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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 60, NO. 6, JULY 2011

Improved Performance of Serially Connected


Li-Ion Batteries With Active Cell Balancing
in Electric Vehicles
Markus Einhorn, Student Member, IEEE, Werner Roessler, and Juergen Fleig

AbstractThis paper presents an active cell balancing method


for lithium-ion battery stacks using a flyback dc/dc converter
topology. The method is described in detail, and a simulation is
performed to estimate the energy gain for ten serially connected
cells during one discharging cycle. The simulation is validated
with measurements on a balancing prototype with ten cells. It is
then shown how the active balancing method with respect to the
cell voltages can be improved using the capacity and the state
of charge rather than the voltage as the balancing criterion. For
both charging and discharging, an improvement in performance is
gained when having the state of charge and the capacity of the cells
as information. A battery stack with three single cells is modeled,
and a realistic driving cycle is applied to compare the difference
between both methods in terms of usable energy. Simulations are
also validated with measurements.
Index TermsBatteries, battery management systems, dc-dc
power converters, electric vehicles, energy storage.
Fig. 1. Typical cell voltage of a Li-ion battery during charging/
discharging [4].

I. I NTRODUCTION

INGLE battery cells are usually connected in parallel and


in series to achieve higher capacity and voltage. The parallel connection is simple to handle since the cells appear as a
big single cell, and no management is necessary (similar to the
parallel connection of capacitors). The current splits according
to the internal impedance of the single cell, and the terminal
voltage of each cell is equal.
Overcharging, as well as overdischarging, of lithium-ion
(Li-ion) cells causes irreversible damage and is also a major
safety issue [1][3]. Therefore, reliable monitoring of each cell
voltage is necessary. The range between the charging voltage
limit (CV L) and the discharge voltage limit (DV L), wherein

Manuscript received December 14, 2010; revised March 23, 2011; accepted
May 4, 2011. Date of publication May 12, 2011; date of current version
July 18, 2011. This work was supported by the Austrian Research Promotion
Agency (Oesterreichische Forschungsfoerderungsgesellschaft mbH, FFG) under research project 8219115: Active Balancing fuer Lithium-Ionen-Batterien
in Automobilanwendungen (BALI). The review of this paper was coordinated
by Dr. A. Davoudi.
M. Einhorn is with the Mobility Department, Electric Drive Technologies, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology, 1210 Vienna, Austria (e-mail:
markus.einhorn@ait.ac.at).
W. Roessler is with the System Engineering Automotive, Infineon Technologies, 85579 Neubiberg, Germany.
J. Fleig is with the Institute of Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Vienna
University of Technology, 1060 Vienna, Austria.
Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online
at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TVT.2011.2153886

Fig. 2. Cell voltages of three serially connected cells with a capacity of 35,
40, and 45 Ah when applying a 40-A constant discharging current.

a Li-ion cell can be utilized, is shown in Fig. 1, and cell voltage


must not get in the shaded area.
In a serially connected battery stack, the discharging, as well
as the charging, process has to be stopped immediately as soon
as one of the terminal cell voltages fall below DV L or exceeds
CV L. The current through serially connected cells is the same.
Therefore, when the cells initially have the same state of charge
(SOC), the cell with the lowest capacity is the first one that
reaches DV L and CV L when being charged and discharged,
respectively. Fig. 2 shows the simulated cell voltages of three

