Resource Allocation for OFDMA-based Cognitive Radio Systems With Primary User Activity Consideration

© All Rights Reserved

2 tayangan

Resource Allocation for OFDMA-based Cognitive Radio Systems With Primary User Activity Consideration

© All Rights Reserved

- IIJEC-2014-08-19-11
- 81805791-Lecture-Note-of-Mathematical-Economics.pdf
- Analysis of OFDM System With Energy
- Analysis of Wimax
- InTech-Cooperative Spectrum Sensing
- acn 2.pdf
- Throughput Calculation for LTE TDD and FDD Systems 1
- Analysis of Channel Estimation Methods For
- Implementation and Complexity Issues for Ofdm
- AWCN Brochure
- 5GmmWave Webinar IEEE Nokia 09-20-2017 Final
- High Speed MIMO-OfDM Wireless Data Transport in 60-GHz Radio-over-fiber System Multiplexed by Optical TDM
- Manjunath b Ofdm Icice Paper
- LTE Performance Optimization Update
- OFDM Based Adaptive Beam Forming for Hybrid
- A Comparative Performance Study of OFDM System With the Implementation of Comb Pilot-Based MMSE Channel Estimation
- Modeling and Optimization of Multistream Heat Exchangers With Phase Transition
- support-vector-machines4
- NOMA_2018_exhaustive.pdf
- Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

Anda di halaman 1dari 5

Radio Systems with Primary User Activity

Consideration

Li Li, Changqing Xu, and Jian He

Department of Electronic Engineering

Shanghai JiaoTong University

Shanghai, China

wsll320@gmail.com, cqxu@sjtu.edu.cn, sword2144@yahoo.com.cn

AbstractIn OFDMA-based Cognitive Radio (CR) systems, how

to deal with the time-varying nature of avaliliable spectrum

resources has become a hotspot and challenging problem in

resource allocation. Traditional resource allocation algorithms

can not guarantee proportional rates among non-real-time CR

users (CRU) because the number of available subchannels is

smaller than that of CRUs in some OFDM symbol durations. In

this paper, taking the maximizing of the sum-rate of all CRUs as

the optimization objective, we propose a resource allocation

algorithm in OFDMA-based CR systems using dual methods

which can maintain statistical proportional rates among CRUs

while keeping the interference introduced to Primary users (PU)

under specified thresholds. In contrast to traditional resource

allocation algorithms, the proposed algorithm can achieve higher

transmission rate and guarantee non-real-time services of CRUs.

Keywords-Cognitive Radio; OFDMA; resource allocation;

proportional rate; Primary User activity; dual methods

I.

INTRODUCTION

improving the utilization of scarce radio spectrum resources by

allowing CR users (CRU) to access frequency bands not being

occupied by Primary users (PU) [1]-[2]. Orthogonal frequency

division multiple access (OFDMA), also known as multiuser

orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), is a

potential candidate for CR systems due to its flexibility in

allocating resource among CRUs [3].

In contrast to traditional OFDMA systems, resource

allocation in CR systems has two challenges: firstly, mutual

interference between PU and CRU has to be considered

especially in systems where PUs do not use OFDM and the

interference introduced to PUs must be limited under specified

thresholds [4]; secondly, the time-varying nature of available

spectrum resources due to PU activity also needs to be

considered. Many resource allocation algorithms have been

proposed in interference-limited CR systems and resource

allocation algorithm with PU activity consideration is a new

hotspot in CR systems. When a PU is active, the corresponding

subchannels in this PUs frequency band are not available to

CRUs, so how to deal with the time-varying nature of available

spectrum resource is a difficult problem. In traditional

OFDMA systems, a suboptimal resource allocation algorithm

has been proposed to guarantee proportional rates among nonreal-time users during each OFDM symbol duration in [5], and

it is implicitly assumed that the number of available

subchannels is sufficiently large in this OFDM symbol

duration. However, in CR systems, the number of available

subchannels is sometimes smaller than the number of CRUs in

some OFDM symbol durations, so the algorithm in [5] can not

guarantee proportional rates among CRUs. In fact, non-realtime services are delay-tolerant and it is unnecessary to

guarantee proportional rates among CRUs in each OFDM

symbol duration, thus non-real-time services can be guaranteed

even in CR systems. In [6], a novel resource allocation

algorithm with consideration of the time-varying nature of

available spectrum resource has been proposed to provide

statistical proportional rates among CRUs. However,

interference between PUs and CRUs is not taken into

consideration in this paper.

