safety, nuclear
safeguards and nuclear security are used in completely different contexts in the nuclear industry.
Because of the obvious similarity, many people, including policy makers, civil servants and
journalists, often use the terms inappropriately.

Nuclear safety prevents or limits the release of harmful nuclear radiations from any nuclear
facility into the atmosphere in normal or accidental conditions in order to protect the workers, the
public and also the environment. The objective of nuclear safeguards is to deter the proliferation
of nuclear weapons. The IAEA is mandated by the UN Security Council to implement nuclear
safeguards to ensure that no nuclear material or any facility is used for military purposes.
Nuclear security implies the physical protection of nuclear facilities and materials to prevent any
willful damage or theft by any person or groups including terrorist organizations.

Nuclear safety had been the central issue of nuclear reactor design since the inception of nuclear
power. The initial safety concepts were centered on the protection of the reactor workers from
the harmful effects of nuclear radiation and the containment of any radioactivity, released
accidentally from the reactor. In nuclear reactor safety, a defense in depth approach has been
adopted as a standard method to ensure safety. The concept is applied in practice through the
following procedures:

Prevention of failures and accidents through conservative design and high level of
quality control in manufacture, construction, erection and operational procedures;
Limiting the effects of failures through early detection and appropriate protective

Application of engineered safety features for limiting accidents within design basis;

Controlling the plant under severe accident condition and mitigation of the

Mitigation of consequences of significant releases of radioactive materials through offsite emergency response.

The design concept incorporates two main safety features, namely (i) the prevention of any loss
of coolant accidents and (ii) use of multiple barriers to prevent the leakage of radioactive
materials from the core.

A nuclear reactor generates substantial heat even after shutdown due to a high level of
radioactivity inside the core. All power reactors are provided with normal and emergency core
cooling systems to remove this heat, known as residual heat, after the rectors are shut down.
Normally storage batteries and emergency diesel generators are used to supply power to the
emergency core cooling systems in absence of any external power supply. The generation-III
reactors incorporate passive safety systems that come into operation without the requirement of
any action by the operator. The driving force for the core cooling system is provided by gravity,
temperature difference (convection flow) and gas accumulators. All these features make these
reactors safer than generation-II reactors.

A nuclear reactor incorporates multiple barriers to prevent the release of radioactivity into the
atmosphere. The first barrier is the ceramic fuel pellet where nuclear fissions take place and
energy is released. The pellet retains most of the fission products, the main source of
radioactivity. The second barrier is a sealed metal tube called the cladding that contains the fuel
pellets. The cladding retains any gaseous radioactive material that may leak out of the fuel
pellets. The third barrier is the closed primary cooling system in a PWR that circulates through
the core and carries the heat to the steam generator. The closed cooling system will contain any
radioactivity that may leak out of the cladding. The last barrier is the containment building
designed to hold any radioactivity that may leak out of the primary cooling system through any
accidental rupture. It is a thick (about a meter) dome like concrete structure that is built
surrounding a nuclear reactor. It is usually designed to withstand the impact of a fully loaded
wide-bodied jet plane. The pressure inside the containment building is maintained below the
atmospheric pressure so that no radioactivity can leak out of the building. It is possible to build
an additional steel containment close to the inner surface of the concrete containment to provide
additional tensile strength. In the case of any serious accident involving any release of
radioactivity into the atmosphere, emergency measures are taken to relocate residents from the
affected areas to a safe zone to avoid any exposure of radiation to the public above permissible

The radioactivity both inside and outside the reactor building is constantly monitored to ensure
that the radiation levels are kept within safe limits. The health of each plant operator is kept
under surveillance so that no worker receives any radiation dose above permissible limits.

The design, construction and operation of nuclear reactors are regulated by an independent
nuclear regulatory authority. It monitors all nuclear facilities including reactors through all
phases of design, construction and operation in order to ensure adherence to a set of safety
regulations for the protection of the plant operators, the public and the environment.

The construction of a nuclear plant cannot start without a construction permit issued by the
regulatory body after thorough evaluation and approval of the preliminary safety analysis report
prepared by the plant owner. Similarly, the fuel loading of the reactor takes place only after
evaluation and approval of the final safety analysis report. All reactor operators are licensed by
the regulatory authority after rigorous written, oral and simulator tests. They are periodically
examined for renewal of their licenses. For enforcement of nuclear safety, national safety
standards and codes are followed. If national safety standards and codes are not available or not
adequate, the IAEA or US NRC safety standards and codes may be followed..

It should be emphasized that nuclear safety does not depend only on engineered safety systems.
Strict quality control in construction, operation and maintenance of nuclear reactors, handling,
storage and transportation of nuclear materials and enforcement of nuclear regulations play very
important roles in nuclear safety.

To ensure the safety of the proposed Rooppur Nuclear Power Plant, we need to perform several
essential tasks. First, we should build the safest reactor available. If we buy from the Russians,
our best choice would be two VVER-1200 reactors, preferably with European safety,
instrumentation and control (I&C) systems. Second, we should develop a team of highly
qualified and trained engineers, some with previous experience of construction and operation of
nuclear/conventional power plants, to manage and man the construction management
organization, the nuclear regulatory authority and the operation and maintenance (O&M)
organization- strictly following the IAEA guidebook on Manpower Development for Nuclear
Power (Technical Reports Series No. 200). Third, the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Regulatory
Authority (BAERA) must be allowed to work independently and be accountable to a special
parliamentary committee. Fourth, we should form a separate nuclear power corporation (NPC) to
own, build and operate nuclear power plants. The Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission
should act as a think-tank and provide technical support to the nuclear power corporation (NPC)
and BAERA, as and when necessary.

Abdul Matin;
Former Chief Engineer
Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission &
Author of Rooppur & The Power Crisis.

Nuclear Power Plants: Safety First

Nuclear Power Plants: Safety First
Dr. Eunuse Akon

The major stages during the life time of a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) are: siting, design,
construction, commissioning, operation and de-commissioning. The safety of a Nuclear Power
Plant depends upon a number of factors- intrinsic and external to the plant. Proposed site shall be
adequately investigated with regard to all the site characteristics that could be significant to
safety in natural and human induced external events. An important stage for the development of a
Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is the selection of a suitable site by studying various site
characteristics to establish the site-related design inputs for the plant. Safety of a NPP is very
much dependent on the characterization of the site which include geological, seismological,
geotechnical, engineering, hydrological, meteorological and other relevant aspects. The
methodology of site evaluation consists of systematically collecting all the relevant information
on each particular characteristic of the site. It is necessary first to study each aspect in general for
the whole region, then in detail for the site vicinity and the site itself. There are different
national, international and IAEA standards which are applicable for siting. The responsible
organization needs to have sufficient competence and expertise to direct the investigations
complying the applicable standards especially in the areas of: Geology(expertise in tectonics of
the quaternary), seismology, soil mechanics, flooding, hydrology(expertise in evaluation of
extreme events and in dispersion in water) meteorology(expertise in evaluation of extreme events
and in dispersion in air), emergency planning, radiological protection, nuclear safety,
environmental and ecological effects. Like any other facilities, nuclear power plants are also
designed to withstand the loading effects due to hazards from external events. The magnitude of
such loads for design of NPP is termed as design basis which is derived based on more stringent
criteria compared to other conventional facilities. Siting is the process of selecting a suitable site
including appropriate assessment and derivation of the related design bases. Siting process
involves two basic stages site survey and site evaluation Activities during site survey stage are
identification of prospective locations, collection of information/data related to factors affecting

site selection. Site evaluation involves demonstration of acceptability of the site using the related
information/data and satisfying established criteria for selection of NPP sites.