0018-9545/$26.00 2011 IEEE

EINHORN et al.: PERFORMANCE OF SERIALLY CONNECTED LI-ION BATTERIES WITH ACTIVE CELL BALANCING

serially connected cells with a capacity of 35, 40, and 45 Ah


when applying a 40-A constant discharging current. The cell
voltage of the cell with the lowest capacity (35 Ah) is the first
that reaches DV L.
The capacity of the whole battery stack is thus limited by
the weakest cell in the stack. Charging of the battery stack
cannot be continued when one cell (usually the cell with the
lowest capacity) is completely charged although some cells
are not. Discharging of the battery stack must stop when one
cell (usually again the cell with the lowest capacity) is empty,
although the others still have some charge left [5].
There are many reasons why the capacities of the cells in
a battery stack are not identical. One of them is the variation
within the manufacturing process due to technical and economical limitations. Hence, the cell capacities are initially not
equal, and moreover, there is a different capacity drift over the
lifetime.
When single cells are built together to a battery stack, each
cell has a different temperature even with a well-designed
cooling system [6]. Therefore, the cells age unequally fast.
This is a second reason why a cell capacity diversification in
a battery stack can occur [7], [8].
The performance of a battery stack with different single-cell
capacities can significantly be increased when the charge from
the cells is equalized with an electronic circuit [9], [10]. This is
called cell balancing. It can basically be divided into two main
groups: passive cell balancing and active cell balancing [11]
[19].
Passive cell balancing uses a resistor to discharge the cell
with the highest cell voltage so that charging can be continued
till all cells are fully charged. This method is only suitable
during the charging process and not efficient due to power
dissipation and energy waste. With active cell balancing, charge
can be transferred between the cells in a battery stack using a
short time storage element, which can be either a capacitor or an
inductor [20], [21]. This paper focuses on a promising topology
using a flyback converter as storage element and particularly
addresses the performance gain [22][25].
The balancing circuit is described in detail, and the performance gain with ten serially connected cells with a large
capacity diversification is simulated and measured. Moreover,
it is shown how the balancing strategy can be improved when
having each cell capacity and each SOC instead of the cell
voltage as the balancing criterion. This method is simulated and
validated with three cells.
II. BALANCING C IRCUIT
The balancing circuit principle is based on a flyback converter. The key component is a transformer with a winding for
each cell and a winding for the whole battery stack [26]. Fig. 3
shows the balancing circuit for ns serially connected cells. The
bidirectional use of the multiple winding transformer allows
two different balancing strategies. Energy from one single cell
can be transferred to the whole stack (top balancing), and
energy from the whole stack can be transferred to one single cell
(bottom balancing), as shown in Fig. 4. A detailed description
of the balancing circuit can be found in [24], [25], and [27].

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Fig. 3. Balancing circuit for ns serially connected cells with the multiple
winding transformer T as key component of the flyback converter structure.
The microcontroller C operates the switches S and S1 . . . Sns (typically lowvoltage MOSFETs) according to the balancing strategy.

Fig. 4. Charge transfer from one cell to the whole stack (top balancing) and
from the whole stack to one cell (bottom balancing).

Top balancing is typically applied during charging to avoid


overcharging of a cell. When the voltage of a cell is close
to CV L, charge can be transferred to the other cells, and the
charging process can be continued. With this method, each cell
could be completely charged, although it would take much time,
depending on the charging current, the balancing current, the
SOC, and the capacity of each cell.
Bottom balancing is typically applied during discharge mode
to increase the usable energy. When the voltage of a cell is
close to DV L, charge can be transferred to this cell, and the
discharging process can be continued. With this method, the
battery stack can be discharged until all cells are completely
discharged (depending on the discharge current I, the balancing
current, the SOC, and the capacity of each cell).
The influence of the balancing current on the capacity of a
whole battery stack can be approximated. Without balancing,

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 60, NO. 6, JULY 2011

TABLE I
C ELL C APACITIES C AND R EMAINING C APACITY R ELATED TO THE
I NITIAL CN = 2.3 Ah FOR THE BALANCING S CENARIO [28]

Fig. 5. Linear interpolation of the measured OCV at different SOC values


for the Li-ion polymer cell.

the capacity of the cell with the lowest capacity Cx in a battery


stack with ns serially connected cells defines the capacity of the
whole battery stack
C = Cx = min{C1 , C2 , . . . Cns }.

(1)

If just cell x is supported during discharging, the usable


capacity of the battery stack is increased to


1
C = Cx + Ix bal t 1
(2)
ns
with the total balancing time t and an ideal converter. A battery
stack with 11 40-Ah and one 35-Ah cells, a balancing current
of Ibal = 5 A, and a balancing time of t = 1 h would have a
capacity of


1
C = 35 Ah + 5 A 1 h 1
= 39.6 Ah
(3)
12
which is a higher value than that without balancing.
If there is more than one weak cell, the balancing time ratio of
each cell to the total balancing time ti /t needs to be considered.
The capacity of the battery stack is then increased to



ti
1
C = min Ci + Ibal t

.
(4)
t
ns
i=1...ns

III. S IMULATION AND E XPERIMENTAL VALIDATION


OF THE VOLTAGE BALANCING M ETHOD
Ten Li-ion cells have diversely been cycled to decrease the
capacity and are then serially connected to a battery stack. The
remaining capacities are shown in Table I.
The theoretical stored energy in the battery stack from
Table I is
W =

ns

i=1

1
OCV dSOC

Wi =
0

10


Ci = 57.2 Wh

(5)

i=1

with the SOC versus open circuit voltage (OCV ) curve extracted from the cell datasheet [28]. Fig. 5 shows the SOC
versus OCV curve exemplarily for a Li-ion battery cell with
a Li[NiCoMn]O2 -based cathode and a graphite-based anode.
The balancing circuit from Fig. 3 is modeled in Modelica/
Dymola [29], [30], using the electrical energy storage library

Fig. 6.

