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Zigorats 3000 BC - Built by the Sumerians in Mesopotamia (present
day Iraq) . Mesopotamia is surrounded by the Tigris and Eucrates River.
The ruler of Mesopotamia was the only connection between the
humans and the gods.
The instrument made with gold and represented with Animals. The
inscriptions suggest that the pictures represents stories.
The standard of Ur (one of the big Sumerian cities) . Contains pictures
that are believe to be stories. Has greats amount of detailed for the
time (people, horses) . Depicts the people of Ur enslaving people. The
King is depicted as the largest figure. Everyone is identical in terms of
looks and clothing. The smaller you are in the painting, the less
important you are.
The bottom register is the beginning of the story. It shoes ordinary
day to day life.
The second register shoes rows of animals lining up.
The third register is showing the line up to the king to show the
rewards of war. They are celebrating the victory of battle.
Sumerian Arcadian period = large change in culture and art.
The Arcadians added more detail to their art. The art is more
realistic and it is the first recorded naturalistic art. The figure is made
from copper/bronze. It is casted with shadows and lights that make it
look three dimensional
Stele of the victory of naram sim shows the king after winning a
huge battle. Some scholars have speculated that the metal figure is a
portrait of naram sim (the king)
(stele) upright stone
They added three dimensional aspects such as overlapping in the legs.
NEW SUMERIAN PERIOD took over the Arcadians. We know this
because of the language. They also they had written laws. These laws
standardized society and was written in Babylonian. The material is
made of something from very far away which reinforces the authority
of the law. The Sun God is giving the law to Hamarabbi.

The artwork on the law used foreshortening by changing the

perspective of the chair.

Lower Egypt is above Upper Egyptthis is because the Nile flowed
from South to North. Therefore, upper Egypt was where the Nile
originated. Lower Egypt was the center of Egypt.
The western side of the river was called the Necropolis. The sun sets in
the west. The Egyptians had a Sun God (Ra) . He was the supreme God
over the Egyptians. Everything starts and ends with the rising of the
sun (the Benben). Pharaohs are supreme authority on earth and
represented the Sun. They were the great connector between the gods
and the people.
First Dynasty when Egypt was united as one under ONE SINGLE
Palette a small tray or object.
Egyptians maintained a consistent form and language and pictures
through their dynasties. It had very little variation and nothing much
changed. The art that was made in Egypt was usually funded by the
Pharaoh. The art was static and was universal. The art is not realistic
and it had a PURPOSE. It was suppose to be consistent and capture
the timelessness and greatness of the Egyptians. It was unrealistic and
unchanging to last for an eternity.
The falcon was the symbol of kingship Horus .
Hathor Cow goddess for the King. Provides food and nourishment
Namer Palette- shows him conquering Upper Egypt and Unifying Egypt.
The two necks on the back that are intertwined symbolize unification.
Soul of a dead Egyptian Ka
The pyramid was a stepping block to the Sun for the afterlife because
the Pharaoh was the Sun on the Earth.
Imhotep Egyptian architect
Mastaba the traditional ancient Egypt burial chamber.

Pyramids of Giza Khufu, Khafre, Menkaure. The top of the pyramid

was made of gold so that when the sun reflected off the top of the
pyramid, you could see it from far away and know that it was an
important structure.
The Great Sphinx belonged to Khafre.
The black stone was expensive and important and was used to
represent important figures such as the Pharaoh. These statues would
last forever because of the strength of the material.
Kai sculpture of a scrib.
Hippopotamus hunt, relif from the tomb of Ti at Saqqara .
Hippopotamus river horse
New kingdom 1500BC (1000 years after the pyramids)
Tombs are now in upper Egypt in the valley of the kings and queens.
Tomb of Hatshepsut Queen pharaoh. Her husband died and she took
over control. The pharaoh after her destroyed her statues and images.
Her tomb was created in the side of a mountain and deep in caves.
The sun gods name was changed to aten under the pharaoh of
Akhenaten. He was crazy and had problems. He changed everything.
Exam format the picture will be given. Need to give the title, place,
Akhenaten changed the religion to one god (aten). His images also look
more feminine and less idealistic. In his images, it depicts him holding
a girl, which is different for Egyptian art because it was a personal and
relatable picture of a very powerful figure.
Queen Nefertiti was the wife of Akhenaten. Her statue acquires
features of individuality and is much MUCH more realistic than what
Egyptians had previously done.
King Tut was so famous because his tomb went untouched.

