Kinematics paper

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Kinematics paper

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(a) find the equation of the path of the particle

Problem 1.

(b) find the angle between position vector r and velocity vector v at time t = / 12

(c) prove that the acceleration of the particle is always directed toward a fixed point.

Problem 2. A particle is projected vertically upwards with speed u in a medium in which the

resistance to motion is proportional to the square of the speed. Initially net force on the particle is two

times its weight downwards. Find the time of ascent and distance ascended by the particle.

A car starts from rest with an acceleration of 6 m/s 2 which decreases to zero linearly with

time, in 10 second, after which the car continues at a constant speed. Find the time required for the car to

travel 400 m from the start.

Problem 3.

Problem 4. A charged particle of mass m and charge q is moved from rest at x = 0 by an electric field

E = (E 0 x ) i$ where is a positive constant and x is the displacement of the particle in time t along

x-axis. Find the distance moved by the particle when it again is brought to rest and the acceleration of the

particle at that instant. Describe the motion of the particle.

Fe = qE

Problem 5. A particle of mass m moving in a straight line is acted upon by a force F which varies with

its velocity as F = kv n . Here k is a constant. For what values of n the average value of velocity of the

particle averaged over the time, till it stops, is one third the initial velocity. (n 1 or 2)

Problem 6. A lift of total mass M kg is raised by cables from rest to rest through a height h. The

greatest tension which the cables can safely bear is nMg newtons. Find the shortest interval of time in

which the ascent can be made (n > 1).

Problem 7. A particle moves in a straight line with constant acceleration a. The displacements of

particle from origin in times t1 , t 2 and t 3 are s 1 , s 2 and s 3 respectively. If times are in A.P. with common

( s1 s 3 )2

difference d and displacements are in G.P. Then prove that a =

.

d2

Problem 8. A ball of mass 2 kg is dropped from a height of 80 m on a floor. At each collision with the

floor the ball loses half of its speed. Plot the velocity-time, speed-time, and kinetic energy-time graphs of

its motion till first two collisions with the floor (Take g = 10 m/s 2 ).

Problems in Physics

a(m/s2)

moving in a straight line is as shown alongside. Initial velocity of

particle is zero. Find the velocity of the particle when displacement of

the particle is, s = 12 m.

Problem 9.

4

2

2

10

s(m)

12

Problem 10. An aircraft flies with constant airspeed (speed of aircraft in still air) 200 km/hr from

position A to position B, which is 100 km north-east of A and then flies back to A. Throughout the whole

flight the wind velocity is 60 km/hr from the west. Find total time of flight from A to B and back.

Problem 11. A motor boat going downstream overcame a raft at point A. After one hour it turned

back and after some time it met the raft again at a distance 6 km from point A. Find the river velocity.

Problem 12. A particle A is projected with an initial velocity

60 m/s

of 60 m/s at an angle 30 to the horizontal. At the same time a

second particle B is projected in opposite direction with initial

30

A

speed of 50 m/s from a point at a distance of 100 m from A. If

100 m

the particles collide in air, find the angle of projection of B,

time when collision occurs and the distance of point P from A, where collision takes place.

(g = 10 m/s 2 )

50 m/s

Problem 13. A particle is projected with speed v at an angle to the horizontal from the point

x = 0, y = 0. If x and y-axes are horizontal and vertically upwards respectively and point of projection is

the lowest point on the inner surface of a bowl formed by rotating the curve x 2 = 4 ay, where a is a

positive constant. Show that the particle strikes the bowl at a horizontal distance

x =

4 av 2 tan

v 2 + 2ag + 2ag tan 2

Problem 14. A particle is released from a certain height H = 400 m. Due to the wind the particle

gathers the horizontal velocity component v x = ay where a = 5 s 1 and y is the vertical displacement of

(a) the horizontal drift of the particle when it strikes the ground

(b) the speed with which the particle strikes the ground (Take g = 10 m/s 2 )

Problem 15. A particle of mass m is attached by a light inextensible string of

length 2R to a fixed point O. When vertically below O at point A, the particle is

given a horizontal velocity u. When the string becomes horizontal, it hits a small

smooth nail C, at a distance R from O and the particle continues to rotate about C.

Find the minimum value of u so that the particle just describes complete circle

abou

Problem 16.