Simulation arrangement.

[31]. Together with the validated battery model from [32], the
increase in energy by using an active balancing circuit with
the ten serially connected cells from Table I is simulated. An
extraction of the simulation arrangement is shown in Fig. 6.
A constant discharging current (Load) is applied to the battery
stack (Batterypack), and the balancer (Balancer) equalizes the
cell voltages with a balancing current (single-cell side of the
balancing circuit) of Ix bal = 4 A. This operation mode is called
voltage balancing. The balancer is in operation mode only when
the difference voltage between the cell with the lowest and that
with the highest voltage is greater than 20 mV. Fig. 7 shows the
schematic operation mode during voltage balancing for three
cells with different cell capacities. The efficiency and power
loss in control are taken into consideration with an assumed
efficiency of the dc/dc converter in the balancer of = 90%.
The energy and the charge from the battery stack are estimated
(Energy).
This scenario has also been measured using the cells from
Table I and the active cell balancing prototype shown in Fig. 8.
The measured cell voltages during discharging without balancing and with a balancing current of Ix bal = 4 A are shown
in Fig. 9. Without balancing (top chart), cell 1 is the one

EINHORN et al.: PERFORMANCE OF SERIALLY CONNECTED LI-ION BATTERIES WITH ACTIVE CELL BALANCING

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Compared with the rated capacities of the used cells (CN =


2.3 Ah) and the constant discharge current (I = 1.8 A), the
balancing current of Ix bal = 4 A is very large. For cells with a
higher capacity and a larger discharging current, the balancing
current might be too small to equalize the cell voltages completely in real time. It can also happen that the wrong cells are
balanced if just the cell voltages are considered, as discussed in
the next section.
IV. C APACITY BALANCING

Fig. 7. Schematic operation of voltage balancing. A positive cell current


discharges the cell.

Fig. 8. Active cell balancing prototype with ten serially conected Li-ion cells.

that first reaches DV L because of its lowest capacity, and


the discharging process has to stop. The battery stack cannot
further be discharged, although cells 210 are not completely
discharged. With balancing (bottom chart), all cells reach DV L
together because the weak cells are supported during the whole
discharging process. The cell voltages of the balanced cell
change during balancing according to its balancing current
and its internal impedance (oscillations). Fig. 10 shows the
simulated and measured gain in terms of energy [see Fig. 10(a)]
and charge [see Fig. 10(b)] of this balancing experiment. With
this scenario, the discharge energy is increased with active
voltage balancing by 15%.

Up to now, charge is transferred from the battery stack to


the cell with the lowest voltage during discharging. During
charging, charge is transferred from the cell with the highest
voltage to the battery stack. In this so-called voltage balancing
strategy, only the cell voltages are considered. However, it is
shown in the following that these criteria do not always lead to
an optimal decision that cells have to be balanced [33]. When
the cells are not balanced in an optimal manner, the usable
energy in the battery stack is lower than that with an optimal
balancing strategy.
The main aspects of the balancing procedure can already
be analyzed with a three-cell battery stack because just the
cells with the highest and the lowest voltage are crucial. Three
serially connected cells are assumed. Cell 1 has the lowest
capacity (e.g., 35 Ah), cell 2 has an intermediate capacity (e.g.,
40 Ah), and cell 3 has the largest capacity (e.g., 45 Ah).
Fig. 11(a) shows the schematic charge transfer with voltage
balancing during one typical charging and discharging period.
The top diagram shows the cell voltage of each cell, the chart
in the middle shows the SOC of each cell, and the bottom
diagram shows the energy in each cell. In phase I, the cells are
charged, starting from a different SOC, and charge is taken
from cell 3 because of its highest voltage and transferred to
cells 1 and 2. Indeed, the energy from cell 3 is transferred to
the whole battery stack, and since only three cells are present,
the energy is split into three equal parts and spread to cells
1, 2 and 3. The net charge transfer though is from cell 3 to
cell 1 and to cell 2. Cell 3 also has the highest capacity, and
so, it will take more time to fully charge it than the other
cells when the current for each cell is equal. The slopes of the
curves in the middle and bottom diagrams indicate how fast
the cells are charged. When the cell voltage of cell 1 exceeds
the others at the beginning of phase II (it is assumed that
all cells have the same voltage and, therefore, have the same
SOC = SOC at this moment), charge is removed from cell 1
and transferred to the other cells 2 and 3 because cell 1 now has
the highest voltage. When the first cell is fully charged (cell
1 because of its lowest capacity) ,the charging process must
stop immediately to avoid overcharging this cell. Beyond this
point, the charging process could be continued with a severely
reduced charging current and an active balancing system until
all cells are completely full. This would take much more time
and is not considered here. In phase III, charge is transferred to
cell 3; although stored in cell 3 is the largest amount of energy,
it has the lowest cell voltage. In phase IV, cell 1 has the lowest
voltage, limits the duration of the discharging process, and is
therefore supported. Voltage balancing works inefficiently in

