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GENERAL INFORMATION

1.1

INTRODUCTION

1.1.1

POWER TRANSFORMERS

Unlike shunt reactor and Neutral Grounding Reactors where standard specification is generally
followed by utilities, requirements of power transformers vary depending upon the system
design. Hence a tailor made product becomes the answer. Depending upon the requirements two
winding/ three winding/ auto connection/ split winding arrangement with ON LOAD or OFF CIRCUIT
tap changer, five limbs/ three limbs core construction, welded or bolted tank construction are
adopted. Variation in capacity, impedance and transport profile result in different sizes of
transformer. Refer VoI I for specific requirements of the equipment.
1.1.2

SHUNT REACTORS

Shunt Reactors are used in high voltage systems to compensate capacitive generation from long
lightly loaded overhead lines or extended cable systems and also for control of dynamic over
voltages.
Gapped core construction is preferred for high system voltages over coreless construction due to the
high energy density that can be achieved in gapped core construction. The core sections between
consecutive air gaps are moulded in epoxy resin to prevent movement between individual
laminations.
The spacers forming the air gaps are blocks of ceramics with a high modules of elasticity and the
whole stacking of core modules is cemented together during the assembly to form a solid column
without possibility of rocking , or rubbing between individual parts. The core segments are of
radial laminated configuration. The radial laminations prevent fringing flux from entering flat
surfaces of core steel which would result in eddy current overheating and hot spots. Five limbed
core construction is adopted to achieve high zero sequence impedance. In addition to the three
gapped core limbs with windings, there are two continuous outer return limbs. The two unwound
side limbs help in achieving zero sequence impedance approximately equal to the positive
sequence impedance. Other construction type can be a three limbed construction. For single
phase reactors e.g. 800 KV class middle leg wound with two return legs type of construction is
adopted. Interleaved disc winding has been used for rated voltages 220 KV and above. This type of
winding configuration provides better impulse voltage
distribution. For lower voltage classes a continuous disc winding or a multi
layer helical winding are used. The tank is rectangular in construction with flat
cover welded to the tank rim at top. The associated cooling control equipment
is housed in a tank mounted weather proof marshalling box. The reactors are
equipped with all standard measuring and controlling fittings and accessories
as described in Volume I.Prepared By Samvet Lahari, Bhopal. Phone- 5277412
Reactors have been designed for resting on concrete foundation as shown
in the foundation plan drawing. Rollers have been provided only for movement
of the reactor at site.

1.1.3

NEUTRAL GROUNDING REACTOR

When single pole reclosing is used on lines, the Neutral Grounding Reactor
is used.
The Neutral Grounding Reactors are connected between neutral point
of 400 kV/800 KV reactors and earth, where the neutral of shunt Reactor is
suitable for 145 kV class insulation.
The reactors are oil immersed type ONAN cooled (oil immersed with
natural air cooling) with continuous rating of 10/15 Amps and a 10 sec. rating
as indicated in the Rating Data sheet. As continuous losses of the reactors are
negligible, reactor tank surface is adequate for dissipation of these losses.
Hence radiators are not provided.
Considering linear impedance characteristic requirement upto rated short
time current a core less design with magnetic shielding of CRGO sheet has
been made. The magnetic circuit, therefore consists of rectangular frame of
CRGO steel lamination packets of adequate area. Area of magnetic circuit is
selected such that saturation does not take place under short time current. A
rigid clamping structure is provided for clamping of magnetic frame and a very
low flux density is used to minimize the vibration and achieve linear impedance
characteristic.
The graded disc type concentric winding suitable for a rated voltage of
145 kV and basic insulation level of 550 kVp has been provided without core
inside. Winding is held in position by way of special insulation structure inside
winding and finally kept under pressure between top and bottom yokes of
magnetic frame. Return path of flux is provided by way of two return limbs.
The line terminal is taken out through the tank cover via 145 kV, 800
Amps OIP condenser bushing provided with suitable terminal connector. The
neutral lead is taken out through the tank cover via a 36kV, 630 Amps porcelain
bushing.
The tank is of welded mild steel plate construction shot blasted on the
inside and outside to remove scales before painting. The tank is painted on the
inside with yellow paint and its outside surface is painted with two coats of

primer paint and finishing coat, of light grey paint to shade 631 of IS:5. This
is a standard painting scheme followed for all equipment .
The fittings include a conservator with a magnetic oil gauge, pressure
relief device, drain and filter valves, sampling valves, thermometer pockets,
Buchholz relay, temperature indicator for oil and silicagel breather .
These reactors are designed for mounting directly on plinth.
1.2

TRANSPORT OF TRANSFORMER/REACTOR

Power Transformers and Reactors hereinafter referred as "Transformers,"


depending upon the restriction imposed by transport weight and/or other
considerations, have to be transported either filled with oil or nitrogen as per
the description given below. The transformer is loaded on wagon as per loading
gauge drawing
1.2.1

WITH OIL

The Transformer is filled with oil such that about 10% of the tank
volume is left clear for expansion to limit the excess internal air pressure to
0.35 kg/cm 2 . Fittings dismantled before transport are packed in packing cases
in line with shipping list.
All openings resulting from removal of fittings for shipment are sealed
with suitable gasketted blanking plates during transport.
The balance oil quantity required for the complete filling of the reactor is
supplied separately.
A transformer despatched according to this method can be stored at
site or elsewhere for one year provided, that all insulating materials are covered
with oil and silicagel breather is mounted and quality of oil is maintained as per
IS: 1866. Measures to be taken on reception at site are given clause 2.1
1.2.2

WITH NITROGEN

Large oil filled transformers/reactors are not normally oil filled during
shipping due to weight limitations. To protect the active parts against moisture
the transformer tank is filled with dry Nitrogen at a positive pressure of 0.175
kg/cm 2 (2.5 psi) at BHEL works before despatch. The internal pressure at the
time of shipment is painted on the tank.

All openings resulting from the removal of fittings for shipment are
sealed with suitable gasketted blanking plates during transport.
A Transformer despatched according to this method should normally be
stored upto 3 months after arrival at site or elsewhere.
For control of gas pressure and maintaining the pressure during transport
and possible storage before assembling, the transformer is equipped with an
automatic device. This device is called two stage N
2
regulator and is kept in a
steel box and mounted on the frame provided on tank side for keeping two
back up Nitrogen cylinders. Nitrogen regulator is connected to two cylinders
by copper tubes and to tank by a rubber hose as shown in the Fig. 1.1.
N
2
regulator reduces cylinder high pressure of 120 to 140 kg/cm 2 to
required low pressure of 0.175 kg/cm 2 in two stages. One gauge provided on
the first stage indicates the cylinder pressure, whereas other gauge provided
on second stage indicates the tank pressure. Regulator is fixed at factory.
When tank pressure falls below 0.15 kg/cm 2 , due to leakage/fall of
ambient temperature, regulator automatically feeds the gas from cylinders, to
build up required pressure in the tank.
The gas consumption during transport and possible storage is difficult
to estimate as it depends on ambient temperature variation, possible leakages
as well as on the duration of transport and storage. However, two back up
cylinders are provided to meet the gas requirement. Normally one cylinder is
kept open and the other shut. When the pressure of first cylinder falls to 10
kg/cm 2 this should be considered as empty and immediately its valve should
be closed and the valve of second cylinder should be opened.
When cylinder is required to be removed for refilling, disconnect copper
tubing from cylinder valve.