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Service

2.3L V5 Engine
1

Self-Study Program No. 62

No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted wholly or


partially in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical,
including photocopying, recording or by any information storage or
retrieval system without the prior written permission of the copyright
holders.
TITLE: 2.3 L V5 Engine (S.S.P.. No. 62)
AUTHOR: Service Organization
SEAT, S.A. Zona Franca, Calle 2
Reg. of business names Barcelona - Volume 23662, Folio 1, Page 56855
1st edition
DATE OF PUBLICATION:: April 98
LEGAL REGISTER: B-18489 - 98
Typesetting and printing: GRFICAS SYL
Silici, 9-11 - Pol. Industrial Famades _ 08940 Cornell - BARCELONA

2.3L V5 Engine
The arrival of the V5 signifies the introduction of a new family of engines for SEAT
models, coming with an advanced high
performance engine concept and a five
cylinder V type engine layout.
Thanks to careful design, it was possible
to achieve a compact small size engine with
a transverse type mounting of this engine.
The 2.3 litre engine was designed to provide excellent driving comfort, offering a
very high torque value over a wide rpm
range, while at the same time providing a
good response under maximum power
demands and most important, all these performance advantages are available with
very low fuel consumption.
It was with this idea in mind that the new
variable inlet manifold was designed, thus
providing excellent engine performance
over a wide rpm range.
All these factors were worked on without
forgetting the need to be environment
friendly and for this reason a secondary air
injection system to the exhaust was also fitted.
The work on the engine was greatly simplified as can be seen from the maintenance
free timing system.
We can safely say that this is a high performance engine, with a low fuel consumption, environment friendly and with low
maintenance requirements to provide
maximum driving pleasure.

CONTENTS

2.3 V5 ENGINE ........................................ 4-5


ENGINE
BLOCK .................................................... 6-8
CYLINDER HEAD .................................. 9-11
EXHAUST SECONDARY
AIR INJECTION ................................... 12-13
VARIABLE
INLET MANIFOLD .............................. 14-17
TIMING ............................................... 18-19
LUBRICATION
SYSTEM ............................................. 20-21
COOLING
SYSTEM ............................................. 22-23
AUXILIARY
COMPONENTS .................................. 24-25

2.3 L V5 ENGINE

D62-01

perfect combination of an in line and V


configuration engine.
The engine was designed based on the
original V concept, with two rows of cylin-

The five cylinder engine belonging to the


EA 395 engine family is remarkable due to
its completely new design.
The V5 engine layout demonstrates the

The design of the exhaust manifold


should also be mentioned, since it was
made with the object improving engine
breathing and reducing the heat loss from
the exhaust gases to a minimum, thus
ensuring rapid heating of the cataliser.
The sump is made from an aluminium alloy to assist the cooling of the oil
and improve the engine acoustics.
Finally, we can mention the replacement of the traditional oil filter by a new
cartridge type filter.

ders while keeping the angular opening


between these to a minimum.
This method makes it possible to fit one
single cylinder head and reduce the overall
engine volume considerably, thus permitting the engine to be mounted transversally on the vehicle.
The timing system is located on the flywheel side of the engine and it is driven by
two chains with two automatic tensioners.
The intake system was designed to
ensure perfect filling of all the cylinders by
using a variable inlet manifold.

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS:
140
140

250250

126
126

225225

112
112

200200

9898

175175

8484

150150

7070

125125

5656

100100

4242

7575

2828

Ignition system ................Bosch Motronic

5050

1414

Fuel Octane rating...........Min. 95 Octane

00

Firing order ......................1-2-4-5-3

2525
1000
1000

2000
2000

3000
3000

4000
4000

5000
5000

6000
6000

Capacity............................2.327 cm3
Bore x Stroke ...................81,0 x 90,3 mm
Compression ratio...........10:1
V opening angle ..............15

POTENCIA
(kW)
POWER (kW)

PAR
(Nm) (Nm)
TORQUE

Designation letters ..........AGZ


275275

Maximum Torque............205 Nm at 3200 rpm


Maximum Power .............110 kW at 6000 rpm
Injection and

7000
7000

REGIMEN
(1 min.)
RPM (1 min.)