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 60, NO. 6, JULY 2011

Fig. 9. Measured cell voltages of the serially connected cells from Table 1 during discharging (top) without balancing and (bottom) with voltage balancing. The
balancing current in the bottom chart is 4 A using the active cell balancing prototype from Fig. 8.

Fig. 10. Simulated and measured (a) discharging energy and (b) discharging capacity without balancing and with active balancing.

phases I and III because the wrong cells are balanced, and
the transferred charge is partially retransferred in phases II
and IV.
By using the SOC and the capacity of each cell as the balancing criterion, the drawback of voltage balancing in phases I
and III can be eliminated, as shown in the stack in Fig. 11(b).
This is called capacity balancing.
During charging, energy from the cell with the lowest energy
to full charge is taken. The energy to full charge of each cell
is the difference between the total capacity of each cell (C1 ,

C2 , and C3 ) and the corresponding curves in the bottom chart


of Fig. 11. This is cell 1 during the whole charging process.
Therefore, charge is transferred from cell 1 to cells 2 and 3
(phases I and II), and the slopes of the curves in the middle
and bottom diagrams do not change. During discharging, the
cell with the lowest amount of energy is supported. This is for
the whole discharging process (phases III and IV) cell 1, and
charge is transferred to this cell. Hence, the slopes of the curves
in the middle and bottom diagrams do not change in phases III
and IV.

EINHORN et al.: PERFORMANCE OF SERIALLY CONNECTED LI-ION BATTERIES WITH ACTIVE CELL BALANCING

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Fig. 11. Schematic balancing (a) based on the cell voltage and (b) based on the cell capacity and SOC. The arrows indicate the charge transfer between
the cells.
TABLE II
R ATED C ELL C APACITIES CN , M EASURED C APACITIES C, AND I NITIAL
SOC FOR THE C APACITY BALANCING S CENARIO

With capacity balancing, the charge time can be decreased


because charge is not retransferred as with voltage balancing.
The usable energy of the battery stack during discharging is increased because the weak cell is supported from the beginning.
In addition, the cell with the lowest capacity is utilized with a
lower current for both charging and discharging. In the long run,
this could have a positive effect on the aging since the capacity
decrease is related to the cell current.
V. S IMULATION AND E XPERIMENTAL VALIDATION
OF THE C APACITY BALANCING M ETHOD
Three Li-ion polymer cells with different capacities and
SOC, as shown in Table II, are serially connected to a battery

stack [34]. Cell 1 with CN 1 = 20 Ah is a single cell, cell 2 with


CN 2 = 40 Ah is two single cells in parallel, and cell 3 with
CN 3 = 60 Ah is three single cells in parallel.
The battery stack with the configuration from Table II has a
theoretical stored energy of
W = W1 + W2 + W3
1
= C1 OCV dSOC
0

+ C2

0.9
0.8
OCV dSOC + C3 OCV dSOC
0

= 406.17 Wh.

(6)

The OCV is a function of SOC and can be extracted from


the cell datasheet. This battery stack is discharged until one cell
reaches DV L (typically cell 1 with the lowest capacity). For the
discharging process, the current profile gained from the FTP72
driving cycle, as shown in [35, Fig. 12], is continually applied
to the battery stack, as well as to the simulation.

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 60, NO. 6, JULY 2011

Fig. 12. Definition of the FTP72 driving cycle, power consumption of a


typical compact electrical vehicle, and current requirement from a battery
stack with 100 serially connected single cells with a cell voltage of 3.6 V,
respectively [35].