In this paper, we extend the scenario in [6] to general case,

taking into account both interference and PU activity in

OFDMA-based CR systems. We will see that, for a given

subchannel assignment, the optimal power allocation follows

water-filling approach with different water levels for different

subchannels. Basing on this property, we propose a resource

allocation algorithm to guarantee statistical proportional rates

among CRUs using dual methods.

II.

SYSTEM MODEL

of an OFDMA-based CR system in which a CR Base Station

(BS) serves M CRUs and PU BS transmits signals to N PUs.

The total bandwidth is W, which is divided into K subchannels

and each subchannel has a bandwidth of f. The bandwidth of

frequency band occupied by each PU is Wp, which contains

K/N subchannels. It is assumed that the transmission is timeslotted with a slot duration equals to the OFDM symbol

duration Ts. Let htm,k and gtk,n denote the time-varying channel

power gain of the mth CRU and the nth PU of the kth subchannel

in time slot t respectively. The probability density function

(PDF) and cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the mth

CRU are fm(hm) and Fm(hm) respectively. The noise power

density spectrum (PSD) is N0. We assume that a subchannel

can not be shared by more than one CRU and define tm,k as a

Research and Development Program (863) of China under Grant No.

2007AA01Z224 and the National Natural Science Foundation of China under

Grant No. 61071079.

This full text paper was peer reviewed at the direction of IEEE Communications Society subject matter experts for publication in the IEEE ICC 2011 proceedings

0, indicating whether the kth subchannel is allocated to the mth

CRU or not in time slot t.

Without loss of generality, we assume that all PUs have the

same probability pa of staying in active mode. During the time

slot t, if the nth PU is active, the subchannels in this PUs

frequency band are not available to CRUs and there exists

interference between this PU and available subchannels which

are occupied by CRUs.

In this paper, we consider proportional rates among CRUs

in T time slots first and define {rm, m=1M} as a set of

predetermined values which satisfy

(1)

R1 : R2 : ...: RM = r1 : r2 :...: rM

constraint above can be rewritten as

(2)

R1 / r1 = R2 / r2 = ... = RM / rM = d

slots.

The PSD of the kth subchannel is

M

k ( f ) = mt ,k pmt ,k Ts (

m =1

sin fTs

)

fTs

(3)

where ptm,k is the power allocated to the mth CRU on the kth

subchannel in time slot t. Thus, the interference introduced by

the kth subchannel to the nth PU in time slot t can be written as

I

t

k ,n

dk ,n +W p /2

g ( f )df =

t

k ,n k

d k ,n W p /2

t

m, k

t

m, k

P U

t

k ,n

(4)

m =1

and the nth PUs frequency band and Utk,n denote the

interference factor of the kth subchannel to the nth PUs

frequency band.

The interference introduced by the nth PU signal to the kth

subchannel of the mth CRU in time slot t can be written as

J nt ,m,k =

dk ,n +f / 2

dk ,n f /2

hmt ,kRR ( e j )d

(5)

Mathematically, we formulate the resource allocation

problem as maximizing the sum-rate of all CRUs subject to the

constraints of interference thresholds, total transmit power and

proportional rates among CRUs. The optimization problem can

be formulated as

OP1:

subject to

max

t

t

m ,k

, Rm ,k

t =1 kAt

M

m =1

mt ,k Rmt ,k

(6)

