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Ligamentous Articular Strain (LAS)

These techniques were devised by the founder of cranial osteopathy and are similar to cranial techniques except
that they are applied to ligaments attached to the joints of the body. They may also be known as balanced
ligamentous techniques.
Strain Counter Strain (SCS)
Also known as strain/counterstrain, this is an extremely gentle technique in which tender points are found in
muscles, ligaments, or tendons and the involved muscle is shortened by specific positioning of the body part.
The position relieves the tenderness and is held for about 90 seconds; the body part is then returned to a resting
position. Since this is all done passively and the motion is always into a direction of ease of motion, the
technique is passive and indirect. Motion is also restored to joints that the involved muscle may have been
Facilitated Positional Release (FPR)
This is a passive, indirect technique that is also a positional type of technique. The area of the spine to be treated
is placed into a loose-packed position; that is, the facet joints are not engaged. A facilitating force, either
compression or torsion, is added and then the joint or muscle is placed into its ease-of-motion or shortening
position. This is held about 5 seconds, and then the part is returned to a resting position and the dysfunction
reevaluated. These techniques may be used to treat soft tissue tension or specific joint somatic dysfunction.
Myofascial Release (MFR)
Myofascial techniques are directed toward the soft tissues of the body, particularly the muscles. They may either
be passive or active. The active techniques are classified as direct, meaning that they treat the muscle that is
having the problem, or indirect, meaning that the antagonist muscle to the problem muscle contracts. The
passive myofascial techniques usually involve a gentle stretching of the involved muscle and/or fascia to cause
a relaxation or release of tension. The active use of the physiologic muscle reflexes such as reciprocal inhibition
cause the muscles to relax as a result of guided patient muscle contraction.
Active Release Technique (ART)
A technique is classified as active if the patient is guided by the practitioner to assist in the treatment process.
This may be done by an active, voluntary muscle contraction by the patient as directed by the physician. It may
involve the use of a respiratory effort by the patient under the guidance of the physician.
Visceral Manipulation (VIS)
Visceral techniques are directed toward the viscera specifically. They are used to improve position, circulation,
and motion of the viscera. They may be used in a variety of visceral problems, and are especially effective in
treating problems of the gastrointestinal tract and pelvic organs.
Muscle Energy (ME)
Muscle energy is an active, direct technique. The involved joint is placed into its restriction of motion. The
patient is directed to gently push in the opposite direction, the direction of freedom of motion, for about 3 to 5
seconds and then to relax the contracted muscle. After 3 to 5 seconds of relaxation, the physician moves the
joint past the old barrier to the new barrier and the process is repeated. This is done a total of three times; then
the physician adds a passive stretch. This technique will restore joint motion to its physiologic limits.
Osteopathy in the Cranial Field (OCF)
Cranial osteopathy is directed toward improving and normalizing cranial bone motion and balancing the tension
membranes of the central nervous system. This is an extremely gentle technique in which the physician
monitors the cranial rhythmic impulse, an inherent motion within the cranium, and seeks to free restrictions of
the cranial bones at their sutures and balance the tension membranes. This may be done in a direct or indirect
High Velocity Low Amplitute (HVLA)

High-Velocity means that the force is applied very quickly, and low-amplitude means that the distance moved is
very small. The physician directs a quick, controlled force through the joint to move it. Relaxation of the soft
tissues is essential to ensure that the maneuver will be painless and the force will be the least possible. Lowvelocity, high-amplitude the force is applied more slowly and is slightly greater in amplitude. Again, this is a
controlled and directed force.
Fluid Motion Techniquess (FMT)
These techniques are designed to move fluids in various parts of the body. Some techniques are especially for
sinus drainage, and others are for moving the lymph through its thoraic channels. Some techniques are for
moving lymph through peripheral areas and for removing fluid from edematous areas.