Fig. 13. Test circuit to validate the capacity balancing simulation.

Fig. 14. Experiment setup for the circuit from Fig. 13.

The simulation from Fig. 5 is used and extended by the


capacity balancing operation mode, and the battery stack is
configured according to the stack from Table II. The active balancing system is connected to the battery stack with a balancing

Fig. 15. Cell voltages during the FTP72 discharging cycle from Fig. 12 [top
chart of (a)] without balancing, [middle chart of (a)] with voltage balancing, and
[bottom chart of (a)] capacity balancing. With voltage balancing during t = 0
and t 71 min, cell 1 is supported. After t 71 min, cell 3 is supported.
(b) With capacity balancing, cell 3 is supported during the entire discharging
process.

current of 3 A (single cell side of the dc/dc converter). The


available charge and energy over the whole discharging process
is calculated. The simulated capacity balancing scenario is then
validated with the experimental results related to the circuit
from Fig. 13 since the capacity balancing strategy has yet to be
implemented in the prototype in Fig. 8. Instead of the flyback
converter with the prototype, a current source with a power
(P ) coupled electronic load is used to perform the charge
transfer assuming an efficiency of 0.9. During the whole test,
the cells are in a climate chamber to minimize temperature
effects. Fig. 14 shows (from left to right) the battery test bench
for discharging the stack with the FTP72 cycle, the climate
chamber with the battery stack in it, an electronic load coupled
with a current source, and a PC for the measurement.
In Fig. 15, the measured cell voltages during the FTP72 current profile are shown for the three different balancing scenarios
(no balancing, voltage balancing, and capacity balancing). With

EINHORN et al.: PERFORMANCE OF SERIALLY CONNECTED LI-ION BATTERIES WITH ACTIVE CELL BALANCING

Fig. 16. Measured and simulated (a) discharging energy and (b) discharging capacity without balancing, with voltage balancing and with capacity
balancing.

no balancing (top chart), cell 1 with the lowest capacity is


the first that is completely discharged, although it started with
SOC = 1. With voltage balancing (middle chart), cell 1 is still
the one that first reaches DV L, but the discharging process
is significantly longer (71 min) than that without balancing.
The first 50 min of the discharging process correlate with
phase I in Fig. 11(a), where cell 3 with the highest amount of
stored energy is supported (not optimal). In the bottom chart of
Fig. 15, the capacity balancing strategy is applied, and cell 1
is supported during the whole discharging process. Cells 1 and
2 reach DV L almost at the same time, just cell 3 has energy
still left because of its much larger capacity. If the balancing
current were higher, all three cells would reach DV L simultaneously. This would be optimal because the battery stack is then
completely discharged, and all energy in the cells could be used.
The measured and simulated discharging energy for the
different balancing scenarios are shown in Fig. 16(a). The
available discharging capacity for different balancing scenarios
is shown in Fig. 16(b). Since the measured discharging current
is applied to the simulation, there is no difference between the
measured and the simulated discharging charge. Without any
balancing, the capacity of the battery stack is as weak as the

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smallest cell. In this case, the battery stack has a maximum