D62-02

rpm., rising to a maximum of 205 Nm. at


3200 rpm. The engine specifications only
serve to emphasise the excellent elasticity
of the unit, a factor which is easily observed
in the resulting driving comfort.

This is a long stroke engine, notable for


its elasticity and the fact that it delivers very
high torque over a wide rpm spread.
The maximum engine power of 110 kW
is produced at 6000 rpm and a torque of 180
Nm is developed between 2000 and 6000

ENGINE BLOCK
the cylinders 1, 3 and 5 are in bank I and the
cylinders 2 and 4 are in bank II.
The engine numbering starts on the opposite side from the flywheel and the number
one cylinder is the farthest from the flywheel.

The engine block assembly is made from


grey cast iron and is designed to accomodate the five cylinders, the coolant pump
and the intermediate shaft.
The cylinders are separated in two banks,

Bank II

Bank I

Intermediate shaft
1

Housing for
coolant pump

D62-03

The centre of the crankshaft is in line with


the centre of the cylinder bank angle and 97 cm
above the apex point of the V. An angular
crankshaft variation of 22 exists between the
TDC of the cylinders in bank I and those in bank
II.
Since this is a five cylinder engine, the
combustion takes place every 144 of
crankshaft rotation, to ensure a proper
engine cycle and balanced operation.
In order to produce a combustion stroke
every 144 of crankshaft rotation, with a
firing order of (1-2-4-5-3), the crankshaft
throws are as follows:
Cylinder 1 & 2 = 166
Cylinder 2 & 4 = 144
Cylinder 4 & 5 = 122
Cylinder 5 & 3 = 144
Cylinder 3 & 1 = 144

15
Bank II

Bank I

22

TDC cylinders
bank II

TDC cylinders
bank I
D62-04

D62-0

Thrust washers

Crankshaft

Crown wheel

Flywheel

VR

Crankshaft
pulley

VR

Mounting position

D62-05

CRANKSHAFT
A mistake in the alignment of the mark
will cause incorrect engine operation.
The following measures were taken in
order to eliminate any vibrations which
may be transmitted by the crankshaft:
On the one hand a pulley with a vibration damper was fitted to drive the poly V
belt.
A dual mass flywheel is fitted at the
crankshaft output, the operation of this component is described in the Self Study
Program No.55 1.9TDI 81 kW Engine.

The crankshaft is fitted on the block using


five main bearing caps, with the numbers
marked on each of these to facilitate assembly.
The end play of the crankshaft can be
corrected using the two part thrust washers
located on the fourth main bearing cap.
It should be noted that the crankshaft
counterweight located on the flywheel side,
is fitted with a crown wheel to register the
engine rpm. This wheel is attached with
three bolts.
When fitting the crown wheel, take note
that there are two possible positions, so take
care to line up the marking for this engine,
the marking which should be taken into
account is the indication VR5.

Note: The machining of the crankshaft


should be done according to the indications
given in the Service Manual.

ENGINE BLOCK
PISTON - CON ROD
All five pistons fitted to this engine are
identical and have a completely new design.
The piston crown contains the largest
part of the combustion chamber since the
head is completely flat.
The mounting position of the piston can
be easily identified, since the piston flat portion which mates with the head is fitted facing the inside of the V in the block.
The pistons in this engine are notable due
to the design of the ring grooves for the oil
scraper and oil control rings.
The ring groove for the oil scraper ring is
especially designed to collect a large
amount of oil from the cylinder wall and
bring it down to the oil control ring.
The shape of the oil control ring groove is
especially designed to permit evacuation of
all the oil collected by the oil scraper ring.
The inner part of the piston is cooled
by oil fed from injectors located in the main
bearing housing.
Two marks on the con rod and big end
cap should coincide when mounting.
As on the majority of engines, the con rod
bolts should be replaced whenever they are
removed because of the risk of elongation.