2R

A particle moves in a vertical circle. Its velocity at topmost point is half of its velocity at

Problems

bottommost point. Find the magnitude of acceleration of the particle at the moment when its velocity is

directed vertically upwards. (g = 10 m/s 2 )

A uniform electric field of strength 10 6 N/C is directed vertically downwards. A particle

of mass 0.01 kg and charge 10 6 C is suspended by an inextensible thread of length 1 m. The particle is

displaced slightly from its mean position and released. Calculate the time period of its oscillation. What

minimum velocity should be given to the particle at bottom so that it completes a full circle. Calculate the

maximum and minimum tensions in the thread. (g = 9.8 m/s 2 )

Problem 17.

Hint :

A particle moves along a straight line and its velocity depends on time as v = 3t t 2 .

Here v is in m/s and t in second. Find:

(a) average velocity and

(b) average speed for first five seconds.

Problem 18.

Problem 19. At the initial moment three points A, B and C are on a horizontal straight line at equal

distances from one another. Point A begins to move vertically upward with a constant velocity v and

A

v

point c vertically downward without any initial velocity but with a constant

x

acceleration a. How should point B move vertically for all the three points to

be constantly on one straight line. The points begin to move simultaneously.

Problem 20. Two particles A and B start from positions shown in figure

and move with constant speeds v and u (> v). A moves along x-axis and B

moves such that its velocity is always aimed at A. Let r be the distance

between them and be the angle made by the trajectory of B with x-axis at

sometime t. Prove that,

u

+1

)v

P(x, y)

The water is flowing with a speed u. At time t = 0 the boat is at the

origin of a co-ordinate system with x-y axes in the horizontal plane and

positive x-axis in the opposite direction of the flow of water. The boat

has to reach the point P (x , y) as shown in the figure.

Show that the boat has to start in a direction inclined at an angle

u

y

sin 1

to the line joining O to P.

v x 2 + y 2

Also find the time taken by the boat to reach the point P.

at time t = 0, with velocity v o = 250 m / s and moves horizontally

with constant acceleration a = 20 m / s 2 (see figure). An enemy

B

Y

(sin

r

=

d (1 cos )u / v

Problem 22.

u m/s

X

O

Boat

600 m/s

H

= 60

Problems in Physics

tank at the border, spot the plane and fire shots at an angle = 60

with the horizontal and with velocity u = 600 m / s. At what altitude

H of the plane it can be hit by the shot ?

Problem 23. A 3 m long arm OA rotates in a plane such that

= 0.5 t 2 where is the angle with x-axis in radian and t is in second.

A

B

r

X

B

A slider collar B slides along the arm in such a way that its distance

from the hinge O is given by r = 3 0.4 t 2 where r is in meters.

Rod follower

v = 5 cm/s

a = 10 cm/s2

cam

30

Find the velocity of the collar at an instant the arm has turned to

= 30.

30 cm

and down movement while resting on the circular contour of

radius 30 cm of a cam. The cam moves to the right with a velocity of 5 cm/s and an acceleration of

10 cm/s 2 . Find the velocity and acceleration of point B on the rod at the instant of interest as shown in

figure.

Two rods of equal length are lying one along x-axis and the other along line x = y.

They intersect at origin at their mid point. The first rod moves with velocity v1 = v $j and the second with

v $

v $

velocity v 2 =

i

j . Find the velocity of point of intersection of two rods.

2

2

Problem 25.

Problem 26. A particle of mass 1 kg which moves along the x-axis is subjected to an accelerating

force which increases linearly with time and a retarding force which increases directly with displacement

(constant of proportionality being one with proper dimensions in both the cases). At time t = 0,

displacement and velocity both are zero. Find the displacement as a function of time t.

Problem 27. A particle moves along the x-axis according to the equation x = A cos t. Find the

distance travelled by the particle during the time interval t = 0 to t = t.

(i) The points A and B are moving with the same speed u in the positive direction of the

x-axis and y-axis respectively. Find the magnitude of velocity relative to A of a point C, which is

mid point of AB, and show that it is reverse of the velocity of C relative to B.

(ii) A particle P moves on the circle x 2 + y 2 = 1 with constant speed v. Show that each instant

when the acceleration of P is parallel to the line x + y = 0, the velocities of P relative to points A

and B of part (i) are equal in magnitude. Find v in terms of u if the maximum value of the velocity

of P relative to C is u.

Problem 28.

