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INTRODUCTION

All the objects that exist around us are made up of chemical substances.These
objects exist an element,compound or mixture.All these objects contribute benefit to
human kind.As time goes on,human has done many researches to ensure all these chemical
substances will be enough for the use of themselves.
Chapter 9 of Form4 syllabus introduces the students with manufactured
substances in industry.This is important for the students to appreciate the knowledge of
chemistry that is still new for themselves.Personally,I think that this chapter is an interesting
chapter as it revealed the way of scientist produces the material around me.It also gives me
new knkowledge of the uses of chemical substances that I usually founf in the laboratories.
I hope,by learning this chapter, I will be more interested in learning chemistry a
sit will help me in the future.All the equations from this chapter make me more understand
of the previous chapters.

ances.These

these chemical

owledge of
s an interesting
t also gives me
e laboratories.

g chemistry a
re understand

9.1.1: USES OF SULPHURIC ACID


1.Sulphuric acid is a diprotic mineral acid which does not volatise.
2.In the pure,concentrated form,sulphuric acid is an oily,colourless liquid which is dense and
viscous.It has a high boiling point,that is 270 C.
Uses of sulphuric acid in school laboratory :
1.A strong acid,for example,it reacts with alkalis to form salt and acid.
2.A dehydrating agent.
3.An oxidising agent.
4.A sulphonating agent,for example,it reacts with benzene to form sulphonic
acid.
5.A catalyst.

Uses of sulphuric acid in industry:


1.To manufacture detergent.
2.To manufacture plastics and synthetic fibre.
3.To manufacture fertiliser.
4.To manufacture paints.
5.Use as electrolyte in car batteries.

ch is dense and

sulphonic

9.1.2: MANUFACTURE OF SULPHURIC ACID


THE MANUFACTURE OF SULPHURIC ACID IN INDUSTRY
1)Sulphuric acid,H2SO4,is manufactured in the industry through
Contact Process.
2)Table 9.1 shows the stages of manufacturing sulphuric acid,H2SO4,in
the industry.

Stage I
Stage II
Sulphur dioxide gas,SO2,can be produced
Mixture of sulphur dioxide gas,SO2,and
through two ways:
air is passed over vanadium(V) oxide,
a) The combustion of sulphur in air.
V2O5,(acting as a catalyst) at a
S(s) + O2(g)
SO2
temperature of 450 C and the press
b) Roasting of sulphuric ores such as zinc
of one atmosphere to produce sulphur
sulphide,ZnS,in air.
trioxide gas,SO3.
2ZnS(s) + 3O2(g)
2ZnO(s)+2SO 2(g)
2SO2(g) + O2(g)
2SO3(g
Stage III
Sulphur trioxide gas,SO3,is dissolved in
concentrated sulphuric acid,H2SO4,to
produce oleum,H2S2O7
SO3(g) + H2SO4(I)
H2S2O7(I)

Stage IV
Water was added to oleum,H2S2O7 to
dilute it to produce sulphuric acid.
H2S2O7(I) + H2O(I)
2H2S

hur dioxide gas,SO2,and


sed over vanadium(V) oxide,
as a catalyst) at a
rature of 450 C and the pressure
here to produce sulphur
gas,SO3.
2(g) + O2(g)
2SO3(g)

ded to oleum,H2S2O7 to
oduce sulphuric acid.
2O7(I) + H2O(I)
2H2SO4(I)
sulphuric
acid

9.3 UNDERSTANDING OF ALLOYS


1.Alloy is a mixture of two or more element with certain fixed composition.The major
component in the mixture is metal.
2. Many metals are soft.M

9.1.3:ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION OF SULPHUR DIOXIDE


1. The main environmental pollution caused by sulphur dioxide gas is acid rain.

CAUSES OF ACID a) The combustion of fossil fuels (coal,air and gas) in power
RAIN
stations,factories,domestic boilers and internal combustion
engines releases large quantities of sulphur dioxide and
oxides of nitrogen.
b) Both sulphur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen combine
with water vapour in the atmosphere to form sulphuric acid
and nitric acid respectively.
2SO2 + O2 + 2H2O = 2H2SO4
c) Sulphur dioxide dissolve in rainwater to form sulphurous acid
which will cause acid rain.Then they fall to Earth as acid rain.
SO2 + H2O = H2SO3
d)Rain is naturally acidic,with a pH of about 5.6.This activity is
due to the carbon dioxide in the air which dissolves in rain to
form carbonic acid.However,the pH of acid rain is less than 5.0.
EFFECTS OF ACID
RAIN

a) Agriculture
The soil becomes very acidic and unsuitable for the cultivation of
crops.Acid rain causes the leaching of minerals such as potassium,
calcium and magnesium.This affects the growth of crops.
Photosynthetic tissues are destroyed.Plant leaves turn to yellow
and fall off.The roots are damaged and cannot absorb minerals.
b) Health
Acidic soil releases the ions of certain heavy metals such as
cadmium,lead and mercury which may contaminate the supply of
drinking water.
c) Aquatic ecosystem
Acid rain causes insoluble aluminium ions to accumulate in lakes
and rivers.The concentration of aluminium ions eventually reaches a
toxic level which can kill aquatic oraganisms such as fish and
invertebrates.

ultivation of
s potassium,

n to yellow
minerals.

he supply of

ate in lakes
ually reaches a

d) Buildings
Metal railings and bridges corrode.
Limestone,stonework and marble monuents are eroded due to
chemical weathering.

ACID RAIN CAN BEa) Cleaning up emissions from power stations and industrial plants
REDUED BY
with scrubbers.This process involves the spraying of water to trap
pollutants.
b) Cleaning up emissions from vehicles exhausts through the use of
catalytic converters.The pollutants react with one another in the
catalytic converters to produce less harmful products.

ded due to

strial plants
water to trap

h the use of
other in the

9.2 SY