Piston

Compression
ring

Oil
scraper
ring

Oil control
ring

Con rod

Big end
bearing shells

Note: Due to the inclination of the cylinders,


the tool T20054 is necessary to fit the pistons
in the block.
Mounting
marks

Mounting
bolts
D62-06

CYLINDER HEAD

Inlet valve

Exhaust valve

Injector
Cylinder No. 2

Exhaust
pipe

Injector
support

Cylinder No. 1

Inlet pipe

Plug

D62-06

D62-07

The rocker cover seal is vulcanised


into the cover to prevent leakage problems,
making it necessary to replace the complete
unit in case of seal damage.
The cylinder head is fitted on the block
with the aid of 18 bolts using torx type
heads.
Due to the elongation to which these
bolts are subjected when tightening them to
their torque value, they should never be
reused when removed.
The inlet and exhaust conduits have been
designed to ensure perfect filling and evacuation of the cylinders on both banks, leading
to good fuel consumption and even balanced
running of the engine.

The cylinder head is a special design, since


only one single component is used for this
engine and it provides identical inlet and
exhaust facilities for both cylinder banks.
The cross flow system is used on this
cylinder head, fitting two valves per
cylinder.
Each cylinder bank has a single camshaft,
which transmits movement by means of
hydraulic tappets to the valves, which are
mounted in a vertical position, in relation to
the plane of the cylinder head.
The spark plug has to be mounted on one
side of the combustion chamber due to the
construction of the cylinder head.
The injectors, which use the air flux
principle, are located in a section prior to the
inlet manifold.

CYLINDER HEAD
HEAD GASKET
This gasket is made from three metal
layers and care should be taken when fitting
a new gasket not to remove it from its wrapping until it is ready to be fitted as otherwise
it may corrode.
The gasket is also availed of to seal the
union between the upper and lower part of
the timing cover, for this reason whenever
any action is done on the top part of the timing cover, great care should be taken not to
damage the head gasket.

INJECTOR AIR FLUX

D62-08
1

The novelty on these injectors is the fitting an air passage through the injectors
themselves, in order to improve the fuel pulverisation. A tube at the exit from the inlet
manifold, just after the air filter, brings an air
supply directly to the injectors.
The air arriving at the injectors leaves
from orifices surrounding the fuel injection

drillings, provoking a circulation of air


together with the fuel spray.
The air and fuel emulsion prevents the
formation of small droplets.

Injector support

Air entry

Air
exit

Fuel exit

D 62-09

10

Camshafts bank II

Coded
collar
Gear
Camshaft
bank I
1

Gear

D62-10

CAMSHAFT
made when fitting this collar to the camshaft
gear and camshaft.
Both camshaft gears are similar, however
we should never fit the collar on the long
cam gear as the engine would not start.
The special tool T20047 is required to fit
the two camshafts and ensure that they are
correctly synchronised to receive the timing chain. The tool locks the camshafts in
position.

The layout of the cylinders makes it necessary to fit two camshafts on the cylinder
head, the cylinder bank I is fitted with the
long camshaft and the cylinder bank II is
fitted with the short camshaft.
A coded collar to hold the hall sender, is
fitted on the short cam, in order to ensure
rapid synchronisation between the
camshaft and the crankshaft.
This collar is centred on the gear by a lug
and slot which ensures that no error can be

11

EXHAUST SECONDARY AIR INJECTION

Secondary air conduit

Thermal and
acoustic insulation

Exhaust manifold
D62-11

oxygen completes the combustion and elimination of these harmful hydrocarbons.


Both of these measures cause the exhaust
gases to reach the cataliser at a higher temperature and therefore reduce the heating
up period of this component.

