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The coordinates of a particle moving in a plane are given by

x = 4 cos 6t and y = 6 sin 6t


(a) find the equation of the path of the particle

Problem 1.

(b) find the angle between position vector r and velocity vector v at time t = / 12
(c) prove that the acceleration of the particle is always directed toward a fixed point.
Problem 2. A particle is projected vertically upwards with speed u in a medium in which the
resistance to motion is proportional to the square of the speed. Initially net force on the particle is two
times its weight downwards. Find the time of ascent and distance ascended by the particle.

A car starts from rest with an acceleration of 6 m/s 2 which decreases to zero linearly with
time, in 10 second, after which the car continues at a constant speed. Find the time required for the car to
travel 400 m from the start.
Problem 3.

Problem 4. A charged particle of mass m and charge q is moved from rest at x = 0 by an electric field

E = (E 0 x ) i$ where is a positive constant and x is the displacement of the particle in time t along
x-axis. Find the distance moved by the particle when it again is brought to rest and the acceleration of the
particle at that instant. Describe the motion of the particle.

Hint : Force on a charge q placed in an electric field E is given by

Fe = qE

Problem 5. A particle of mass m moving in a straight line is acted upon by a force F which varies with
its velocity as F = kv n . Here k is a constant. For what values of n the average value of velocity of the
particle averaged over the time, till it stops, is one third the initial velocity. (n 1 or 2)
Problem 6. A lift of total mass M kg is raised by cables from rest to rest through a height h. The
greatest tension which the cables can safely bear is nMg newtons. Find the shortest interval of time in
which the ascent can be made (n > 1).
Problem 7. A particle moves in a straight line with constant acceleration a. The displacements of
particle from origin in times t1 , t 2 and t 3 are s 1 , s 2 and s 3 respectively. If times are in A.P. with common
( s1 s 3 )2
difference d and displacements are in G.P. Then prove that a =
.
d2
Problem 8. A ball of mass 2 kg is dropped from a height of 80 m on a floor. At each collision with the
floor the ball loses half of its speed. Plot the velocity-time, speed-time, and kinetic energy-time graphs of
its motion till first two collisions with the floor (Take g = 10 m/s 2 ).

Problems in Physics
a(m/s2)

The acceleration-displacement graph of a particle


moving in a straight line is as shown alongside. Initial velocity of
particle is zero. Find the velocity of the particle when displacement of
the particle is, s = 12 m.
Problem 9.

4
2
2

10

s(m)

12

Problem 10. An aircraft flies with constant airspeed (speed of aircraft in still air) 200 km/hr from
position A to position B, which is 100 km north-east of A and then flies back to A. Throughout the whole
flight the wind velocity is 60 km/hr from the west. Find total time of flight from A to B and back.
Problem 11. A motor boat going downstream overcame a raft at point A. After one hour it turned
back and after some time it met the raft again at a distance 6 km from point A. Find the river velocity.
Problem 12. A particle A is projected with an initial velocity
60 m/s
of 60 m/s at an angle 30 to the horizontal. At the same time a
second particle B is projected in opposite direction with initial
30
A
speed of 50 m/s from a point at a distance of 100 m from A. If
100 m
the particles collide in air, find the angle of projection of B,
time when collision occurs and the distance of point P from A, where collision takes place.
(g = 10 m/s 2 )

50 m/s

Problem 13. A particle is projected with speed v at an angle to the horizontal from the point
x = 0, y = 0. If x and y-axes are horizontal and vertically upwards respectively and point of projection is
the lowest point on the inner surface of a bowl formed by rotating the curve x 2 = 4 ay, where a is a

positive constant. Show that the particle strikes the bowl at a horizontal distance
x =

4 av 2 tan
v 2 + 2ag + 2ag tan 2

Problem 14. A particle is released from a certain height H = 400 m. Due to the wind the particle
gathers the horizontal velocity component v x = ay where a = 5 s 1 and y is the vertical displacement of

the particle from point of release, then find :


(a) the horizontal drift of the particle when it strikes the ground
(b) the speed with which the particle strikes the ground (Take g = 10 m/s 2 )
Problem 15. A particle of mass m is attached by a light inextensible string of
length 2R to a fixed point O. When vertically below O at point A, the particle is
given a horizontal velocity u. When the string becomes horizontal, it hits a small
smooth nail C, at a distance R from O and the particle continues to rotate about C.
Find the minimum value of u so that the particle just describes complete circle
abou
Problem 16.