The aim of this article is to present the requirements and characteristics for the nuclear power
plant site selection. Safety of the plant personnel, public and the environment from radiological
hazard is the most important consideration for siting of nuclear power plants. Escape of
radioactive material largely depends on site characteristics .The design and operation of nuclear
power plants aims to diminish the likelihood of accidents, and avoid major human consequences
when they occur. Siting factors and criteria are important in assuring that radiological doses from
normal operation and postulated accidents will be acceptably low. The site characteristics
investigation is mandatory for obtaining license from the nuclear regulatory body for siting and
construction of NPP.

Physical characteristics such as geological, hydrogeological, seismological, geotechnical
(engineering) and meteorological data of the site have a bearing on the consequences of an
escape of radioactive material from the facility. These site characteristics must be investigated in
sufficient scope and detail to provide adequate information to support evaluations to arrive at
estimates of the effects of surface faulting, effects of vibratory ground motion that may affect the
design and operation of the proposed nuclear power plant; and adequate basis for selection of an
Operating Basis Earthquake (OBE) and Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE); and to permit
adequate engineering solutions to actual or potential geologic and seismic effects at the proposed
site; providing reasonable assurance that a nuclear power plant can be constructed and operated
at a proposed site without undue risk to the health and safety of the plant personnel and public. If
vibratory ground motion exceeding that of the Operating Basis Earthquake occurs, shutdown of
the nuclear power plant will be required.

The characteristics of the site need to be investigated are: regional geology and site geology,
physiography, topographic features, site foundation materials, geologic history & stratigraphy,
structural geology & tectonic settings comprising folds, faults ( any part of which is within 400
Kms of the site and which may be of significance in establishing the Safe Shutdown Earthquake,
determination of whether these faults are to be considered as capable faults), relationship of the
fault to regional tectonic structures; fault geometry and slip rates, surface faulting concerning the
nature, amount, and geologic history of displacements along the fault, particularly the estimated
amount of the maximum Quaternary displacement related to any one earthquake along the fault;
non-tectonic deformation, lineaments, earthquake recurrence rates, maximum magnitude,
correlation of epicentres or locations of highest intensity of historically reported earthquakes
with capable faults greater than 1000 feet long, any part of which is located within 5 miles of the
site; maximum earthquake potential, liquefaction potential, vibratory ground motion, peak
ground motion, ground motion attenuation; the size of seismically induced floods and water

waves that could affect a site from either locally or distantly generated seismic activity; potential
for slope instability such as land and rock slides that could affect the safety of the plant.
Investigations on engineering (geotechnical) properties should include: drilling and sampling of
bore-holes CPT soundings, SPT blow count values, static and dynamic soil properties of the site,
compressibility and strength characteristics, soil gradation, plasticity, consistency, moisture
condition, dry density, P and S wave suspension logging tests, shear modulus, material damping
ratio with shearing strain amplitude in order to determine the response of the site to the SSE
ground motion, expected maximum seismically induced shearing stresses, resonant column and
torsional shear tests, extent of liquefiable (non-cohesive) materials and methods for ground
improvement (excavation, back filling & others).

The safety of the plant depends among others on seismic ground motion. The various
uncertainties and randomness associated with the occurrence of earthquakes and the
consequences of their effects on the NPP components and structures call for a Probabilistic
Seismic Risk Assessment (PSRA). Deterministic approach considers the maximum earthquake
on the fault at the nearest place to the site producing the maximum vibratory acceleration at the
site shall be designated the Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE). Methods that include a
combination of deterministic and probabilistic considerations are also used, and are called
combined approaches. The design basis ground motion of a site is generally specified in terms of
the peak ground acceleration (PGA), ground motion response spectral shapes and ground motion
time history. The maximum vibratory ground acceleration of the Operating Basis Earthquake
(OBE) shall be at least one-half the maximum vibratory ground acceleration of the Safe
Shutdown Earthquake. The seismic design for values above approximately 0.26g is very
expensive and the cost increases more than linearly with the severity of the ground shaking. For
this reason, sites are preferred where the ground motion against which the plant has to be
protected (design basis earthquake) is less severe. A complete study of the seism tectonics of the
region, to identify the structure causing the earthquakes and collection of historical data on past
earthquakes, and instrumental data referring to more recent times are required for determining
the Design Basis Earthquake (DBE).

Where unfavourable physical characteristics of the site exist, the proposed site may nevertheless
be found to be acceptable if the design of the facility includes appropriate and adequate
compensating engineering safeguards.

Meteorological Characteristics: The extreme values of the meteorological events like

tornadoes, cyclones, wind speed, precipitation, waterspout, lightning, drought, sandstorm, air
temperature, storm surges, tsunami, sea water level over a minimum period of 50 years in the
region shall be investigated by analysis to be basis in the proposed design of the plant. A region
with the radius of 150 km should be considered for data collection purpose for tornadoes and
waterspouts. The design basis physical parameters should be identified.

Release of Radioactivity: The radioactivity released from the plant in normal and accidental
conditions should be evaluated. For this reason it is necessary to take into account the site
characteristics regarding dispersion of radioactivity in the atmosphere and in surface and
groundwater. It can then be established whether the engineering safety features of the plant are
adequate for the population distribution around the plant. An appropriate model for the diffusion
of airborne material at the site has to be developed. To evaluate the possible impact of the plant
regarding release in the hydrosphere, the water uses near the plant have to be analysed and the
characteristics of the site for dispersion of radioactive material in water have to be assessed.
Investigation are required to evaluate a suitable model for dispersion in surface and groundwater.
Special precautions should be planned if a reactor is to be located at a site where a significant
quantity of radioactive effluent might accidentally flow into nearby streams or rivers. Emergency
planning zone is required to be such size that an an individual assumed to be located at any point
on its boundary would not receive an effective dose in excess of 10 mSv over 2-day period.

In principle, the site should not be in areas where the flood is susceptible to occur. A nuclear
power plant has to be protected against floods due to severe precipitation, failure of water
retaining structures like dam, dyke, embankments or combination of events. At the start of the
site survey, usually maps showing historical floods in the region are used to identify the areas
which were particularly affected by simplified and empirical methods; the sites less affected by
floods may be identified. A nuclear power plant has to be protected from the static and dynamic
effects of flooding. Therefore, an appropriate design basis flood has to be evaluated for the site.

Potential impacts to the plant should be determined with regard to the facilities such as chemical
plants, oil refineries, mines, military facilities, ports, docks and airports, oil and gas pipelines etc.
within 10 km or even more of the site where certain activities with strong explosives,
ammunitions, chemicals or liquids and gas fuels may represent risks through chemical explosion,
drifting of poisonous or explosive gas mixture, air crashes. Other impacts of the events such as
missile impacts on plant should be taken into account for potential circumstances. The region is
to be investigated to identify installations and human activities to ensure that the site of the
nuclear power plant is not within dangerous distance.