The following measures were undertaken


in order to reduce the emission of noxious
gases after cold engine start up:
On the one hand, an exhaust pipe made
with steel tubes was fitted in order to
reduce the heat loss from the exhaust gases.
The exhaust outlets are separate and
they join together in two individual collectors which arrive at the cataliser. A plate is
fitted on the upper side to provide thermal
and acoustic insulation.
On the other hand a secondary air
injection system is fitted on the exhaust
manifold which consists in a conduit located
in the centre of the head, through which it is
possible to inject air at the outlet of all the
exhaust valves.
This system enables air to be injected
during the warming up phase of the engine,
when mixture enrichment takes place and
the emission of unburned hydrocarbons
(HC) is at its highest.
The injection of air just at the exit of the
exhaust valves ensures that the addition of

Air entry
D62-12

12

SYSTEM LAYOUT
gases through the pump, when the system
is inactive.
Finally, an electrovalve N112, which is
governed by the engine control unit to control the passage of vacuum to the combination valve.
The secondary air injection only lasts for
80 seconds after cold engine start up.
The control unit management for the system
regulation is described in the Self Study
Program No. 68 Motronic.

The secondary air injection in the exhaust


manifold is composed of the following components:
A secondary air conduit located in the
head.
An electric pump (V101) which ensures
that the necessary air pressure is generated.
A combination valve, pneumatically
operated to control the passage of air from
the pump to the secondary air conduit. This
valve also prevents the passage of exhaust

Secondary air
injection valve N112

Combination valve

Secondary air
injection pump V101

Pump
air
entry

To the exhaust outlet

Cataliser
Vacuum tube

D62-13

13

VARIABLE INLET MANIFOLD

Main chamber

Secondary chamber

Safety valve

Injector
support

Flap shaft
D62-14

The operation of the inlet manifold is


based on the location of the air chamber,
which is used to refract the pressure wave
produced by the air being drawn into the
cylinders.
The optimum performance is achieved
when the pressure is incident on the inlet
valve just before this starts to close. For this
reason, the length of the inlet manifold
should be varied according to the rpm and
load on the engine since the pressure will
always be refracted at the speed of sound.
As a precautionary measure, a safety
valve was fitted. In case of an excess
pressure build-up inside the manifold,
which could cause breakage, this valve will
open.

This is made from plastic, to provide


weight reduction and at the same time
improve vehicle safety in case of frontal
collisions.
This inlet manifold is a variable type in
order to ensure proper filling of both cylinder banks under all engine rpm operating
conditions.
This makes it possible to provide a high
torque value even at low rpm and ensure
that full power is delivered at top speed.
The inlet manifold is composed of five
separate conduits, one for each cylinder, a
main air chamber and a secondary air
chamber.
A flap shaft is used to control the passage
of air to the secondary chamber.

14

Pneumatic
capsule

Electrovalve (N156)

One way valve

Vacuum reservoir

D62-15

PNEUMATIC CIRCUIT
This is used to modify the position of the
flap shaft in the inlet manifold and it is composed of:
A pneumatic capsule, which is used to
transmit the movement to the flap shaft.
An electrovalve (N156) to open and
close the passage of vacuum to the pneumatic capsule. This valve is governed directly by the engine control unit.
A One way valve and a vacuum reservoir, to guarantee proper operation of the

system under all engine operating conditions.


When the system is at rest, and the electrovalve is energised, the vacuum passage is
closed, so that the air passage to the secondary chamber is open. The moment the
electrovalve is energised by the control unit,
the vacuum passage to the pneumatic capsule is opened and the secondary chamber
is closed.

15

VARIABLE INLET MANIFOLD

Secondary chamber

Main chamber
1

Flap shaft

D62-16

OPERATION
When the engine is idling or running at
low rpm under light load conditions, the
intake period is long and it is not necessary to pay attention to the filling of the
cylinders.
Under these circumstances, the flap shaft
opens the passage to the secondary chamber and a low air intake velocity is achieved,
producing very little refractory wave intensity.
When the engine is operating between
800 and 4300 rpm under higher than
medium load conditions, the flap shaft will
close the passage of air to the secondary
chamber leading to the production of a
refractory air wave in the main chamber. The length of the inlet manifold in this
situation is 700 mm.