Rmt ,k = drm ,

(7)

m = 1,..., M

t

= 1 , k A t = 1,..., T

R

mt ,k 2

k At m =1

t

m ,k

/ f

U kt ,n

t

m,k

n

(9)

n S t t = 1,..., T

T

t

m,k

t =1 k A m =1

(2

Rmt ,k / f

) 1

t

m ,k

(10)

TPtotal

nS

are the

ratio of the mth CRU in the kth subchannel respectively . At is

the set of the available subchannels and S t is the set of the

active PUs during time slot t. In (9), n denotes the

interference threshold level of the nth PU and the total

interference introduced by all CRUs to the nth PU, the left side

of (9), must be limited under this level. In (10), Ptotal is the total

transmit power per time slot.

III.

l tm ,k = t R t , OP1 can be

By introducing a new variable R

m,k m ,k

converted into a convex optimization problem and the

Lagrangian is given by

L1 =

T M

M

T

l tm ,k + dr

l tm,k

R

R

m

m

t =1 m =1 kAt

m =1

t =1 kAt

+ kt mt ,k 1

t =1 kAt

m=1

(11)

T

M

Ut

lt

+ nt mt ,k 2 Rm ,k / f 1 tk ,n n

m ,k

t =1 nS t

m =1 kAt

T

lt

1

+ mt ,k 2 Rm ,k / f 1 t TPtotal

m ,k

t =1 kAt m=1

t *

l m,k

constraints (7), (8) (9) and (10) respectively. Let mt ,*k and R

denote the optimal values. Using the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker

(KKT) conditions [7], the necessary and sufficient conditions

l tm*,k can be written as

for mt ,*k and R

T

Rl

t =1 kAt

t *

m,k

t*

m, k

drm = 0 ,

1 = 0 ,

m = 1,..., M

k At t = 1,..., T

(12)

(13)

m =1

t =1 m =1 k At

t

m, k

t

m, k

(8)

nt mt ,*k 2R

m=1 kAt

l tm*,k / t * f

m ,k

Ut

1 tk ,n n = 0 ,

m,k

n S t t = 1,..., T

(14)

This full text paper was peer reviewed at the direction of IEEE Communications Society subject matter experts for publication in the IEEE ICC 2011 proceedings

mt ,*k 2 R

l tm*,k / t * f

m ,k

t =1 kAt m =1

1

1 t TPtotal = 0

m ,k

> 0,

L1

= 0,

mt ,*k

< 0,

L1

t*

R m,k

mt ,*k = 0

0<mt ,*k < 1

mt ,*k = 1

OP2:

and

( x)

H

+

t

m,k

l tm*,k = 0

R

= L ln ( L

(17)

1

Ltm*,k t

m,k

k =1 ( Lm ,k )

Here,

(20)

t

t

nU k ,n + ln2

nS t

strategy, Ltm*,k varies with different subchannel k.

The conclusions above are the optimal values in time slot t,

however proportional rates among CRUs need to be maintained

during all T time slots and we can not predict the

instantaneous values of the power gains of CRUs and PUs

during the time slot after t. Therefore, we convert OP1 to OP2,

in which statistics of power gains are considered and OP2 is

the statistical form of OP1. In OP2, we drop superscript t in

OP1 since we only consider statistical proportional rate.

Furthermore, we assigne subchannels among CRUs using

strategy (18) and next we will calculate the probability that the

given subchannel is allocated to each CRU in this statistical

problem.

(23)

n = 1,..., N

1

Probm ,k Lm ,k

m ,k

m =1 k =1 ( Lm ,k )

Here,

( Lm,k ) =

N 0 f

N

Lm,k pa

n =1

d k ,n +f / 2

d k ,n f / 2

(25)

RR ( e j ) d

(19)

t

m

(22)

pnU k ,n f m ( hm ) dhm n

(1 + ) f

(21)

1

Probm ,k Lm ,k

m =1 k =1 ( L )

m,k

m ,k

M

follows water-filling approach, and Ltm*,k is the optimal water

Ltm*,k =

(18)

CRU is

1

= Ltm*, k t

m,k

( Lm ,k )

m = 1,..., M

max ( 0, x ) .

t *

m,k

l tm*,k > 0

R

+

t

m,k

0,

= 0,

t*

m,k

subject to:

1, m = arg max H mt ,k

=

otherwise

0,

t*

m,k

{Lm ,k }

m =1 k =1

(16)

substituting the result into KKT conditions, we obtain the

optimal subchannel assignment strategy in time slot t

t *

m,k

max

(15)

j m

j m

(26)

allocated to the mth CRU and pn is the probability that PU is not

active, which equals to 1-pa respectively.