2R

A particle moves in a vertical circle. Its velocity at topmost point is half of its velocity at

Problems

bottommost point. Find the magnitude of acceleration of the particle at the moment when its velocity is
directed vertically upwards. (g = 10 m/s 2 )
A uniform electric field of strength 10 6 N/C is directed vertically downwards. A particle
of mass 0.01 kg and charge 10 6 C is suspended by an inextensible thread of length 1 m. The particle is
displaced slightly from its mean position and released. Calculate the time period of its oscillation. What
minimum velocity should be given to the particle at bottom so that it completes a full circle. Calculate the
maximum and minimum tensions in the thread. (g = 9.8 m/s 2 )
Problem 17.

Hint :

Electrostatic force Fe on a charge q in electric field E is Fe = qE

A particle moves along a straight line and its velocity depends on time as v = 3t t 2 .
Here v is in m/s and t in second. Find:
(a) average velocity and
(b) average speed for first five seconds.
Problem 18.

Problem 19. At the initial moment three points A, B and C are on a horizontal straight line at equal
distances from one another. Point A begins to move vertically upward with a constant velocity v and
A
v
point c vertically downward without any initial velocity but with a constant
x
acceleration a. How should point B move vertically for all the three points to
be constantly on one straight line. The points begin to move simultaneously.
Problem 20. Two particles A and B start from positions shown in figure
and move with constant speeds v and u (> v). A moves along x-axis and B
moves such that its velocity is always aimed at A. Let r be the distance
between them and be the angle made by the trajectory of B with x-axis at
sometime t. Prove that,

u
+1
)v

P(x, y)

Problem 21. A boat is moving in a river with a speed v w.r.t. water.


The water is flowing with a speed u. At time t = 0 the boat is at the
origin of a co-ordinate system with x-y axes in the horizontal plane and
positive x-axis in the opposite direction of the flow of water. The boat
has to reach the point P (x , y) as shown in the figure.
Show that the boat has to start in a direction inclined at an angle
u

y
sin 1
to the line joining O to P.
v x 2 + y 2
Also find the time taken by the boat to reach the point P.

A fighter plane enters inside the enemy territory,


at time t = 0, with velocity v o = 250 m / s and moves horizontally
with constant acceleration a = 20 m / s 2 (see figure). An enemy

B
Y

(sin
r
=
d (1 cos )u / v

Problem 22.

u m/s
X

O
Boat

600 m/s
H
= 60

Problems in Physics

tank at the border, spot the plane and fire shots at an angle = 60
with the horizontal and with velocity u = 600 m / s. At what altitude
H of the plane it can be hit by the shot ?
Problem 23. A 3 m long arm OA rotates in a plane such that
= 0.5 t 2 where is the angle with x-axis in radian and t is in second.

A
B
r

X
B

A slider collar B slides along the arm in such a way that its distance
from the hinge O is given by r = 3 0.4 t 2 where r is in meters.

Rod follower
v = 5 cm/s
a = 10 cm/s2

cam

30

Find the velocity of the collar at an instant the arm has turned to
= 30.

30 cm

Problem 24. A rod follower AB is subjected to a vertical up


and down movement while resting on the circular contour of
radius 30 cm of a cam. The cam moves to the right with a velocity of 5 cm/s and an acceleration of
10 cm/s 2 . Find the velocity and acceleration of point B on the rod at the instant of interest as shown in
figure.

Two rods of equal length are lying one along x-axis and the other along line x = y.

They intersect at origin at their mid point. The first rod moves with velocity v1 = v $j and the second with

v $
v $
velocity v 2 =
i
j . Find the velocity of point of intersection of two rods.
2
2
Problem 25.

Problem 26. A particle of mass 1 kg which moves along the x-axis is subjected to an accelerating
force which increases linearly with time and a retarding force which increases directly with displacement
(constant of proportionality being one with proper dimensions in both the cases). At time t = 0,
displacement and velocity both are zero. Find the displacement as a function of time t.
Problem 27. A particle moves along the x-axis according to the equation x = A cos t. Find the
distance travelled by the particle during the time interval t = 0 to t = t.

(i) The points A and B are moving with the same speed u in the positive direction of the
x-axis and y-axis respectively. Find the magnitude of velocity relative to A of a point C, which is
mid point of AB, and show that it is reverse of the velocity of C relative to B.
(ii) A particle P moves on the circle x 2 + y 2 = 1 with constant speed v. Show that each instant
when the acceleration of P is parallel to the line x + y = 0, the velocities of P relative to points A
and B of part (i) are equal in magnitude. Find v in terms of u if the maximum value of the velocity
of P relative to C is u.

Problem 28.

Problem 29. A river of width ' a ' with straight parallel banks flows due north with speed u. The points
O and A are on opposite banks and A is due east of O. Coordinate axes Ox and Oy are taken in the east
and north directions respectively. A boat, whose speed is v relative to water, starts from O and crosses the

Problems
river. If the boat is steered due east and u varies with x as : u = x (a x )

v
a2

Find :
(a) equation of trajectory of the boat
(b) time taken to cross the river
(c) absolute velocity of boatman when he reaches the opposite bank
(d) the displacement of boatman when he reaches the opposite bank from the initial position.
Problem 30.