Problem 29. A river of width ' a ' with straight parallel banks flows due north with speed u. The points

O and A are on opposite banks and A is due east of O. Coordinate axes Ox and Oy are taken in the east

and north directions respectively. A boat, whose speed is v relative to water, starts from O and crosses the

Problems

river. If the boat is steered due east and u varies with x as : u = x (a x )

v

a2

Find :

(a) equation of trajectory of the boat

(b) time taken to cross the river

(c) absolute velocity of boatman when he reaches the opposite bank

(d) the displacement of boatman when he reaches the opposite bank from the initial position.

Problem 30.

with y as

v R = v o 1 +

31

w

2v

O

r

where y is the perpendicular distance from one bank. A boat starts rowing

from the bank with constant velocity v = 2 v o in such a way that it always moves

along a straight line perpendicular to the banks.

2r

(a) at what time will he reach the other bank?

(b) what will be the velocity of the boat along the straight line when he reaches the other bank ?

Problem 31. Two points A and B move with speeds v and 2v in two concentric circles with centre O

and radii 2 r and r respectively. If the points move in the same sense and if OAB = , when the relative

motion is along AB, find the value of .

Problem 32. Two parallel straight lines are inclined to the horizon at an angle . A particle is

projected from a point midway between them so as to graze one of the lines and strikes the other at right

angles. Show that if is the angle between the direction of projection and either of the lines, then

tan = ( 2 1) cot

Problem 33. A regular hexagon stands with one side on the ground and a particle projected so as to

graze its four upper vertices. Show that the ratio of its maximum velocity to that of its minimum velocity is

31

R

.

3

Q

Two stones are projected simultaneously with equal speeds from a point on

an inclined plane along the line of its greatest slope upwards and downwards respectively.

The maximum distance between their points of striking the plane is double that of when they

are projected on a horizontal ground with same speed. If one strikes the plane after two

second of the other, find :

y

(a) the angle of inclination of plane.

(b) the speeds of their projection (Take g = 9.8 m/s 2 ).

A

Problem 34.

starts moving from point P also with velocity v relative to the river. The

direction of resultant velocity is always perpendicular to the line joining boat

and the fixed point R. Point Q is on the opposite side of the river and P, Q and

h

u

q

O

a

B

Problems in Physics

(a) the trajectory of the boat,

(b) the drifting of the boat and

(c) the time taken by the boat to cross the river.

Problem 36. AB is an inclined roof and a body is projected from

origin towards the roof as shown in figure. Find h for which body will

just touch the roof.

Given : = = 45 and u = 10 m / s, g = 10 m / s 2 .

Problem 37. A particle is projected from point G, such that it touches the points B, C, D and F of a

regular hexagon of side a. Find its horizontal range GH.

y

P

2m

10m

v0

Problem 38. The benches of a gallery in a cricket stadium are 1 m high and 1

m wide. A batsman strikes the ball at a level 1 m about the ground and hits a ball.

The ball starts at 35 m/s at an angle of 53 with the

P

2v0

horizontal. The benches are perpendicular to the plane

A

of motion and the first bench is 110 m from the

batsman. On which bench will the ball hit.

v0

Q

O

time t = 0. At the same time another particle is thrown

B

C

d

3d

from point O as shown in the figure and it collides with

the particle P. Acceleration due to gravity is along the negative y-axes. If the two particles collide 2 sec

Y

after they start, find the initial velocity of particle which was

C

projected from O.

v0 = 68 m/s

Q are located at points A and B. At t = 0, the particle P is

150 m

B

30

123

300 m

projected perpendicular to the inclined plane OA with velocity 2v o and simultaneously the particle Q is

projected horizontally in BO direction. What is the necessary value of v o (in terms of d and ) so that

both the particles meet each other between the points O and B.

Problems

Problem 41. A projectile is launched from point A with the initial conditions shown in the figure.

Determine the x and y co-ordinates of the point of impact.

Problem 42. In a Searles experiment, the diameter of the wire as measured by a screw gauge of

least count 0.001 cm is 0.050 cm. The length, measured by a scale of least count 0.1 cm, is 110.0 cm.

When a weight of 50 N is suspended from the wire, the extension is measured to be 0.125 cm by a

micrometer of least count 0.001 cm. Find the maximum error in the measurement of Youngs

modulus of the material of the wire from these data.

(JEE 2004)

divisions on the circular scale. While measuring the diameter of a wire, the

linear scale reads 1 mm and 47th division on the circular scale coincides

with the reference line. The length of the wire is 5.6 cm. Find the curved

surface area (in cm 2 ) of the wire in appropriate number of significant

figures.