Obviously, it is difficult to convert OP2 into convex

optimization problem. The duality gap of non-convex resource

allocation optimization problems in multicarrier systems is

nearly zero if the number of subcarriers is sufficiently large [8].

Thus, we can solve OP2 using dual methods. The Lagrange

dual function of OP2 is given as

g ( , , ) = max L2

{Lm ,k }D

({L } , , , )

m,k

(27)

are the multipliers for constraints of proportional rates,

interference and total power constraints, respectively. These

multipliers m, n, are the same with the corresponding

Lagrange multipliers in OP1. In (27), D is a set of all nonnegative

Lm,k

which

is

defined

as

D = { Lm,k 0; m = 1,...M k = 1,..., K } .The dual optimization

problem is then formulated as

minimize g ( , , )

subject to

(28)

; 0, 0

optimization problems. Substituting (19) and (20) into the dual

This full text paper was peer reviewed at the direction of IEEE Communications Society subject matter experts for publication in the IEEE ICC 2011 proceedings

assignments for the kth subchannel, we obtain the dual function

g ( , , ) . Since g ( , , ) is always convex, the common

way to solve (28) is the gradient update method. In general,

g ( , , ) is not differentiable, thus the gradient may not exit.

easy to prove the following is a subgradient of g ( , , )

K

m =

k =1 ( L )

m ,k

m = 1,..., M

(29)

pnU k ,n f m ( hm ) dhm

n = 1,..., N

(30)

n = n

1

Probm,k Lm,k

m =1 k =1 ( L )

m,k

m ,k

M

= Ptotal

1

Probm,k Lm ,k

m,k

m =1 k =1 ( Lm ,k )

pn f m ( hm ) dhm

(31)

subgradient method is outlined as follows

Proposed Resource Allocation Algorithm

and ( 0 ) ,

1)

Initialize: m ( 0 ) , n ( 0 )

m = 1,..., M and n = 1,..., N .

2)

and Probm,k using (20) and (26), and then calculate

the subgradient using (29)-(31).

3)

n = 1,..., N in following way

for

all

m ( t + 1) = m ( t ) s m ( t )

n ( t + 1) = n ( t ) s n ( t )

( t + 1) = ( t ) s ( t )

step size.

4)

subgrandient are small enough, , and can converge to a

small neighborhood around the optimal value * , * and * .

For each fixed value of , and , the proposed

algorithm requires O(KM) executions to calculate Lm,k and

Probm,k. It is assumed that subgradient update method can

converge in 1 iterations and Algorithm 2, the outer loop of

complexity of the proposed algorithm is O(12KM), which is

only linear in the number of subchannels.

IV.

SIMULATION RESULTS

CRUs and N=8 PUs. The number of CRUs increases from 4 to

32 and by adding a group of 4 CRUs at a time. The channel

gains are assumed to be Rayleigh fading, and the PDF of the

mth CRU f m ( hm ) = e

hm

Em

h

m

Em

the mth CRU. The total bandwidth W=20MHz and consists of

K=32 subchannels, each with a bandwidth of f =0.625MHz.

Each PUs bandwidth Wp=2.5MHz. The noise power is

1.8070 1014W , and the average power gains of four CRUs in

a group are 5.15910-14, 5.15210-14, 8.41210-14 and 5.150

10-14. The total transmit power Ptotal = 1W and the

interference

threshold

levels

of

eight

PUs

={0.025,0.05,0.025,0.025,0.05,0.025,0.025,0.025}W. It is

assumed that pa=0.5, rm=1 m=1,,M, and T=1000 time slots.