It is difficult to establish the criteria for evaluating the suitability of the population distribution
around a site. They differ from country to country. During assessment, the general level of socioeconomic development, and the transportation and communication systems(important in an
emergency), overall population density of the region are considered in addition to the

characteristics of the reactor and of the site. The population distribution around a nuclear power
plant should be such as to allow a workable emergency plan to be established. It would be
difficult to put an emergency plan into action if a large number of people have to be evacuated in
a short time. So, the preference is given for areas of low population density and for sites at a
considerable distance from main towns.

The regulatory authority establishes the standards for site characteristics (geology, seismology,
hydrology, capable & surface faulting, meteorology etc.) and the design bases for Operation
Basis Earthquake, Safe Shutdown Earthquake & various extreme events according to which the
site will be Evaluated and reviewed. The site evaluation group collects all relevant information,
performs a critical analysis, develops the design basis for the critical events and the models for
dispersion in air and water, performs all special studies and obtains all the results and data
needed for evaluating the site. All results are included in a site report to be presented to the
regulatory authority. The regulatory authority reviews the applicants site report and issue the site
approval. A check should be made to ensure that no relevant safety-related site characteristics
have been overlooked. Before approving the site, the regulatory authority might require
additional studies or information from the applicant.

The site is deemed unsuitable if certain site characteristics are identified which cannot be
compensated by means of design features and protection measures such as the deficiencies with
respect to - the effects of natural and human induced external events on the proposed site area;
presence of characteristics that could influence escape of radioactive material to the people and
environment; population distribution and intensity, and other site characteristics which may
affect implementation of emergency measures. In the analysis to determine the suitability of the
site, consideration shall be given to additional matters relating to safety such as the storage and
transport of input and output materials, fresh and spent fuel and radioactive wastes. Other
characteristics related to socio-economic or cultural aspects; effects on the archaeological or
aesthetic conditions of the site area need to be considered.

The basic requirements for sitting of a nuclear power plant are: Integration of the plant to the
electric grid, assurance of cooling water supplies and service water availability. A nuclear power
plant needs to be as close as possible to load centres in order to minimize on electricity
transmission costs and to reduce power losses. The nuclear power plant requires adequate and
reliable start up power, which is another factor to be taken account.Assurance of adequate
cooling water supply for emergency and long-term shutdown decay heat removal shall be
considered in the design of the nuclear power plant. Consideration of river blockage or diversion
or other failures which may block the flow of cooling water and failure of dams and similar

structures shall be included in the evaluation where appropriate. In addition, water quality and
temperature are also to be considered. The quantity of water required will depend mainly upon
the system of cooling adopted (once-through cooling or recirculation with cooling towers and/or
cooling ponds.), the heat output of the plant to be dissipated, and the ambient conditions.
Adequate communication links should be available at the site. Transportation routes are
necessary for conveying the large and heavy equipment of the nuclear power plant to the site. In
this context, the existing and planned roads, waterways and railroads have to be available with
respect to adequacy for the sizes and weights of the plant equipment to be transported from the
manufacturing plants or from the port of entry into the country.

NPPs have demonstrated their robustness and ability to withstand some beyond design basis
severe natural events and then be able to return to operation. The magnitude of some beyond
design basis severe natural events were much greater than expected. It is time to redefine the
nuclear regulatory process and develop a more effective approach for assuring that nuclear safety
functions can be accomplished so that nuclear power plants can cope with events and
combinations of events that exceed the traditional design basis.

Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) is entrusted with the responsibility to
implement the nuclear power program in the country. Necessity for building a Nuclear Power
Plant was first perceived in 1961 and the Rooppur site on the eastern bank of the river Padma in
Pabna district about 160 km north of Dhaka was selected for the NPP in 1963. Since then,
several feasibility studies have affirmed the techno-economic viability of the NPP project.
Bangladesh government expressed its firm commitment to build Rooppur Nuclear Power Plant in
1999. Bangladesh has framework agreements for peaceful nuclear energy applications with the
US, France and China. More recently, in 2001 Bangladesh adopted a national Nuclear Power
Action Plan. On 24 June 2007, Bangladesh's government announced plans to build a nuclear
power plant to meet electricity shortages. Russia, China and South Korea had earlier offered
financial and technical help to establish nuclear power. In March 2009 Russia made a formal
proposal to build a nuclear power plant in Bangladesh.

In May 2010, Bangladesh signed a civilian nuclear agreement with Russia providing a legal basis
for nuclear cooperation in areas such as siting, design, construction, operation, decommissioning
of nuclear reactors; and radioactive waste management. In February 2011 Bangladesh signed an
agreement with Russian state nuclear company Rosatom, for two 1000 MWe class reactors to
meet rapidly increasing electricity demand. Rosatom's AtomStroyExport division will act as the
contractor, while the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission will be the customer. Russia is to
build Bangladesh's first nuclear power plant at Rooppur, Pabna under an intergovernmental
cooperation agreement signed in Dhaka on 02 November 2011 which is estimated to cost more
than US$2 billion, and expected to start operating by 2020. All nuclear fuel will be provided by

Rosatom, and all the used fuel is to be repatriated to Russia, in line with standard Russian policy
for non-nuclear-weapons states.

In February 2012 the Ministry of Science and Technology signed an agreement with Russia's
Rostechnadzor related to regulation and safety and the provision of advisory support to the
Bangladesh Nuclear Regulatory Commission on regulation, licensing and supervision.
During a state visit to Russia by Bangladesh's Prime Minister, Sheikh Hasina, in January 2013,
an agreement was signed with Russia to provide $500 million to finance the preparatory work
such as site surveys, detailed design documentation, personnel training in the fields of nuclear
energy, feasibility studies and environmental impact studies of Bangladesh's first nuclear power
project at Rooppur. A future loan of about $1.5 billion is committed. The IAEA continues its
close involvement with the project. In June 2013, NIAEP-AtomStroyExport signed a contract
with BAEC to prepare documentation related to construction and environmental impact
assessment for the plant; and provide necessary engineering studies. NIAEP-AtomStroyExport
was established in March 2012, bringing together power plant designer Nizhny Novgorod
Atomenergoproekt with AtomStroyExport, the Russian state company responsible for overseas
construction of nuclear power plants. Another agreement for major site works to prepare for first
concrete is expected. On 29 May 2013 Bangladesh's prime minister declared that a nuclear
power plant will also be constructed in southern region of the country in an inland river island.
The foundation stone for the Rooppur nuclear power plant has been laid by Bangladesh Prime
Minister Sheikh Hasina in presence of Rosatom Head Sergei Kiryenko on 03 October 2013.
Bangladesh Atomic Energy Regulatory Authority (BAERA) an independent regulatory body has
been established in 2012 to ensure the safety measures in all the activities related with the
Installation of NPP in conformity with the international standards.

An Integrated Nuclear Infrastructure Review (INIR) mission from the International Atomic
Agency (IAEA) to Bangladesh in 2011 concluded that the country had made notable progress in
its nuclear infrastructure development, and recognised the country's strong expertise in
safeguards, security and radiation protection. Bangladesh has had a safeguards agreement in
force with the IAEA since 1982, and an Additional Protocol in force since 2001.The country has
worked steadily towards the goal of using nuclear power to help meet its rapidly increasing
energy demand and reduce dependence on natural gas.