(JEE 2004)

Problem 43.

45

O

x

coincide with N + 1 divisions on the vernier scale. If each division on the

main scale is of a units, determine the least count of the instrument.

the x-y plane, a small trolley A is moving along a straight line

parallel to the y-axis (see figure) with a constant velocity of

( 3 1)m/s. At a particular instant, when the line OA makes an

angle of 45 with the x-axis, a ball is thrown along the surface from

the origin O. Its velocity makes an angle with the x-axis and it hits

the trolley.

(a) The motion of the ball is observed from the frame of the

trolley. Calculate the angle made by the velocity vector of

the ball with the x-axis in this frame.

Problem 45.

(b) Find the speed of the ball with respect to the surface, if =

(JEE 2003)

Y

A

P

1.25m

u

O

3.0m

4

.

3

(JEE 2002)

above the ground. At time t = 0 the plank starts moving along the + X direction with an acceleration

Problem 46.

1.5 m/s 2 . At the same instant a stone is projected from the origin with a velocity u as shown. A

stationary person on the ground observes the stone hitting the object during its downward motion at

an angle of 45 to the horizontal. All the motions are in X-Y plane. Find u and the time after which

the stone hits the object. Take g = 10 m/s 2 .

(JEE 2000)

k

positive X-axis under the influence of a force F( x ) =

where

2x 2

Problem 47.

10

Problems in Physics

(a) find its velocity when it reaches x = 0.5 m

(b) find the time at which it reaches x = 0.25 m

(JEE 1998)

Problem 48. A large heavy box is sliding without friction down a smooth plane of inclindation .

From a point P on the bottom of the box, a particle is projected inside the box. The inital speed of the

particle with respect to the box is u and the direction of projection makes an angle with the bottom

as shown in the figure.

(a) find the distance along the bottom of the box between the point of projection P and the point

Q where the particle lands (assume that the particle does not hit any other surface of the box.

Neglect air resistance.)

(b) if the horizontal displacement of the partcle as seen by an observeer on the ground is zero,

find the speed of the box with respect to the ground at the instant when the particle was

projected.

(JEE 1998)

Problem 49. A cart is moving along X-direction with a velocity of 4 m/s. A person on the cart

throws a stone with a velocity of 6 m/s relative to himself. In the frame of reference of the cart the

stone is thrown in Y-Z plane making an angle of 30 with vertical z-axis. At the highest point of its

trajectory, the stone hits an object of equal mass hung vertically from branch of a tree by means of a

string of length L. A completely inelastic collision occurs in which the stone gets embedded in the

object. Determine :

(i) the speed of the combined mass immediately after

C

the collision with respect to an observer on the

2m

ground.

60o

(ii) the length L of the string such that the tension in the

string becomes zero when the string becomes

horizontal during the subsequent motion of the

A

m

combined mass. (g = 9.8 m/s 2 )

(JEE 1997)

height 10 m fire one shot each with the same speed 5 3 m/s

at some interval of time. One gun fires horizontally and other

d

fires upwards at an angle of 60 with the horizontal. The

B

D

shots collide in air at point P. Find

(a) the time interval between the firings and

(b) the coordinates of the point P. Take origin of the coordinate system at the foot of the hill

right below the muzzle and trajectories in x-y plane. (g = 10 m/s 2 )

(JEE 1996)

Problem 51. Two towers AB and CD are situated a distance d apart as shown in figure. AB is 20 m

high and CD is 30 m high from the ground. An object of mass m is thrown from the top of AB

horizontally with a velocity of 10 m/s towards CD.

Simultaneously another object of mass 2 m is thrown from the top of CD at an angle of 60 to the

horizontal towards AB with the same magnitude of initial velocity as that of the first object. The two

objects move in the same vertical plane, collide in mid-air and stick to each other.

(i) calculate the distance d between the towers,

(ii) find the position where the objects hit the ground.

(g = 9.8 m/s 2 )

(JEE 1994)

Problems

11

Problem 52. A bullet of mass M is fired with a velocity 50 m/s at an angle with the horizontal. At

the highest point of its trajectory, it collides head on with a bob of mass 3 M suspended by a massless

10

string of length

m and gets embedded in the bob. After the collision the string moves through an

3

angle 120. Find :

(a) the angle

(b) the vertical and horizontal coordinates of the initial position of the bob with respect to the

point of firing of the bullet (g = 10 m / s 2 ).

(JEE 1988)

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