The Cyclades islands had nothing to do with the complex civilizations
of Egypt and Mesopotamia. Their tombs are very simple with small
statuettes that laid next to the head of the dead person. No
Greek art is also very simple. (statuette of a man playing the harp) This
is associated in the context of the afterlife. Greece had stories from
the Iliad and the Odyssey.
The Legend of Minus Minus was the king and had a Minotaur (half
man and bull) . He ate people and protected the labyrinth of the
prisoners of Minus. The people of Crete were now called the Minoan
people. 2500 BC 1100BC . There were no walls or fortification around
the city. Meaning there must have been no wars. There was a natural
disaster that destroyed the city.
They had their own writing system. Two kinds (linear A and linear B).
Their language has no connection with the Greek people. The palace is
painted with murals using fresco. There is no dominance over nature
and its very realistic. They utilize color and their paintings celebrate
life as opposed to death related.
Crete south of the Cyclades islands. They developed a very strong
urban civilization. Was destroyed by an earthquake due to an eruption
from a volcano in santorini.
Mycenae civilization had a thick wall around their city which meant
they must have been defending their city from something. Perhaps it
was a time of war and battle.
Their tombs were round in shape and there was a burial chamber
inside. It is not a pyramid but the structure is a huge structure with a
conical roof. From the outside, it just looked like a doorway on the side
of a hill. They also put items with the tombs such as a gold mask. They
think it was a imprinted mask of the first king of Mycenae. There were
also weapons in the tombs of the Myceanaens.
The greeks were able to create amazing works of art in a very short
period of time. They came from very geometric art to sculptures of
realism. Kouros (500bc) . These were put on top of the tomb as a
tomb marker. The sculpture made reference to the young man who
was in the tomb. Koura is the female versionsion o the male mourus.

It was important to keep in touch with the gids, so they built temples
with large columns. There was an architectural orders. It was a
standard for temples and buildings in the greek period. Doric order
and the ionic order
Doric had plain capitals (top of the column)
had plain cross beams. Metope and triglyph
There is an alter outside of the temple for sacrifices to the Gods. The
naos is the room of the temple where the God is. Behind the naos is
the opisthodomos . this is where people can leave offerings.
pediment is the triangular structure on the temple. The battle is a
devine battle thats is somewhat made uo. `520bc and its archac.
90 years after the temple. The structure is laying with a smirk dying.
The vase was used to carry wine. Symposium listen to stuff/talk about
intellectual things
black figure vases (amphora)vases made of clay etched with black
this is the first vase that had an defined artist
Achilles and Ajax playing dice famous greek figure vase artist euthymidas
Doryphoros (the man who carries the spear) by Polyclitus considered
greek classical art . most greek scultures are in bronze. However
because they were considered so great, the romans copied them in
marble. His head is turned, his pose is different, and he isnt smiling.
Riace sculpture- rare bronze sculpture found in a ship wreck. The
greeks would use silver for the eyes.
Discus thrower by Myron 5th century roman copy in marble. A body in