A river of width w is flowing such that the stream velocity varies

with y as

v R = v o 1 +

31
w

2v

O
r
where y is the perpendicular distance from one bank. A boat starts rowing
from the bank with constant velocity v = 2 v o in such a way that it always moves
along a straight line perpendicular to the banks.
2r
(a) at what time will he reach the other bank?
(b) what will be the velocity of the boat along the straight line when he reaches the other bank ?

Problem 31. Two points A and B move with speeds v and 2v in two concentric circles with centre O
and radii 2 r and r respectively. If the points move in the same sense and if OAB = , when the relative
motion is along AB, find the value of .

Problem 32. Two parallel straight lines are inclined to the horizon at an angle . A particle is
projected from a point midway between them so as to graze one of the lines and strikes the other at right
angles. Show that if is the angle between the direction of projection and either of the lines, then

tan = ( 2 1) cot
Problem 33. A regular hexagon stands with one side on the ground and a particle projected so as to
graze its four upper vertices. Show that the ratio of its maximum velocity to that of its minimum velocity is
31
R
.
3
Q

Two stones are projected simultaneously with equal speeds from a point on
an inclined plane along the line of its greatest slope upwards and downwards respectively.
The maximum distance between their points of striking the plane is double that of when they
are projected on a horizontal ground with same speed. If one strikes the plane after two
second of the other, find :
y
(a) the angle of inclination of plane.
(b) the speeds of their projection (Take g = 9.8 m/s 2 ).
A
Problem 34.

Problem 35. A river of width is flowing with a uniform velocity v. A boat


starts moving from point P also with velocity v relative to the river. The
direction of resultant velocity is always perpendicular to the line joining boat
and the fixed point R. Point Q is on the opposite side of the river and P, Q and

h
u
q
O

a
B

Problems in Physics

R are in a straight line. If PQ = QR = , find :


(a) the trajectory of the boat,
(b) the drifting of the boat and
(c) the time taken by the boat to cross the river.
Problem 36. AB is an inclined roof and a body is projected from
origin towards the roof as shown in figure. Find h for which body will
just touch the roof.
Given : = = 45 and u = 10 m / s, g = 10 m / s 2 .
Problem 37. A particle is projected from point G, such that it touches the points B, C, D and F of a
regular hexagon of side a. Find its horizontal range GH.
y
P

2m

10m
v0

Problem 38. The benches of a gallery in a cricket stadium are 1 m high and 1
m wide. A batsman strikes the ball at a level 1 m about the ground and hits a ball.
The ball starts at 35 m/s at an angle of 53 with the
P
2v0
horizontal. The benches are perpendicular to the plane
A
of motion and the first bench is 110 m from the
batsman. On which bench will the ball hit.

Problem 39. A particle is dropped from point P at


v0
Q

O
time t = 0. At the same time another particle is thrown
B
C
d
3d
from point O as shown in the figure and it collides with
the particle P. Acceleration due to gravity is along the negative y-axes. If the two particles collide 2 sec
Y
after they start, find the initial velocity of particle which was
C
projected from O.
v0 = 68 m/s

Problem 40. In the vertical plane shown two particles P and


Q are located at points A and B. At t = 0, the particle P is

150 m

B
30
123
300 m

IIT JEE PROBLEMS


projected perpendicular to the inclined plane OA with velocity 2v o and simultaneously the particle Q is
projected horizontally in BO direction. What is the necessary value of v o (in terms of d and ) so that
both the particles meet each other between the points O and B.

Problems

Problem 41. A projectile is launched from point A with the initial conditions shown in the figure.
Determine the x and y co-ordinates of the point of impact.

Problem 42. In a Searles experiment, the diameter of the wire as measured by a screw gauge of
least count 0.001 cm is 0.050 cm. The length, measured by a scale of least count 0.1 cm, is 110.0 cm.
When a weight of 50 N is suspended from the wire, the extension is measured to be 0.125 cm by a
micrometer of least count 0.001 cm. Find the maximum error in the measurement of Youngs
modulus of the material of the wire from these data.
(JEE 2004)

The pitch of a screw gauge is 1 mm and there are 100


divisions on the circular scale. While measuring the diameter of a wire, the
linear scale reads 1 mm and 47th division on the circular scale coincides
with the reference line. The length of the wire is 5.6 cm. Find the curved
surface area (in cm 2 ) of the wire in appropriate number of significant
figures.
(JEE 2004)
Problem 43.