Nuclear power does have advantages. One of the main characteristics of the nuclear power
generation is that a huge amount of energy can be obtained out of a little fuel which is easier to
handle involving less transportation hassle. Uranium Ore is used as nuclear fuel for power

generation by the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) through the process of refinement, conversion,
enrichment and fabrication. Most nuclear power plants use uranium-235 as their fuel, in a
concentration of around 4% to 5% enrichment, in combination with uranium-238, at 96% to
95%. Nuclear power generation has the advantage of using uranium as fuel repeatedly which is
not possible in case of fossil fuels. The fuel which is burnt in the reactor (spent fuel) is reborn as
fuel through reprocessing, which is called the nuclear fuel cycle. They offer a reliable source
of power that does not cause pollution like fossil fuels do. As the fuel is not burned, nuclear
energy doesn't release greenhouse gases into the environment, however it has its own nuclear
waste to deal with. The waste is relatively compact, and can be recycled to a great extent. A 1000
MW nuclear plant will produce about 20 tons of waste a year, while a 1,000 MW coal power
plant will produce about 5,330,000 tons of carbon dioxide a year. Once built, the fuel costs are
lower than for fossil fuels and more stable over a period of years. Nuclear power plants don't
require a lot of space. Modern reactors have two to ten times more efficiency than the old
generation reactors. New reactor types have been designed to make it physically impossible to
melt down. As the core gets hotter the reaction gets slower, hence a run-away reaction leading to
a melt-down is not possible. Nuclear power has a much better safety record than those of fossil
fuelled plants.

Nuclear Power Plant is more expensive than any other source of energy widely used
commercially (although not compared to the cost per energy unit produced).There are safety
concerns if the plant is not operated correctly or conditions arise that were unforeseen when the
plant was developed, as happened at the Fukushima plant in Japan; the core melted down
following an earthquake and tsunami. The plant was not designed to handle such situation
despite the world's strongest earthquake codes. The hazardous waste is dangerous if it escapes
into the environment. The same applies to any release of contamination through accident or
design flaws. The waste and by-products represent a threat to world safety if obtained by
terrorists. Nuclear power can be used to build nuclear bombs. The spent fuel is highly radioactive
and has to be carefully stored for many years after use. The cost of decommissioning a nuclear
plant is enormous.

Currently, 434 nuclear power reactors with a total capacity of 374348 MWe are operable
(connected to the grid) in 33 countries of the world ; 72 reactors are under construction (176338
Mwe gross; and 173 reactors (188755 Mwe gross) are planned (approvals, funding or major
commitment in place, mostly expected in operation within 8-10 years;) which includes two
reactors of 2000 Mwe capacity in Bangladesh. Reactors which are being constructed and planned
not only in the developed countries but also in the developing countries like Argentina, Belarus,
Brazil, Egypt, Vietnam, Turkey. It is completely wrong to say nuclear power program is suitable
only for the developed and advanced country. Nuclear power is under serious consideration in
over 45 countries ranging from sophisticated economies to developing nations including
Bangladesh which do not currently have it. Bangladesh is now recognized as one of the

Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries who has signed contracts and developing legal & regulatory
infrastructure. According to the IAEAs assessment by its Integrated Nuclear Infrastructure
Review (INIR) missions in different countries newcomer seven countries namely Lithuania,
UAE, Turkey, Belarus, Vietnam, Poland, and Bangladesh appear likely candidates to launch
nuclear programs in the near term.

Increasing access to electricity and at the same time reduction in carbon dioxide emission has
become a great challenge of our time which is the result of unmindful energy use by the rich
threatening global climate. The risk arising out of global climate change and rapid depletion of
global fossil fuels is real and substantial. As a solution to this problem nuclear power with its
immense energy potential is an inevitable option to meet the global energy requirements in a
non-polluting and sustainable manner. It is ironic that in spite of its large energy potential with
the capability to meet the worldwide energy needs sustainably and without any significant real
environmental impact, the unfounded misconceptions still dominate and have become
impediments to sustainable development. All of us should recognize our responsibility in this
regard. The share of nuclear energy as a clean energy source is possible and feasible in a manner
that satisfies the imperatives of nuclear safety and security. For the new entrants to the nuclear
industry which are moving towards fuel loading in their first reactor, the World Association of
Nuclear Operators (WANO) offers pre-startup peer reviews as part of its peer review program,
particularly to address the situation of new plants in countries and organizations without previous
nuclear power experience. WANOs goal is to do a pre-startup review on every new nuclear
power plant worldwide. The reviews seek to evaluate how each operating organization is
prepared for startup and make recommendations for improvements based on the collective
experience of the world industry.

Recognizing the important role of nuclear power in meeting the long term energy needs of 160
million people of Bangladesh, high priority has been attached by the government for the
development of nuclear power plant in the country. Government has rightfully decided to set up
the Nuclear Power Plant of 1000 Mw at Rooppur, Pabna with the support of Russian Federation.
Another NPP in the southern part of Bangladesh is under active consideration of the govt. after
the implementation of Rooppur Nuclear Power Plant. The power program of Bangladesh with
the objective of large scale deployment of nuclear power is designed to cater to the long term
energy needs of the country. Bangladesh intends to reach a total nuclear capacity of 4000 MWe
by the year 2030. Power starved Bangladesh needs to switch over from its tremendous
dependence on natural gas and imported petroleum for electricity generation to alternative
sources of energy. Nuclear energy is definitely a better alternative due to the advantages as
mentioned and other factors such as nuclear power is clean with no greenhouse gases; and rate
of nuclear power tariff with a reactors life of ~40 years is more or less the same as that from
coal based thermal power stations. The first NPP will be constructed meeting all the safety
requirements and precautions. It will meet all the international post-Fukushima requirements.
The plant will feature double containment, a passive heat removal system as well as other safety

features. Bangladesh will gain confidence to achieve self-reliance in nuclear fuel cycle through
the implementation of the first nuclear power plant and the further growth of nuclear energy
programme in the country. Constructive discussion regarding any potential risk for implementing
NPP is always welcome to augment the acceptability of countrys first NPP, but the negative
propaganda and misleading information are undesirable.

It is far from truth as some says that people will become insecure if NPP is established at
Rooppur, Pabna. There have been three major reactor accidents in the history of civil nuclear
power - Three Mile Island, Chernobyl and Fukushima. Among them only the Chernobyl accident
caused the death of 57 people. Even the Fukushima Daiichi severe accident did not cause any
direct death which is due to the advancement of capabilities to manage nuclear emergencies now.
In fact thousands got killed in other energy related accidents such as hydroelectric dam failure,
oil & gas explosion, methane explosion, coal mine accidents and so on. Today regulatory
requirements have been made such that even if there is any accident it must be confined to the
plant itself. The safety positions now include a series of physical barriers between the radioactive
core and the environment.

Bangladesh with significant nuclear technological background is prepared to implement nuclear

power program to meet its energy needs and it will definitely succeed in this glorious endeavour;
and thus the long cherished dream to become a Nuclear Energy Country will be fulfilled.
Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission

Nuke Milestones for Bangladesh & Safety Aspect of Rooppur NPP

Nuke Milestones for Bangladesh & Safety Aspect of Rooppur NPP

Dr. Mohammad Shawkat Akbar

Bangladesh has limited indigenous resources. Socio-economic development of the country

largely depends on sustainable and affordable supply of energy and electricity. Presently, the
country is facing a shortfall of about 1000 MW. The unsatisfied demand for electricity is one of
the crucial bottlenecks to the overall development of Bangladesh. The country needs to produce a
huge amount of quality electricity in order to improve the quality of life of its citizen.