Acropolis of Athens classical period. Acropolis (high town) the sacred

center of the city of Athens. Greece was a city state. Athens was under
the rule of Perikles. He rebuilt the Acropolis and the treasury and the
The Parthenon (temple for Athena) . Parthenos = virgin. Athena was a
goddess of virginity. Architects of the Partenon Ictinus and Callicrates
. This was an Ionic templed. The interior had this long stretch of
sculptures and pictures and carvings of Athena or victories of the
Greeks. In the Cella (inside the temple) , stood a giant statue of the
goddess Athena. (by the sculpture Phidias)
Parthenon pediment - birth of Athena (dionymus with a cup of wine to celebrate the birth of
- metopes (in between the triglyphs) - the youth fighting the centaurs.
Very stylized so that we can appreciated the idealized and symmetry of
the carving.
- interior of the frize horsemen. Relif in stone. However in the center
of it, where the goddess is, the action stops and people are depicted
bringing gifts to Athena. Also sitting is Zeus.
Things are always in proportion and repeated in multiples all over the
Propylaes (monumental gate) . it looks like a tunnel but its just a gate
into the acropolis.
Erechthaum ionic, the capital have cinnamon buns.
Athena had a olive tree, then posideon came up with his triton, and
struck the ground that spouted out salt water.
450 BC the golden age ends. Cities fight and the culture fell apart. The
center is loss and Greece is in chaos.
The name Philip is a greek name (friend of the horse) . Philips son
Alexander the Great wanted to destroy the Persians in Iran.
Hellenistic sculptures Hellenistic (greek like) 3rd/4th centuries.
Athens is no longer the center and the masadonian take over Athens.
Art now reflects the emotions. Art was missing individualism, and in
the time of chaos, art started to become more individual and based on


Theaters/temples symbols of Hellenistic culture. (Greek city
A new type of capital for temple columns symbolized the Hellenistic
culture. It was called the Corinthian capital designed by
polycletos. It was very ornate and becomes the most popular capital
in roman times.
Aphrodite of Knidos. shes not wearing clothes. For the first time the
goddess was depicted with no clothes. She is caught after a bath in a
very intimate and private moment. No emotion in the face but a
dreamy expression.
Temple in Greek means enclosure
Altar of Zeus from Pergamon (Hellenistic town in turkey) Ionic order.
Ionic have their narratives in their friezes. However this friezes was on
the bottom of the temple. It also very large in comparison to the
columns. There is more emotion and drama in the faces of the detail in
the narrative. The figures are crowded and there are different layers
Greeks/Romans thought others who did not have the sophistication like
they did, were barbarians. The sculpture is in pain. His head is down
his posture is slouched.
Nike (winged victory) of Samothrace name of the goddess of victory.
Located in the louve in paris. Was placed on the top of a fountain that
was shaped as a ship.
The Atruscans were north of Rome in Italy.
They made their sculptures out of terracotta. (clay/fired earth). Rome
was an Atruscan city. Veii (most important city in Tuscany) .
Statue of Apollo Terracotta Very representative of a Kourros because
of the archaic smile.
Temple in Veii. These temples were made of terracotta and wood. The
statues were not placed IN the temple but on TOP of the temple on the
Oct 29

Atruscan arts moves away from the ideal perfect word and deals with
reality and things that happen in REAL LIFE. It is a lot more immediate
in terms of how it relates to the world around.
Believed in an afterlife.
Necropolis of Cerveteri: Banditaccia Cemetery. They carved the tools
and things tht you may need in the afterlife INTO the wall.
The founders of rome. Were raised by wolves. They were sent down the
river and the wolf found them. Romulus won the battle between him
and his brother and thus became the founder of Rome. The atruscans
are the bridge between Greece and rome.
Rome was now a republic and was run by two counsels. People could
ELECT senators.
Rome began to overtake Greece, they went to Greece and took their
art style. Greece becomes a roman province.
Temple of portunus in Rome. 2nd Century BC
The portrait sculptures are only the upper half of their body. Senators
wore the toga and had a serious expression on the face. Romans were
much more realistic. Instead of an idealized general man, they
sculpted the individuality of a single person.
Julius Caesar was a powerful man and the senate set up a Coup against

Roman architecture lots of round arches and concrete
Pantheon 118-128AD by Hadrean it was a temple dedicated to all the
roman gods. The Pantheon is round in the back. The dome of the
temple as an opening at the top called the oculus. The decoration in
the dome is made from marble. The squares in the panteon is called a
Romans were the first to build aquaducts.
Pompeii was completely preserved by the volcano

impluveum, where the romans collected the rain water.