45
O
x

Problem 44. N-divisions on the main scale of a vernier callipers


coincide with N + 1 divisions on the vernier scale. If each division on the
main scale is of a units, determine the least count of the instrument.

On a frictionless horizontal surface, assumed to be


the x-y plane, a small trolley A is moving along a straight line
parallel to the y-axis (see figure) with a constant velocity of
( 3 1)m/s. At a particular instant, when the line OA makes an
angle of 45 with the x-axis, a ball is thrown along the surface from
the origin O. Its velocity makes an angle with the x-axis and it hits
the trolley.
(a) The motion of the ball is observed from the frame of the
trolley. Calculate the angle made by the velocity vector of
the ball with the x-axis in this frame.
Problem 45.

(b) Find the speed of the ball with respect to the surface, if =

(JEE 2003)

Y
A
P

1.25m

u
O

3.0m

4
.
3

(JEE 2002)

An object A is kept fixed at the point x = 3 m and y = 1.25 m on a plank P raised


above the ground. At time t = 0 the plank starts moving along the + X direction with an acceleration
Problem 46.

1.5 m/s 2 . At the same instant a stone is projected from the origin with a velocity u as shown. A
stationary person on the ground observes the stone hitting the object during its downward motion at

an angle of 45 to the horizontal. All the motions are in X-Y plane. Find u and the time after which
the stone hits the object. Take g = 10 m/s 2 .
(JEE 2000)

A particle of mass 10 2 kg is moving along the


k
positive X-axis under the influence of a force F( x ) =
where
2x 2
Problem 47.

k = 10 2 Nm 2 . At time t = 0, it is at x = 1.0 m and its velocity is v = 0.

10

Problems in Physics
(a) find its velocity when it reaches x = 0.5 m
(b) find the time at which it reaches x = 0.25 m

(JEE 1998)

Problem 48. A large heavy box is sliding without friction down a smooth plane of inclindation .
From a point P on the bottom of the box, a particle is projected inside the box. The inital speed of the
particle with respect to the box is u and the direction of projection makes an angle with the bottom
as shown in the figure.
(a) find the distance along the bottom of the box between the point of projection P and the point
Q where the particle lands (assume that the particle does not hit any other surface of the box.
Neglect air resistance.)
(b) if the horizontal displacement of the partcle as seen by an observeer on the ground is zero,
find the speed of the box with respect to the ground at the instant when the particle was
projected.
(JEE 1998)
Problem 49. A cart is moving along X-direction with a velocity of 4 m/s. A person on the cart
throws a stone with a velocity of 6 m/s relative to himself. In the frame of reference of the cart the
stone is thrown in Y-Z plane making an angle of 30 with vertical z-axis. At the highest point of its
trajectory, the stone hits an object of equal mass hung vertically from branch of a tree by means of a
string of length L. A completely inelastic collision occurs in which the stone gets embedded in the
object. Determine :
(i) the speed of the combined mass immediately after
C
the collision with respect to an observer on the
2m
ground.
60o
(ii) the length L of the string such that the tension in the
string becomes zero when the string becomes
horizontal during the subsequent motion of the
A
m
combined mass. (g = 9.8 m/s 2 )
(JEE 1997)

Problem 50. Two guns situated on the top of a hill of


height 10 m fire one shot each with the same speed 5 3 m/s
at some interval of time. One gun fires horizontally and other
d
fires upwards at an angle of 60 with the horizontal. The
B
D
shots collide in air at point P. Find
(a) the time interval between the firings and
(b) the coordinates of the point P. Take origin of the coordinate system at the foot of the hill
right below the muzzle and trajectories in x-y plane. (g = 10 m/s 2 )
(JEE 1996)
Problem 51. Two towers AB and CD are situated a distance d apart as shown in figure. AB is 20 m
high and CD is 30 m high from the ground. An object of mass m is thrown from the top of AB
horizontally with a velocity of 10 m/s towards CD.
Simultaneously another object of mass 2 m is thrown from the top of CD at an angle of 60 to the
horizontal towards AB with the same magnitude of initial velocity as that of the first object. The two
objects move in the same vertical plane, collide in mid-air and stick to each other.
(i) calculate the distance d between the towers,
(ii) find the position where the objects hit the ground.
(g = 9.8 m/s 2 )
(JEE 1994)

Problems

11

Problem 52. A bullet of mass M is fired with a velocity 50 m/s at an angle with the horizontal. At
the highest point of its trajectory, it collides head on with a bob of mass 3 M suspended by a massless
10
string of length
m and gets embedded in the bob. After the collision the string moves through an
3
angle 120. Find :
(a) the angle
(b) the vertical and horizontal coordinates of the initial position of the bob with respect to the
point of firing of the bullet (g = 10 m / s 2 ).
(JEE 1988)