In Fig.1, we present the sum transmission rate of all CRUs

versus the number of CRUs M for the proposed algorithm in

CR systems and the resource allocation algorithm in [5],

referred to as Shen, which is designed for traditional OFDMA

systems. We can see that, in contrast to the algorithm in [5], the

proposed algorithm can achieve higher sum transmission rate

though interference is not considered in traditional OFDMA

systems. Fig.1 also shows that the sum transmission rate of the

proposed algorithm increases with M steadily. While the sum

transmission rate of the algorithm in [5] decreases with M

because as M increases, there are not enough subchannels to

support proportional rates among all CRUs.

We access fairness in the value of service share of all CRUs

using Fairness Index (FI) which is defined as

2

2

M

M

FI = m=1 ( Rm / rm ) / M m=1 ( Rm / rm ) . If all CRUs get

of 1, and the system is 100% fair. In Table I, we show the FI

versus the number of CRUs, M. From Table I, we can see that,

FI of the proposed algorithm is almost 1 in all cases, and FI of

the proposed algorithm is better than the algorithm in [5]. Fig.2

shows the normalized transmission rate distribution among

eight CRUs visually. We can see that, the transmission rate is

distributed very well among CRUs according to the

proportional rates set with the proposed resource allocation

algorithm. However, the algorithm in [5] can not guarantee

proportional rates among eight CRUs.

TABLE I.

FAIRNESS INDEX

12

16

20

24

28

32

proposed

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Shen

0.83

0.93

0.99

0.98

0.90

0.73

0.64

0.56

V.

CONCLUSION

using dual methods. The proposed algorithm considers the

time-varying nature of available subchannels in OFDMA-based

CR systems to maintain proportional rates among CRUs while

keeping the interference introduced to PUs under the specified

thresholds. In contrast to the resource allocation algorithm in

traditional OFDMA systems, the proposed algorithm can

provide statistical proportional rates among CRUs and achieve

higher sum transmission rate. In addition, the complexity of the

proposed algorithm is only linear in the number of subchannels.

REFERENCES

Figure 1. Sum transmission rate of CRUs versus the number of CRUs.

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

[7]

[8]

Figure 2. Normalized transmission rate distribution among M =8 CRUs.

communication, in Proc. International Workshop on Mobile

Multimedia Communications (MoMuC99), San Diego, CA., 1999,

pp.3-10.

S.

Haykin,

Cognitive

radio:

brain-empowered

wireless

communications, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 23, no.2, pp. 201220, Feb. 2005.

T. Weiss and F. K. Jondral, Spectrum pooling: an innovative strategy

for the enhancement of spectrum efficiency, IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.

42, no. 3, pp. S8-S14, Mar. 2004.

T. Weiss, J. Hillenbrand, A. Krohn, and F. K. Jondral, Mutual

interference in OFDM-based spectrum pooling systems, in Proc. IEEE

Vehicular Technol. Conf. (VTC04). Vol. 4, pp. 1873-1877, May 2004.

Z. Shen, J. G. Andrews, and B. L. Evans, Adaptive resource allocation

in multiuser OFDM systems with proportional rate constraints, IEEE

Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 2726-2737, Nov. 2005.

Y. Zhang and C. Leung, Resource allocation for non-real-time services

in OFDM-based cognitive radio systems, IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 13,

no. 1, pp. 16-18, Jan. 2009.

S. Boyd and L. Vandenberghe, Convex Optimization. Cambridge, 2004.

W. Yu and R. Lui, Dual methods for nonconvex spectrum optimization

of multicarrier systems, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 54, no. 7, pp.

1310-1322, July 2006.