first style paint that mimics marble. Plain colors
second style ledge included to show perspective and opens up the
Villa of the Mysteries a cult that was secret and drank and danced.
Associated with the god Bakkas.
third style one big patch of color and little ornaments painted on top.
fourth style- combines all the styles together.
Emperors were split. (east and west)
The romans were not happy about Christianity. They were persecuted
by the Romans. It was practiced secretly. Constantine legalized
underground tombs became gathering places for Christians. The
paintings were the earliest pictures of Christ. Depicted carrying lambs
and surrounded by sheep. It was Christian through symbolism because
it was illegal to be Christian.
Sarcophagus of Junnius Bassus the story of adam and eve , Daniel
and the lions, Jesus with peter and paul.
St.Peters Basilica . complete open space with columns. One large aisle.
Basilica of Constantine had walls and compartments in the building
Very round churches started to be built in Rome. The daughter of
Constantine was buried in the church. Utilized mosaics (tiny tiles to
make a composition)
Parting of Abraham mosaic from the nave arcard of santa maria
maggiore, rome. Its a lot more flat as opposed to the round churches. It
also has a background. There is tecture and light in the clothing in this
composition. The round church mosaic didnt have shadows and
The central plan church a plan the Christians adopted to build their
church. The first church with this plan was santa constanza.

Rome ceases to be the cultural center. It moved to the East in

Constantinople. Present day Istanbul in turkey.
Byzantine Empire (language was greek) . Center of culture for greeks
(and they were Christians)
Most of the churches in turkey did not survivied. They were either
converted to mosque or destroyed.
Church in Ravenna - the church is lined with golden mosaic tiles. Image
of Christ represented right above the altar in the church. The Christ is
also wearing the imperial toga (also has a halo) . The figures are very
flat and It seems that they went back in time from the complex
sculptures of the greeks and romans.
there are slight differences I the faces however the eyes are all the
church of hagia Sophia . The korran is the word of god given to the
prophet Muhammad.
combination of both plans. Its big and huge and built a gigantic dome
over it.
The byzantine empire eventually fades and ends in Istanbul in
Constantinople .
The gospels: matthew mark luke john
Christianity was spread through monks.
libraries are very important.
Pouring glass into a gold frame technique used in classic byzantine
Book of Durrow
Early medevil art Llindisfarne gospel lindisfarne monestary. One of
the most famous ones at the time. There is no name written on the
book but there is a cross. Similar knot work pattern. However some
represent a snakelike animal.
Lindisfarne gospels had a combination of two different styles. Roman
style and the knot pattern.

Book of Kells greek letters CRI (Christ)

Charlamin holy roman emperor. He revived the roman empire
Church of Santiago. Arches were good at supporting weight.
Romanesque churches (cause of the arches) . many romanequse
churches had two bell towers
All the churches had an aps (the circular part above the altar).
Churches built side aisles in the church to accommodate more people
and relief the heavy ceiling.
Cloyster is a courtyard courtyard of the monastery where monks and
nuns went to meditate and pray. The door was very detailed. Everyone
looks at the doors of the church.
The portal of the church in autun (in france). It was a depiction of Jesus
on judgement day. He is pictured sitting on the throne but the only clue
of that are the bent knees. Zero three dimensionality.
On one side of the image, hell is on the right side. There is a scale
(weighing of the souls)
Heaven is depicted as a city.
Columuns of the church. Trumou
Bayeux Tapestry made by a women. Duke William exhorts his soliders
that they prepare themselves manfully for battle against the English.
the center of knowledge and everything was in the monastery.
However, that changed and the cities became more popular.
Churches that were built in cities are very different from the common
monastery, Romanesque churches. They rebuilt churches such that it
gave justice to heaven. (GOTHIC STYLE)
Visigoth Visigoths were the people responsible for the fall of the
roman empire.
and astrogoth.
there is no justice to God with a dark churchthe church should be
filled with light
Suger (a man from france) invted the gothic style. Hes an abbot (the

leader of a monastery)
Church of St.Denis very important church in france. Located in the
outskirts of paris. The church where all the kings of france
Gothic churches. People who came after the gothic churches named
them gothic churches.
They called it the French style or the modern style. The gothic style is a
label that art historians gave this style of churches WAY after they were
built. Also known as non classical (barbaric)
Chatres Cathedral - Flying buttresses were placed outside the church
so that the church would stay together.
The church of Notre Dame in France Notre Dame means Our Lady
(Mary) . it was also the first to include a round, rose, glass window.