D62-17

16

D62-18

When the engine speed exceeds 4300


rpm, the admission time is reduced, in this
situation the production of refraction waves
in the main chamber would mean that the
pressure wave would reach the inlet valve
when this was closed, provoking poor cylinder filling.
To avoid this unfavourable situation,
above this rpm, the flap shaft opens the passage of air to the secondary chamber,
ensuring that the refractory wave front is
located at 370 mm from the valve.

carga
Load
Flap
shaft
Eje de
conmutacin
open
abierto

100%

50%

800

4300

r.p.m.
rpm
D62-19

17

TIMING

Tool T20047

Camshafts

Upper chain
tensioner

Intermediate gear
adjustment mark

Intermediate
gear

Lower chain
tensioner

Crankshaft
adjustment
mark

Crankshaft

18

Tensioner
cylinder

The timing system is located on the flywheel side and it is driven by two simple
chains.
The lower chain transmits the movement
of the crankshaft to the intermediate shaft
and this in turn operates the two camshafts
through the upper chain.
Two automatic tensioners ensure
perfect tension of both chains under all
operating conditions and remove the need
for periodic maintenance.
Plastic slides on the opposite side from
the tensioners take care of any oscillations
which might occur in the chain at this point.
The fitting of the camshafts and adjustment of the timing marks is done by lining
up the mark on the crankshaft gear with a
mark on the main bearing cap and lining up
the slot on the large intermediate gear with
one of the two marks on the thrust washer of
this same gear.
Prior to this operation, both camshafts
should have been synchronised and
immobilised on the opposite side from the
timing gears by using the tool T20047, as
already mentioned in the chapter dealing
with the cylinder head.

Oil entry

TENSIONERS

Two tensioners are available, one for the


upper chain and one for the lower chain.
Their operation is identical, both using a
spring and hydraulic cylinder.
The oil pressure from the pump is passed
to both tensioners, providing sufficient tension on both chains.
The spring is needed to provide adequate
pressure when starting, since at this point
the oil pressure would be too low.
The lower chain tensioner is fitted with
a ratchet lock system, which prevents the
return of the piston and thus holds constant
tension on the chain.
This system ensures that sufficient pressure is applied to the lower chain during
start up and in difficult conditions which
could cause a drop in engine rpm.

Tensioner cylinder

Ratchet lock
system

D62-20

19

LUBRICATION SYSTEM

Non return valve

Upper
chain
tensioner

Oil
temperature
sensor

Low pressure
switch
High pressure
switch

Lower
chain
tensioner

Oil
radiator

Intermediate shaft

Oil filter
Cartridge
Oil pump

Short circuit
valve

D62-21

A point worth noting is the passage of oil


to the two timing chain tensioners and also
to the oil injectors, which have been incorporated for each cylinder.
The non return valve is fitted on the pipe
leading up to the head, in order to prevent
oil drain back, leading to noise from the tappets during engine start up.
In the head, the oil is distributed to the
camshaft bearings and to all the hydraulic
tappets.

The gear type oil pump is driven by the


intermediate shaft and supplies the necessary pressure for all the circuit.
The pump itself has a safety valve incorporated, which is calibrated at 5.5 bars.
The oil coming out of the pump is passed
to the new design oil filter.
When the oil has passed through the filter, it is cooled by the oil cooler and then
passes throughout the engine.

20

OIL FILTER
A new oil filter is used on this engine, this
is made from a casing and a cartridge fitted
inside it.
This set up is designed to be more
environment friendly by reducing waste
when changing the filter, due to ease of recycling, since it no longer contains metal parts
and can be completely transformed into
ashes.
The cartridge can be changed with the aid
of a drain plug located on the bottom of the
casing.
The indication of the oil pressure and
temperature is provided by two sensors
located in the casing at the outlet from the
filter.