Nuclear power is recognized as an environmentally friendly and economically viable option for
generation of electricity. It is a reality that an introduction and expansion of nuclear power
program could help in attaining energy security in terms of adequate supply of electricity,
stability of price and reduction of dependence on high cost power generation based on imported
liquid fuel. Considering the limitation of indigenous resources and the very high energy cost of
imported fuel and other liquid fuel based power generation, Bangladesh government has decided
to embark on nuclear power. International experience suggests that the time from a country
starting to study the possibility of a nuclear power programme to the operation of its first nuclear
power plant (NPP) is about 10 - 15 years. Depending on the resources to be devoted and the
resources available, the Perspective Plan of Bangladesh: 2010 2021 and the Power System
Mater Plan, 2010 (PSMP, 2010) had projected the contribution of NPP in the overall demand.
The share of NPP will be 10% of the total electricity demand by 2021 and about 20% by 2030.
Accordingly, Bangladesh is implementing its first NPP project, the "Rooppur NPP" project
located in the Western Part of the country. The project is targeted to produce about 2000 MW(e)
electricity by 2021 - 22. It has become a reality that in the context of economic growth scenario
of the country, recoverable indigenous energy resources and prevailing energy consumption and
generation pattern, only one nuclear power plant will not be sufficient to meet the increasing
growing demand. Realizing this practical situation, Bangladesh is actively considering building a
second NPP in the Southern Part of the country.

It is obvious that the efforts to develop nuclear power are constrained by political, legal and
regulatory, technical and scientific, commercial and financial factors. The newcomer countries to
NPP often face a series of challenges that require several fundamental initiatives in establishing
well founded infrastructure for construction of the first NPP. Introduction of NPP is 100%
dependent on the national decision and it requires a long term commitment (>100 years) of a
nation. The success of a NPP project requires a clear national position, a strong governmental
initiate and support for building the first NPP and continuous support by the main political
parties and relevant stakeholders. Financing is a major issue in most newcomer countries, huge
investment is needed to meet the costs on the establishment of nuclear infrastructure, pre-project
and NPP construction project development and implementation and also the required costs for
the development and creation of essential conditions for safe, secured and reliable operation and
maintenance the nuclear plant. The development of domestic conditions on safeguards and
verification measures and setting up a system for adequate physical protection and nuclear
security of nuclear materials and nuclear facilities are also of great concerns due to national and
international obligations.

Bangladesh has limited infrastructure, resources, professionals and expertise to prepare necessary
infrastructure for nuclear build. The country has a clear understanding on the requirements for
NPP build according to the IAEA guidelines and national and international obligations.

Recognizing the importance of an appropriate, phased and comprehensive approach to the

development of national nuclear power infrastructure, the country has taken steps required for
establishing national nuclear power infrastructure based on the widely used referring document,
the "Millstones in the Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power" (IAEA
Nuclear Energy Series No. NG-G-3.1). According to this approach, the nuclear infrastructure
development activities can be split into three progressive phases and outlining 19 infrastructure
issues to be addressed in each phase.

From international experiences, it has been well understood that the full understanding of the
national commitments to nuclear power can best be achieved by forming a Nuclear Energy
Program Implementing Organization (NEPIO). The IAEA has clarified the formation of the
NEPIO introduction, as a flexible body which functions in early phase (Phase 1 of the IAEA
Milestones approach) is very critical to make a knowledgeable decision to proceed with the
development of the nuclear power. This body includes the representatives of three key entities:
government, existing/future regulatory body and future NPP owner/operator organization. Due to
the complexity and magnitude of nuclear power, the NEPIO should play the leading role to
define and justify the national strategy for nuclear power and coordinate work on all 19
infrastructure issues in Phase 1with full understanding and realizing of the national commitments
in achieving Milestone 1. The NEPIO needs to exist for coordination in all Phases of nuclear
power program. The NEPIO has different structure in different countries.

Bangladesh established the Nuclear NEPIO based on the IAEA guidelines in 2010. In case of
Bangladesh, the NEPIO is in the form high level Government Committees which establishes a
blanket administrative provision for coordinating the activities on 19 infrastructure issues,
developing policy strategy on "Rooppur NPP" project development and implementation,
monitoring the progress of the project activities and providing recommendations and directives
required for successful implementation of the project. The National Committee chaired by the
Hon'ble Prime Minister has been assigned with the responsibility for providing necessary
directives and policy decisions on nuclear infrastructure program, ownership pattern and project
execution approach, funding mechanism, strategic partnership and development of contract
arrangements for "Rooppur NPP", capacity building and technical competency development,
nuclear safety and regulatory infrastructure development, etc. Besides, the National Committee,
a Technical Committee headed by the State Minister, Ministry of Science and Technology
(MOST) and a Working Group and eight Sub-Groups headed by Secretary, MOST are formed to
coordinate the work on 19 infrastructure issues of the concerned ministries/organizations based
on IAEA Milestones document and review the progress of "Rooppur NPP" project activities.
These Committees (NEPIO for Bangladesh) have given explicit governmental mandate and
functioning under definite terms and responsibilities assigned for. Various policy decisions on
nuclear infrastructure development, "Rooppur NPP" ownership pattern, funding mechanism,
strategic partnership establishment, nuclear safety regulation and regulatory infrastructure
development, human resource development, public education, national grid system development,
heavy equipment transportation planning, etc. were taken in the meetings of the National

Committee and provided necessary directives to the relevant ministries, organizations to expedite
the government decision on implementation of project. The Technical Committee and the
Working Group and Sub-Groups are coordinating activities related to the conditions of all
infrastructure issues and regular monitoring the progress of the project activities. The
Coordination Committee and various Sub-committees of BAEC are dealing with different
technical aspects and providing support and cooperation.

Over the last five years, a significant progress in the development of national nuclear power
infrastructure has been made based on the IAEA Milestones approach and IAEA Safety
Standards through IAEA assistance, which includes among others are: Formation of NEPIO;
Rooppur NPP Project related site resources investigations and preparation of input data for predesign documentation, completion of the base-line EIA study and approval of the ToRs of the
comprehensive EIA for Rooppur NPP construction, selection of type of technology and
establishment of strategic partnership with the vendor country and conclusion of bilateral
agreement, confirmation of Rooppur NPP owner/operator organization, development of
preparatory stage of construction Project and funding mechanism, policy decision on nuclear fuel
cycle and spent fuel management, funding and financing modality, capacity building in nuclear
engineering education and research activities and introduction of nuclear engineering department
in the leading national universities, policy decision on national grid system development ,
establishment of nuclear information centre for public education and stakeholders involvement
system, etc.

Bangladesh is establishing technical and legal requirements for safety, security, safeguards and
civil liability for regulating NPP. However, the legal and regulatory infrastructure for radiation
safety and nuclear security for radiation sources were in placed in the country but recognizing
the complexity of regulating the nuclear power, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Regulatory (BAER)
Act, 2013 has been enacted and the BAER Authority has been established. The core competency
has been developed on nuclear safety regulations.