- IIJEC-2014-08-19-11Diunggah olehAnonymous vQrJlEN
- 81805791-Lecture-Note-of-Mathematical-Economics.pdfDiunggah olehTarig Gibreel
- Analysis of OFDM System With EnergyDiunggah olehivanramljak
- Analysis of WimaxDiunggah olehshivaji2006
- acn 2.pdfDiunggah olehKissan Jamjam
- InTech-Cooperative Spectrum SensingDiunggah olehMouna Sghaier
- Throughput Calculation for LTE TDD and FDD Systems 1Diunggah olehmoses
- Analysis of Channel Estimation Methods ForDiunggah olehbaburao_kodavati
- Implementation and Complexity Issues for OfdmDiunggah olehmksayshi
- AWCN BrochureDiunggah olehkohlisamrat
- 5GmmWave Webinar IEEE Nokia 09-20-2017 FinalDiunggah olehyhbae
- High Speed MIMO-OfDM Wireless Data Transport in 60-GHz Radio-over-fiber System Multiplexed by Optical TDMDiunggah olehPhương Kite
- Manjunath b Ofdm Icice PaperDiunggah olehManjunath Basavaraju
- LTE Performance Optimization UpdateDiunggah olehAditya Shukla
- OFDM Based Adaptive Beam Forming for HybridDiunggah olehGervaisKamga
- A Comparative Performance Study of OFDM System With the Implementation of Comb Pilot-Based MMSE Channel EstimationDiunggah olehAnonymous lVQ83F8mC
- Modeling and Optimization of Multistream Heat Exchangers With Phase TransitionDiunggah olehDarwin Santamaría Calderón
- support-vector-machines4Diunggah olehMathangi Sri
- NOMA_2018_exhaustive.pdfDiunggah olehVinay
- Orthogonal Frequency Division MultiplexingDiunggah olehKarthi Keyan
- Properties of the Inter Carrier Interference Due ToDiunggah olehapi-3851401
- 130 DesignDiunggah olehHeena Choudhary
- Donut Shaped Ultra wideband Antenna for Cognitive Radio ApplicationDiunggah olehEditor IJRITCC
- Communication Patch AntennaDiunggah olehManjunatha Kurugodu
- Inter-carrier Interference Analysis and Mitigationfor OFDM System Over Fast Fading ChannelsDiunggah olehyasir9909
- optimizationhw3Diunggah olehSilvio Paula
- papr companding ,interleavingDiunggah olehSagar Mahadik
- Comparison of Various Peak to Average Power Reduction TechniquesDiunggah olehAlexander Decker
- PricingDiunggah olehmaytranght
- Wimax 3Diunggah olehNhan Tran