Oil radiator

Support

Cartridge

O ring

Oil filter
cap

Drain plug
D62-22

OIL INJECTORS
This engine was fitted with five oil injectors in order to ensure lubrication and
cooling of the underside of the pistons
and the cylinders, these are located on the
crankshaft main bearing housings .
When the oil pressure reaches 2 bars, oil
is injected towards the underside of the piston crown. The oil passes along a lubrication
groove in the upper main bearing half shell
and through a drilling to an injector located
in the main bearing housing.
Oil entry
Oil
injector

Main
bearing
shell

D62-23

21

COOLING SYSTEM

Heater radiator

Electric pump
Expansion vessel

Throttle
control unit

Main
pump

Thermostat

Oil radiator

Radiator

D62-24

Expansion vessel
Oil radiator
Throttle control unit
This permits all these components to heat
up quickly, preventing possible sticking of
the throttle at very low temperatures
When the engine reaches working temperature, the thermostat opens the passage
to the radiator to prevent any overheating of
the engine coolant fluid.
Two dual speed electric fans are responsible for forcing air through the radiator, the
initial speed is engaged when the temperature of the coolant exceeds 95C and the second speed when 105C is exceeded.

The refrigeration circuit is notable for the


presence of two pumps; the main pump,
mechanically operated and integrated in the
block and the secondary pump, which is
electrically operated.
The main pump takes charge of moving
the coolant around the circuit when the
engine is running, passing this through the
block to the thermostat body and from there
to the radiator.
The thermostat body which is made
from plastic, is directly mounted on the
block and it houses the coolant temperature
transmitters.
When the engine is cold, the thermostat
permits the circulation of coolant through
the following components:

22

ELECTRIC PUMP V51


The secondary pump is located on the
return from the radiator and in series on the
coolant circuit.
This is a vane type pump which is driven
by an electric motor. The centrifugal force
of the blades propels the coolant through
the entire circuit and also dissipates the heat
accumulated in the engine.
This action is required to prevent overheating of the head and block when the
engine has been switched off.
1

To engine
block
Heater radiator
return
D62-25

The operation of the electric pump V51


is governed by the air conditioning control
unit J293.
When the control unit receives a signal
from terminal 15, it activates the pump, and
keeps it operating for ten minutes after
switching off the ignition.

+30
+15

J293

S5

S1

7,5A

10A

T10/9

Note: In case a repair has to be made


which implies switching on and off the ignition frequently, it is advisable to disconnect
the electric pump in order to avoid running
down the battery.

T10/4

T10/6

T10/1
1

V51 M
2

D62-26

23

AUXILIARY COMPONENTS

Tensioner

Alternator

Coolant
pump

Air
conditioning
compressor

Power steering
pump
Crankshaft

POLY V BELT
The design of the poly V belt was done
with the idea of using a single belt for all
the auxiliary components on this engine,
thus reducing the overall length of the
engine.
The ribbing of the belt, which can be
found on both the inside and the outside,
enables the pulleys to be driven by both
sides of the belt, thus making optimum use
of the available space to drive all the components satisfactorily.

In the case of vehicles not fitted with air


conditioning, the belt is only made with ribbing on one side, since the external ribbing
is used to drive the air conditioning compressor.
The belt is identical on both sides and it
can be mounted either way when new, however we should retain the same mounting
position and direction of travel, if the belt
has already been used.

24

The internal friction cone locks onto the


fixed tensioner cone, while on its external
surface, friction is created with the internal
face of the mobile cone.
The external friction cone is designed in
such a way that when the spring tightens up,
this cone closes and increases the friction
pressure on the mobile cone.
The combined action of the spring and
dampener, provides a long lasting silent
operation of the auxiliary components, without any maintenance requirements.

External friction cone


Spring

Mobile
cone
Internal
friction
cone
Fixed
cone

Mobile
support

Tensioner
roller

D62-27

TENSIONER
The automatic tensioner provides perfect tension for the belt under all operating
conditions The variation in the separation
between pulley flanges due to engine thermal effects and the different distances
between the pulleys are perfectly compensated for by the tensioner.
The tensioner spring provides the
required pressure to permit the proper
operation of the poly V belt and a friction
dampener prevents belt oscillation.

25

NOTES

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ECOLOGICAL
PAPER

SERVICE DIVISION
Service Organization
Technical state 03.98. Owing to the constant development and improvement
of the product, the information which appear herein is subject to possible alterations.
The handbook is for exclusive use of the commercial organization SEAT.
ZSA 23807981062
ING62SSP
APRIL 98 10-62