The IAEA has been conducting the Integrated Nuclear Infrastructure Review (INIR) missions to
review the status of the National Nuclear Infrastructure of the newcomer countries to NPP. The
Agency conducted the INIR mission to Bangladesh in November 2011 which reviewed the 19
issues of Phase 1 and Phase 2. The mission team reviewed the status of Bangladesh nuclear
power infrastructure and concluded that nuclear power of the country in general has progressed
into Phase 2, being in the stage of preparation to negotiate agreement(s) /contract(s) with
selected vendor for construction of Rooppur NPP. A successful Phase 2 requires strong
government commitment. The mission provided recommendations and suggestions for closing
the existing gaps of the nuclear power infrastructure. The mission report helped Bangladesh to
identify the issues and gaps needing further attention. An Integrated Work Plan (IWP) for
Bangladesh Infrastructure Building for the period 2012 - 15 has been developed in consultation

with the IAEA in May, 2012. All possible activities and programs correspond to each
recommendation and suggestions in each 19 infrastructure elements have been included in the
IWP and the future scopes of technical cooperation of the IAEA and the areas of cooperation of
bilateral partners were also identified. The report of the INIR mission is an important milestone
document for nuclear infrastructure of Bangladesh and the country has put much effort in
creating national conditions for achieving the IAEA Milestone 2 and also starting main stage of
NPP (Phase 3 activities) construction by 2016 in order to bring the 'Rooppur NPP' on-line within
planned time frame.

Presently, BAER Authority is developing regulations, licensing system, review and assessment,
authorization, inspection, enforcement and public information. The Authority is defining siting
and construction requirements of nuclear installations, determining the criteria for approval of
the NPP Site License and NPP Construction License and authorization process to ensure safety,
safeguard and security decisions of NPP. The licensing steps and authorization processes at
different stages of "Rooppur NPP" project is shown in Figure 1. BAEC as the owner/operator of
the plant is the prime responsible organization for safety. BAEC has a clear understanding and
also strong commitment to ensure safety and security at every stage of nuclear power projects:
Sitting, design, manufacture, construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning of
nuclear power plant through following the applicable IAEA guidelines, national and international
technical and legal requirements and instruments.

Among various infrastructure issues, the HRD has been identified as the most critical and
sensitive issue. More than 100 scientist/engineers were trained on different aspects of nuclear
power through IAEA cooperation and vendor assistances. A significant number of young
professionals of BAEC have received M. Sc and Ph. D degree in nuclear engineering from
abroad. Moreover, government has recognized its role to implement national education and
training enhancements to meet the needs of the country's nuclear program and accordingly
necessary measures have been taken. The training and education for required skills and
competencies of the managerial and technical personnel of the "Rooppur NPP" project
management team, identified technical support divisions/institutions of BAEC and other national
institutions, relevant personnel of the NEPIO can be implemented implementation through IAEA
assistance and bilateral partners. A comprehensive training programme for construction project
management team has been developed and will be implemented with the assistance of vendor
country and other bilateral partners. Development and implementation of the training and
education courses for regulatory authority personnel including on the job training in the
regulatory body of NPP vendor country and experienced NPP regulators are also in progress. A
bilateral agreement on cooperation in the field of nuclear and radiation safety in the use of
nuclear energy for peaceful purposes has been signed between nuclear regulatory authority of
Russian Federation and Bangladesh. The operators and maintenance personnel of "Rooppur
NPP" will be trained from the vendor sources.

Steps have been taken for developing training adequate training and education for operational
and maintenance personnel through feasibility evaluation of "Rooppur NPP" which will be
implemented by the vendor under General Contract for main stage of NPP construction. A
mechanism has been established to have available trained manpower for operation and
maintenance of the plant during erection and commissioning stage of "Rooppur NPP" according
to the IGA signed with Russian Federation. Policy decision has been made on necessary
modification/upgrading of the national electric grid suitable for the NPP and necessary studies in
this regard are in progress by the concerned institutions of Bangladesh and Russian Federation.
The issues and obligations of radioactive waste and spent fuel management, environmental
protection, emergency response, and nuclear security have been addressing right at the beginning
of the program.

Bangladesh is intended to build a solid infrastructure to make the best use of the NPP technology
for power generation with high levels of safety, security and non-proliferation. Bangladesh
worked out a programme for infrastructure development required for completion of preparatory
stage of construction by 2016 and successful completion of main stage of construction of
Rooppur NPP within the projected time in a safe, secured and cost effective manner.
Bangladesh has a clear vision on national infrastructure development required for siting, design,
construction, commissioning and operation of plant based on IAEA Milestones Approach that is
shown Figure 2.

Milestones in the development of NPP Construction Project Management

There is a close relationship between infrastructure development and the NPP project activities.
Preparatory work for the construction of a NPP starts just after a policy decision is taken to
launch a nuclear power program Phase 2. The most significant preparatory activities are to
perform the feasibility study/feasibility evaluation for assessment of techno-economic solution of
the NPP for a specific plant site. In this regard, the NPP site related resources investigation and
activities concerning collection and generation of necessary input data and information on
demography, seismic, geology and hydrology, transportation condition, electric power outgoing
condition and general assessment of an impact on archaeological objects, landscape as well as
individuals or communities and the economical unfavorable condition and elimination of
subversive factors of the potential sites or selected site have to be started at the initial Phase 2.

Site infrastructure work can begin immediately following the early commercial decision taken on
a NPP site and NPP technology. The site license is granted based on the reports on pre-design
documentations of NPP which are prepared mainly based feasibility evaluation (FE), site
assessment and comprehensive EIA study. These studies and site engineering surveys are
performed following the applicable domestic legislative acts and regulations, legislative and
normative requirements of vendor country and IAEA recommendations on FE, site evaluation
and EIA assessments of nuclear facilities. It has been recommended by the international

organization that the lesson that has been learnt from the Fukushima NPP must be taken into
consideration in building new NPP. After that accident, the NPP vendors are encouraged to revise
safety features-into their designs with adequate features to increase robustness of their designs to
extreme natural events. On the other hand, countries interested in introducing or adding NPP to
their grid have to evaluate their selected sites in terms of vulnerabilities to extreme events and
their consequences on the features and design provisions of the technologies they evaluate,
translate their findings into requirements and review the designs in light of those site specific
requirements with the technology vendors they choose.

The advanced to proceed (ATP) for procurement or ordering of major nuclear equipment may not
be allowed until the regulatory approval of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR),
technical documents and QA program. The placement of the first concrete is granted without
construction license of the NPP is granted. An experienced contractor is engaged for developing
the technical design including the development of the PSAR, PSA, QA program and work
documentation for the first NPP.

The construction of NPP is a huge activity. Adequate preparation in creation of general

infrastructure and support organization is essential for commencement of the work at the site.
The site preparation activities upgrading/building access roads, site leveling, site fencing for
security purposes, construction of temporary warehouses, construction of temporary office
buildings and housings for the staffs of contractor, subcontractors and project management team,
sanitation, fire-fighting net, installation of communication system to the outside and within the
site and establishment of the provision of the adequate electric power and water supply for the
construction of NPP. The successful completion of preparatory construction activities has a great
influence to the success of main stage construction, commissioning and acceptance of the NPP.

In case of a first NPP, a turnkey type contract is made with an experienced General Contractor
and usually assigned the contractor with full responsibility for project engineering, namely plant
conceptual design, basic and detailed engineering design and preparation and review of
equipment and plant specifications; procurement of every item of equipment and material for
construction, testing and commissioning the plant; plant construction, erection of plant buildings
and structures, installation of plant equipment, components and systems and construction
management and plant commissioning and turnover to operation for the plant.