capacity of 21.9 Ah, which correlates with a usable energy
of 240 Wh. Voltage balancing increases the capacity by 27%
to 28.3 Ah and 306 Wh, respectively. The best performance
for this scenario is accomplished when balancing the available
capacity. The capacity of the battery stack can be increased
by 32% to 29.1 Ah and 318 Wh, respectively. Even with
capacity balancing, the usable energy is just around 79% of
the theoretical value from (6). For improving the result, the
balancing current must be increased as mentioned earlier.
When all cells are fully charged, there is no difference
between voltage and capacity balancing during discharging (for
cells with the same chemistry). The cell with the lowest voltage
also has the lowest amount of stored energy, and therefore, the
balanced cells for both voltage and capacity balancing are the
same. There is also no difference between voltage and capacity
balancing during charging if all cells are completely discharged
before starting the charging process (the cell with the highest
voltage is also the cell with the lowest energy to full charge,
and therefore, the balanced cells for both voltage and capacity
balancing are the same). When the cells are not all completely
charged before discharging, capacity balancing increases the
amount of usable energy of the battery stack. When the cells
are not all completely discharged before charging, the battery
stack can be charged in a shorter time, and more energy can be
loaded into the battery stack when using capacity balancing.
To use the active balancing system in capacity balancing
mode, a method to estimate the cell capacities and the SOC
during operation is necessary. The SOC can, for example,
be estimated by measuring the OCV and by using Fig. 6 or
[36][39]. Since the capacity of a battery cell changes over its
lifetime due to aging [8], [40], it is not enough to estimate the
capacity just once (e.g., after production). In general, the capacity of a single battery cell can be estimated by fully discharging it and integrating the measured current (charge counting)
[41], [42]. However, this approach is very difficult in a serially
connected battery stack because the cell with the lowest capacity is the first one that is completely discharged, and the battery
stack cannot be further discharged. Hence, with charge counting
only, the capacity of the cell with the smallest capacity in a
serially connected battery stack can be estimated. Methods to
estimate the capacity of each battery cell in a serially connected
battery stack are, for example, presented in [43] and [44].
If the capacities and the SOC of the cells are not well estimated during capacity balancing (e.g., due to a drift of the values over time), it could happen that a cell is charged/discharged
over/below CV L/DV L. Therefore, it is recommended to additionally monitor each cell voltage to prevent the cells from
overcharging/overdischarging.
VI. C ONCLUSION
If several Li-ion cells are serially connected to a battery
stack, the worst cell defines the limit of the whole battery. When
the charging/discharging voltage limit of one cell is reached,
charging/discharging has to be stopped, regardless of how much
energy is left in the other cells. If the cell capacities in a battery
stack are different (due to production diversification or aging),

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 60, NO. 6, JULY 2011

active balancing remarkably improves the performance of a


battery stack.
A flyback dc/dc converter topology has been presented to
balance the cell voltages of a battery stack with ten serially
connected cells. The cell capacities are considerably different,
and with active balancing, the usable energy of the battery stack
can be improved by 15%.
Balancing the cell voltages is not always the most effective
way to improve the usable energy in a battery stack with
different cell capacities. When the cells are not completely
charged/discharged before discharging/charging, balancing the
voltages would lead to a suboptimal result. The usable energy
of a battery stack can significantly be improved when the stored
amount of energy of each cell, and not the cell voltages, is
considered (balancing the available capacity).
Further work will focus on implementing the capacity balancing strategy to the prototype and estimating the cell capacities and the SOC for cells in a battery stack during operation.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors would like to thank C. Kral and F. V. Conte
from the AIT Austrian Institute of Technology for reviewing
this paper.
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EINHORN et al.: PERFORMANCE OF SERIALLY CONNECTED LI-ION BATTERIES WITH ACTIVE CELL BALANCING

Markus Einhorn (S11) was born in Vienna,


Austria, in 1984. He received the B.Sc. and Dipl.Ing. degrees (with distinction) in electrical engineering from the Vienna University of Technology in
2008 and 2009, respectively, where he is currently
pursuing the Ph.D. degree.
He is currently with the Mobility Department,
Electric Drive Technologies, AIT Austrian Institute
of Technology, Vienna, as a Research Associate. His
recent work has focused on the design and modeling
of power electronics and battery systems.
Mr. Einhorn is a member of the Modelica Association and of the OVE
Austrian Electrotechnical Association.

Werner Roessler was born in Bavaria in 1958. He


received the Dipl.-Ing. degree from the Technical
University Munich, Mnchen, Germany, in 1983,
after studying communications engineering.
Since 1983, he has been with the Semiconductor
Division, Siemens, Neubiberg, Germany (in 1999,
it became Infineon Technologies). Until 2000, he
was an Application Engineer for television engineering with focus on power supply, microcontrollers,
and teletext. He is a member of the International
Standardization Group for High Level Teletext. After
two years of Hardware development for a speech recognition chip, he moved to
the Automotive Division as Application Engineer for automotive sensors which
focus on magnetic and pressure sensors. Since 2006, he has been a System
Engineer for automotive hybrid applications with focus on battery management
systems.

2457

Juergen Fleig received the Diploma degree


in physics from the University of Tuebingen,
Tuebingen, Germany, in 1991 and the Ph.D. degree
in chemistry from the Max-Planck-Institute of
Solid-State Research, Stuttgart, Germany, in 1995.
After working as a Researcher with the MaxPlanck-Institute of Solid-State Research for several
years, he accepted a position as Professor of electrochemistry with the Vienna University of Technology,
Vienna, Austria, in 2005. His main research subjects
are electroceramics and materials for electrochemical energy conversion devices, including basic investigations on the physical
and chemical processes determining cell efficiencies.