- A Mechatronics Approach in Intelligent Control Systems of the Overhead Travelling Cranes Prototyping, 2008Diunggah olehsahathermal6633
- Throughput and Delay Optimal Scheduling in Cognitive Radio Networks Under IT Constraints JOKAN-2009Diunggah olehsahathermal6633
- The Work of John Nash in Game TheoryDiunggah olehannabatayo
- The Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm, Convergence Analysis and Parameter SelectionDiunggah olehbaalaajee
- Subspace-Based Method for Spectrum SensingDiunggah olehsahathermal6633
- Survey of Security Issues in Cognitive Radio NetworksDiunggah olehsahathermal6633
- The Impact of Queue on Opportunistic based Cognitive Radio NetworksDiunggah olehJournal of Computing
- The Equilibrium Problem in Classical Game TheoryDiunggah olehsahathermal6633
- Supermodularity and Supermodular Games, 2007 IESEBSDiunggah olehsahathermal6633
- Supermodularity and Preferences, Journal of Economic Theory 144 (2009)Diunggah olehsahathermal6633
- The Application of Femtocells as a Technical Solution for a Telecomunication Provider, TEM Journal-2012Diunggah olehsahathermal6633
- The Analysis of System Performance of an MC-CDMA System Over Two-Tier Femtocell Networks, IMECS-2010Diunggah olehsahathermal6633
- Stochastic Channel Selection in Cognitive Radio NetworksDiunggah olehsahathermal6633
- Supermodularity and Complementarity in Economics an Elementary Survey, Southern Economic Journal 2005Diunggah olehsahathermal6633
- Technical Challenges of Cognitive Radio-Related Systems 2008Diunggah olehsahathermal6633
- Survey on Performance Analysis of Cognitive Radio NetworksDiunggah olehsahathermal6633
- Dynamic Response of an Overhead Crane System, 1998Diunggah olehsahathermal6633
- Game Theory and Cognitive Radio Based Wireless Networks, Mehta, Springer-Verlag-2009Diunggah olehsahathermal6633
- Survey of Cognitive Radio ArchitecturesDiunggah olehsahathermal6633
- Supermodularity is Not Falsifiable, 2006Diunggah olehsahathermal6633
- Strategic and Extensive GamesDiunggah olehsahathermal6633
- Subcarrier and Power Allocation in OFDM-based Cognitive Radio Systems IJCNIS-2010Diunggah olehsahathermal6633
- 3Diunggah olehNegin Maleki
- Non-Destructive Testing for Plant Life AssessmentDiunggah olehKhalid M. Hafez
- Standardization and Research in Cognitive and Dynamics Spectrum Access Networks IEEE-2010Diunggah olehsahathermal6633
- GEIT-21001-sd299EN_ht-appguide.pdfDiunggah olehElias Kapa
- graney_jan2012Diunggah olehHamka Donald Cobain
- Pipe Support Criteria for ASME B31.3 Metallic PipingDiunggah olehUsman Naseem

- Overview of Telecom NetworkDiunggah olehVenkatesh Muppidi
- 29834901Diunggah oleh7laser
- AN-32 FET Circuit ApplicationsDiunggah olehQuim
- IntervalsDiunggah olehKanokporn Leerungnavarat
- LM-W550ADiunggah olehElkin Meza
- WSU 16FB Game Notes - IdahoDiunggah olehJacobT2
- AN/ARC-210 VHF/UHF SATCOM RADIODiunggah olehΒΕΗΣ ΣΤΕΛΙΟΣ Veis Stelios
- 1. Oea000041 Lte Sae System Overview Issue 1.03Diunggah olehjavadiaz
- Chilcott-Steel Away SATB DivisiDiunggah olehFabrizio
- Fandanguillo by Jose de AzpiazuDiunggah olehlang chen
- XFINITY TV Local Channel Line-upDiunggah olehVinod Rao
- Confinement of Light Standing Wave TransDiunggah olehHFdzAl
- CODIGOS-20171[1]Diunggah olehYosemar Noa Jorge
- Fantasia Gitana EMAC Violin II.pdfDiunggah olehMario Villalba Pedreros
- Music Timetable WB 5th May 2009 AlphabeticalDiunggah olehDavid Noble
- S-Forty-9erDiunggah olehspacefinder
- Yamaha Dtxtreme III Owners ManualDiunggah olehAnonymous cdQSIU03AQ
- BTHL 201 ManualDiunggah olehVictor Sebastian Sandoval Norambuena
- Panasonic HDC-SD90 User Manual (EN)Diunggah olehMandu Ceriano
- Internetworking MultimediaDiunggah olehs_sankaraa
- Mt9d131.en USDiunggah olehtheimagingsource
- Merenje dielektričnih svojstava materijala.pdfDiunggah olehBranislav Filipov
- PE197707.pdfDiunggah olehelin373
- 151013-Evolution to LTE ReportDiunggah olehMiMarisolLo
- Italian War of LiberationDiunggah olehWanmai Niyom
- 10 Chapter 5Diunggah olehSanjay Randhawa
- Purposive CommunicationDiunggah olehRichard Bañez
- MMM kick-off research (Cultural Identity, 2005)Diunggah olehMission Models Money
- Sony Ctv-44 Ma1 Direct Lcd Training ManualDiunggah olehfernandoalejandro
- IELTS+Speaking+Topics+PDF.pdfDiunggah olehMOHAMMED AYAZ ALI