The construction phase of the Rooppur NPP project is the most critical phase. Completion of
the construction with the specified quality, within short and accurately predicted construction
schedule and budget is a key to the success of the project. Based on data available and

information related to NPP construction project management, it has been recognized that the
quality of the works at the preparatory phase of NPP construction is a critical input for the
commencement of construction works after concrete pouring.

Over the years, advanced construction and scheduling methods have been developed and
necessary guidelines on NPP construction project management have been established. For a new
NPP build, selection of a suitable method to construction project management is one of the
fundamental decisions for building NPP. The lessons learnt from Fukushima NPP accident must
be taken into consideration in building Rooppur NPP. Bangladesh has recognized the
importance of determining a suitable approach and based on the existing skills and competency
available in project management, construction and the projected time frame planned to bring the
plant on-line well as lessons learnt from the Fukushima NPP accident, a two-stages construction
and scheduling method is adopted for "Rooppur NPP" under a turnkey type contractual approach
within the framework of the intergovernmental cooperation agreement. The two-stage approach
is as follows: (1) Preparatory Stage of "Rooppur NPP" construction and (2) Main Stage of
"Rooppur NPP" construction. The preparatory stage of construction activities starts from the
comprehensive study and survey for developing pre-design documentations to the required site
development and construction and erection works till first concrete pouring of NPP. The main
stage of NPP construction works start just after first concrete date through obtaining construction
license. The two stages Rooppur NPP construction is shown in Figure 3.

After Fukushima NPP accident, Bangladesh has taken a policy decision to evaluate/characterize
the "Rooppur NPP" site in terms of vulnerabilities to extreme events and their consequences on
the features and design provisions of the selected technology through involvement of the
responsible NPP Design Institution of the vendor country during site evaluation process. It is
expecting that through involvement of the NPP Design Institute in site evaluation, environmental
studies and feasibility evaluation makes it responsible in developing appropriate design
documentation with special consideration of the site specific requirements applicable to NPP site

Recognizing the necessity of creating conditions to facilitate the development of construction

infrastructure for "Rooppur NPP" Bangladesh has realized a step by step approach for
preparatory stage activities. The preparatory stage of construction includes: (i) development of
pre-design documentation, (ii) development of design and working documentation of first
priority construction and erection works and (iii) performance of the first priority construction
and erection works through three distinct phases: (a) pioneer base construction, (b) erection and
construction base works of 1st stage and (c) construction of foundation for first concrete pouring.
This preparatory stage of construction will be completed by the fourth quarter of 2016.

Bangladesh has appointed the JSC Atomstroyexport, an experienced and reputed NPP design and
construction management organization of the Russian Federation for preparatory construction
activities within the framework of the IGA and the state credit financing agreement signed
between Russian Federation and Bangladesh in January 2013. To perform the preparatory
construction stage activities Bangladesh Atomic Energy has signed three separate contracts with
JSC Atomstroyexport. The first contract is the development of the Feasibility Evaluation,
Environmental Impact Assessment for Rooppur NPP site and the performance of the necessary
Engineering Survey and Environmental Studies. The second contract is "development of design
documentation, first-priority working documentation and engineering survey for the Design
stage of Rooppur NPP" and the third contract "the performance of first priority construction and
erection works at preparatory stage of Rooppur NPP". The modality and scope of works of the
fourth contract is identified and agreed by the concerned parties.

The JSC Atomstroyexport is performing the site engineering survey and environmental studies,
feasibility evaluation (FE) and Environmental impact assessment (EIA) for preparation of the
required documentation packages to the extent containing all requirements of legislative acts and
regulations with regard to safety, according to the techno-normative requirements of Russian
Federation, the relevant IAEA guidelines and applicable Bangladesh domestic rules and
regulations. Basically, the engineering survey and environmental studies are the complex
engineering studies of the region of interest for Rooppur NPP construction with the purpose of
obtaining input data related to the natural and anthropogenic conditions of the Rooppur site
location with the purpose of pre-design and design documentation. These studies/assessments
produce materials for confirmation of Rooppur Project site in terms minimizing all safety
hazards: the natural and man-made events, the absence of negative effects of the nuclear facility
on environment and derive design basis for natural and human induced external events namely
design basis earthquakes, design basis floods, design basis meteorological events, aircraft crash
and other transportation hazards, explosion, fire, etc. Radiological impact on the population and
on the territory during normal and accidental conditions will be examined and evaluated. The
availability and acceptability of alternate water sources are being assessed and options for
suitable cooling system and preliminary layout of intake and outfall structures are determined.

The FE is a set of complex studies to assess the technical and economic feasibility evaluation of
the site for the NPP location and substantiation of the basic design solutions for the NPP
construction and the assessment of the NPP environmental impact. The FE of the Rooppur
NPP is being carried out for (1) technological solution (reactor, fuel type and cycle, process
engineering solutions), (2) economical solution through developing financial strategy and
financial plan (state export credit from vendor source, local funding source, etc.), (3) preliminary
design solutions of general layout plan and main civil solutions, (4) workforce planning for
operation and maintenance of the plant and developing training and education programs with
vendor cooperation, (5) assessment of construction impact on the population and environment

(natural environments, components of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems), (6) assessment of the
construction impact on the water and air environment, (7) preliminary emergency response plan
and (8) preliminary physical protection plan. On the other hand, the EIA study based on the
Terms of References (ToR) approved by the Department of Environment for Rooppur NPP
will be used in the development of the environmental impact assessment and necessary predesign documentations and materials for obtaining clearance from the DoE and developing
Environmental Management Program for plant. The documents and materials receipt from
above-mentioned studies/surveys/assessment under the first contract will confirm the safety
assurance of the Rooppur site for construction of VVER type NPP technology and filling for
obtaining Site License. It is expected that all these studies will be completed by this year and the
Site License could be obtained.

Under the provisions and scope of the 2nd contract "development of design documentation, firstpriority working documentation and engineering survey for the Design stage of Rooppur NPP"
the JSC Atomstroyexport is conducting detailed site engineering survey and comprehensive site
assessment which required at the design stage. The main purposes of these studies are as follows:
(1) finalization of the basic cost of the civil construction, (2) NPP layout drawings (general
location plan and general layout); (3) principle layout and structural solutions for the most
complicated and safety related buildings/structures of the NPP and their engineering protection
and (4) assessment of impact of the NPP buildings and structures on natural environment,
underground waters and water eco-system and population and (5) Elaboration of the
documentation required for the receipt of construction license, elaboration of PSAR chapters and
sections of the design documentation. Based on studies conducted during design stage, the
technical design documentations for building Rooppur NPP will be developed. The technical
design documentations of Rooppur NPP includes the following documentations: (1) Technical
Assignment, (2) Design solutions, architectural solutions, structural and layout solutions, (3)
Listing of engineering and technical activities, technical equipment, engineering and technical
network and description of the process solutions, (4) Quality Assurance Program for design of
Nuclear Power Plant, (5) Fire safety, (6) Technical Assignment for comprehensive engineering
survey and ecological studies at design stage, (7) Probabilistic Safety Analysis Report of the first
level (PSA - Level 1) for reactor unit 1 and reactor unit 2 (8) Construction management plan, (9)
List of environmental protection measures, (10) design of automatic process control system (10)
Preliminary Safety Analysis Reports (PSAR) for reactor unit 1 and reactor unit 2.

The "NPP construction method" is specific to a NPP project site and facilities, which is usually
adopted in accordance with the ability of the "construction bases of NPP" to receive and install
the equipment at the construction site. The main stage of Rooppur NPP construction depends on
the quality of the preparatory stage construction and the constructed structures and facilities. It is
noted that preparatory construction works and related facilities of NPP project can be divided
into three sequential construction methodologies. They are: (1) Pioneer Base, (2) construction
and Erection Base and (3) Industrial Construction Base. The Pioneer Base includes the facilities
required for the performance of all studies/surveys and field works and the establishment of

Construction & Erection Base. Construction & Erection base is the transportation and installation
facilities (Electrical, Mechanical) of different types of sophisticated component, heavy
equipment, and construction machineries in site for the construction of nuclear power plant as
well as the development of all construction related facilities with required laboratories. In a
word, Construction & Erection base is the development of infrastructure facilities to construct
nuclear industrial site. Industrial Construction Base is the specialized nuclear construction
methodology for nuclear power plant by which infrastructure development of 1st and 2nd unit of
Rooppur Nuclear Power Plant would be constructed.

Under preparatory stage of construction, the Atomstroyexport establishes the construction bases
of Rooppur NPP". Besides technical design documentation, development of design
documentation for the pioneer and construction and erection bases for Rooppur NPP and
development of first-priority working documentation for pioneer base and construction &
erection base facilities will be developed under the provisions of the second contract. This
documentation includes among others as follows: (1) Design and working documentations for
pioneer base, (2) General layout of construction & erection base, design documentations of
construction & erection base and Working documentations for construction & erection base and
(3) documentation on Industrial Construction Base. The main purposes of above-mentioned set
of design documentation are shall be used for obtaining Construction License for construction of
the "Rooppur NPP"

Based upon the design documentation and first-priority working documentation for pioneer base,
construction & erection base and industrial base of "Rooppur NPP", the vertical planning and
associated facilities of the three distinct categories will be built under the third and four contract.
The Pioneer Base of Rooppur NPP includes following main facilities: vertical leveling,
surveyors base, two storied office building, watch-tower, warehouse, site fence, canteen, diesel
power station and diesel fuel warehouse, mobile concrete mixing unit, construction laboratory,
temporal roads, territory land improvement, domestic and service water supply, fire station, two
storied residential village for contractors personnel, etc. The main facilities of construction and
erection base: (1) vertical leveling for construction and erection base, facility for earthmoving
work, parking area, site fencing, two storied amenity building, four storied administrative
building, canteen, indoor storage, two storied maintenance building, concrete mixing unit 1 and
2, cement warehouse, construction laboratories, metal warehouse, workshop, sand blasting
painting and anticorrosion shop, reinforcement facilities, temporal motor ways, territory / land
improvement, outdoor combined domestic and service water supply, outdoor lighting system,
etc. The Industrial Construction Base includes the following facilities: vertical planning, site
fencing, guard room, temporary motorways, outdoor lighting system, pit water removal,
development of pit foundation for unit 1 and unit 2.

In addition to above-mentioned facilities and structures, the riverside structures and facilities for
unloading will be built and the required motor cars, trucks and construction equipment along
with full gantry crane of 32 ton capacity will be purchased. The wash unit for concrete mixer
trucks and motor vehicles and outdoor power supply system will be established.

Through completion of the construction of foundation of Rooppur NPP and preparation of the
first concrete pouring works, the activities of the preparatory stage of Rooppur NPP
construction will be completed ( by the fourth quarter of 2016). After concrete pouring, the main
stage of construction will be commenced. The JSC Atomstroyexport has already been appointed
by the IGA as the general contractor of the main stage of Rooppur NPP construction. A
General Contract for construction of the main stage of construction will be signed. It is expected
that the General Contract will be signed this year.

Despite considering all safety standards and precautions one cannot guarantee absolute safety or
100% safety and 100% free of any malfunctions in any of man-made machine or equipment.
This applies to nuclear power technology too. But one exception NPP has. It is always modern in
the design and always up-to-date according to the site condition. The NPP technology can
encounter problems such as environmental pollution in form of radioactive leakage, military or
terrorist attacks on the sites or other unforeseen events and accidents. The Fukushima accident
and breakdown of cooling systems of three reactors demonstrated that unforeseen events can still
surprise us and cause serious damage and bring about unpleasant conditions. However, being
prepared can reduce the possible casualty and unpleasant result of an event.
It is worth mentioning that the two risk factors responsible for the Three Mile Island Nuclear
power plant in USA (March 1979) and Chernobyl nuclear power plant in former Soviet Union
( April 1986) accidents were safety aspect of technology and training of personnel to severe
accidents. These two factors have already been eliminated through improving the safety features
of the reactors, enhancement of training responding to severe accident and introduction of
passive safety features into the technology. On the other hand, the lessons that have been learnt
from the Fukushima accident could be viewed as an opportunity to improve further safety
standards in assessment and characterization of the "Rooppur NPP" site and spent fuel storage
aspect. Moreover, this particular accident actually showed how containment structures could
prevent disasters like Chernobyl. Todays containment structures of a generation III or III +
reactors are much more resistant than that of Fukushima. Moreover, the plant will have more
comprehensive safety specifications/procedures and backup power generators that could have
withstand against the natural disasters. Recently, Igor Sechin (Deputy Prime Minister of Russian
Federation) and Sergey Kiriyenko (the head of ROSATOM, the Russian State nuclear energy
corporation and former Prime Minister of Russian Federation) have separately announced that
tests conducted in new Russian VVER plants have proved that these power plants can withstand
14 meters high Tsunamis or earth quakes with magnitude 9 in Richter scale.

It is highly desirable that the design of "Rooppur NPP" will have the highest level of safety
standards. The plant designer has made responsible for deriving the site specific safety
parameters and front-end engineering. The lessons learnt from Fukushima NPP are taken into
consideration in designing the plant. The two stage construction approach ensures establishing
appropriate construction infrastructure and determines the safest construction condition nuclear
structures. The building structure of "Rooppur NPP" could withstand the direct impact of a
jumbo jet 747 airplane with full fuel tank and military planes. It must be safe against natural
disaster such as storms and floods and resistant to a magnitude 9 in Richter scale earthquake. The
strongest earthquake in Rooppur region is about 6 -7 in Richter scale which surely cannot
damage "Rooppur NPP". Furthermore, based on safety specifications of the power plants such
events can cause no damage to the reactor installations and its core as well as power plant control
and automatic protection system can easily bring it to safety point. In addition, one cannot
compare the "Rooppur NPP" with Fukushima NPP, because the earthquake was not the cause of
Fukushima disaster. In Fukushima, the cause of disaster was the effect of subsequent massive
Tsunami with a speed of 800 km per hour and 14 metres high tidal waves. In contrast the
probability of a Tsunami happens around "Rooppur NPP" is zero. Moreover, new version of
VVER-1000 is able to withstand 14 meters high Tsunamis or earth quakes with magnitude 9 in
Richter scale.

The rare accidents in the history of nuclear power should not encourage characterizing the
nuclear energy as unsafe and unreliable. Nuclear energy has been faithfully serving the humanity
from its inception and it will continue to do so from time to come if humanity wants to use it
peacefully. Mere fear of risk cannot undermine its contribution. Rather we would like to conquer
this fear and attain the state of fearlessness in our journey with nuclear energy.
Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission