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Relion 650 series

Generator protection REG650 ANSI


Technical Manual

Document ID: 1MRK 502 034-UUS


Issued: April 2011
Revision: Product version: 1.1

Copyright 2011 ABB. All rights reserved

Copyright
This document and parts thereof must not be reproduced or copied without written
permission from ABB, and the contents thereof must not be imparted to a third party,
nor used for any unauthorized purpose.
The software or hardware described in this document is furnished under a license and
may be used or disclosed only in accordance with the terms of such license.

Trademarks
ABB and Relion are registered trademarks of ABB Group. All other brand or product
names mentioned in this document may be trademarks or registered trademarks of their
respective holders.

Warranty
Please inquire about the terms of warranty from your nearest ABB representative.
ABB Inc.
940 Main Campus Drive
Raleigh, NC 27606, USA
Toll Free: 1-800-HELP-365, menu option #8

ABB Inc.
3450 Harvester Road
Burlington, ON L7N 3W5, Canada
Toll Free: 1-800-HELP-365, menu option #8

ABB Mexico S.A. de C.V.


Paseo de las Americas No. 31 Lomas Verdes 3a secc.
53125, Naucalpan, Estado De Mexico, MEXICO
Phone: (+1) 440-585-7804, menu option #8

Disclaimer
The data, examples and diagrams in this manual are included solely for the concept or
product description and are not to be deemed as a statement of guaranteed properties.
All persons responsible for applying the equipment addressed in this manual must
satisfy themselves that each intended application is suitable and acceptable, including
that any applicable safety or other operational requirements are complied with. In
particular, any risks in applications where a system failure and/or product failure would
create a risk for harm to property or persons (including but not limited to personal
injuries or death) shall be the sole responsibility of the person or entity applying the
equipment, and those so responsible are hereby requested to ensure that all measures
are taken to exclude or mitigate such risks.
This document has been carefully checked by ABB but deviations cannot be
completely ruled out. In case any errors are detected, the reader is kindly requested to
notify the manufacturer. Other than under explicit contractual commitments, in no
event shall ABB be responsible or liable for any loss or damage resulting from the use
of this manual or the application of the equipment.

Conformity
This product complies with the directive of the Council of the European Communities
on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to electromagnetic
compatibility (EMC Directive 2004/108/EC) and concerning electrical equipment for
use within specified voltage limits (Low-voltage directive 2006/95/EC). This
conformity is the result of tests conducted by ABB in accordance with the product
standards EN 50263 and EN 60255-26 for the EMC directive, and with the product
standards EN 60255-1 and EN 60255-27 for the low voltage directive. The IED is
designed in accordance with the international standards of the IEC 60255 series and
ANSI C37.90. The DNP protocol implementation in the IED conforms to "DNP3
Intelligent Electronic Device (IED) Certification Procedure Subset Level 2", available
at www.dnp.org .

Table of contents

Table of contents
Section 1

Introduction..........................................................................29
This manual............................................................................................29
Intended audience..................................................................................29
Product documentation...........................................................................30
Product documentation set................................................................30
Document revision history.................................................................31
Related documents............................................................................32
Symbols and conventions.......................................................................32
Safety indication symbols..................................................................32
Manual conventions...........................................................................33

Section 2

Available functions..............................................................35
Main protection functions........................................................................35
Back-up protection functions..................................................................35
Control and monitoring functions............................................................36
Designed to communicate......................................................................39
Basic IED functions.................................................................................39

Section 3

Analog inputs.......................................................................41
Introduction.............................................................................................41
Operation principle..................................................................................41
Settings...................................................................................................42

Section 4

Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI................................45


Local HMI screen behaviour...................................................................45
Identification......................................................................................45
Settings..............................................................................................45
Local HMI signals...................................................................................46
Identification......................................................................................46
Function block...................................................................................46
Signals...............................................................................................46
Basic part for LED indication module......................................................47
Identification......................................................................................47
Function block...................................................................................47
Signals...............................................................................................47
Settings..............................................................................................48
LCD part for HMI function keys control module......................................49
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Identification......................................................................................49
Function block...................................................................................49
Signals...............................................................................................49
Settings..............................................................................................49
Operation principle..................................................................................51
Local HMI...........................................................................................51
Display..........................................................................................52
LEDs.............................................................................................54
Keypad.........................................................................................54
LED....................................................................................................57
Functionality.................................................................................57
Status LEDs..................................................................................57
Indication LEDs............................................................................57
Function keys.....................................................................................67
Functionality.................................................................................67
Operation principle.......................................................................67

Section 5

Differential protection..........................................................71
Transformer differential protection..........................................................71
Functionality ......................................................................................71
Transformer differential protection T3WPDIF (87T)..........................73
Identification.................................................................................73
Function block..............................................................................73
Signals..........................................................................................73
Settings.........................................................................................74
Monitored data..............................................................................76
Operation principle............................................................................76
Function calculation principles......................................................77
Fundamental frequency differential currents................................78
Differential current alarm..............................................................84
Bias current..................................................................................84
Elimination of zero sequence currents.........................................84
Restrained, and unrestrained limits of the differential
protection......................................................................................85
Fundamental frequency negative sequence differential
currents.........................................................................................88
Internal/external fault discriminator...............................................90
Unrestrained, and sensitive negative sequence protections........94
Instantaneous differential currents...............................................96
Harmonic and waveform block criteria.........................................96

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Switch onto fault feature...............................................................97


Logic diagram...............................................................................98
Technical data.................................................................................105
1Ph High impedance differential protection HZPDIF (87).....................105
Identification....................................................................................105
Introduction......................................................................................106
Function block.................................................................................106
Signals.............................................................................................106
Settings............................................................................................107
Monitored data.................................................................................107
Operation principle..........................................................................107
Logic diagram.............................................................................107
Technical data.................................................................................108
Generator differential protection GENPDIF (87G)................................108
Identification....................................................................................109
Functionality....................................................................................109
Function block.................................................................................110
Signals.............................................................................................110
Settings............................................................................................111
Operation principle..........................................................................112
Function calculation principles....................................................114
Fundamental frequency differential currents..............................114
Supplementary criteria................................................................119
Harmonic restrain.......................................................................122
Cross-block logic scheme...........................................................122
Simplified block diagrams...........................................................123
Technical data.................................................................................125

Section 6

Impedance protection........................................................127
Underimpedance protection for generators and transformers
ZGPDIS (21G)......................................................................................127
Identification....................................................................................127
Functionality....................................................................................127
Function block.................................................................................128
Signals.............................................................................................128
Settings............................................................................................129
Operation principle..........................................................................130
Full scheme measurement.........................................................130
Impedance characteristic............................................................130
Basic operation characteristics...................................................131
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Theory of operation....................................................................132
Technical data.................................................................................134
Loss of excitation LEXPDIS (40)..........................................................134
Identification....................................................................................134
Functionality....................................................................................134
Function block.................................................................................135
Signals.............................................................................................135
Settings............................................................................................136
Operation principle..........................................................................136
Technical data.................................................................................140
Out-of-step protection OOSPPAM (78)................................................140
Identification....................................................................................140
Functionality....................................................................................141
Function block.................................................................................141
Signals.............................................................................................141
Settings............................................................................................142
Operation principle..........................................................................143
Lens characteristic......................................................................146
Detecting an out-of-step condition..............................................148
Maximum slip frequency.............................................................149
Taking care of the circuit breaker safety.....................................150
Design........................................................................................152
Technical data.................................................................................153
Load encroachment LEPDIS ...............................................................154
Identification....................................................................................154
Functionality....................................................................................154
Function block.................................................................................154
Signals.............................................................................................155
Settings............................................................................................155
Operation principle..........................................................................155
Load encroachment....................................................................156
Simplified logic diagrams............................................................156
Technical data.................................................................................157

Section 7

Current protection..............................................................159
Four step phase overcurrent protection OC4PTOC (51/67).................159
Identification ...................................................................................159
Functionality....................................................................................159
Function block.................................................................................160
Signals.............................................................................................160

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Settings............................................................................................161
Monitored data.................................................................................163
Operation principle..........................................................................163
Technical data.................................................................................166
Four step residual overcurrent protection EF4PTOC (51N/67N)..........166
Identification ...................................................................................166
Functionality....................................................................................167
Function block.................................................................................167
Signals.............................................................................................167
Settings............................................................................................168
Monitored data.................................................................................171
Operation principle..........................................................................171
Operating quantity within the function........................................171
Internal polarizing.......................................................................172
External polarizing for ground-fault function...............................174
Base quantities within the protection..........................................175
Internal ground-fault protection structure....................................175
Four residual overcurrent steps..................................................175
Directional supervision element with integrated directional
comparison function...................................................................176
Technical data.................................................................................179
Sensitive directional residual overcurrent and power protection
SDEPSDE (67N)...................................................................................180
Identification....................................................................................180
Functionality....................................................................................180
Function block.................................................................................181
Signals.............................................................................................181
Settings............................................................................................182
Monitored data.................................................................................184
Operation principle .........................................................................184
Function inputs...........................................................................184
Directional residual current protection measuring 3I0cos .......184
Directional residual power protection measuring 3I0 3V0
cos ...........................................................................................187
Directional residual current protection measuring 3I0 and ......188
Directional functions...................................................................189
Non-directional ground fault current protection..........................189
Residual overvoltage release and protection.............................189
Technical data.................................................................................191
Thermal overload protection, two time constants TRPTTR (49)...........192
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Identification ...................................................................................192
Functionality....................................................................................192
Function block.................................................................................193
Signals.............................................................................................193
Settings............................................................................................194
Monitored data.................................................................................195
Operation principle..........................................................................195
Technical data.................................................................................199
Breaker failure protection CCRBRF (50BF)..........................................199
Identification....................................................................................199
Functionality....................................................................................199
Function block.................................................................................200
Signals.............................................................................................200
Settings............................................................................................201
Monitored data.................................................................................201
Operation principle..........................................................................202
Technical data.................................................................................203
Pole discrepancy protection CCRPLD (52PD).....................................204
Identification ...................................................................................204
Functionality....................................................................................204
Function block.................................................................................204
Signals.............................................................................................205
Settings............................................................................................205
Monitored data.................................................................................206
Operation principle..........................................................................206
Pole discrepancy signaling from circuit breaker.........................207
Unsymmetrical current detection................................................208
Technical data.................................................................................208
Directional over-/under-power protection GOPPDOP/GUPPDUP
(32/37)..................................................................................................208
Functionality....................................................................................208
Directional overpower protection GOPPDOP (32)..........................209
Identification...............................................................................209
Function block............................................................................209
Signals........................................................................................210
Settings.......................................................................................210
Monitored data............................................................................211
Directional underpower protection GUPPDUP (37).........................211
Identification...............................................................................212
Function block............................................................................212
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Signals........................................................................................212
Settings.......................................................................................213
Monitored data............................................................................214
Operation principle..........................................................................214
Low pass filtering........................................................................216
Technical data.................................................................................217
Accidental energizing protection for synchronous generator
AEGGAPC (50AE)................................................................................218
Identification....................................................................................218
Functionality ...................................................................................218
Function block.................................................................................218
Signals.............................................................................................219
Settings............................................................................................219
Operation principle..........................................................................220
Technical data.................................................................................221
Negative-sequence time overcurrent protection for machines
NS2PTOC (46I2)..................................................................................221
Identification....................................................................................221
Functionality....................................................................................221
Function block.................................................................................222
Signals.............................................................................................223
Settings............................................................................................223
Monitored data.................................................................................224
Operation principle..........................................................................224
Pickup sensitivity........................................................................227
Alarm function.............................................................................227
Logic diagram.............................................................................227
Technical data.................................................................................228
Voltage-restrained time overcurrent protection VR2PVOC (51V).........229
Identification....................................................................................229
Functionality....................................................................................229
Function block.................................................................................229
Signals.............................................................................................230
Settings............................................................................................231
Monitored data.................................................................................232
Operation principle..........................................................................232
Measured quantities...................................................................232
Base quantities...........................................................................232
Overcurrent protection................................................................233
Logic diagram.............................................................................235
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Undervoltage protection.............................................................236
Technical data.................................................................................236

Section 8

Voltage protection.............................................................237
Two step undervoltage protection UV2PTUV (27)................................237
Identification....................................................................................237
Functionality....................................................................................237
Function block.................................................................................237
Signals.............................................................................................238
Settings............................................................................................238
Monitored data.................................................................................239
Operation principle..........................................................................239
Measurement principle...............................................................240
Time delay..................................................................................240
Blocking......................................................................................241
Design........................................................................................241
Technical data.................................................................................243
Two step overvoltage protection OV2PTOV (59).................................243
Identification....................................................................................243
Functionality....................................................................................243
Function block.................................................................................244
Signals.............................................................................................244
Settings............................................................................................245
Monitored data.................................................................................246
Operation principle..........................................................................246
Measurement principle...............................................................247
Time delay..................................................................................247
Blocking......................................................................................248
Design........................................................................................249
Technical data.................................................................................251
Two step residual overvoltage protection ROV2PTOV (59N)...............251
Identification....................................................................................251
Functionality....................................................................................251
Function block.................................................................................252
Signals.............................................................................................252
Settings............................................................................................253
Monitored data.................................................................................253
Operation principle..........................................................................253
Measurement principle...............................................................254
Time delay..................................................................................254

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Blocking......................................................................................255
Design........................................................................................255
Technical data.................................................................................257
Overexcitation protection OEXPVPH (24)............................................257
Identification....................................................................................257
Functionality....................................................................................258
Function block.................................................................................258
Signals.............................................................................................258
Settings............................................................................................259
Monitored data.................................................................................259
Operation principle..........................................................................260
Measured voltage.......................................................................262
Operate time of the overexcitation protection.............................262
Cooling.......................................................................................265
Overexcitation protection function measurands.........................265
Overexcitation alarm...................................................................266
Logic diagram.............................................................................266
Technical data.................................................................................266
100% Stator ground fault protection, 3rd harmonic based
STEFPHIZ (59THD)..............................................................................267
Identification....................................................................................267
Functionality....................................................................................267
Function block.................................................................................269
Signals.............................................................................................269
Settings............................................................................................270
Monitored data.................................................................................271
Operation principle..........................................................................271
Technical data.................................................................................276

Section 9

Frequency protection.........................................................277
Underfrequency protection SAPTUF (81).............................................277
Identification....................................................................................277
Functionality....................................................................................277
Function block.................................................................................277
Signals.............................................................................................278
Settings............................................................................................278
Monitored data.................................................................................278
Operation principle..........................................................................278
Measurement principle...............................................................279
Time delay..................................................................................279
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Blocking......................................................................................279
Design........................................................................................280
Technical data.................................................................................280
Overfrequency protection SAPTOF (81)...............................................281
Identification....................................................................................281
Functionality....................................................................................281
Function block.................................................................................281
Signals.............................................................................................282
Settings............................................................................................282
Monitored data.................................................................................282
Operation principle..........................................................................282
Measurement principle...............................................................283
Time delay..................................................................................283
Blocking......................................................................................283
Design........................................................................................283
Technical data.................................................................................284
Rate-of-change frequency protection SAPFRC (81)............................284
Identification....................................................................................285
Functionality....................................................................................285
Function block.................................................................................285
Signals.............................................................................................285
Settings............................................................................................286
Operation principle..........................................................................286
Measurement principle...............................................................286
Time delay..................................................................................287
Design........................................................................................288
Technical data.................................................................................288

Section 10 Secondary system supervision..........................................289


Fuse failure supervision SDDRFUF......................................................289
Identification....................................................................................289
Functionality....................................................................................289
Function block.................................................................................290
Signals.............................................................................................290
Settings............................................................................................291
Monitored data.................................................................................292
Operation principle..........................................................................292
Zero and negative sequence detection......................................292
Delta current and delta voltage detection...................................293
Dead line detection.....................................................................296
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Main logic...................................................................................296
Technical data.................................................................................300
Breaker close/trip circuit monitoring TCSSCBR...................................300
Identification....................................................................................300
Functionality....................................................................................300
Function block.................................................................................301
Signals.............................................................................................301
Settings............................................................................................301
Operation principle..........................................................................301
Technical data.................................................................................302

Section 11 Control...............................................................................303
Synchronism check, energizing check, and synchronizing
SESRSYN (25).....................................................................................303
Identification....................................................................................303
Functionality....................................................................................303
Function block.................................................................................304
Signals.............................................................................................304
Settings............................................................................................306
Monitored data.................................................................................307
Operation principle..........................................................................308
Basic functionality.......................................................................308
Synchronism check....................................................................308
Synchronizing.............................................................................310
Energizing check........................................................................311
Voltage selection........................................................................312
Fuse failure supervision..............................................................312
Voltage selection for a single circuit breaker with double
busbars.......................................................................................313
Technical data.................................................................................314
Apparatus control..................................................................................315
Functionality....................................................................................315
Bay control QCBAY.........................................................................315
Identification ..............................................................................315
Functionality...............................................................................315
Function block............................................................................316
Signals........................................................................................316
Settings.......................................................................................316
Local remote LOCREM...................................................................317
Identification ..............................................................................317
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Functionality...............................................................................317
Function block............................................................................317
Signals........................................................................................317
Settings.......................................................................................318
Local remote control LOCREMCTRL..............................................318
Identification ..............................................................................318
Functionality...............................................................................318
Function block............................................................................318
Signals........................................................................................319
Settings.......................................................................................319
Operation principle..........................................................................320
Bay control QCBAY....................................................................320
Local remote/Local remote control LOCREM/
LOCREMCTRL...........................................................................321
Logic rotating switch for function selection and LHMI presentation
SLGGIO................................................................................................322
Identification....................................................................................322
Functionality....................................................................................323
Function block.................................................................................323
Signals.............................................................................................323
Settings............................................................................................325
Monitored data.................................................................................325
Operation principle..........................................................................325
Selector mini switch VSGGIO...............................................................326
Identification....................................................................................326
Functionality....................................................................................326
Function block.................................................................................326
Signals.............................................................................................326
Settings............................................................................................327
Operation principle..........................................................................327
IEC 61850 generic communication I/O functions DPGGIO..................328
Identification....................................................................................328
Functionality....................................................................................328
Function block.................................................................................329
Signals.............................................................................................329
Settings............................................................................................329
Operation principle..........................................................................329
Single point generic control 8 signals SPC8GGIO...............................330
Identification....................................................................................330
Functionality....................................................................................330
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Function block.................................................................................330
Signals.............................................................................................330
Settings............................................................................................331
Operation principle..........................................................................332
Automation bits AUTOBITS..................................................................332
Identification....................................................................................332
Functionality....................................................................................332
Function block.................................................................................333
Signals.............................................................................................333
Settings............................................................................................334
Operation principle..........................................................................335
Function commands for IEC 60870-5-103 I103CMD............................335
Functionality....................................................................................335
Function block.................................................................................335
Signals.............................................................................................336
Settings............................................................................................336
IED commands for IEC 60870-5-103 I103IEDCMD.............................336
Functionality....................................................................................336
Function block.................................................................................336
Signals.............................................................................................337
Settings............................................................................................337
Function commands user defined for IEC 60870-5-103
I103USRCMD.......................................................................................337
Functionality....................................................................................337
Function block.................................................................................338
Signals.............................................................................................338
Settings............................................................................................338
Function commands generic for IEC 60870-5-103 I103GENCMD.......339
Functionality....................................................................................339
Function block.................................................................................339
Signals.............................................................................................339
Settings............................................................................................340
IED commands with position and select for IEC 60870-5-103
I103POSCMD.......................................................................................340
Functionality....................................................................................340
Function block.................................................................................340
Signals.............................................................................................340
Settings............................................................................................341

Section 12 Logic..................................................................................343
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Tripping logic SMPPTRC (94)..............................................................343


Identification....................................................................................343
Functionality....................................................................................343
Function block.................................................................................343
Signals.............................................................................................344
Settings............................................................................................344
Operation principle..........................................................................344
Technical data.................................................................................345
Trip matrix logic TMAGGIO..................................................................345
Identification....................................................................................345
Functionality....................................................................................346
Function block.................................................................................346
Signals.............................................................................................346
Settings............................................................................................348
Operation principle..........................................................................348
Configurable logic blocks......................................................................349
Standard configurable logic blocks..................................................349
Functionality...............................................................................349
OR function block.......................................................................350
Inverter function block INVERTER.............................................351
PULSETIMER function block .....................................................352
Controllable gate function block GATE.......................................353
Exclusive OR function block XOR..............................................354
Loop delay function block LOOPDELAY....................................355
Timer function block TIMERSET................................................356
AND function block ....................................................................357
Set-reset memory function block SRMEMORY..........................358
Reset-set with memory function block RSMEMORY..................360
Technical data.................................................................................361
Fixed signals FXDSIGN........................................................................362
Identification....................................................................................362
Functionality....................................................................................362
Function block.................................................................................362
Signals.............................................................................................362
Settings............................................................................................363
Operation principle..........................................................................363
Boolean 16 to integer conversion B16I.................................................363
Identification....................................................................................363
Functionality....................................................................................363
Function block.................................................................................364
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Signals.............................................................................................364
Settings............................................................................................365
Monitored data.................................................................................365
Operation principle..........................................................................365
Boolean 16 to integer conversion with logic node representation
B16IFCVI..............................................................................................365
Identification....................................................................................365
Functionality....................................................................................365
Function block.................................................................................366
Signals.............................................................................................366
Settings............................................................................................367
Monitored data.................................................................................367
Operation principle..........................................................................367
Integer to boolean 16 conversion IB16A...............................................367
Identification....................................................................................367
Functionality....................................................................................367
Function block.................................................................................368
Signals.............................................................................................368
Settings............................................................................................369
Operation principle..........................................................................369
Integer to boolean 16 conversion with logic node representation
IB16FCVB.............................................................................................369
Identification....................................................................................369
Functionality....................................................................................369
Function block.................................................................................370
Signals.............................................................................................370
Settings............................................................................................371
Operation principle..........................................................................371

Section 13 Monitoring..........................................................................373
IEC 61850 generic communication I/O functions SPGGIO..................373
Identification....................................................................................373
Functionality....................................................................................373
Function block.................................................................................373
Signals.............................................................................................373
Settings............................................................................................374
Operation principle..........................................................................374
IEC 61850 generic communication I/O functions 16 inputs
SP16GGIO............................................................................................374
Identification....................................................................................374
Functionality....................................................................................374
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Function block.................................................................................375
Signals.............................................................................................375
Settings............................................................................................376
MonitoredData.................................................................................376
Operation principle..........................................................................377
IEC 61850 generic communication I/O functions MVGGIO..................377
Identification....................................................................................377
Functionality....................................................................................377
Function block.................................................................................377
Signals.............................................................................................378
Settings............................................................................................378
Monitored data.................................................................................379
Operation principle..........................................................................379
Measurements......................................................................................379
Functionality....................................................................................379
Measurements CVMMXN................................................................381
Identification ..............................................................................381
Function block............................................................................381
Signals........................................................................................381
Settings.......................................................................................382
Monitored data............................................................................386
Phase current measurement CMMXU.............................................386
Identification ..............................................................................386
Function block............................................................................386
Signals........................................................................................387
Settings.......................................................................................388
Monitored data............................................................................389
Phase-phase voltage measurement VMMXU.................................389
Identification ..............................................................................389
Function block............................................................................389
Signals........................................................................................390
Settings.......................................................................................390
Monitored data............................................................................391
Current sequence component measurement CMSQI.....................391
Identification ..............................................................................391
Function block............................................................................391
Signals........................................................................................392
Settings.......................................................................................392
Monitored data............................................................................394
Voltage sequence measurement VMSQI........................................394
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Identification ..............................................................................394
Function block............................................................................394
Signals........................................................................................395
Settings.......................................................................................395
Monitored data............................................................................397
Phase-neutral voltage measurement VNMMXU..............................397
Identification ..............................................................................397
Function block............................................................................397
Signals........................................................................................398
Settings.......................................................................................399
Monitored data............................................................................399
Operation principle..........................................................................400
Measurement supervision..........................................................400
Measurements CVMMXN...........................................................404
Phase current measurement CMMXU........................................409
Phase-phase and phase-neutral voltage measurements
VMMXU, VNMMXU....................................................................410
Voltage and current sequence measurements VMSQI,
CMSQI........................................................................................410
Technical data.................................................................................410
Event Counter CNTGGIO.....................................................................411
Identification....................................................................................411
Functionality....................................................................................411
Function block.................................................................................411
Signals.............................................................................................412
Settings............................................................................................412
Monitored data.................................................................................412
Operation principle..........................................................................413
Reporting....................................................................................413
Technical data.................................................................................413
Disturbance report................................................................................414
Functionality....................................................................................414
Disturbance report DRPRDRE........................................................414
Identification...............................................................................414
Function block............................................................................415
Signals........................................................................................415
Settings.......................................................................................415
Monitored data............................................................................416
Measured values........................................................................419
Analog input signals AxRADR.........................................................420
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Identification...............................................................................420
Function block............................................................................420
Signals........................................................................................420
Settings.......................................................................................421
Analog input signals A4RADR.........................................................425
Identification...............................................................................425
Function block............................................................................425
Signals........................................................................................426
Settings.......................................................................................426
Binary input signals BxRBDR..........................................................430
Identification...............................................................................430
Function block............................................................................430
Signals........................................................................................431
Settings.......................................................................................431
Operation principle..........................................................................437
Disturbance information..............................................................439
Indications .................................................................................439
Event recorder ...........................................................................439
Sequential of events ..................................................................439
Trip value recorder ....................................................................439
Disturbance recorder .................................................................439
Time tagging...............................................................................440
Recording times..........................................................................440
Analog signals............................................................................441
Binary signals.............................................................................442
Trigger signals............................................................................442
Post Retrigger.............................................................................443
Technical data.................................................................................444
Indications.............................................................................................445
Functionality....................................................................................445
Function block.................................................................................445
Signals.............................................................................................445
Input signals...............................................................................445
Operation principle..........................................................................445
Technical data.................................................................................446
Event recorder .....................................................................................446
Functionality....................................................................................446
Function block.................................................................................447
Signals.............................................................................................447
Input signals...............................................................................447
18
Technical Manual

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Operation principle..........................................................................447
Technical data.................................................................................448
Sequential of events.............................................................................448
Functionality....................................................................................448
Function block.................................................................................448
Signals.............................................................................................448
Input signals...............................................................................448
Operation principle..........................................................................448
Technical data.................................................................................449
Trip value recorder................................................................................449
Functionality....................................................................................449
Function block.................................................................................449
Signals.............................................................................................450
Input signals...............................................................................450
Operation principle..........................................................................450
Technical data.................................................................................450
Disturbance recorder............................................................................451
Functionality....................................................................................451
Function block.................................................................................451
Signals.............................................................................................451
Settings............................................................................................451
Operation principle..........................................................................451
Memory and storage...................................................................452
Technical data.................................................................................454
Measured value expander block MVEXP.............................................454
Identification....................................................................................454
Functionality....................................................................................454
Function block.................................................................................455
Signals.............................................................................................455
Settings............................................................................................455
Operation principle..........................................................................455
Station battery supervision SPVNZBAT...............................................456
Identification....................................................................................456
Function block.................................................................................456
Functionality....................................................................................456
Signals.............................................................................................457
Settings............................................................................................457
Measured values.............................................................................457
Monitored Data................................................................................458
Operation principle .........................................................................458
19
Technical Manual

Table of contents

Technical data.................................................................................459
Insulation gas monitoring function SSIMG (63)....................................459
Identification....................................................................................459
Functionality....................................................................................459
Function block.................................................................................460
Signals.............................................................................................460
Settings............................................................................................461
Operation principle..........................................................................461
Technical data.................................................................................462
Insulation liquid monitoring function SSIML (71)..................................462
Identification....................................................................................462
Functionality....................................................................................462
Function block.................................................................................462
Signals.............................................................................................463
Settings............................................................................................463
Operation principle..........................................................................464
Technical data.................................................................................464
Circuit breaker condition monitoring SSCBR........................................465
Identification....................................................................................465
Functionality....................................................................................465
Function block.................................................................................465
Signals.............................................................................................466
Settings............................................................................................467
Monitored data.................................................................................468
Operation principle..........................................................................468
Circuit breaker status..................................................................469
Circuit breaker operation monitoring..........................................470
Breaker contact travel time.........................................................471
Operation counter.......................................................................473
Accumulation of Iyt......................................................................473
Remaining life of the circuit breaker...........................................475
Circuit breaker spring charged indication...................................476
Gas pressure supervision...........................................................477
Technical data.................................................................................478
Measurands for IEC 60870-5-103 I103MEAS......................................478
Functionality....................................................................................478
Function block.................................................................................479
Signals.............................................................................................480
Settings............................................................................................480

20
Technical Manual

Table of contents

Measurands user defined signals for IEC 60870-5-103


I103MEASUSR.....................................................................................481
Functionality....................................................................................481
Function block.................................................................................481
Signals.............................................................................................481
Settings............................................................................................482
Function status auto-recloser for IEC 60870-5-103 I103AR.................482
Functionality....................................................................................482
Function block.................................................................................483
Signals.............................................................................................483
Settings............................................................................................483
Function status ground-fault for IEC 60870-5-103 I103EF...................483
Functionality....................................................................................483
Function block.................................................................................484
Signals.............................................................................................484
Settings............................................................................................484
Function status fault protection for IEC 60870-5-103
I103FLTPROT......................................................................................484
Functionality....................................................................................484
Function block.................................................................................485
Signals.............................................................................................485
Settings............................................................................................486
IED status for IEC 60870-5-103 I103IED..............................................487
Functionality....................................................................................487
Function block.................................................................................487
Signals.............................................................................................487
Settings............................................................................................487
Supervison status for IEC 60870-5-103 I103SUPERV.........................488
Functionality....................................................................................488
Function block.................................................................................488
Signals.............................................................................................488
Settings............................................................................................488
Status for user defined signals for IEC 60870-5-103 I103USRDEF.....489
Functionality....................................................................................489
Function block.................................................................................489
Signals.............................................................................................490
Settings............................................................................................490

Section 14 Metering............................................................................491
Pulse counter PCGGIO........................................................................491
21
Technical Manual

Table of contents

Identification....................................................................................491
Functionality....................................................................................491
Function block.................................................................................491
Signals.............................................................................................492
Settings............................................................................................492
Monitored data.................................................................................493
Operation principle..........................................................................493
Technical data.................................................................................494
Energy calculation and demand handling ETPMMTR..........................495
Identification....................................................................................495
Functionality....................................................................................495
Function block.................................................................................495
Signals.............................................................................................496
Settings............................................................................................497
Monitored data.................................................................................498
Operation principle..........................................................................498
Technical data.................................................................................499

Section 15 Station communication......................................................501


DNP3 protocol......................................................................................501
IEC 61850-8-1 communication protocol ..............................................501
Identification....................................................................................501
Functionality....................................................................................501
Settings............................................................................................502
Technical data.................................................................................502
Horizontal communication via GOOSE for interlocking........................503
Identification....................................................................................503
Function block.................................................................................504
Signals.............................................................................................504
Settings............................................................................................506
Goose binary receive GOOSEBINRCV................................................506
Identification....................................................................................506
Function block.................................................................................507
Signals.............................................................................................507
Settings............................................................................................508
GOOSE function block to receive a double point value
GOOSEDPRCV....................................................................................509
Identification....................................................................................509
Functionality....................................................................................509
Function block.................................................................................509
22
Technical Manual

Table of contents

Signals.............................................................................................509
Settings............................................................................................510
Operation principle .........................................................................510
GOOSE function block to receive an integer value
GOOSEINTRCV...................................................................................510
Identification....................................................................................510
Functionality....................................................................................511
Function block.................................................................................511
Signals.............................................................................................511
Settings............................................................................................511
Operation principle .........................................................................511
GOOSE function block to receive a measurand value
GOOSEMVRCV....................................................................................512
Identification....................................................................................512
Functionality....................................................................................512
Function block.................................................................................512
Signals.............................................................................................513
Settings............................................................................................513
Operation principle .........................................................................513
GOOSE function block to receive a single point value
GOOSESPRCV....................................................................................514
Identification....................................................................................514
Functionality....................................................................................514
Function block.................................................................................514
Signals.............................................................................................514
Settings............................................................................................515
Operation principle .........................................................................515
IEC 60870-5-103 communication protocol...........................................515
Functionality....................................................................................515
Settings............................................................................................516

Section 16 Basic IED functions...........................................................517


Binary input...........................................................................................517
Binary input debounce filter.............................................................517
Oscillation filter................................................................................517
Self supervision with internal event list ................................................519
Functionality....................................................................................519
Internal error signals INTERRSIG...................................................519
Identification...............................................................................519
Function block............................................................................519
Signals........................................................................................520
23
Technical Manual

Table of contents

Settings.......................................................................................520
Internal event list SELFSUPEVLST.................................................520
Identification...............................................................................520
Settings.......................................................................................520
Operation principle..........................................................................520
Internal signals...........................................................................523
Run-time model..........................................................................524
Technical data.................................................................................525
Time synchronization............................................................................526
Functionality....................................................................................526
Time synchronization TIMESYNCHGEN.........................................526
Identification...............................................................................526
Settings.......................................................................................526
Time synchronization via SNTP......................................................527
Identification...............................................................................527
Settings.......................................................................................527
Time system, summer time begin DSTBEGIN................................527
Identification...............................................................................527
Settings.......................................................................................528
Time system, summer time ends DSTEND.....................................528
Identification...............................................................................528
Settings.......................................................................................529
Time zone from UTC TIMEZONE....................................................529
Identification...............................................................................529
Settings.......................................................................................529
Time synchronization via IRIG-B.....................................................530
Identification...............................................................................530
Settings.......................................................................................530
Operation principle..........................................................................530
General concepts.......................................................................530
Real-time clock (RTC) operation................................................532
Synchronization alternatives.......................................................533
Technical data.................................................................................534
Parameter setting group handling.........................................................534
Functionality....................................................................................534
Setting group handling SETGRPS..................................................535
Identification...............................................................................535
Settings.......................................................................................535
Parameter setting groups ACTVGRP..............................................535
Identification...............................................................................535
24
Technical Manual

Table of contents

Function block............................................................................535
Signals........................................................................................536
Settings.......................................................................................536
Operation principle..........................................................................536
Test mode functionality TESTMODE....................................................537
Identification....................................................................................537
Functionality....................................................................................538
Function block.................................................................................538
Signals.............................................................................................538
Settings............................................................................................539
Operation principle..........................................................................539
Change lock function CHNGLCK .........................................................540
Identification....................................................................................540
Functionality....................................................................................540
Function block.................................................................................541
Signals.............................................................................................541
Settings............................................................................................541
Operation principle..........................................................................541
IED identifiers TERMINALID.................................................................542
Identification....................................................................................542
Functionality....................................................................................542
Settings............................................................................................542
Product information ..............................................................................543
Identification....................................................................................543
Functionality....................................................................................543
Settings............................................................................................543
Primary system values PRIMVAL.........................................................544
Identification....................................................................................544
Functionality....................................................................................544
Settings............................................................................................544
Signal matrix for analog inputs SMAI....................................................544
Functionality....................................................................................544
Signal matrix for analog inputs SMAI_20_1.....................................544
Identification...............................................................................544
Function block............................................................................545
Signals........................................................................................545
Settings.......................................................................................546
Signal matrix for analog inputs SMAI_20_2.....................................547
Identification...............................................................................547
Function block............................................................................547
25
Technical Manual

Table of contents

Signals........................................................................................547
Settings.......................................................................................548
Operation principle .........................................................................549
Summation block 3 phase 3PHSUM....................................................549
Identification....................................................................................549
Functionality....................................................................................549
Function block.................................................................................550
Signals.............................................................................................550
Settings............................................................................................551
Operation principle..........................................................................551
Global base values GBASVAL.............................................................551
Identification....................................................................................551
Functionality....................................................................................551
Settings............................................................................................552
Authority check ATHCHCK...................................................................552
Identification....................................................................................552
Functionality....................................................................................552
Settings............................................................................................552
Operation principle..........................................................................553
Authorization handling in the IED...............................................553
Authority status ATHSTAT....................................................................554
Identification....................................................................................554
Functionality....................................................................................554
Function block.................................................................................555
Signals.............................................................................................555
Settings............................................................................................555
Operation principle..........................................................................555
Denial of service...................................................................................555
Functionality....................................................................................555
Denial of service, frame rate control for front port DOSFRNT.........556
Identification...............................................................................556
Function block............................................................................556
Signals........................................................................................556
Settings.......................................................................................556
Monitored data............................................................................557
Denial of service, frame rate control for LAN1 port DOSLAN1........557
Identification...............................................................................557
Function block............................................................................557
Signals........................................................................................558
Settings.......................................................................................558
26
Technical Manual

Table of contents

Monitored data............................................................................558
Operation principle..........................................................................558

Section 17 IED physical connections..................................................561


Protective ground connections.............................................................561
Inputs....................................................................................................563
Measuring inputs.............................................................................563
Auxiliary supply voltage input..........................................................563
Binary inputs....................................................................................564
Outputs.................................................................................................567
Outputs for tripping, controlling and signalling.................................567
Outputs for signalling.......................................................................569
IRF...................................................................................................572
Communication connections.................................................................572
Ethernet RJ-45 front connection......................................................572
Station communication rear connection..........................................573
Optical serial rear connection..........................................................573
Communication interfaces and protocols........................................573
Recommended industrial Ethernet switches...................................573
Connection diagrams............................................................................575
Connection diagrams for REG650 B01A.........................................575
Connection diagrams for REG650 B05A.........................................583

Section 18 Technical data...................................................................591


Dimensions...........................................................................................591
Power supply........................................................................................591
Energizing inputs..................................................................................592
Binary inputs.........................................................................................592
Signal outputs.......................................................................................593
Power outputs.......................................................................................593
Data communication interfaces............................................................594
Enclosure class.....................................................................................594
Environmental conditions and tests......................................................595

Section 19 IED and functionality tests.................................................597


Electromagnetic compatibility tests.......................................................597
Insulation tests......................................................................................598
Mechanical tests...................................................................................599
Product safety.......................................................................................599
EMC compliance...................................................................................600

27
Technical Manual

Table of contents

Section 20 Time inverse characteristics..............................................601


Application............................................................................................601
Operation principle................................................................................604
Mode of operation............................................................................604
Inverse time characteristics..................................................................607

Section 21 Glossary............................................................................631

28
Technical Manual

Section 1
Introduction

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Section 1

Introduction

1.1

This manual
The technical manual contains application and functionality descriptions and lists
function blocks, logic diagrams, input and output signals, setting parameters and
technical data sorted per function. The manual can be used as a technical reference
during the engineering phase, installation and commissioning phase, and during normal
service.

1.2

Intended audience
This manual addresses system engineers and installation and commissioning personnel,
who use technical data during engineering, installation and commissioning, and in
normal service.
The system engineer must have a thorough knowledge of protection systems,
protection equipment, protection functions and the configured functional logic in the
IEDs. The installation and commissioning personnel must have a basic knowledge in
handling electronic equipment.

29
Technical Manual

Section 1
Introduction

Decommissioning
deinstalling & disposal

Maintenance

Operation

Product documentation set

Commissioning

1.3.1

Installing

Product documentation

Planning & purchase

1.3

Engineering

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Engineering manual
Installation manual
Commissioning manual
Operation manual
Service manual
Application manual
Technical manual
Communication protocol
manual
en07000220.vsd
IEC07000220 V1 EN

Figure 1:

The intended use of manuals in different lifecycles

The engineering manual contains instructions on how to engineer the IEDs using the
different tools in PCM600. The manual provides instructions on how to set up a
PCM600 project and insert IEDs to the project structure. The manual also recommends
a sequence for engineering of protection and control functions, LHMI functions as well
as communication engineering for IEC 60870-5-103, IEC 61850 and DNP3.
The installation manual contains instructions on how to install the IED. The manual
provides procedures for mechanical and electrical installation. The chapters are
organized in chronological order in which the IED should be installed.
The commissioning manual contains instructions on how to commission the IED. The
manual can also be used by system engineers and maintenance personnel for assistance
30
Technical Manual

Section 1
Introduction

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

during the testing phase. The manual provides procedures for checking of external
circuitry and energizing the IED, parameter setting and configuration as well as
verifying settings by secondary injection. The manual describes the process of testing
an IED in a substation which is not in service. The chapters are organized in
chronological order in which the IED should be commissioned.
The operation manual contains instructions on how to operate the IED once it has been
commissioned. The manual provides instructions for monitoring, controlling and
setting the IED. The manual also describes how to identify disturbances and how to
view calculated and measured power grid data to determine the cause of a fault.
The service manual contains instructions on how to service and maintain the IED. The
manual also provides procedures for de-energizing, de-commissioning and disposal of
the IED.
The application manual contains application descriptions and setting guidelines sorted
per function. The manual can be used to find out when and for what purpose a typical
protection function can be used. The manual can also be used when calculating settings.
The technical manual contains application and functionality descriptions and lists
function blocks, logic diagrams, input and output signals, setting parameters and
technical data sorted per function. The manual can be used as a technical reference
during the engineering phase, installation and commissioning phase, and during normal
service.
The communication protocol manual describes a communication protocol supported by
the IED. The manual concentrates on vendor-specific implementations.
The point list manual describes the outlook and properties of the data points specific to
the IED. The manual should be used in conjunction with the corresponding
communication protocol manual.
The service manual is not available yet.

1.3.2

Document revision history


Document revision/date
-/April 2011

Product series version


1.1

History
First release

31
Technical Manual

Section 1
Introduction
1.3.3

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Related documents
Documents related to REG650

Identity number

Application manual

1MRK 502 033-UUS

Technical manual

1MRK 502 034-UUS

Commissioning manual

1MRK 502 035-UUS

Product Guide

1MRK 502 036-BUS

Type test certificate

1MRK 502 036-TUS

Rotor Ground Fault Protection with Injection Unit RXTTE4 and REG670

1MRG001910

650 series manuals

Identity number

Communication protocol manual, DNP3

1MRK 511 241-UUS

Communication protocol manual, IEC 61850

1MRK 511 242-UUS

Communication protocol manual, IEC 60870-5-103

1MRK 511 243-UUS

Point list manual, DNP3

1MRK 511 244-UUS

Engineering manual

1MRK 511 245-UUS

Operation manual

1MRK 500 093-UUS

Installation manual

1MRK 514 014-UUS

1.4

Symbols and conventions

1.4.1

Safety indication symbols


The electrical warning icon indicates the presence of a hazard which
could result in electrical shock.

The warning icon indicates the presence of a hazard which could result
in personal injury.

The caution icon indicates important information or warning related to


the concept discussed in the text. It might indicate the presence of a
hazard which could result in corruption of software or damage to
equipment or property.

32
Technical Manual

Section 1
Introduction

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

The information icon alerts the reader of important facts and conditions.

The tip icon indicates advice on, for example, how to design your
project or how to use a certain function.
Although warning hazards are related to personal injury, it is necessary to understand
that under certain operational conditions, operation of damaged equipment may result
in degraded process performance leading to personal injury or death. Therefore,
comply fully with all warning and caution notices.

1.4.2

Manual conventions
Conventions used in IED manuals. A particular convention may not be used in this
manual.

Abbreviations and acronyms in this manual are spelled out in the glossary. The
glossary also contains definitions of important terms.
Push button navigation in the LHMI menu structure is presented by using the push
button icons, for example:
To navigate between the options, use
and
.
HMI menu paths are presented in bold, for example:
Select Main menu/Settings.
LHMI messages are shown in Courier font, for example:
To save the changes in non-volatile memory, select Yes and press
.
Parameter names are shown in italics, for example:
The function can be enabled and disabled with the Operation setting.
The ^ character in front of an input or output signal name in the function block
symbol given for a function, indicates that the user can set an own signal name in
PCM600.
The * character after an input or output signal name in the function block symbol
given for a function, indicates that the signal must be connected to another
function block in the application configuration to achieve a valid application
configuration.
Dimensions are provided both in inches and mm. If it is not specifically mentioned
then the dimension is in mm.

33
Technical Manual

34

Section 2
Available functions

Section 2

Available functions

2.1

Main protection functions


ANSI

Function description

Generator
REG650 (B01A)
Gen diff

IEC 61850/
Function block
name

REG650 (B05A)
Gen+Trafo diff

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Differential protection
T3WPDIF

87T

Transformer differential protection, three winding

HZPDIF

87

1Ph High impedance differential protection

GENPDIF

87G

Generator differential protection

Impedance protection
ZGPDIS

21G

Underimpedance protection for generators and transformers

LEXPDIS

40

Loss of excitation

OOSPPAM

78

Out-of-step protection

Load encroachment

LEPDIS

ANSI

Function description

Generator
REG650 (B01A)
Gen diff

IEC 61850/
Function block
name

Back-up protection functions

REG650 (B05A)
Gen+Trafo diff

2.2

Current protection
OC4PTOC

51/67

Four step directional phase overcurrent protection

EF4PTOC

51N/67N

Four step directional residual overcurrent protection

SDEPSDE

67N

Sensitive directional residual overcurrent and power protection

Table continues on next page

35
Technical Manual

Section 2
Available functions
Function description

Generator
REG650 (B05A)
Gen+Trafo diff

ANSI

REG650 (B01A)
Gen diff

IEC 61850/
Function block
name

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

TRPTTR

49

Thermal overload protection, two time constants

CCRBRF

50BF

Breaker failure protection

CCRPLD

52PD

Pole discordance protection

GUPPDUP

37

Directional underpower protection

GOPPDOP

32

Directional overpower protection

AEGGAPC

50AE

Accidental energizing protection for synchronous generator

NS2PTOC

46I2

Negative-sequence time overcurrent protection for machines

VR2PVOC

51V

Voltage-restrained time overcurrent protection

Voltage protection
UV2PTUV

27

Two step undervoltage protection

OV2PTOV

59

Two step overvoltage protection

ROV2PTOV

59N

Two step residual overvoltage protection

OEXPVPH

24

Overexcitation protection

STEFPHIZ

59THD

100% Stator earth fault protection, 3rd harmonic based

64R

Rotor ground protection

Frequency protection
SAPTUF

81

Underfrequency function

SAPTOF

81

Overfrequency function

SAPFRC

81

Rate-of-change frequency protection

ANSI

Function description

Generator
REG650 (B01A)
Gen diff

IEC 61850/Function
block name

Control and monitoring functions

REG650 (B05A)
Gen+Trafo diff

2.3

Control
SESRSYN

25

QCBAY

Synchrocheck, energizing check, and synchronizing

Bay control

Table continues on next page


36
Technical Manual

Section 2
Available functions
ANSI

Function description

Generator
REG650 (B01A)
Gen diff

IEC 61850/Function
block name

REG650 (B05A)
Gen+Trafo diff

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

LOCREM

Handling of LR-switch positions

LOCREMCTRL

LHMI control of Permitted Source To Operate (PSTO)

SLGGIO

Logic Rotating Switch for function selection and LHMI presentation

15

15

VSGGIO

Selector mini switch extension

20

20

DPGGIO

IEC 61850 generic communication I/O functions double point

16

16

SPC8GGIO

Single point generic control 8 signals

AUTOBITS

AutomationBits, command function for DNP3.0

I103CMD

Function commands for IEC60870-5-103

I103IEDCMD

IED commands for IEC60870-5-103

I103USRCMD

Function commands user defined for IEC60870-5-103

I103GENCMD

Function commands generic for IEC60870-5-103

50

50

I103POSCMD

IED commands with position and select for IEC60870-5-103

50

50

SDDRFUF

Fuse failure supervision

TCSSCBR

Breaker close/trip circuit monitoring

Secondary system supervision

Logic
SMPPTRC

Tripping logic

TMAGGIO

94

Trip matrix logic

12

12

OR

Configurable logic blocks, OR gate

283

283

INVERTER

Configurable logic blocks, Inverter gate

140

140

PULSETIMER

Configurable logic blocks, Pulse timer

40

40

GATE

Configurable logic blocks, Controllable gate

40

40

XOR

Configurable logic blocks, exclusive OR gate

40

40

LOOPDELAY

Configurable logic blocks, loop delay

40

40

TIMERSET

Configurable logic blocks, timer function block

40

40

AND

Configurable logic blocks, AND gate

280

280

SRMEMORY

Configurable logic blocks, set-reset memory flip-flop gate

40

40

RSMEMORY

Configurable logic blocks, reset-set memory flip-flop gate

40

40

FXDSIGN

Fixed signal function block

B16I

Boolean 16 to Integer conversion

16

16

B16IFCVI

Boolean 16 to Integer conversion with logic node representation

16

16

IB16A

Integer to Boolean 16 conversion

16

16

Table continues on next page


37
Technical Manual

Section 2
Available functions
Function description

Generator

IB16FCVB

REG650 (B05A)
Gen+Trafo diff

ANSI

REG650 (B01A)
Gen diff

IEC 61850/Function
block name

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Integer to Boolean 16 conversion with logic node representation

16

16

CVMMXN

Measurements

CMMXU

Phase current measurement

10

10

VMMXU

Phase-phase voltage measurement

CMSQI

Current sequence component measurement

VMSQI

Voltage sequence measurement

VNMMXU

Phase-neutral voltage measurement

CNTGGIO

Event counter

DRPRDRE

Disturbance report

AxRADR

Analog input signals

BxRBDR

Binary input signals

SPGGIO

IEC 61850 generic communication I/O functions

64

64

SP16GGIO

IEC 61850 generic communication I/O functions 16 inputs

16

16

MVGGIO

IEC 61850 generic communication I/O functions

16

16

MVEXP

Measured value expander block

66

66

Monitoring

SPVNZBAT

Station battery supervision

SSIMG

63

Insulation gas monitoring function

SSIML

71

Insulation liquid monitoring function

SSCBR

Circuit breaker condition monitoring

I103MEAS

Measurands for IEC60870-5-103

I103MEASUSR

Measurands user defined signals for IEC60870-5-103

I103AR

Function status auto-recloser for IEC60870-5-103

I103EF

Function status ground-fault for IEC60870-5-103

I103FLTPROT

Function status fault protection for IEC60870-5-103

I103IED

IED status for IEC60870-5-103

I103SUPERV

Supervison status for IEC60870-5-103

I103USRDEF

Status for user defined signals for IEC60870-5-103

20

20

PCGGIO

Pulse counter logic

16

16

ETPMMTR

Function for energy calculation and demand handling

Metering

38
Technical Manual

Section 2
Available functions

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

2.4

Designed to communicate
Generator
REG650 (B05A)
Gen+Trafo diff

Function description

REG650 (B01A)
Gen diff

IEC 61850/Function block ANSI


name

IEC 61850 communication protocol, LAN1

DNP3.0 for TCP/IP communication protocol, LAN1

IEC61870-5-103

IEC60870-5-103 serial communication via ST

GOOSEINTLKRCV

Horizontal communication via GOOSE for interlocking

59

59

GOOSEBINRCV

GOOSE binary receive

ETHFRNT
ETHLAN1
GATEWAY

Ethernet configuration of front port, LAN1 port and gateway

GOOSEDPRCV

GOOSE function block to receive a double point value

32

32

GOOSEINTRCV

GOOSE function block to receive an integer value

32

32

GOOSEMVRCV

GOOSE function block to receive a mesurand value

16

16

GOOSESPRCV

GOOSE function block to receive a single point value

64

64

Station communication

2.5
IEC 61850/Function
block name

Basic IED functions


Function description

Basic functions included in all products


INTERRSIG

Self supervision with internal event list

SELFSUPEVLST

Self supervision with internal event list

SNTP

Time synchronization

TIMESYNCHGEN

Time synchronization

DTSBEGIN, DTSEND,
TIMEZONE

Time synchronization, daylight saving

IRIG-B

Time synchronization

SETGRPS

Setting group handling

ACTVGRP

Parameter setting groups

TESTMODE

Test mode functionality

CHNGLCK

Change lock function

Table continues on next page


39
Technical Manual

Section 2
Available functions
IEC 61850/Function
block name

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Function description

TERMINALID

IED identifiers

PRODINF

Product information

PRIMVAL

Primary system values

SMAI_20_1-12

Signal matrix for analog inputs

3PHSUM

Summation block 3 phase

12

GBASVAL

Global base values for settings

ATHSTAT

Authority status

ATHCHCK

Authority check

FTPACCS

FTP access with password

DOSFRNT

Denial of service, frame rate control for front port

DOSLAN1

Denial of service, frame rate control for LAN1

DOSSCKT

Denial of service, socket flow control

40
Technical Manual

Section 3
Analog inputs

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Section 3

Analog inputs

3.1

Introduction
Analog input channels are already configured inside the IED. However the IED has to
be set properly to get correct measurement results and correct protection operations.
For power measuring and all directional and differential functions the directions of the
input currents must be defined properly. Measuring and protection algorithms in the
IED use primary system quantities. Set values are done in primary quantities as well
and it is important to set the data about the connected current and voltage transformers
properly.
The availability of CT and VT inputs, as well as setting parameters depends on the
ordered IED.
A reference PhaseAngleRefmust be defined to facilitate service values reading. This
analog channels phase angle will always be fixed to zero degree and all other angle
information will be shown in relation to this analog input. During testing and
commissioning of the IED the reference channel can be changed to facilitate testing
and service values reading.

3.2

Operation principle
The direction of a current to the IED depends on the connection of the CT. The main
CTs are typically star (WYE) connected and can be connected with the Star (WYE)
point to the object or from the object. This information must be set to the IED.
Directional conventions for current or power, for example

Positive value of current or power means quantity direction into the object.
Negative value of current or power means quantity direction out from the object.

Directional conventions for directional functions (see figure 2)

Forward means direction into the object.


Reverse means direction out from the object.

41
Technical Manual

Section 3
Analog inputs

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Definition of direction
for directional functions

Definition of direction
for directional functions

Reverse

Forward

Forward

Reverse

Protected Object
Line, transformer, etc
e.g. P, Q, I
Measured quantity is
positive when flowing
towards the object

e.g. P, Q, I
Measured quantity is
positive when flowing
towards the object

Set parameter
CT_WyePoint
Correct Setting is
"ToObject"

Set parameter
CT_WyePoint
Correct Setting is
"FromObject"

en05000456_ansi.vsd
ANSI05000456 V1 EN

Figure 2:

Internal convention of the directionality in the IED

The correct setting of the primary CT direction

CTStarPoint is set to FromObject or ToObject.


Positive quantities flow towards the object.
Direction is defined as Forward and looks towards the object.

The ratios of the main CTs and VTs must be known to use primary system quantities
for settings and calculation in the IED, The user has to set the rated secondary and
primary currents and voltages of the CTs and VTs to provide the IED with this
information.
The CT and VT ratio and the name on respective channel is done under Main menu/
Hardware/Analog modules in the Parameter Settings tool.

3.3

Settings
Dependent on ordered IED type.

42
Technical Manual

Section 3
Analog inputs

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Table 1:
Name
PhaseAngleRef

Table 2:
Name

AISVBAS Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)
TRM - Channel 1
TRM - Channel 2
TRM - Channel 3
TRM - Channel 4
TRM - Channel 5
TRM - Channel 6
TRM - Channel 7
TRM - Channel 8
TRM - Channel 9
TRM - Channel 10

Unit
-

Step
-

Default
TRM - Channel 1

Description
Reference channel for phase angle
presentation

TRM_4I_1I_5U Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

CT_WyePoint1

FromObject
ToObject

ToObject

ToObject= towards protected object,


FromObject= the opposite

CTsec1

0.1 - 10.0

0.1

Rated CT secondary current

CTprim1

1 - 99999

1000

Rated CT primary current

CT_WyePoint2

FromObject
ToObject

ToObject

ToObject= towards protected object,


FromObject= the opposite

CTsec2

0.1 - 10.0

0.1

1.0

Rated CT secondary current

CTprim2

1 - 99999

1000

Rated CT primary current

CT_WyePoint3

FromObject
ToObject

ToObject

ToObject= towards protected object,


FromObject= the opposite

CTsec3

0.1 - 10.0

0.1

Rated CT secondary current

CTprim3

1 - 99999

1000

Rated CT primary current

CT_WyePoint4

FromObject
ToObject

ToObject

ToObject= towards protected object,


FromObject= the opposite

CTsec4

0.1 - 10.0

0.1

1.0

Rated CT secondary current

CTprim4

1 - 99999

1000

Rated CT primary current

CT_WyePoint5

FromObject
ToObject

ToObject

ToObject= towards protected object,


FromObject= the opposite

CTsec5

0.1 - 10.0

0.1

Rated CT secondary current

CTprim5

1 - 99999

1000

Rated CT primary current

VTsec6

0.001 - 999.999

0.001

110.000

Rated VT secondary voltage

VTprim6

0.001 - 9999.999

kV

0.001

132.000

Rated VT primary voltage

VTsec7

0.001 - 999.999

0.001

110

Rated VT secondary voltage

VTprim7

0.001 - 9999.999

kV

0.001

132

Rated VT primary voltage

VTsec8

0.001 - 999.999

0.001

110.000

Rated VT secondary voltage

VTprim8

0.001 - 9999.999

kV

0.001

132.000

Rated VT primary voltage

VTsec9

0.001 - 999.999

0.001

110

Rated VT secondary voltage

Table continues on next page


43
Technical Manual

Section 3
Analog inputs
Name

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

VTprim9

0.001 - 9999.999

kV

0.001

132

Rated VT primary voltage

VTsec10

0.001 - 999.999

0.001

110

Rated VT secondary voltage

VTprim10

0.001 - 9999.999

kV

0.001

132

Rated VT primary voltage

Table 3:
Name

AIM_6I_4U Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

CT_WyePoint1

FromObject
ToObject

ToObject

ToObject= towards protected object,


FromObject= the opposite

CTsec1

0.1 - 10.0

0.1

Rated CT secondary current

CTprim1

1 - 99999

1000

Rated CT primary current

CT_WyePoint2

FromObject
ToObject

ToObject

ToObject= towards protected object,


FromObject= the opposite

CTsec2

0.1 - 10.0

0.1

1.0

Rated CT secondary current

CTprim2

1 - 99999

1000

Rated CT primary current

CT_WyePoint3

FromObject
ToObject

ToObject

ToObject= towards protected object,


FromObject= the opposite

CTsec3

0.1 - 10.0

0.1

Rated CT secondary current

CTprim3

1 - 99999

1000

Rated CT primary current

CT_WyePoint4

FromObject
ToObject

ToObject

ToObject= towards protected object,


FromObject= the opposite

CTsec4

0.1 - 10.0

0.1

1.0

Rated CT secondary current

CTprim4

1 - 99999

1000

Rated CT primary current

CT_WyePoint5

FromObject
ToObject

ToObject

ToObject= towards protected object,


FromObject= the opposite

CTsec5

0.1 - 10.0

0.1

Rated CT secondary current

CTprim5

1 - 99999

1000

Rated CT primary current

CT_WyePoint6

FromObject
ToObject

ToObject

ToObject= towards protected object,


FromObject= the opposite

CTsec6

0.1 - 10.0

0.1

1.0

Rated CT secondary current

CTprim6

1 - 99999

1000

Rated CT primary current

VTsec7

0.001 - 999.999

0.001

110.000

Rated VT secondary voltage

VTprim7

0.001 - 9999.999

kV

0.001

132.000

Rated VT primary voltage

VTsec8

0.001 - 999.999

0.001

110

Rated VT secondary voltage

VTprim8

0.001 - 9999.999

kV

0.001

132

Rated VT primary voltage

VTsec9

0.001 - 999.999

0.001

110.000

Rated VT secondary voltage

VTprim9

0.001 - 9999.999

kV

0.001

132.000

Rated VT primary voltage

VTsec10

0.001 - 999.999

0.001

110

Rated VT secondary voltage

VTprim10

0.001 - 9999.999

kV

0.001

132

Rated VT primary voltage

44
Technical Manual

Section 4
Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Section 4

Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI

4.1

Local HMI screen behaviour

4.1.1

Identification
Function description

IEC 61850
identification

Local HMI screen behaviour

4.1.2
Table 4:

SCREEN

IEC 60617
identification

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number

Settings
SCREEN Non group settings (basic)

Name

Unit

Step

DisplayTimeout

Values (Range)
10 - 120

Min

10

Default
60

Description
Local HMI display timeout

ContrastLevel

-100 - 100

10

Contrast level for display

DefaultScreen

Main menu
Events
Measurements
Diagnostics
Disturbance
records
Single Line
Diagram

Main menu

Default screen

EvListSrtOrder

Latest on top
Oldest on top

Latest on top

Sort order of event list

AutoIndicationDRP

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Automatic indication of disturbance report

SubstIndSLD

No
Yes

No

Substitute indication on single line diagram

InterlockIndSLD

No
Yes

No

Interlock indication on single line diagram

BypassCommands

No
Yes

No

Enable bypass of commands

45
Technical Manual

Section 4
Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI

4.2

Local HMI signals

4.2.1

Identification

4.2.2

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Function description

IEC 61850
identification

Local HMI signals

LHMICTRL

IEC 60617
identification
-

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
-

Function block
LHMICTRL
CLRLEDS

HMI-ON
RED-S
YELLOW-S
YELLOW-F
CLRPULSE
LEDSCLRD
IEC09000320-1-en.vsd

IEC09000320 V1 EN

Figure 3:

4.2.3

LHMICTRL function block

Signals
Table 5:
Name
CLRLEDS

Table 6:
Name

LHMICTRL Input signals


Type
BOOLEAN

Default
0

Description
Input to clear the LCD-HMI LEDs

LHMICTRL Output signals


Type

Description

HMI-ON

BOOLEAN

Backlight of the LCD display is active

RED-S

BOOLEAN

Red LED on the LCD-HMI is steady

YELLOW-S

BOOLEAN

Yellow LED on the LCD-HMI is steady

YELLOW-F

BOOLEAN

Yellow LED on the LCD-HMI is flashing

CLRPULSE

BOOLEAN

A pulse is provided when the LEDs on the LCD-HMI


are cleared

LEDSCLRD

BOOLEAN

Active when the LEDs on the LCD-HMI are not active

46
Technical Manual

Section 4
Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

4.3

Basic part for LED indication module

4.3.1

Identification
Function description

4.3.2

IEC 61850
identification

IEC 60617
identification

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number

Basic part for LED indication module

LEDGEN

Basic part for LED indication module

GRP1_LED1 GRP1_LED15
GRP2_LED1 GRP2_LED15
GRP3_LED1 GRP3_LED15

Function block
LEDGEN
BLOCK
RESET

NEWIND
ACK
IEC09000321-1-en.vsd

IEC09000321 V1 EN

Figure 4:

LEDGEN function block

GRP1_LED1
^HM1L01R
^HM1L01Y
^HM1L01G
IEC09000322 V1 EN

Figure 5:

GRP1_LED1 function block

The GRP1_LED1 function block is an example, all 15 LED in each of group 1 - 3 has
a similar function block.

4.3.3

Signals
Table 7:
Name

LEDGEN Input signals


Type

Default

Description

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Input to block the operation of the LEDs

RESET

BOOLEAN

Input to acknowledge/reset the indication LEDs

47
Technical Manual

Section 4
Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI

Table 8:

GRP1_LED1 Input signals

Name

Type

Name

Description

BOOLEAN

Red indication of LED1, local HMI alarm group 1

HM1L01Y

BOOLEAN

Yellow indication of LED1, local HMI alarm group 1

HM1L01G

BOOLEAN

Green indication of LED1, local HMI alarm group 1

LEDGEN Output signals

Name

Table 10:

Default

HM1L01R

Table 9:

4.3.4

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Type

Description

NEWIND

BOOLEAN

New indication signal if any LED indication input is set

ACK

BOOLEAN

A pulse is provided when the LEDs are acknowledged

Settings
LEDGEN Non group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Off
On

Off

Operation Off/On

tRestart

0.0 - 100.0

0.1

0.0

Defines the disturbance length

tMax

0.0 - 100.0

0.1

0.0

Maximum time for the definition of a


disturbance

Table 11:
Name

GRP1_LED1 Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

SequenceType

Follow-S
Follow-F
LatchedAck-F-S
LatchedAck-S-F
LatchedColl-S
LatchedReset-S

Follow-S

Sequence type for LED 1, local HMI alarm


group 1

LabelOff

0 - 18

G1L01_OFF

Label string shown when LED 1, alarm group


1 is off

LabelRed

0 - 18

G1L01_RED

Label string shown when LED 1, alarm group


1 is red

LabelYellow

0 - 18

G1L01_YELLOW

Label string shown when LED 1, alarm group


1 is yellow

LabelGreen

0 - 18

G1L01_GREEN

Label string shown when LED 1, alarm group


1 is green

48
Technical Manual

Section 4
Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

4.4

LCD part for HMI function keys control module

4.4.1

Identification
Function description

IEC 61850
identification

LCD part for HMI Function Keys


Control module

4.4.2

IEC 60617
identification

FNKEYMD1 FNKEYMD5

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
-

Function block
^LEDCTL1

FNKEYMD1
^FKEYOUT1

IEC09000327 V1 EN

Figure 6:

FNKEYMD1 function block

Only the function block for the first button is shown above. There is a similar block for
every function button.

4.4.3

Signals
Table 12:

FNKEYMD1 Input signals

Name

Type

LEDCTL1

BOOLEAN

Table 13:

Type

FKEYOUT1

Table 14:
Name

Description
LED control input for function key

FNKEYMD1 Output signals

Name

4.4.4

Default

Description

BOOLEAN

Output controlled by function key

Settings
FNKEYMD1 Non group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Mode

Off
Toggle
Pulsed

Off

Output operation mode

PulseTime

0.001 - 60.000

0.001

0.200

Pulse time for output controlled by LCDFn1

LabelOn

0 - 18

LCD_FN1_ON

Label for LED on state

LabelOff

0 - 18

LCD_FN1_OFF

Label for LED off state

49
Technical Manual

Section 4
Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI

Table 15:

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

FNKEYTY1 Non group settings (basic)

Name

Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Type

Disabled
Menu shortcut
Control

Disabled

MenuShortcut

Main menu
Events
Measurements
Diagnostics
Disturbance
records
Clear
Single Line
Diagram

Main menu

Description
Function key type

50
Technical Manual

Section 4
Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

4.5

Operation principle

4.5.1

Local HMI

GUID-DA949D6F-070D-4D84-82AC-6791EF64F84F V1 EN

Figure 7:

Local human-machine interface

The LHMI of the IED contains the following elements:

Display (LCD)
Buttons
LED indicators
Communication port

The LHMI is used for setting, monitoring and controlling .

51
Technical Manual

Section 4
Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI
4.5.1.1

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Display
The LHMI includes a graphical monochrome display with a resolution of 320 x 240
pixels. The character size can vary.
The display view is divided into four basic areas.

GUID-97DA85DD-DB01-449B-AD1F-EEC75A955D25 V1 EN

Figure 8:

Display layout

1 Path
2 Content
3 Status
4 Scroll bar (appears when needed)

The path shows the current location in the menu structure. If the path is too long to
be shown, it is truncated from the beginning, and the truncation is indicated with
three dots.
The content area shows the menu content.
The status area shows the current IED time, the user that is currently logged in and
the object identification string which is settable via the LHMI or with PCM600.
If text, pictures or other items do not fit in the display, a vertical scroll bar appears
on the right. The text in content area is truncated from the beginning if it does not
fit in the display horizontally. Truncation is indicated with three dots.

52
Technical Manual

Section 4
Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

GUID-1ECF507D-322A-4B94-B09C-49F6A0085384 V1 EN

Figure 9:

Truncated path

The number before the function instance, for example 1:ETHFRNT, indicates the
instance number.
The function button panel shows on request what actions are possible with the function
buttons. Each function button has a LED indication that can be used as a feedback
signal for the function button control action. The LED is connected to the required
signal with PCM600.

GUID-11D6D98C-A2C9-4B2C-B5E0-FF7E308EC847 V1 EN

Figure 10:

Function button panel

The alarm LED panel shows on request the alarm text labels for the alarm LEDs.

53
Technical Manual

Section 4
Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

GUID-D20BB1F1-FDF7-49AD-9980-F91A38B2107D V1 EN

Figure 11:

Alarm LED panel

The function button and alarm LED panels are not visible at the same time. Each panel
is shown by pressing one of the function buttons or the Multipage button. Pressing the
ESC button clears the panel from the display. Both the panels have dynamic width that
depends on the label string length that the panel contains.

4.5.1.2

LEDs
The LHMI includes three protection indicators above the display: Normal, Pickup and
Trip.
There are also 15 matrix programmable alarm LEDs on front of the LHMI. Each LED
can indicate three states with the colors: green, yellow and red. The alarm texts related
to each three-color LED are divided into three pages.The 15 physical three-color LEDs
in one LED group can indicate 45 different signals. Altogether, 135 signals can be
indicated since there are three LED groups. The LEDs can be configured with PCM600
and the operation mode can be selected with the LHMI or PCM600.
There are two additional LEDs which are embedded into the control buttons
. They represent the status of the circuit breaker.

4.5.1.3

and

Keypad
The LHMI keypad contains push-buttons which are used to navigate in different views
or menus. The push-buttons are also used to acknowledge alarms, reset indications,
provide help and switch between local and remote control mode.
The keypad also contains programmable push-buttons that can be configured either as
menu shortcut or control buttons.

54
Technical Manual

Section 4
Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

GUID-23A12958-F9A5-4BF1-A31B-F69F56A046C7 V2 EN

Figure 12:

LHMI keypad

55
Technical Manual

Section 4
Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

GUID-4DE7B578-B9D1-41C6-A023-B5488EC1ECCE V1 EN

Figure 13:

LHMI keypad with object control, navigation and command pushbuttons and RJ-45 communication port

1...5 Function button


6

Close

Open

Escape

Left

10

Down

11

Up

12

Right

13

Key

14

Enter

15

Remote/Local

16

Uplink LED

17

Not in use

18

Multipage

19

Menu

20

Clear

56
Technical Manual

Section 4
Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

21

Help

22

Communication port

4.5.2

LED

4.5.2.1

Functionality
The function blocks LEDGEN and GRP1_LEDx, GRP2_LEDx and GRP3_LEDx
(x=1-15) controls and supplies information about the status of the indication LEDs.
The input and output signals of the function blocks are configured with PCM600. The
input signal for each LED is selected individually using SMT or ACT. Each LED is
controlled by a GRP1_LEDx function block, that controls the color and the operating
mode.
Each indication LED on local HMI can be set individually to operate in six different
sequences; two as follow type and four as latch type. Two of the latching sequence
types are intended to be used as a protection indication system, either in collecting or
restarting mode, with reset functionality. The other two are intended to be used as
signalling system in collecting mode with acknowledgment functionality.

4.5.2.2

Status LEDs
There are three status LEDs above the LCD in the front of the IED, green, yellow and
red.
The green LED has a fixed function, while the yellow and red LEDs are user
configured. The yellow LED can be used to indicate that a disturbance report is created
(steady) or that the IED is in test mode (flashing). The red LED can be used to indicate
a trip command.

4.5.2.3

Indication LEDs
Operating modes
Collecting mode

LEDs, which are used in collecting mode of operation, are accumulated


continuously until the unit is acknowledged manually. This mode is suitable when
the LEDs are used as a simplified alarm system.

Re-starting mode

57
Technical Manual

Section 4
Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

In the re-starting mode of operation each new start resets all previous active LEDs
and activates only those, which appear during one disturbance. Only LEDs defined
for re- starting mode with the latched sequence type 6 (LatchedReset-S) will
initiate a reset and a restart at a new disturbance. A disturbance is defined to end a
settable time after the reset of the activated input signals or when the maximum
time limit has elapsed.

Acknowledgment/reset

From local HMI

The active indications can be acknowledged/reset manually. Manual


acknowledgment and manual reset have the same meaning and is a common
signal for all the operating sequences and LEDs. The function is positive
edge triggered, not level triggered. The acknowledgment/reset is performed
via the

From function input

button and menus on the LHMI.

The active indications can also be acknowledged/reset from an input,


ACK_RST, to the function. This input can for example be configured to a
binary input operated from an external push button. The function is positive
edge triggered, not level triggered. This means that even if the button is
continuously pressed, the acknowledgment/reset only affects indications
active at the moment when the button is first pressed.

Automatic reset

The automatic reset can only be performed for indications defined for restarting mode with the latched sequence type 6 (LatchedReset-S). When the
automatic reset of the LEDs has been performed, still persisting indications
will be indicated with a steady light.

Operating sequence
The sequences can be of type Follow or Latched. For the Follow type the LED follow
the input signal completely. For the Latched type each LED latches to the
corresponding input signal until it is reset.
The figures below show the function of available sequences selectable for each LED
separately. For sequence 1 and 2 (Follow type), the acknowledgment/reset function is
not applicable. Sequence 3 and 4 (Latched type with acknowledgement) are only
working in collecting mode. Sequence 5 is working according to Latched type and
collecting mode while sequence 6 is working according to Latched type and re-starting

58
Technical Manual

Section 4
Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

mode. The letters S and F in the sequence names have the meaning S = Steady and F =
Flash.
At the activation of the input signal, the indication obtains corresponding color
corresponding to the activated input and operates according to the selected sequence
diagrams below.
In the sequence diagrams the LEDs have the following characteristics:
= No indication
G=

Green

= Steady light
Y=

= Flash
R=

Yellow

Red

IEC09000311.vsd
IEC09000311 V1 EN

Figure 14:

Symbols used in the sequence diagrams

Sequence 1 (Follow-S)
This sequence follows all the time, with a steady light, the corresponding input signals.
It does not react on acknowledgment or reset. Every LED is independent of the other
LEDs in its operation.
Activating
signal

LED
IEC01000228_2_en.vsd
IEC01000228 V2 EN

Figure 15:

Operating sequence 1 (Follow-S)

If inputs for two or more colors are active at the same time to one LED the priority is
as described above. An example of the operation when two colors are activated in
parallel is shown in Figure 16.

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Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Activating
signal GREEN
Activating
signal RED

LED

IEC09000312_1_en.vsd
IEC09000312 V1 EN

Figure 16:

Operating sequence 1, two colors

Sequence 2 (Follow-F)
This sequence is the same as sequence 1, Follow-S, but the LEDs are flashing instead
of showing steady light.
Sequence 3 (LatchedAck-F-S)
This sequence has a latched function and works in collecting mode. Every LED is
independent of the other LEDs in its operation. At the activation of the input signal, the
indication starts flashing. After acknowledgment the indication disappears if the signal
is not present any more. If the signal is still present after acknowledgment it gets a
steady light.
Activating
signal

LED

Acknow.
en01000231.vsd
IEC01000231 V1 EN

Figure 17:

Operating sequence 3 (LatchedAck-F-S)

When an acknowledgment is performed, all indications that appear before the


indication with higher priority has been reset, will be acknowledged, independent of if
the low priority indication appeared before or after acknowledgment. In Figure 18 it is
shown the sequence when a signal of lower priority becomes activated after
acknowledgment has been performed on a higher priority signal. The low priority
signal will be shown as acknowledged when the high priority signal resets.

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Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Activating
signal GREEN
Activating
signal RED

LED

Acknow
IEC09000313_1_en.vsd
IEC09000313 V1 EN

Figure 18:

Operating sequence 3, 2 colors involved

If all three signals are activated the order of priority is still maintained.
Acknowledgment of indications with higher priority will acknowledge also low
priority indications, which are not visible according to Figure 19.
Activating
signal GREEN
Activating
signal YELLOW
Activating
signal RED

LED

Acknow.
IEC09000314-1-en.vsd
IEC09000314 V1 EN

Figure 19:

Operating sequence 3, three colors involved, alternative 1

If an indication with higher priority appears after acknowledgment of a lower priority


indication the high priority indication will be shown as not acknowledged according to
Figure 20.

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Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Activating
signal GREEN
Activating
signal YELLOW
Activating
signal RED

LED

Acknow.
IEC09000315-1-en.vsd
IEC09000315 V1 EN

Figure 20:

Operating sequence 3, three colors involved, alternative 2

Sequence 4 (LatchedAck-S-F)
This sequence has the same functionality as sequence 3, but steady and flashing light
have been alternated.
Sequence 5 (LatchedColl-S)
This sequence has a latched function and works in collecting mode. At the activation of
the input signal, the indication will light up with a steady light. The difference to
sequence 3 and 4 is that indications that are still activated will not be affected by the
reset that is, immediately after the positive edge of the reset has been executed a new
reading and storing of active signals is performed. Every LED is independent of the
other LEDs in its operation.
Activating
signal

LED

Reset
IEC01000235_2_en.vsd
IEC01000235 V2 EN

Figure 21:

Operating sequence 5 (LatchedColl-S)

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Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

That means if an indication with higher priority has reset while an indication with
lower priority still is active at the time of reset, the LED will change color according to
Figure 22.
Activating
signal GREEN
Activating
signal RED

LED

Reset
IEC09000316_1_en.vsd
IEC09000316 V1 EN

Figure 22:

Operating sequence 5, two colors

Sequence 6 (LatchedReset-S)
In this mode all activated LEDs, which are set to sequence 6 (LatchedReset-S), are
automatically reset at a new disturbance when activating any input signal for other
LEDs set to sequence 6 (LatchedReset-S). Also in this case indications that are still
activated will not be affected by manual reset, that is, immediately after the positive
edge of that the manual reset has been executed a new reading and storing of active
signals is performed. LEDs set for sequence 6 are completely independent in its
operation of LEDs set for other sequences.
Timing diagram for sequence 6
Figure 23 shows the timing diagram for two indications within one disturbance.

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Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Disturbance
tRestart

Activating
signal 1
Activating
signal 2

LED 1

LED 2
Automatic
reset
Manual
reset

IEC01000239_2-en.vsd

IEC01000239 V2 EN

Figure 23:

Operating sequence 6 (LatchedReset-S), two indications within same


disturbance

Figure 24 shows the timing diagram for a new indication after tRestart time has elapsed.

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Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Disturbance
tRestart

Disturbance
tRestart

Activating
signal 1
Activating
signal 2

LED 1

LED 2
Automatic
reset
Manual
reset
IEC01000240_2_en.vsd
IEC01000240 V2 EN

Figure 24:

Operating sequence 6 (LatchedReset-S), two different disturbances

Figure 25 shows the timing diagram when a new indication appears after the first one
has reset but before tRestart has elapsed.

65
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Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Disturbance
tRestart
Activating
signal 1
Activating
signal 2

LED 1

LED 2
Automatic
reset
Manual
reset
IEC01000241_2_en.vsd
IEC01000241 V2 EN

Figure 25:

Operating sequence 6 (LatchedReset-S), two indications within same


disturbance but with reset of activating signal between

Figure 26 shows the timing diagram for manual reset.

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Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Disturbance
tRestart
Activating
signal 1
Activating
signal 2

LED 1

LED 2
Automatic
reset
Manual
reset
IEC01000242_2_en.vsd
IEC01000242 V2 EN

Figure 26:

Operating sequence 6 (LatchedReset-S), manual reset

4.5.3

Function keys

4.5.3.1

Functionality
Local Human-Machine-Interface (LHMI) has five function buttons, directly to the left
of the LCD, that can be configured either as menu shortcut or control buttons. Each
button has an indication LED that can be configured in the application configuration.
When used as a menu shortcut, a function button provides a fast way to navigate
between default nodes in the menu tree. When used as a control, the button can control
a binary signal.

4.5.3.2

Operation principle
Each output on the FNKEYMD1 - FNKEYMD5 function blocks can be controlled
from the LHMI function keys. By pressing a function button on the LHMI, the output
status of the actual function block will change. These binary outputs can in turn be
used to control other function blocks, for example, switch control blocks, binary I/O
outputs etc.

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Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

FNKEYMD1 - FNKEYMD5 function block also has a number of settings and


parameters that control the behavior of the function block. These settings and
parameters are normally set using the PST.

Operating sequence

The operation mode is set individually for each output, either OFF, TOGGLE or
PULSED.
Mode 0 (OFF)
This mode always gives the output the value 0 (FALSE). Changes on the IO attribute
are ignored.
Input value

Output value
IEC09000330-1-en.vsd
IEC09000330 V1 EN

Figure 27:

Sequence diagram for Mode 0

Mode 1 (TOGGLE)
In this mode the output toggles each time the function block detects that the input has
been written. Note that the input attribute is reset each time the function block
executes. The function block execution is marked with a dotted line below.
Input value

Output value
IEC09000331_1_en.vsd
IEC09000331 V1 EN

Figure 28:

Sequence diagram for Mode 1

Mode 2 (PULSED)
In this mode the output will be high for as long as the setting pulse time. After this time
the output will go back to 0. The input attribute is reset when the function block detects
it being high and there is no output pulse.
Note that the third positive edge on the input attribute does not cause a pulse, since the
edge was applied during pulse output. A new pulse can only begin when the output is
zero; else the trigger edge is lost.
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Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Input value
Output value

tpulse

tpulse

IEC09000332_1_en.vsd
IEC09000332 V1 EN

Figure 29:

Sequence diagram for Mode 2

Input function

All inputs work the same way: When the LHMI is configured so that a certain function
button is of type CONTROL, then the corresponding input on this function block
becomes active, and will light the yellow function button LED when high. This
functionality is active even if the function block operation setting is set to off.
There is an exception for the optional extension EXT1 function keys 7 and 8, since
they are tri-color (they can be red, yellow or green). Each of these LEDs are controlled
by three inputs, which are prioritized in the following order: Red - Yellow - Green
RED

INPUT
YELLOW

GREEN

OUTPUT
Function key LED color

0/1

0/1

red

0/1

yellow

green

off

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70

Section 5
Differential protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Section 5

Differential protection

5.1

Transformer differential protection

5.1.1

Functionality
The Transformer differential protection, two-winding (T2WPDIF, 87T) and
Transformer differential protection, three-winding (T3WPDIF, 87T) are provided with
internal CT ratio matching and phase shift compensation. In addition, zero sequence
elimination is also provided.
The function can be provided with two or three three-phase sets of current inputs. All
current inputs are provided with percentage bias restraint features, making the IED
suitable for two- or three-winding transformer arrangements.
Two-winding applications

352

152

xx05000048_ansi.vsd
ANSI05000048 V1 EN

Three-winding applications
Table continues on next page

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Differential protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

452

152

352

xx05000052_ansi.vsd
ANSI05000052 V1 EN

152

352

xx05000049_ansi.vsd
ANSI05000049 V1 EN

Figure 30:

CT group
arrangement for
differential protection
and other protections

The available settings of this function allow the REG650 to cover various differential
protection applications such as power transformers and auto-transformers with or
without load tap changer as well as for shunt reactors including local feeders within the
station. An adaptive stabilizing feature is included to avoid misoperations during for
heavy through-faults.
Harmonic restraint is included for inrush currents as well as for overexcitation
conditions. Adaptive harmonic restraint is also included for system recovery inrush and
CT saturation during external faults. A high set unrestrained differential current
protection element is included for a very high speed tripping at a high internal fault
currents.
An innovative sensitive differential protection feature, based on the theory of
symmetrical components, offers the best possible coverage for power transformer
winding turn-to-turn faults.

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Differential protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

5.1.2

Transformer differential protection T3WPDIF (87T)

5.1.2.1

Identification
Function description

IEC 61850
identification

Transformer differential protection,


three-winding

IEC 60617
identification

T3WPDIF

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
87T

3Id/I
SYMBOL-BB V1 EN

5.1.2.2

Function block
T3WPDIF (87T)
I3PW1CT1*
TRIP
I3PW2CT1*
TRIPRES
I3PW3CT1*
TRIPUNRE
BLOCK
TRNSUNR
TRNSSENS
PICKUP
PU_A
PU_B
PU_C
BLK2H
BLK5H
BLKWAV
IDALARM
IDMAG_A
IDMAG_B
IDMAG_C
IBIAS
IDMAG_NS
ANSI09000269-1-en.vsd
ANSI09000269 V1 EN

Figure 31:

5.1.2.3

T3WPDIF (87T) function block

Signals
Table 16:
Name

T3WPDIF (87T) Input signals


Type

Default

Description

I3PW1CT1

GROUP
SIGNAL

Three phase current connection winding 1 (W1) CT1

I3PW2CT1

GROUP
SIGNAL

Three phase current connection winding 2 (W2) CT1

I3PW3CT1

GROUP
SIGNAL

Three phase current connection winding 3 (W3) CT1

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

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Differential protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Table 17:

T3WPDIF (87T) Output signals

Name

5.1.2.4
Table 18:
Name

Type

Description

TRIP

BOOLEAN

Common trip signal

TRIPRES

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from restrained differential protection

TRIPUNRE

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from unrestrained differential protection

TRNSUNR

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from unrestrained negative sequence


differential protection

TRNSSENS

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from sensitive negative sequence


differential protection

PICKUP

BOOLEAN

General pickup signal

PU_A

BOOLEAN

Pickup signal from phase A

PU_B

BOOLEAN

Pickup signal from phase B

PU_C

BOOLEAN

Pickup signal from phase C

BLK2H

BOOLEAN

General second harmonic block signal

BLK5H

BOOLEAN

General fifth harmonic block signal

BLKWAV

BOOLEAN

General block signal from waveform criteria

IDALARM

BOOLEAN

General alarm for sustained differential currents

IDMAG_A

REAL

Magnitude of fundamental frequency differential


current, phase A

IDMAG_B

REAL

Magnitude of fundamental frequency differential


current, phase B

IDMAG_C

REAL

Magnitude of fundamental frequency differential


current, phase C

IBIAS

REAL

Magnitude of the bias current, which is common to all


phases

IDMAG_NS

REAL

Magnitude of the negative sequence differential current

Settings
T3WPDIF (87T) Group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Operation Disable / Enable

IdMin

0.10 - 0.60

IB

0.01

0.30

Section 1 sensitivity current, usually W1


current

EndSection1

0.20 - 1.50

IB

0.01

1.25

End of section 1, multiple of W1 rated current

EndSection2

1.00 - 10.00

IB

0.01

3.00

End of section 2, multiple of W1 rated current

SlopeSection2

10.0 - 50.0

0.1

40.0

Slope in section 2 of operate-restrain


characteristics

SlopeSection3

30.0 - 100.0

0.1

80.0

Slope in section 3 of operate-restrain


characteristics

Table continues on next page


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Section 5
Differential protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Name

Unit

Step

Default

IdUnre

1.00 - 50.00

IB

0.01

10.00

Unrestrained protection limit, multiple of W1


rated current

I2/I1Ratio

5.0 - 100.0

0.1

15.0

Maximum ratio of 2nd harmonic to


fundamental harmonic differential current

I5/I1Ratio

5.0 - 100.0

0.1

25.0

Maximum ratio of 5th harmonic to


fundamental harmonic differential current

CrossBlockEn

Disabled
Enabled

Enabled

Operation Off/On for cross-block logic


between phases

NegSeqDiffEn

Disabled
Enabled

Enabled

Operation Off/On for negative sequence


differential function

IMinNegSeq

0.02 - 0.20

IB

0.01

0.04

Minimum negative sequence current

NegSeqROA

30.0 - 90.0

Deg

0.1

60.0

Operate angle for internal/external negative


sequence fault discriminator

SOTFMode

Disabled
Enabled

Enabled

Operation mode for switch onto fault function

IDiffAlarm

0.05 - 1.00

IB

0.01

0.20

Differential current alarm, multiple of base


current, usually W1 current

tAlarmDelay

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

10.000

Time delay for differential current alarm

Table 19:

Values (Range)

Description

T3WPDIF (87T) Non group settings (basic)

Name

Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

GlobalBaseSelW1

1-6

Selection of one of the Global Base Value


groups, winding 1

GlobalBaseSelW2

1-6

Selection of one of the Global Base Value


groups, winding 2

GlobalBaseSelW3

1-6

Selection of one of the Global Base Value


groups, winding 3

ConnectTypeW1

WYE (Y)
Delta (D)

WYE (Y)

Connection type of winding 1: Y-wye or D-delta

ConnectTypeW2

WYE (Y)
Delta (D)

WYE (Y)

Connection type of winding 2: Y-wye or D-delta

ConnectTypeW3

WYE (Y)
Delta (D)

Delta (D)

Connection type of winding 3: Y-wye or D-delta

ClockNumberW2

0 [0 deg]
1 [30 deg lag]
2 [60 deg lag]
3 [90 deg lag]
4 [120 deg lag]
5 [150 deg lag]
6 [180 deg]
7 [150 deg lead]
8 [120 deg lead]
9 [90 deg lead]
10 [60 deg lead]
11 [30 deg lead]

0 [0 deg]

Phase displacement between W2 & W1=HV


winding, hour notation

Table continues on next page

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Differential protection
Name

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

ClockNumberW3

0 [0 deg]
1 [30 deg lag]
2 [60 deg lag]
3 [90 deg lag]
4 [120 deg lag]
5 [150 deg lag]
6 [180 deg]
7 [150 deg lead]
8 [120 deg lead]
9 [90 deg lead]
10 [60 deg lead]
11 [30 deg lead]

5 [150 deg lag]

Phase displacement between W3 & W1=HV


winding, hour notation

ZSCurrSubtrW1

Disabled
Enabled

Enabled

Enable zero sequence subtraction for W1


side, Off/On

ZSCurrSubtrW2

Disabled
Enabled

Enabled

Enable zero sequence subtraction for W2


side, Off/On

ZSCurrSubtrW3

Disabled
Enabled

Enabled

Enable zero sequence subtraction for W3


side, Off/On

5.1.2.5

Monitored data
Table 20:
Name

5.1.3

T3WPDIF (87T) Monitored data


Type

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

IDMAG_A

REAL

Magnitude of fundamental
frequency differential current,
phase A

IDMAG_B

REAL

Magnitude of fundamental
frequency differential current,
phase B

IDMAG_C

REAL

Magnitude of fundamental
frequency differential current,
phase C

IBIAS

REAL

Magnitude of the bias current,


which is common to all phases

IDMAG_NS

REAL

Magnitude of the negative


sequence differential current

Operation principle
The task of the power transformer differential protection is to determine whether a
fault is within the protected zone, or outside the protected zone. The protected zone is
delimited by the position of current transformers (see figure 32), and in principle can
include more objects than just transformer. If the fault is found to be internal, the faulty
power transformer must be quickly disconnected.

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Differential protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

The main CTs are normally supposed to be Wye connected. The main CTs can be
grounded in anyway (that is, either "ToObject" or "FromObject"). However internally
the differential function will always use reference directions towards the protected
transformer as shown in figure 32. Thus the IED will always internally measure the
currents on all sides of the power transformer with the same reference direction
towards the power transformer windings as shown in figure 32.
IW1

E1S1

IW2

Z1S1

Z1S2

IW1

IW2

E1S2

IED

en05000186_ansi.vsd
ANSI05000186 V1 EN

Figure 32:

Typical CT location and definition of positive current direction

Even in a healthy power transformer, the currents are generally not equal when they
flow through the power transformer, due to the ratio of the number of turns of the
windings and the connection group of the protected transformer. Therefore the
differential protection must first correlate all currents to each other before any
calculation can be performed.
In numerical differential protections this correlation and comparison is performed
mathematically. First, compensation for the protected transformer transformation ratio
and connection group is made, and only then the currents are compared phase-wise.
This makes the external auxiliary (that is, interposing) current transformers
unnecessary. Conversion of all currents to the common reference side of the power
transformer is performed by pre-programmed coefficient matrices, which depends on
the protected power transformer transformation ratio and connection group. Once the
power transformer phase shift, rated currents and voltages has been entered by the user,
the differential protection is capable to calculate off-line matrix coefficients required in
order to perform the on-line current comparison by means of a fixed equation.

5.1.3.1

Function calculation principles


To make a differential IED as sensitive and stable as possible, restrained differential
characteristic have been developed and are now adopted as the general practice in the
protection of power transformers. The protection should be provided with a
proportional bias, which makes the protection operate for a certain percentage
differential current related to the current through the transformer. This stabilizes the
77

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Section 5
Differential protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

protection under through fault conditions while still permitting the system to have good
basic sensitivity. The following chapters explain how these quantities are calculated.

5.1.3.2

Fundamental frequency differential currents


The fundamental frequency differential current is a vectorial sum (sum of fundamental
frequency phasors) of the individual phase currents from different side of the protected
power transformer.
Before any differential current can be calculated, the power transformer phase shift,
and its transformation ratio, must be allowed for. Conversion of all currents to a
common reference is performed in two steps:

all current phasors are phase-shifted to (referred to) the phase-reference side,
(whenever possible a first winding with wye connection)
all currents magnitudes are always referred to the first winding of the power
transformer (typically transformer high-voltage side)

The two steps of conversion are made simultaneously on-line by the pre-programmed
coefficient matrices, as shown in equation 1 for a two-winding power transformer, and
in equation 2 for a three-winding power transformer.
These are internal compensation within the differential function. The
protected power transformer data are always entered as they are given
on the nameplate. Differential function will by it self correlate
nameplate data and select proper reference windings.

IDA
I _ A _ W 1
I _ A _ W 2
IDB = A I _ B _ W 1 + Vn _ W 2 B I _ B _ W 2

Vn _ W 1

IDC
I _ C _ W 1
I _ C _ W 2
1

EQUATION1879 V1 EN

(Equation 1)

where:
1.

is Differential Currents

2.

is Differential current contribution from W1 side

3.

is Differential current contribution from W2 side

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Differential protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

IDA
I _ A _ W 1
I _ A _ W 2
IL _ A _ W 3
IDB = A I _ B _ W 1 + Vn _ W 2 B I _ B _ W 2 + Vn _ W 3 C IL _ B _ W 3

Vn _ W 1

Vn _ W 1

IDC
I _ C _ W 1
I _ C _ W 2
IL _ C _ W 3
1

EQUATION1882-ANSI V1 EN

(Equation 2)

where:
1.

is Differential Currents

2.

is Differential current contribution from W1 side

3.

is Differential current contribution from W2 side

4.

is Differential current contribution from W3 side

and where, for equation 1 and equation 2:


ID_A

is the fundamental frequency differential current in phaseA (in W1 side primary amperes)

ID_B

is the fundamental frequency differential current in phase B (in W1 side primary amperes)

ID_C

is the fundamental frequency differential current in phaseC (in W1 side primary amperes)

I_A_W1

is the fundamental frequency phase current in phaseA on W1 side

I_B_W1

is the fundamental frequency phase current in phaseB on W1 side

I_C_W1

is the fundamental frequency phase current in phaseC on W1 side

I_A_W2

is the fundamental frequency phase current in phaseA on W2 side

I_B_W2

is the fundamental frequency phase current in phase B on W2 side

I_C_W2

is the fundamental frequency phase current in phase


C on W2 side

I_A_W3

is the fundamental frequency phase current in phase A on W3 side

I_B_W3

is the fundamental frequency phase current in phaseB on W3 side

I_C_W3

is the fundamental frequency phase current in phaseC on W3 side

Vn_W1

is transformer rated phase-to-phase voltage on W1 side (setting parameter)

Vn_W2

is transformer rated phase-to-phase voltage on W2 side (setting parameter)

Vn_W3

is transformer rated phase-to-phase voltage on W3 side (setting parameter)

A, B & C

are three by three matrices with numerical coefficients

Values of the matrix A, B & C coefficients depend on:


1.

Power transformer winding connection type, such as wye (Y/y) or delta (D/d)

Note! The capitalized letter Y or D is used to represent the high voltage


(HV) side of the transformer and the smaller letter y or d to represent lower
voltage(LV) level. When neutral bushing of a wye winding is brought out,

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Differential protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

the same may be represented as YN or yn depending on whether the winding


is HV or LV.
2.

3.

Transformer phase shift such as Yd1, Dy11, YNautod5, Yy0d5 and so on, which
introduce phase displacement between individual windings currents in multiples of
30. Since the HV and LV winding voltages are in phase for wye/wye or Delta/
Delta transformers, the same is represented in IEC as represented as Dd0, Yy0.
Polarity reversal in one of the windings would give 180 degree phase displacement
which can be represented by clock position 6. Such transformers can thus be
represented as Dd6, Yy6. It is also possible to rename the phases ABC to BCA,
giving 120 or 240 degree displacements, represented by clock positions 4 & 8 .
Polarity reversals in one of the windings would provide clock positions 10 & 2.
These can all be represented for example: Yy0, Yy2, Yy4, Dd0, Dd6. ANSI wye/
Delta or Delta/wye transformers have the HV winding leading the LV winding by
30degrees. This can be represented by Yd1 or Dy1. Again considering polarity
reversals and renaming of phases gives rise to other clock positions 4,7,5,11
Settings for elimination of zero sequence currents for individual windings.

When the end user enters all these parameters, transformer differential function
automatically calculates off-line the matrix coefficients. During this calculations the
following rules are used:
For the phase reference, the first winding with set wye (Y) connection is always used.
For example, if the power transformer is a Yd1 power transformer, the HV winding
(Y) is taken as the phase reference winding. If the power transformer is a Dy1, then the
LV winding (y) is taken for the phase reference. If there is no wye connected winding,
such as in Dd0 type of power transformers, then the HV delta winding (D) is
automatically chosen as the phase reference winding.
The fundamental frequency differential currents are in general composed of currents of
all sequences, that is, the positive-, the negative-, and the zero-sequence currents. If the
zero-sequence currents are eliminated (see section "Elimination of zero sequence
currents"), then the differential currents can consist only of the positive-, and the negativesequence currents. When the zero-sequence current is subtracted on one power
transformer side, then it is subtracted from each individual phase current.
As it can be seen from equation 1 and equation 2 the first entered winding (W1) is
always taken for ampere level reference (current magnitudes from all other sides are
always transferred to W1 side). In other words, within the differential protection
function, all differential currents and bias current are always expressed in HV side
primary Amperes.
It can be shown that the values of the matrix A, B & C coefficients (see equation 1 and
equation 2) can be in advanced pre-calculated depending on the relative phase shift
between the reference winding and other power transformer windings.

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Differential protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Table 21 summarizes the values of the matrices for all standard phase shifts between
windings.
Table 21:

Matrices for differential current calculation


Matrix with Zero Sequence
Reduction set to On

Matrix for Reference Winding

2 -1 -1
1
-1 2 -1

3
-1 -1 2

Matrix for winding with 30


lagging

1 -1 0
0 1 -1

3
-1 0 1

1
1
1
3
-2

-2
1
1

-2

1
(Equation 6)

0 -1 1
1 0 -1

3
-1 1 0

-1 -1 2
1
2 -1 -1

3
-1 2 -1
-1 0 1
1 -1 0

3
0 1 -1

EQUATION1235 V1 EN

Matrix for winding which is in


opposite phase

-2
1
1
3
1

(Equation 7)

Not applicable. Matrix on the left


used.

EQUATION1234 V1 EN

(Equation 10)

Not applicable. Matrix on the left


used.

(Equation 11)

-2

-2

EQUATION1236 V1 EN

EQUATION1231 V1 EN

0 0 1
1 0 0

0 1 0
(Equation 9)

EQUATION1233 V1 EN

Matrix for winding with 150


lagging

Not applicable. Matrix on the left


used.

(Equation 8)

EQUATION1232 V1 EN

Matrix for winding with 120


lagging

(Equation 4)

0 -1 0
0 0 -1

-1 0 0

EQUATION1230 V1 EN

Matrix for winding with 90


lagging

EQUATION1228 V1 EN

(Equation 5)

EQUATION1229 V1 EN

Matrix for winding with 60


lagging

1 0 0
0 1 0

0 0 1
(Equation 3)

EQUATION1227 V1 EN

Matrix with Zero Sequence


Reduction set to Off

(Equation 12)

-1 0 0
0 -1 0

0 0 -1
EQUATION1237 V1 EN

(Equation 13)

Table continues on next page

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Differential protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Matrix with Zero Sequence


Reduction set to On
Matrix for winding with 150
leading

-1 1 0
0 -1 1

3
1 0 -1

EQUATION1238 V1 EN

Matrix for winding with 120


leading

Matrix for winding with 90


leading

Matrix for winding with 60


leading

1
1
-2
3
1

1
1
-2

EQUATION1242 V1 EN

Matrix for winding with 30


leading

(Equation 15)

0 1 -1
1
-1 0 1

3
1 -1 0
EQUATION1241 V1 EN

0 1 0
0 0 1

1 0 0
EQUATION1240 V1 EN

(Equation 16)

Not applicable. Matrix on the left


used.

(Equation 17)

-2
1

1
(Equation 18)

1 0 -1
-1 1 0

3
0 -1 1

EQUATION1244 V1 EN

Not applicable. Matrix on the left


used.

(Equation 14)

-1 2 -1
1
-1 -1 2

3
2 -1 -1
EQUATION1239 V1 EN

Matrix with Zero Sequence


Reduction set to Off

0 0 -1
-1 0 0

0 -1 0
EQUATION1243 V1 EN

(Equation 19)

Not applicable. Matrix on the left


used.

(Equation 20)

By using this table complete equation for calculation of fundamental frequency


differential currents for two winding power transformer with YNd5 phase shift and
enabled zero sequence current reduction on HV side will be derived. From the given
power transformer phase shift the following is possible to be concluded:
1.
2.

HV winding will be used as reference winding and zero sequence currents shall be
subtracted on that side
LV winding is lagging for 150

With help of table 21, the following matrix equation can be written for this power
transformer:

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1MRK 502 034-UUS -

ID _ A
2 -1 -1 I _ A _ W 1
-1 0 1 I _ A _ W 2
ID _ B = 1 -1 2 -1 I _ B _ W 1 + Vr _ W 2 1 1 -1 0 I _ B _ W 2

3

Vr _ W 1 3

-1 -1 2 I _ C _ W 1
ID _ C
0 1 -1 I _ C _ W 2
EQUATION1810-ANSI V1 EN

(Equation 21)

where:
ID_A

is the fundamental frequency differential current in phase A (in W1 side primary amperes)

ID_B

is the fundamental frequency differential current in phase B (in W1 side primary amperes)

ID_C

is the fundamental frequency differential current in phase C (in W1 side primary amperes)

I_A_W1

is the fundamental frequency phase current in phase A on W1 side

I_B_W1

is the fundamental frequency phase current in phase B on W1 side

I_C_W1

is the fundamental frequency phase current in phaseC on W1 side

I_A_W2

is the fundamental frequency phase current in phase A on W2 side

I_B_W2

is the fundamental frequency phase current in phase B on W2 side

I_C_W2

is the fundamental frequency phase current in phaseC on W2 side

Vn_W1

is transformer rated phase-to-phase voltage on W1 side (setting parameter)

Vn_W2

is transformer rated phase-to-phase voltage on W2 side (setting parameter)

As marked in equation 1 and equation 2, the first term on the right hand side of the
equation, represents the total contribution from the individual phase currents from W1
side to the fundamental frequency differential currents compensated for eventual power
transformer phase shift. The second term on the right hand side of the equation,
represents the total contribution from the individual phase currents from W2 side to the
fundamental frequency differential currents compensated for eventual power
transformer phase shift and transferred to the power transformer W1 side. The third
term on the right hand side of the equation, represents the total contribution from the
individual phase currents from W3 side to the fundamental frequency differential
currents compensated for eventual power transformer phase shift and transferred to the
power transformer W1 side. These current contributions are important, because they
are used for calculation of common bias current.
The fundamental frequency differential currents are the "usual" differential currents,
the magnitudes of which are applied in a phase-wise manner to the operate - restrain
characteristic of the differential protection. The magnitudes of the differential currents
can be read as service values from the function and they are available as outputs
IDMAG_A, IDMAG_B, IDMAG_C from the differential protection function block.
Thus they can be connected to the disturbance recorder and automatically recorded
during any external or internal fault condition.

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Differential protection
5.1.3.3

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Differential current alarm


Fundamental frequency differential current level is monitored all the time within the
differential function. As soon as all three fundamental frequency differential currents
are set, a threshold defined by setting parameter IDiffAlarm a delay on pickup timer is
started. When the pre-set time, defined by setting parameter tAlarmDelay, has expired
the differential current alarm is generated and output signal IDALARM is set to logical
value one.

5.1.3.4

Bias current
The bias current is calculated as the highest current amongst individual winding current
contributions to the total fundamental frequency differential currents. All individual
winding current contributions are already referred to the power transformer winding
one side (power transformer HV winding) and therefore they can be compared
regarding their magnitudes. There are six (or nine in case of three-winding
transformer) contributions to the total fundamental differential currents, which are the
candidates for the common bias current. The highest individual current contribution is
taken as a common bias (restrain) current for all three phases. This "maximum
principle" makes the differential protection more secure, with less risk to operate for
external faults and in the same time brings more meaning to the breakpoint settings of
the operate - restrain characteristic.
The magnitudes of the common bias (restrain) current expressed in the HV side
Amperes can be read as service values from the function. At the same time it is
available as outputs IBIAS from the differential protection function block. Thus, it can
be connected to the disturbance recorder and automatically recorded during any
external or internal fault condition.

5.1.3.5

Elimination of zero sequence currents


The zero sequence currents can be explicitly eliminated from the differential currents
and common bias current calculation by special, dedicated parameter settings, which
are available for every individual winding.
Elimination of the zero sequence component of current is necessary whenever:

the protected power transformer cannot transform the zero sequence currents to the
other side, for any reason.
the zero sequence currents can only flow on one side of the protected power
transformer.

In most cases, power transformers do not properly transform the zero sequence current
to the other side. A typical example is a power transformer of the wye-delta type, for

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Section 5
Differential protection

example YNd1. Transformers of this type do not transform the zero sequence
quantities, but zero sequence currents can flow in the grounded wye connected
winding. In such cases, an external ground-fault on the wye-side causes the zero
sequence currents to flow on the wye-side of the power transformer, but not on the
other side. This results in false differential currents - consisting exclusively of the zero
sequence currents. If high enough, these false differential currents can cause an
unwanted disconnection of the healthy power transformer. They must therefore be
subtracted from the fundamental frequency differential currents if an unwanted trip is
to be avoided.
For delta windings this feature shall be enabled only if an grounding transformer exist
within differential zone on the delta side of the protected power transformer.
Removing the zero sequence current from the differential currents decreases to some
extent sensitivity of the differential protection for internal ground-faults. In order to
counteract this effect to some degree, the zero sequence currents are subtracted not
only from the three fundamental frequency differential currents, but automatically from
the bias current as well.

5.1.3.6

Restrained, and unrestrained limits of the differential protection


Power transformer differential protection function uses two limits, to which actual
magnitudes of the three fundamental frequency differential currents are compared at
each execution of the function.
The unrestrained (that is, non-stabilized, "instantaneous") part of the differential
protection is used for very high differential currents, where it should be beyond any
doubt, that the fault is internal. This settable limit is constant (that is, not proportional
to the bias current). Neither harmonic, nor any other restrain is applied to this limit,
which is therefore allowed to trip power transformer instantaneously.
The restrained (that is, stabilized) part of the differential protection compares the
calculated fundamental differential (that is, operating) currents, and the bias (that is,
restrain) current, by applying them to the operate - restrain characteristic. Practically,
the magnitudes of the individual fundamental frequency differential currents are
compared with an adaptive limit. This limit is adaptive because it is dependent on the
bias (that is, restrain) current magnitude. This limit is called the operate - restrain
characteristic. It is represented by a double-slope, double-breakpoint characteristic, as
shown in figure 33. The restrained characteristic is determined by the following 5 settings:

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Differential protection

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

IdMin (Sensitivity in section 1, multiple of trans. HV side rated current set under
the parameter IBase in GlobalbaseSelW1)
EndSection1 (End of section 1, as multiple of transformer HV side rated current
set under the parameter IBase in GlobalbaseSelW1)
EndSection2 (End of section 2, as multiple of transformer HV side rated current
set under the parameter IBase in GlobalbaseSelW1)
SlopeSection2 (Slope in section 2, as multiple of transformer HV side rated current
set under the parameter IBase in GlobalbaseSelW1)
SlopeSection3 (Slope in section 2, as multiple of transformer HV side rated current
set under the parameter IBase in GlobalbaseSelW1)

The restrained characteristic in figure 33 is defined by the settings:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

IdMin
EndSection1
EndSection2
SlopeSection2
SlopeSection3

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1MRK 502 034-UUS -

operate current
[ times IBase ]

Operate

unconditionally
UnrestrainedLimit

Operate

conditionally

2
Section 1

Section 2

Section 3
SlopeSection3

1
IdMin
SlopeSection2

Restrain

0
0

EndSection1
EndSection2

restrain current
[ times IBase ]

en05000187-2.vsd
IEC05000187 V2 EN

Figure 33:

Description of the restrained, and the unrestrained operate


characteristics

where:

slope = D Ioperate 100%


D Irestrain
EQUATION1246 V1 EN

The operate - restrain characteristic is tailor-made and can be designed freely by the
user after his needs. The default characteristic is recommended to be used. It gives
good results in a majority of applications. The operate - restrain characteristic has in
principle three sections with a section-wise proportionality of the operate value to the
bias (restrain) current. The reset ratio is in all parts of the characteristic is equal to 0.95.
Section 1: This is the most sensitive part on the characteristic. In section 1, normal
currents flow through the protected circuit and its current transformers, and risk for
higher false differential currents is relatively low. Un-compensated on-load tap-

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Differential protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

changer is a typical reason for existence of the false differential currents in this section.
Slope in section 1 is always zero percent.
Section 2: In section 2, a certain minor slope is introduced which is supposed to cope
with false differential currents proportional to higher than normal currents through the
current transformers.
Section 3: The more pronounced slope in section 3 is designed to result in a higher
tolerance to substantial current transformer saturation at high through-fault currents,
which may be expected in this section.
The operate - restrain characteristic should be designed so that it can be expected that:

5.1.3.7

for internal faults, the operate (differential) currents are always safely, that is, with
a good margin, above the operate - restrain characteristic
for external faults, the false (spurious) operate currents are safely, that is, with a
good margin, below the operate - restrain characteristic

Fundamental frequency negative sequence differential currents


Existence of relatively high negative sequence currents is in itself a proof of a
disturbance on the power system, possibly a fault in the protected power transformer.
The negative-sequence currents are measurable indications of abnormal conditions,
similar to the zero sequence currents. One of the several advantages of the negative
sequence currents compared to the zero sequence currents is however that they provide
coverage for phase-to-phase and power transformer turn-to-turn faults as well, not only
for ground-faults. Theoretically the negative sequence currents do not exist during
symmetrical three-phase faults, however they do appear during initial stage of such
faults for long enough time (in most cases) for the IED to make proper decision.
Further, the negative sequence currents are not stopped at a power transformer of the
Yd, or Dy connection. The negative sequence currents are always properly transformed
to the other side of any power transformer for any external disturbance. Finally, the
negative sequence currents are not affected by symmetrical through-load currents.
For power transformer differential protection application, the negative sequence based
differential currents are calculated by using exactly the same matrix equations, which
are used to calculate the traditional phase-wise fundamental frequency differential
currents. However, the same equation shall be fed by the negative sequence currents
from the two power transformer sides instead of individual phase currents, as shown in
matrix equation 23 for a case of two-winding, YNd5 power transformer.

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1MRK 502 034-UUS -

IDNS _ A
2 -1 -1 INS _ W 1
-1 0 1 INS _ W 2
IDNS _ B = 1 -1 2 -1 a INS _ W 1 + Vn _ W 2 1 1 -1 0 a INS _ W 2
Vn _ W 1

3


3
IDNS _ C
-1 -1 2 a 2 INS _ W 1
0 1 -1 a 2 INS _ W 2
1

3
(Equation 23)

EQUATION1560 V1 EN

where:
1.

is Negative Sequence Differential Currents

2.

is Negative Sequence current contribution from W1 side

3.

is Negative Sequence current contribution from W2 side

and where:
IDNS_A

is the negative sequence differential current in phase A (in


W1 side primary amperes)

IDNS_B

is the negative sequence differential current in phase B (in


W1 side primary amperes)

IDNS_C

is the negative sequence differential current in phase C (in


W1 side primary amperes)

INS_W1

is negative sequence current on W1 side in primary


amperes (phase A reference)

INS_W2

is negative sequence current on W1 side in primary


amperes (phase A reference)

Vn_W1

is transformer rated phase-to-phase voltage on W1 side


(setting parameter)

Vn_W2

is transformer rated phase-to-phase voltage on W2 side


(setting parameter)

is the complex operator for sequence quantities, for example,

a=e

j 120

=-

EQUATION1248 V1 EN

1
2

+ j

3
2
(Equation 24)

Because the negative sequence currents always form the symmetrical three phase
current system on each transformer side (that is, negative sequence currents in every
phase will always have the same magnitude and be phase displaced for 120 electrical
degrees from each other), it is only necessary to calculate the first negative sequence
differential current that is, IDNS_A.

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Differential protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

As marked in equation 23, the first term on the right hand side of the equation,
represents the total contribution of the negative sequence current from W1 side
compensated for eventual power transformer phase shift. The second term on the right
hand side of the equation, represents the total contribution of the negative sequence
current from W2 side compensated for eventual power transformer phase shift and
transferred to the power transformer W1 side. These negative sequence current
contributions are phasors, which are further used in directional comparisons, made in
order to characterize a fault as internal or external. See section "Internal/external fault
discriminator" for more information.
The magnitudes of the negative sequence differential current expressed in the HV side
A can be read as service values from the function. In the same time it is available as
outputs IDMAG_NS from the differential protection function block. Thus, it can be
connected to the disturbance recorder and automatically recorded during any external
or internal fault condition.

5.1.3.8

Internal/external fault discriminator


The internal/external fault discriminator is a very powerful and reliable supplementary
criterion to the traditional differential protection. It is recommended that this feature
shall be always used (that is, enabled) when protecting three-phase power
transformers. The internal/external fault discriminator detects even minor faults, with a
high sensitivity and at high speed, and at the same time discriminates with a high
degree of dependability between internal and external faults.
The algorithm of the internal/external fault discriminator is based on the theory of
symmetrical components. Already in 1933, Wagner and Evans in their famous book
"Symmetrical Components" have stated that:
1.

Source of the negative-sequence currents is at the point of fault,


E NS = - I NS Z NS
EQUATION1254 V1 EN

(Equation 25)

2.

Negative-sequence currents distribute through the negative-sequence


network

3.

Negative-sequence currents obey the first Kirchhoff"s law

The internal/external fault discriminator responds to magnitudes and the relative phase
angles of the negative-sequence fault currents at different windings (that is, sides) of
the protected power transformer. The negative sequence fault currents must of course
first be referred to the same phase reference side, and put to the same magnitude
reference. This is done by the matrix expression (see equation 23).

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Differential protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Operation of the internal/external fault discriminator is based on the relative position of


the two phasors representing winding one (W1) and winding two (W2) negative
sequence current contributions, respectively, defined by expression shown in
equation 23. It performs a directional comparison between these two phasors. First, the
LV side phasor is referred to the HV side (W1 side): both the magnitude, and the phase
position are referred to the HV (W1 side). Then the relative phase displacement
between the two negative sequence current phasors is calculated. In case of threewinding power transformers, a little more complex algorithm is applied, with two
directional tests. The overall directional characteristic of the internal/external fault
discriminator is shown in figure 34, where the directional characteristic is defined by
two setting parameters:
1.
2.

IMinNegSeq
NegSeqROA
90 deg
120 deg

If one or the
other of
currents is too
low, then no
measurement
is done, and
120 degrees
is mapped

Internal/external
fault boundary

NegSeqROA
(Relay
Operate
Angle)

180 deg

0 deg

IMinNegSeq

External
fault
region

Internal
fault
region

270 deg

en05000188-2-en.vsd

IEC05000188 V2 EN

Figure 34:

Operating characteristic of the internal/external fault discriminator

In order to perform directional comparison of the two phasors their magnitudes must
be high enough so that one can be sure that they are due to a fault. On the other hand,
in order to guarantee a good sensitivity of the internal/external fault discriminator, the
value of this minimum limit must not be too high. Note that, in order to enhance
stability at higher fault currents, the relatively very low threshold value IminNegSeq is

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Differential protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

dynamically increased at currents higher than normal currents: if the bias current is
higher than 110% IBase current, then 10% of the bias current is added to the
IminNegSeq.Only if magnitudes of both negative sequence current contributions are
above the actual limit, the relative position between these two phasors is checked. If
either of the negative sequence current contributions, which should be compared, is too
small (less than the set value for IminNegSeq), no directional comparison is made in
order to avoid the possibility to produce a wrong decision. The setting NegSeqROA
represents the Relay Operate Angle, which determines the boundary between the
internal and external fault regions. It can be selected in the range from 30 degrees to
90 degrees, with a step of 0.1 degree. The default value is 60 degrees. The default
setting 60 degree favours somewhat security in comparison to dependability.
If the above condition concerning magnitudes is fulfilled, the internal/external fault
discriminator compares the relative phase angle between the negative sequence current
contributions from the W1 and W2 sides of the power transformer using the following
two rules:

If the negative sequence currents contributions from W1 and W2 sides are in


phase, the fault is internal (that is, both phasors are within protected zone)
If the negative sequence currents contributions from W1 and W2 sides are 180
degrees out of phase, the fault is external (that is, W1 phasors is outside protected
zone)

For example, for any unsymmetrical external fault, ideally the respective negative
sequence current contributions from the W1 and W2 power transformer sides will be
exactly 180 degrees apart and equal in magnitude, regardless the power transformer
turns ratio and phase displacement. One such example is shown in figure 35, which
shows trajectories of the two separate phasors representing the negative sequence
current contributions from HV and LV sides of an Yd5 power transformer (for
example, after the compensation of the transformer turns ratio and phase displacement
for an unsymmetrical external fault. Observe that the relative phase angle between
these two phasors is 180 electrical degrees at any point in time. No current transformer
saturation was assumed for this case.

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Differential protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

"steady state"
for HV side
neg. seq. phasor

90
60

150

30
10
ms

180

0
0.1 kA
10
ms

0.2 kA

0.3 kA

0.4 kA

330

210

240
270

"steady state"
for LV side
neg. seq. phasor

Contribution to neg. seq. differential current from HV side


Contribution to neg. seq. differential current from LV side

en05000189.vsd
IEC05000189 V1 EN

Figure 35:

Trajectories of Negative Sequence Current Contributions from HV and


LV sides of Yd5 power transformer during external fault

Therefore, under all external fault condition, the relative angle is theoretically equal to
180 degrees. During internal fault, the angle shall ideally be 0 degrees, but due to
possible different negative sequence source impedance angles on W1 and W2 sides of
the protected power transformer, it may differ somewhat from the ideal zero value.
However, during heavy faults, CT saturation might cause the measured phase angle to
differ from 180 degrees for external, and from about 0 degrees for internal fault. See
figure 36 for an example of a heavy internal fault with transient CT saturation.

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Differential protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Dire ctiona l Compa ris on Crite rion: Inte rna l fa ult a s s e e n from the HV s ide
90
e xcurs ion
from 0 de gre e s
due to CT
s a tura tion

60

120
35 ms

30

150

de finite ly
a n inte rna l
fa ult
180
e xte rna l
fa ult
re gion

0.5 kA

210

330

trip c o mmand
in 12 ms
Inte rna l fa ult
de cla re d 7 ms
a fte r inte rna l
fa ult occure d

1.0 kA

240

300
270

1.5 kA

HV s ide contribution to the tota l ne ga tive s e que nce diffe re ntia l curre nt in kA
Dire ctiona l limit (within the re gion de limite d by 60 de gre e s is inte rna l fa ult)

en05000190.vsd
IEC05000190 V1 EN

Figure 36:

Operation of the internal/external fault discriminator for internal fault


with CT saturation

However, it shall be noted that additional security measures are implemented in the
internal/external fault discriminator algorithm in order to guaranty proper operation
with heavily saturated current transformers. The trustworthy information on whether a
fault is internal or external is typically obtained in about 10ms after the fault inception,
depending on the setting IminNegSeq, and the magnitudes of the fault currents. At
heavy faults, approximately 5ms time to full saturation of the main CT is sufficient in
order to produce a correct discrimination between internal and external faults.

5.1.3.9

Unrestrained, and sensitive negative sequence protections


Two sub functions, which are based on the internal/external fault discriminator with
the ability to trip a faulty power transformer, are parts to the traditional power
transformer differential protection.

The unrestrained negative sequence differential protection

If one or more pickup signals have been set by the traditional differential protection
algorithm, because one or more of the fundamental frequency differential currents
entered the operate region on the operate - restrain characteristic then the unrestrained
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Section 5
Differential protection

negative sequence protection is activated. So, this protection is not independent of the
traditional restrained differential protection - it is activated after the first start signal
has been placed.
If the same fault has been positively recognized as internal, then the unrestrained
negative sequence differential protection places its own trip request.
If the bias current is higher than 110% IBase of the power transformer winding W1,
then any block signals by the harmonic and/or waveform criteria, which can block the
traditional differential protection are overridden, and the differential protection
operates quickly without any further delay. If the bias current is lower than 110%,
where harmonic block should not exist for internal faults, then this negative sequence
differential protection is restrained by any harmonic block signal.
This logic guarantees a fast disconnection of a faulty power transformer for any
heavier internal faults.
If the same fault has been classified as external, then generally, but not
unconditionally, a trip command is prevented. If a fault is classified as external, the
further analysis of the fault conditions is initiated. If all the instantaneous differential
currents in phases where pickup signals have been issued are free of harmonic
pollution, then a (minor) internal fault, simultaneous with a predominant external fault
can be suspected. This conclusion can be drawn because at external faults, major false
differential currents can only exist when one or more current transformers saturate. In
this case, the false instantaneous differential currents are polluted by higher harmonic
components, the 2nd, the 5th etc.

Sensitive negative sequence based turn-to-turn fault protection

The sensitive, negative sequence current based turn-to-turn fault protection detects the
low level faults, which are not detected by the traditional differential protection until
they develop into more severe faults, including power transformer iron core. The
sensitive protection is independent from the traditional differential protection and is a
very good complement to it. The essential part of this sensitive protection is the internal/
external fault discriminator. In order to be activated, the sensitive protection requires
no pickup signal from the traditional power transformer biased differential protection.
If magnitudes of HV and LV negative sequence current contributions are above the set
limit for IminNegSeq, then their relative positions are determined. If the disturbance is
characterized as an internal fault, then a separate trip request will be placed. Any
decision on the way to the final trip request must be confirmed several times in
succession in order to cope with eventual CT transients. This causes a short additional
operating time delay due to this security count. For very low level turn-to-turn faults
the overall response time of this protection is about 30ms. The sensitive negative
sequence differential protection is automatically deactivated if the bias current
becomes higher than 150 % IBase. Further, this protection can always be restrained,
that is, prevented from issuing a trip request, by any harmonic block signal. This

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Differential protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

because at rather low fault currents, which are to be detected by this protection,
harmonic pollution is not likely.

5.1.3.10

Instantaneous differential currents


The instantaneous differential currents are calculated from the instantaneous values of
the input currents in order to perform the harmonic analysis and waveform analysis
upon each one of them (see section "Harmonic and waveform block criteria" for more
information).

5.1.3.11

Harmonic and waveform block criteria


The two block criteria are the harmonic restrain and the waveform restrain. These two
criteria have the power to block (that is, to prevent) a trip command by the traditional
differential protection, which produces pickup signals by applying the differential
currents, and the bias current, to the operate - restrain characteristic.

Harmonic restrain

The harmonic restrain is the classical restrain method traditionally used with power
transformer differential protections. The goal is to prevent an unwanted trip command
due to magnetizing inrush currents at switching operations, or due to magnetizing
currents at over-voltages.
The magnetizing currents of a power transformer flow only on one side of the power
transformer (one or the other) and are therefore always the cause of false differential
currents. The harmonic analysis (the 2nd and the 5th harmonic) is applied to
instantaneous differential currents. Typically instantaneous differential currents during
power transformer energizing are shown in figure 37. The harmonic analysis is only
applied in those phases, where pickup signals have been set. For example, if the
content of the 2nd harmonic in the instantaneous differential current of phase A is
above the setting I2/I1Ratio, then a block signal is set for that phase.

Waveform restrain

The waveform restrain criterion is a good complement to the harmonic analysis. The
waveform restrain is a pattern recognition algorithm, which looks for intervals within
each fundamental power system cycle with low instantaneous differential current. This
interval is often called current gap in protection literature. However, within differential
function this criterion actually searches for long-lasting intervals with low rate-ofchange in instantaneous differential current, which are typical for the power
transformer inrush currents. Block signal BLKWAV is set in those phases where such
behavior is detected. The algorithm do not requires any end user settings. The
waveform algorithm is automatically adapted dependent only on the power transformer
rated data.

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1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Current [%]

400kV Currents

I_A
I_B
I_C

Time [cycles]
en05000343_ansi.vsd
ANSI05000343 V1 EN

Figure 37:

Inrush currents to a transformer as seen by a protective IED. Typical is


a high amount of the 2nd harmonic, and intervals of low current, and
low rate-of-change of current within each period.

Cross-blocking between phases

Basic definition of the cross-blocking is that one of the three phases can block
operation (that is,tripping) of the other two phases due to the harmonic pollution of the
differential current in that phase (that is, waveform, 2nd or 5th harmonic content). In
differential algorithm the user can control the cross-blocking between the phases via
the setting parameter CrossBlockEn=Enabled.
When parameter CrossBlockEn=Enabled cross blocking between phases is introduced.
There is no time settings involved, but the phase with the operating point above the set
bias characteristic (in the operate region) will be able to cross-block other two phases if
it is itself blocked by any of the previously explained restrained criteria. If the start
signal in this phase is removed, that is, reset from TRUE to FALSE, cross blocking
from that phase will be inhibited. In this way cross-blocking of the temporary nature is
achieved. It should be noted that this is the default (recommended) setting value for
this parameter.
When parameter CrossBlockEn=Disabled, any cross blocking between phases will be
disabled. It is recommended to use the value Disabled with caution in order to avoid
the unwanted tripping during initial energizing of the power transformer.

5.1.3.12

Switch onto fault feature


Transformer differential function in the IED has a built-in, advanced switch onto fault
feature. This feature can be enabled or disabled by a setting parameter SOTFMode.
97

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1MRK 502 034-UUS -

When enabled this feature ensures quick differential protection tripping in cases where
a transformer is energized with a more severe (minor faults cannot be discovered)
internal fault (for example, forgotten grounding on transformer LV side for example,
after a regular service). The feature is based on the waveform check. If a severe
internal fault exists, then, when the power transformer is energized, the magnetic
density in the iron core will be low and high sinusoidal currents will flow from the
very beginning. The waveform block algorithm will in such a case remove all its three
block signals in a very short interval of time. A quick reset of the waveblock criterion
will temporarily disable the second harmonic blocking feature within the differential
function. This consequently ensures fast operation of the transformer differential
function for a switch onto a fault condition. It shall be noted that this feature is only
active during initial power transformer energizing, more exactly, under the first 50 ms.
When the switch onto fault feature is disabled by the setting parameter SOTFMode, the
waveblock and second harmonic blocking features work in parallel and are completely
independent from each other.

5.1.3.13

Logic diagram
The simplified internal logics, for transformer differential protection are shown in the
following figures.

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1MRK 502 034-UUS -

ID_A

Instantaneous (sample based)


Differential current, phase A

Derive equation to calculate differential currents

Phasors & samples

Trafo
Data

Phasors & samples

Phasor calculation of individual


phase current

Differential function

Phasor calculation of individual


phase current

152

A/D conversion scaling with CT


ratio

52

A/D conversion scaling with CT


ratio

ADM

ID_B

Instantaneous (sample based)


Differential current, phase B

ID_C

Instantaneous (sample based)


Differential current, phase C

IDMAG_NS

Negative sequence diff current


& NS current contribution from
individual windings

IDMAG_A

Fundamental frequency (phasor


based) Diff current, phase A &
phase current contributions from
individual windings

IDMAG_B

Fundamental frequency (phasor


based) Diff current, phase B &
phase current contributions from
individual windings

IDMAG_C

Fundamental frequency (phasor


based) Diff current, phase C &
phase current contributions from
individual windings

MAX

IBIAS

Settings for Zer. Seq.


Current Reduction
ANSI09000162_1_en.vsd
ANSI09000162 V1 EN

Figure 38:

Treatment of measured currents within IED for transformer differential function

Figure 38 shows how internal treatment of measured currents is done in case of twowinding transformer.
The following currents are inputs to the power transformer differential protection
function. They must all be expressed in true power system (primary) A, that is, as
measured.

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Differential protection

1.
2.
3.

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Instantaneous values of currents (samples) from HV, and LV sides for twowinding power transformers, and from the HV, the first LV, and the second LV
sides for three-winding power transformers.
Currents from all power transformer sides expressed as fundamental frequency
phasors, with their real, and imaginary parts. These currents are calculated within
the protection function by the fundamental frequency Fourier filters.
Negative sequence currents from all power transformer sides expressed as phasors.
These currents are calculated within the protection function by the symmetrical
components module.

The power transformer differential protection:


1.

2.
3.

Calculates three fundamental frequency differential currents, and one common


bias current. The zero-sequence component can optionally be eliminated from
each of the three fundamental frequency differential currents, and at the same time
from the common bias current.
Calculates three instantaneous differential currents. They are used for harmonic,
and waveform analysis. Instantaneous differential currents are useful for post-fault
analysis using disturbance recording
Calculates negative-sequence differential current. Contributions to it from both (all
three) power transformer sides are used by the internal/external fault discriminator
to detect and classify a fault as internal or external.

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1MRK 502 034-UUS -

BLKUNRES
a

IdUnre

AND

b>a

TRIPUNRE_A

IDMAG_A
IBIAS

PU_A

AND

BLOCK
BLKRES

AND
OR
IDA

NOT

2nd
Harmonic

BLK2H_A

5th
Harmonic

BLK5H_A
BLKWAV_A

Wave
block
Cross Block
from B or C phases
CrossBlockEn=Enabled

TRIPRES_A

AND

OR

AND

Cross Block
to B or C phases

ANSI05000168_2_en.vsd
ANSI05000168 V2 EN

Figure 39:

Transformer differential protection simplified logic diagram for Phase A

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Differential protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Internal/
External
Fault
discrimin
ator

Neg.Seq. Diff
Current
Contributions

EXTFAULT
INTFAULT

Constant

TRNSSENS

AND

TRNSUNR

AND

OpNegSeqDiff=On
IBIAS

t
0

b>a

BLKNSSEN
BLKNSUNR
BLOCK
PU_A
PU_B
PU_C

OR

en05000167_ansi.vsd
ANSI05000167 V1 EN

Figure 40:

Transformer differential protection simplified logic diagram for external/


internal fault discriminator

TRIPRES_A
TRIPRES_B
TRIPRES_C

OR

TRIPRES

OR

TRIPUNRE

TRIPUNRE_A
TRIPUNRE_B
TRIPUNRE_C

TRNSSENS

OR

TRIP

TRNSUNR

en05000278_ansi.vsd
ANSI05000278 V1 EN

Figure 41:

Transformer differential protection internal grouping of tripping signals

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1MRK 502 034-UUS -

PU_A
PU_B
PU_C

OR

PICKUP

OR

BLK2H

OR

BLK5H

OR

BLKWAV

BLK2H_A
BLK2H_B
BLK2H_C
BLK5H_A
BLK5H_B
BLK5H_C
BLKWAV_A
BLKWAV_B
BLKWAV_C

en05000279_ansi.vsd
ANSI05000279 V1 EN

Figure 42:

Transformer differential protection internal grouping of logical signals

Logic in figures 39, 40, 41 and 42 can be summarized as follows:


1.

2.

3.

4.

The three fundamental frequency differential currents are applied in a phase-wise


manner to two limits. The first limit is the operate-restrain characteristic, while the
other is the high-set unrestrained limit. If the first limit is exceeded, a pickup
signal PICKUP is set. If the unrestrained limit is exceeded, an immediate
unrestrained trip TRIPUNRE and common trip TRIP are issued.
If a pickup signal is issued in a phase, then the harmonic-, and the waveform block
signals are checked. Only a pickup signal, which is free of all of its respective
block signals, can result in a trip command. If the cross-block logic scheme is
applied, then only if all phases with set pickup signal are free of their respective
block signals, a restrained trip TRIPRES and common trip TRIP are issued
If a pickup signal is issued in a phase, and the fault has been classified as internal,
then any eventual block signals are overridden and a unrestrained negativesequence trip TRNSUNR and common trip TRIP are issued without any further
delay. This feature is called the unrestrained negative-sequence protection.
The sensitive negative sequence differential protection is independent of any
pickup signals. It is meant to detect smaller internal faults, such as turn-to-turn
faults, which are often not detected by the traditional differential protection. The
sensitive negative sequence differential protection pickup whenever both
contributions to the total negative sequence differential current (that must be
compared by the internal/external fault discriminator) are higher than the value of
the setting IMinNegSeq. If a fault is positively recognized as internal, and the
condition is stable with no interruption for at least one fundamental frequency
cycle the sensitive negative sequence differential protection TRNSSENS and

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Differential protection

5.

6.

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

common trip TRIP are issued. This feature is called the sensitive negative
sequence differential protection.
If a pickup signal is issued in a phase (see signal PU_A), even if the fault has been
classified as an external fault, then the instantaneous differential current of that
phase (see signal ID_A) is analyzed for the 2nd and the 5th harmonic contents (see
the blocks with the text inside: 2nd Harmonic; Wave block and 5th Harmonic). If
there is less harmonic pollution, than allowed by the settings I2/I1Ratio, and I5/
I1Ratio, (then the outputs from the blocks 2nd harmonic and 5th harmonic is 0)
then it is assumed that a minor simultaneous internal fault must have occurred.
Only under these conditions a trip command is allowed (the signal TRIPRES_A is
= 1). The cross-block logic scheme is automatically applied under such
circumstances. (This means that the cross block signals from the other two phases
B and C is not activated to obtain a trip on the TRIPRES_A output signal in figure
39)
All pickup and blocking conditions are available as phase segregated as well as
common (that is three-phase) signals.

IDMAG_A Diff

a
a>b

I Diff Alarm

IDMAG_B Diff

tAlarm Delay
a
a>b

I Diff Alarm
IDMAG_C Diff

&

IDALARM

a
a>b

I Diff Alarm

ANSI06000546-1-en.vsd
ANSI06000546 V1 EN

Figure 43:

Differential current alarm logic

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1MRK 502 034-UUS -

5.1.4

Technical data
Table 22:

T2WPDIF, T3WPDIF (87T) technical data

Function

Range or value

Accuracy

Operating characteristic

Adaptable

1.0% of In for I < In


1.0% of In for I > In

Reset ratio

>94%

Unrestrained differential current limit

(1.00-50.00)xIBase on
high voltage winding

1.0% of set value

Base sensitivity function

(0.05 - 0.60) x IBase

1.0% of In

Minimum negative sequence current

(0.02 - 0.20) x IBase

1.0% of In

Operate angle, negative sequence

(30.0 - 90.0) degrees

1.0 degrees

Second harmonic blocking

(5.0-100.0)% of
fundamental differential
current

2.0% of In

Fifth harmonic blocking

(5.0-100.0)% of
fundamental differential
current

12.0% of In

Connection type for each of the windings

Wye or delta

Phase displacement between high voltage


winding, W1 and each of the windings, W2
and W3. Hour notation

011

Operate time, restrained function

25 ms typically at 0 to
5 x Ib

Reset time, restrained function

25 ms typically at 5 to
0 x Ib

Operate time, unrestrained function

20 ms typically at 0 to
5 x Ib

Reset time, unrestrained function

25 ms typically at 5 to
0 x Ib

5.2

1Ph High impedance differential protection HZPDIF


(87)

5.2.1

Identification
Function description

1Ph High impedance differential


protection

IEC 61850
identification

HZPDIF

IEC 60617
identification

Id

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number

87

SYMBOL-CC V2 EN

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Differential protection
5.2.2

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Introduction
The 1Ph High impedance differential protection (HZPDIF, 87) function can be used
when the involved CTs have the same turns ratio and similar magnetizing
characteristics. It utilizes an external summation of the currents in the interconnected
CTs, a series resistor, and a voltage dependent resistor which are mounted externally
connected to the IED.
HZPDIF (87) can be used as high impedance REF protection.

5.2.3

Function block
HZPDIF (87)
ISI*
BLOCK
BLKTR

TRIP
ALARM
MEASVOLT
ANSI05000363-2-en.vsd

ANSI05000363 V2 EN

Figure 44:

5.2.4

HZPDIF (87) function block

Signals
Table 23:
Name

HZPDIF (87) Input signals


Type

Default

Description

ISI

GROUP
SIGNAL

Group signal for current input

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

BLKTR

BOOLEAN

Block of trip

Table 24:
Name

HZPDIF (87) Output signals


Type

Description

TRIP

BOOLEAN

Trip signal

ALARM

BOOLEAN

Alarm signal

MEASVOLT

REAL

Measured RMS voltage on CT secondary side

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1MRK 502 034-UUS -

5.2.5
Table 25:
Name

Settings
HZPDIF (87) Group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Disable/Enable Operation

AlarmPickup

2 - 500

10

Alarm voltage level on CT secondary

tAlarm

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

5.000

Time delay to activate alarm

TripPickup

5 - 900

100

Pickup voltage level in volts on CT secondary


side

R series

10 - 20000

ohm

1800

Value of series resistor in Ohms

5.2.6

Monitored data
Table 26:

HZPDIF (87) Monitored data

Name
MEASVOLT

5.2.7

Type
REAL

Values (Range)
-

Unit
kV

Description
Measured RMS voltage on
CT secondary side

Operation principle
The 1Ph High impedance differential protection (HZPDIF, 87) function is based on
one current input with external stabilizing resistors and voltage dependent resistors.
The stabilizing resistor value is calculated from the function operating value V
TripPickup calculated to achieve through fault stability. The used stabilizing resistor
value is set by the setting R series.
See the application manual for operating voltage and sensitivity calculation.

5.2.7.1

Logic diagram
The logic diagram shows the operation principles for the 1Ph High impedance
differential protection function HZPDIF (87), see figure 45. It is a simple one step
function with an additional lower alarm level. By activating inputs, the HZPDIF (87)
function can either be blocked completely, or only the trip output.

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1MRK 502 034-UUS -

AlarmPickup
0-tAlarm
0

AlarmPickup
0.03s
0

en05000301_ansi.vsd
ANSI05000301 V1 EN

Figure 45:

5.2.8

Logic diagram for 1Ph High impedance differential protection HZPDIF


(87)

Technical data
Table 27:

HZPDIF (87)technical data

Function

5.3

Range or value

Accuracy

Operate voltage

(20-400) V
I=V/R

1.0% of In

Reset ratio

>95%

Maximum continuous
voltage

V>Pickup2/series resistor 200 W

Operate time

15 ms typically at 0 to 10 x Vd

Reset time

90 ms typically at 10 to 0 x Vd

Critical impulse time

2 ms typically at 0 to 10 x Vd

Generator differential protection GENPDIF (87G)

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Differential protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

5.3.1

Identification
Function description
Generator differential protection

IEC 61850
identification

IEC 60617
identification

GENPDIF

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
87G

Id>
SYMBOL-NN V1 EN

5.3.2

Functionality
Short circuit between the phases of the stator windings causes normally very large fault
currents. The short circuit gives risk of damages on insulation, windings and stator iron
core. The large short circuit currents cause large forces, which can cause damage even
to other components in the power plant, such as turbine and generator-turbine shaft.
The task of Generator differential protection GENPDIF (87G) is to determine whether
a fault is within the protected zone, or outside the protected zone. If the fault is
internal, the faulty generator must be quickly tripped, that is, disconnected from the
network, the field breaker tripped and the power to the prime mover interrupted.
To limit the damage due to stator winding short circuits, the fault clearance must be as
fast as possible (instantaneous). If the generator block is connected to the power system
close to other generating blocks, the fast fault clearance is essential to maintain the
transient stability of the non-faulted generators.
Normally, the short circuit fault current is very large, that is, significantly larger than
the generator rated current. There is a risk that a short circuit can occur between phases
close to the neutral point of the generator, thus causing a relatively small fault current.
The fault current can also be limited due to low excitation of the generator. Therefore,
it is desired that the detection of generator phase-to-phase short circuits shall be
relatively sensitive, detecting small fault currents.
It is also of great importance that the generator differential protection does not trip for
external faults, with large fault currents flowing from the generator. To combine fast
fault clearance, as well as sensitivity and selectivity, the generator differential
protection is normally the best choice for phase-to-phase generator short circuits. A
negative-sequence-current-based internal-external fault discriminator can also be used
to determine whether a fault is internal or external. The internal-external fault
discriminator not only positively discriminates between internal and external faults, but
can independently detect minor faults which may not be felt (until they develop into
more serious faults) by the "usual" differential protection based on operate-restrain
characteristic.

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Differential protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

An open CT circuit condition creates unexpected operations for Generator differential


protection under the normal load conditions. It is also possible to damage secondary
equipment due to high voltage produced from open CT circuit outputs. Therefore, it
may be a requirement from security and reliability points of view to have open CT
detection function to block Generator differential protection function in case of open
CT conditions and at the same time produce the alarm signal to the operational
personal to make quick remedy actions to correct the open CT condition.
Generator differential protection GENPDIF (87G) is also well suited to generate fast,
sensitive and selective fault clearance, if used to protect shunt reactors or small busbars

5.3.3

Function block
GENPDIF (87G)
I3PNCT*
TRIP
I3PTCT*
TRIPRES
BLOCK
TRIPUNRE
BLKRES
TRNSUNR
BLKUNRES
TRNSSENS
BLKNSUNR
PICKUP
BLKNSSEN
BLKH
DESENSIT
OPENCT
OPENCTAL
IDMAG_A
IDMAG_B
IDMAG_C
IDMAG_NS
IBIAS
ANSI07000025-2-en.vsd
ANSI07000025 V3 EN

Figure 46:

5.3.4

GENPDIF (87G) function block

Signals
Table 28:
Name

GENPDIF (87G) Input signals


Type

Default

Description

I3PNCT

GROUP
SIGNAL

Neutral side CT input

I3PTCT

GROUP
SIGNAL

Terminal side CT input

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

BLKRES

BOOLEAN

Block of trip from the restrained diff. protection

BLKUNRES

BOOLEAN

Block of trip from unrestrained diff. prot.

BLKNSUNR

BOOLEAN

Block of trip for unrestrained negative sequence


differential protection

BLKNSSEN

BOOLEAN

Block of trip for sensitive negative sequence


differential protection

DESENSIT

BOOLEAN

Raise pick up: function temporarily desensitized

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1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Table 29:

GENPDIF (87G) Output signals

Name

5.3.5
Table 30:
Name

Type

Description

TRIP

BOOLEAN

General, common trip signal

TRIPRES

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from restrained differential protection

TRIPUNRE

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from unrestrained differential protection

TRNSUNR

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from unrestrained negative sequence


differential protection

TRNSSENS

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from sensitive negative sequence


differential protection

PICKUP

BOOLEAN

Common pickup signal from any phase

BLKH

BOOLEAN

Common harmonic block signal

OPENCT

BOOLEAN

An open CT was detected

OPENCTAL

BOOLEAN

Open CT Alarm output signal. Issued after a delay ...

IDMAG_A

REAL

Fund. freq. differential current, phase A; in primary A

IDMAG_B

REAL

Fund. freq. differential current, phase B; in primary A

IDMAG_C

REAL

Fund. freq. differential current, phase C; in primary A

IDMAG_NS

REAL

Negative Sequence Differential current; in primary


Amperes

IBIAS

REAL

Magnitude of the common Bias current; in primary


Amperes

Settings
GENPDIF (87G) Group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Operation Disable / Enable

IdMin

0.10 - 1.00

IB

0.01

0.25

Section 1 sensitivity, multiple of generator


rated current

IdUnre

1.00 - 50.00

IB

0.01

10.00

Unrestr. prot. limit, multiple of generator rated


current

OpNegSeqDiff

No
Yes

Yes

Negative Sequence Differential Enable Off/On

IMinNegSeq

0.02 - 0.40

IB

0.01

0.10

Neg. sequence curr. limit, as multiple of gen.


rated curr.

111
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Differential protection

Table 31:
Name

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

GENPDIF (87G) Group settings (advanced)


Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

EndSection1

0.20 - 1.50

IB

0.01

1.25

End of section 1, multiple of generator rated


current

EndSection2

1.00 - 10.00

IB

0.01

3.00

End of section 2, multiple of generator rated


current

SlopeSection2

10.0 - 50.0

0.1

40.0

Slope in section 2 of operate-restrain


characteristic, in %

SlopeSection3

30.0 - 100.0

0.1

80.0

Slope in section 3 of operate-restrain


characteristic, in %

NegSeqROA

30.0 - 120.0

Deg

0.1

60.0

Operate Angle of int/ext neg. seq. fault


discriminator, deg

HarmDistLimit

5.0 - 100.0

0.1

10.0

(Total) relative harmonic distorsion limit,


percent

OpCrossBlock

No
Yes

Yes

Operation Enable/ Disable for cross-block


logic between phases

AddTripDelay

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.100

Additional trip delay, when input


raisePickUp=1

OperDCBiasing

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Operation DC biasing On / Off

OpenCTEnable

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Enable/Disable open CT detection

tOCTAlarmDelay

0.100 - 10.000

0.001

1.000

Open CT: time to alarm if an open CT is


detected, in sec

tOCTResetDelay

0.100 - 10.000

0.001

0.250

Reset delay in s. After delay, diff. function is


activated

tOCTUnrstDelay

0.100 - 100.000

0.001

10.000

Unrestrained diff. protection blocked after this


delay, in s

TempIdMin

1.0 - 5.0

IdMin

0.1

2.0

Temp. Id pickup when input raisePickUp=1,


multiple of IdMin

Table 32:
Name
GlobalBaseSel

5.3.6

GENPDIF (87G) Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)
1-6

Unit
-

Step
1

Default
1

Description
Selection of one of the Global Base Value
groups

Operation principle
The task of Generator differential protection GENPDIF (87G) is to determine whether
a fault is within the protected zone, or outside the protected zone. The protected zone is
delimited by the position of current transformers, as shown in figure 47.

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IEC06000430-2-en.vsd

IEC06000430 V2 EN

Figure 47:

Position of current transformers; the recommended (default) orientation

If the fault is internal, the faulty generator must be quickly tripped, that is,
disconnected from the network, the field breaker tripped and the power to the prime
mover interrupted.
GENPDIF (87G) function always uses reference (default) directions of CTs towards
the protected generator as shown in figure 47. Thus, it always measures the currents on
the two sides of the generator with the same reference direction towards the generator
windings. With the orientation of CTs as in figure 47, the difference of currents
flowing in, and out, of a separate stator winding phase is simply obtained by
summation of the two currents fed to the differential protection function.
Numerical IEDs have brought a large number of advantages and new functionality to
the protective relaying. One of the benefits is the simplicity and accuracy of calculating
symmetrical components from individual phase quantities. Within the firmware of a
numerical IED, it is no more difficult to calculate negative-sequence components than
it is to calculate zero-sequence components. Diversity of operation principles
integrated in the same protection function enhances the overall performance without a
significant increase in cost.
A novelty in GENPDIF (87G), namely the negative-sequence-current-based internalexternal fault discriminator, is used with advantage in order to determine whether a
fault is internal or external. Indeed, the internal-external fault discriminator not only
positively discriminates between internal and external faults, but can independently
detect minor faults which may not be felt (until they develop into more serious faults)
by the "usual" differential protection based on operate-restrain characteristic.
GENPDIF (87G) is using fundamental frequency phase current phasors and negative
sequence current phasors. These quantities are derived outside the differential
protection function block, in the general pre-processing blocks. GENPDIF (87G) is
also using with advantage the DC component of the instantaneous differential current
and the 2nd and 5th harmonic components of the instantaneous differential currents. The
instantaneous differential currents are calculated from the input samples of the
instantaneous values of the currents measured at both ends of the stator winding. The
DC and the 2nd and 5th harmonic components of each separate instantaneous
differential current are extracted inside the differential protection.

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Differential protection
5.3.6.1

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Function calculation principles


To make a differential protection as sensitive and stable as possible, the restrained
differential characteristic is used. The protection must be provided with a proportional
bias, which makes the protection operate for a certain percentage differential current
related to the current through the generator stator winding. This stabilizes the
protection under through fault conditions while still permitting the system to have good
basic sensitivity. The following chapters explain how these quantities are calculated.
The fundamental frequency phasors of the phase currents from both sides of the
generator (the neutral side and the terminal side) are delivered to the differential
protection function by the pre-processing module of the IED.

5.3.6.2

Fundamental frequency differential currents


The fundamental frequency RMS differential current is a vectorial sum (that is, sum of
fundamental frequency phasors) of the individual phase currents from the two sides of
the protected generator. The magnitude of the fundamental frequency RMS differential
current, in phase A, is as calculated in equation 26:
Idiff _ A = [(Re( IAn + IAt )) 2 + (Im( IAn + IAt )) 2 ]
ANSIEQUATION2316 V2 EN

(Equation 26)

One common fundamental frequency bias current is used. The bias current is the
magnitude of the highest measured current in the protected circuit. The bias current is
not allowed to drop instantaneously, instead, it decays exponentially with a predefined
time constant. These principles make the differential IED more secure, with less risk to
operate for external faults. The maximum principle brings as well more meaning to
the breakpoint settings of the operate-restrain characteristic.

Ibias = max( IAn, IBn, ICn, IAt , IBt , ICt )


EQUATION2049-ANSI V2 EN

(Equation 27)

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1MRK 502 034-UUS -

IAn

IAt

Idiff

IAt

IAn
ANSI0700018_3_en.vsd
ANSI07000018 V3 EN

Figure 48:

Internal fault

IAn

IAt

External fault: IAn = - IAt

IAt

IAn
Idiff = 0

en07000019-2_ansi.vsd

ANSI07000019 V2 EN

Figure 49:

External fault

Generator differential protection GENPDIF (87G) function uses two mutually


independent characteristics to which magnitudes of the three fundamental frequency
RMS differential currents are compared at each execution of the differential protection
function. These two characteristics divide, each of them independently, the operate
current restrain current plane into two regions: the operate (trip) region and the
restrain (block) region, as shown in figure 51. Two kinds of protection are obtained:
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1MRK 502 034-UUS -

the non-stabilized (instantaneous unrestrained) differential protection


the stabilized differential protection

The non-stabilized (instantaneous) differential protection is used for very high


differential currents, where it must be beyond any doubt, that the fault is internal. This
limit, (defined by the setting UnrestrainedLimit), is a constant, not proportional the
bias (restrain) current. No harmonic or any other restrain is applied to this limit, which
is, therefore, called the unrestrained limit. The reset ratio of the unrestrained
characteristic is equal to 0.95.
The stabilized differential protection applies a differential (operate) current, and the
common bias (restrain) current, on the operate-restrain characteristic, as shown in
figure 51. Here, the actual limit, where the protection can operate, is dependent on the
bias (restrain) current. The operate value, is stabilized by the bias current. This operate
restrain characteristic is represented by a double-slope, double-breakpoint
characteristic. The restrained characteristic is determined by the following 5 settings:

IdMin (Sensitivity in section 1, set as multiple of generator rated current)


EndSection1 (End of section 1, set as multiple of generator rated current)
EndSection2 (End of section 2, set as multiple of generator rated current)
SlopeSection2 (Slope in section 2 of the characteristic, set in percent)
SlopeSection3 (Slope in section 3 of the characteristic, set in percent)

slope = D Ioperate 100%


D Irestrain
EQUATION1246 V1 EN

(Equation 28)

Note that both slopes are calculated from the characteristics break points.

The operate-restrain characteristic is tailor-made, in other words, it can be constructed


by the user. A default operate-restrain characteristic is suggested which gives
acceptably good results in a majority of applications. The operate-restrain
characteristic has in principle three sections with a section-wise proportionality of the
operate value to the common restrain (bias) current. The reset ratio is in all parts of the
characteristic equal to 0.95.
Section 1 is the most sensitive part on the characteristic. In section 1, normal currents
flow through the protected circuit and its current transformers, and risk for higher false
differential currents is low. With generators the only cause of small false differential
currents in this section can be tolerances of the current transformers used on both sides
of the protected generator. Slope in section 1 is always zero percent. Normally, with

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Section 5
Differential protection

the protected machine at rated load, the restrain, bias current will be around 1 p.u., that
is, equal to the machine rated current.
In section 2, a certain minor slope is introduced which is supposed to cope with false
differential currents proportional to higher than normal currents through the current
transformers.
The more pronounced slope in section 3 is designed to result in a higher tolerance to
substantial current transformer saturation at high through-fault currents, which can be
expected in this section.
Note that both slopes are calculated from the characteristics break points.

Temporarily decreased sensitivity of differential protection is activated if the binary


input DESENSIT is (temporarily) set to 1 (TRUE). In this case, a new, separate limit is
superposed the otherwise unchanged operate-bias characteristic. This limit is called
TempIdMin and is a setting. The value of the setting TempIdMin must be given as a
multiple of the setting IdMin. In this case no trip command can be issued if all
fundamental frequency differential currents are below the value of the setting
TempIdMin.
AddTripDelay: If the input DESENSIT is activated also the operation time of the
protection function can be increased by using the setting AddTripDelay.

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operate current
[ times IBase ]

Operate

unconditionally
UnrestrainedLimit

Operate

conditionally

2
Section 1

TempIdMin
IdMin

Section 2

Section 3
SlopeSection3

1
SlopeSection2

Restrain

0
0

EndSection1
EndSection2

restrain current
[ times IBase ]

en06000637.vsd
IEC06000637 V2 EN

Figure 51:

Operate-restrain characteristic

GENPDIF (87G) can also be temporarily desensitized if the Boolean setting


OperDCBiasing is set to 1 (TRUE). In this case, the DC component is extracted online from the instantaneous differential currents. The highest DC component is taken as
a kind of bias in the sense that the highest sensitivity of the differential protection is
inversely proportional to the ratio of this DC component to the maximum fundamental
frequency differential current. Similar to the desensitization described above, a
separate (temporary) additional limit is activated. The value of this limit is limited to
either the generator rated current, or 3 times IdMin, whichever is smaller. This
temporary extra limit decays exponentially from its maximum value with a time
constant equal to T = 1 second. This feature must be used when unmatched CTs are
used on the generator or shut reactor, especially where a long DC time constant can be
expected. The new limit is superposed the otherwise unchanged operate-bias
characteristic, and temporarily determines the highest sensitivity of the differential
protection. This temporary sensitivity must be lower than the sensitivity in section 1 of
the operate-bias characteristic.

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1MRK 502 034-UUS -

This DC desensitization is not active, if a disturbance has been detected


and characterized as internal fault.

5.3.6.3

Supplementary criteria
To relieve the burden of constructing an exact optimal operate-restrain characteristic,
two special features supplement the basic stabilized differential protection function,
making Generator differential protection GENPDIF (87G) a very reliable one.
The supplementary criteria are:

Internal/external fault discriminator (enhances, or blocks, the trip command)


Harmonic restrain (blocks only)

The internal/external fault discriminator is a very reliable supplementary criterion. It


discriminates with a high speed between internal and external faults. The discriminator
is the main part of what is here called the negative-sequence-current-based differential
protections. It is recommended that this feature is always used (that is, enabled,
OpNegSeqDiff = On).
If a fault is classified as internal, then any eventual block signals by the harmonic
criterion are ignored, and the differential protection can operate very quickly without
any further delay.
If a fault (disturbance) is classified as external, then generally, but not unconditionally,
a trip command is prevented. If a fault is classified as external, harmonic analysis of
the fault conditions is initiated.
If all the differential currents which caused their respective pickup signals to be set, are
free of harmonic pollution, that is, if no harmonic block signal has been set, then a
(minor) internal fault, simultaneous with a predominant external fault, can be
suspected. This conclusion can be drawn because at external faults, major false
differential currents can only exist when one or more current transformers saturate
transiently. In this case, the false instantaneous differential currents are highly polluted
by higher harmonic components, the 2nd, and the 5th.
The existence of relatively high negative-sequence currents is in itself an indication of
a disturbance, as the negative-sequence currents are superimposed, pure-fault
quantities. The negative-sequence currents are measurable indications of abnormal
conditions. The negative sequence currents are particularly suitable for directional
tests. The negative sequence internal or external fault discriminator works satisfactorily
even in case of three-phase faults. Because of the fundamental frequency components
(50/60 Hz) of the decaying DC offset of the fault currents, the system is not fully
symmetrical immediately after the fault. Due to the transient existence of the negative
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1MRK 502 034-UUS -

sequence system, faults can be distinguished as internal or external, even for threephase faults.
The internal or external fault discriminator responds to the relative phase angles of the
negative sequence fault currents at both ends of the stator winding. Observe that the
source of the negative sequence currents at unsymmetrical faults is at the fault point.

If the two negative sequence currents, as seen by the differential relay, flow in the
same direction (that is with the CTs oriented as in figure 47), the fault is internal.
If the two negative sequence currents flow in opposite directions, the fault is external.
Under external fault condition, the relative angle is theoretically equal to 180.
Under internal fault condition, the angle is ideally 0, but due to possible different
negative-sequence impedance angles on both sides of the internal fault, it may
differ somewhat from 0.

The setting NegSeqROA, as shown in figure 52, represents the so called Relay Operate
Angle, which determines the boundary between the internal and external fault regions.
It can be selected in the range 30 to 90, with a step of 1. The default value is
60. The default setting, 60, favors somewhat security in comparison to dependability.
Magnitudes of both negative-sequence currents which are to be compared as to their
phase positions in the complex plane must be high enough so that one can be sure that
they are due to a fault. The limit value IMinNegSeq is settable in the range [0.02
0.20] of the protected generator rated current. Adaptability is introduced if the bias
current is higher than 150 % rated current. Adaptability is introduced 10 ms after this
limit of 150 % rated current has been crossed so that the internal/external discriminator
is given the time to detect correctly a fault before an eventual CT saturation sets in.
The threshold IMinNegSeq is dynamically increased by 4 % of the bias current, in case
of internal faults, and by 8 % of the bias current in case of external faults. Only if
magnitudes of both currents are above the limit IMinNegSeq, the angle between the
two currents is calculated. If any of the two currents is too small, no decision is taken
regarding the relative position of the fault, and this feature then remains inactive rather
than to produce a wrong decision. The relative angle is then assigned the value of 120
(2.094 radians). If this value persists, then this is an indication that no directional
comparison has been made. Neither internal, nor external fault (disturbance) is
declared in this case.

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90 deg
120 deg
NegSeqROA
(Relay Operate Angle)

Angle could not be


measured. One or both
currents too small

Internal fault
region

180 deg

0 deg

IminNegSeq

External fault
region

Internal /
external fault
boundary.
Default 60 deg

The characteristic is defined by the


settings:
IMinNegSeq and NegSeqROA
270 deg

en06000433-2.vsd
IEC06000433 V2 EN

Figure 52:

NegSeqROA determines the boundary between the internal and


external fault regions

Unrestrained negative sequence differential protection

If one or more pickup signals have been set by the restrained differential protection
algorithm, because one or more of the fundamental frequency differential currents
entered the operate region of the restrained differential protection, then the internal/
external fault discriminator can enhance the final, common, trip command by the
differential protection. If a fault is classified as internal, then any eventual block
signals by the harmonic criterion are ignored, and the differential protection operates
immediately without any further delay. This makes the overall generator differential
protection very fast. Operation of this protection is signaled on the output of GENPDIF
(87G) as TRNSUNRE.

Sensitive negative sequence differential protection

The difference from the unrestrained negative sequence differential protection,


described above, is that the sensitive one does not require any pickup signal to be set. It
is enough that both of the negative sequence currents, contributions to the total
negative sequence differential current, which should be compared, are above the
setting IMinNegSeq. Thus, this protection can be made very sensitive. Further, an
intentional delay of one cycle is added in order not to inadvertently operate for some
eventual transients. Further, the sensitive negative sequence differential protection is
automatically disabled when the bias current exceeds 1.5 times the rated current of the
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1MRK 502 034-UUS -

protected generator. Operation of this protection is signaled on the output of the


function as TRNSENS.

5.3.6.4

Harmonic restrain
Harmonic restrain is the classical restrain method traditionally used with power
transformer differential protections. The goal there was to prevent an unwanted trip
command due to magnetizing inrush currents at switching operations, due to
magnetizing currents at over-voltages, or external faults. Harmonic restrain is just as
useful with Generator differential protection GENPDIF (87G). The harmonic analysis
is only executed in those phases, where pickup signals have been set.
There is no magnetizing inrush to a generator, but there may be some in case of shunt
reactors. The false initial differential currents of a shunt reactor have an appreciable
amount of higher harmonic currents.
At external faults dangerous false differential currents can arise for different reasons,
mainly due to saturation of one or more current transformers. The false differential
currents display in this case a considerable amount of higher harmonics, which can,
therefore, be used to prevent an unwanted trip of a healthy generator or shunt reactor.
If a fault is recognized as external by the internal/external fault discriminator, but
nevertheless one or more pickup signals have been set, the harmonic analysis is
initiated in the phases with pickup signal, as previously described. If all of the
instantaneous differential currents, where trip signals have been set, are free of higher
harmonics (that is the cross-block principle is imposed temporarily), a (minor) internal
fault is assumed to have happened simultaneously with a predominant external one. A
trip command is then allowed.

5.3.6.5

Cross-block logic scheme


The cross-block logic says that in order to issue a common trip command, the
harmonic contents in all phases with a pickup signal set (pickup = TRUE) must be
below the limit defined with the setting HarmDistLimit. In the opposite case, no trip
command will be issued.
The cross-block logic is active if the setting OpCrossBlock = Yes. By always using the
cross-block logic, the false trips can be prevented for external faults in cases where the
internal or external fault discriminator should for some reason fail to declare an
external fault. For internal faults, the higher frequency components of an instantaneous
differential current are most often relatively low, compared to the fundamental
frequency component. While for an external (heavy) fault, they can be relatively high.
For external faults with moderate fault currents, there can be little or no current
transformer saturation and only small false differential currents.

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Differential protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

5.3.6.6

Simplified block diagrams


The principle design of the generator differential protection is shown in figure 53.

Phasors IAN, IBN,ICN

Phasors IAT, IBT,ICT

Calculation
Idiff and Ibias

Magnitude
Idiff and Ibias

Diff.prot.
characteristic

TRIP
Signals

Pickup
phase
selective

PICKUP
Signals

BLOCK
Signals
Samples IAN, IBN,ICN

Samples IAT, IBT,ICT

Calculation
instantaneous
Idiff

Samples Idiff

Hamonic
analysis: DC,
2nd and 5th

Harm.
Block

Pickup
and trip
logic

INTFAULT
EXTFAULT
OPENCT
OPENCTAL

The sensitive protection is deactivated


above bias current > 150 % rated
current.
Phasor IAN (neg.seq.)

Phasor IAT (neg.seq.)

Calculation
negative
sequence
Idiff

Internal/
External Fault
Discriminator
and Sensitive
differential
protection

Analog
Outputs

Intern/
extern
Fault

en06000434-2_ansi.vsd
ANSI06000434 V2 EN

Figure 53:

Principle design of the generator differential protection

Simplified logic diagrams of the function is shown in figures below.

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Differential protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

BLKUNRES
a

IdUnre

AND

b>a

TRIPUNRE_A

IDMAG_A
IBIAS

ST_A

AND

BLOCK
BLKRES

AND
OR
ID_A

TRIPRES_A

NOT

2nd and
5th
Harmonic

BLK_A

Cross Block
from B or C

AND

Cross Block
To B or C

AND

OpCrossBlock=On

en07000020_ansi.vsd
ANSI07000020 V2 EN

Figure 54:

Generator differential logic diagram 1.

Internal/
External
Fault
discrimin
ator

Neg.Seq. Diff
Current
Contributions

Constant

INTFAULT

TRNSSENS

AND

OpNegSeqDiff=On
IBIAS

EXTFAULT

b>a

BLKNSSEN
BLKNSUNR
BLOCK

AND

PU_A
PU_B
PU_C

TRNSUNR

OR

en07000021_ansi.vsd
ANSI07000021 V2 EN

Figure 55:

Generator differential logic diagram 2.

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1MRK 502 034-UUS -

PU_A
PU_B
PU_C

OR

PICKUP

OR

BLKH

BLKH_A
BLKH_B
BLKH_C

en07000022_ansi.vsd
ANSI07000022 V1 EN

Figure 56:

Generator differential logic diagram 3.

TRIPRES_A
TRIPRES_B
TRIPRES_C

OR

TRIPRES

OR

TRIPUNRE

TRIPUNRE_A
TRIPUNRE_B
TRIPUNRE_C

TRIP

OR

TRNSSENS
TRNSUNR

en07000023_ansi.vsd
ANSI07000023 V1 EN

Figure 57:

5.3.7

Generator differential logic diagram 4.

Technical data
Table 33:

GENPDIF (87G)technical data

Function

Range or value

Accuracy

Reset ratio

> 90%

Unrestrained differential current limit

(1-50)p.u. of IBase

1.0% of set value

Base sensitivity function

(0.051.00)p.u. of

1.0% of In

Negative sequence current level

(0.020.2)p.u. of IBase

1.0% of In

Operate time, restrained function

40 ms typically at 0 to
2 x set level

Reset time, restrained function

40 ms typically at 2 to
0 x set level

IBase

Table continues on next page

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Differential protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Function

Range or value

Accuracy

Operate time, unrestrained function

20 ms typically at 0 to
5 x set level

Reset time, unrestrained function

40 ms typically at 5 to
0 x set level

Operate time, negative sequence


unrestrained function

15 ms typically at 0 to
5 x set level

Critical impulse time, unrestrained function

2 ms typically at 0 to 5
x set level

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Section 6
Impedance protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Section 6

Impedance protection

6.1

Underimpedance protection for generators and


transformers ZGPDIS (21G)

6.1.1

Identification
Function description
Underimpedance protection for
generators and transformers

6.1.2

IEC 61850
identification
ZGPDIS

IEC 60617
identification

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
21G

Functionality
The underimpedance protection for generators and transformers ZGPDIS(21G), has the
offset mho characteristic as a three zone back-up protection for detection of short
circuits in transformers and generators. The three zones have independent measuring
and settings that gives high flexibility for all types of applications.
A load encroachment characteristic is available for the third zone as shown in figure
58.

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Impedance protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

jX

Operation area

Operation area

Operation area

No operation area

No operation area

en07000117.vsd
IEC07000117 V1 EN

Figure 58:

6.1.3

Load encroachment influence on the offset mho characteristic

Function block
ZGPDIS (21G)
I3P*
V3P*
BLOCK
BLKZ
LDCND

TRIP
TRZ1
TRZ2
TRZ3
PICKUP
PU_Z1
PU_Z2
STZ3
ANSI10000122-1-en.vsd

ANSI10000122 V1 EN

Figure 59:

6.1.4

ZGPDIS (21G) function block

Signals
Table 34:
Name

ZGPDIS (21G) Input signals


Type

Default

Description

I3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Three phase group signal for current inputs

V3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Three phase group signal for voltage inputs

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

BLKZ

BOOLEAN

Block due to fuse failure

LDCND

INTEGER

56

External load condition (loop enabler)

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1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Table 35:

ZGPDIS (21G) Output signals

Name

6.1.5
Table 36:
Name

Type

Description

TRIP

BOOLEAN

Trip general

TRZ1

BOOLEAN

Trip zone 1

TRZ2

BOOLEAN

Trip zone 2

TRZ3

BOOLEAN

Trip zone 3

PICKUP

BOOLEAN

Start general

PU_Z1

BOOLEAN

Zone 1 Pick up

PU_Z2

BOOLEAN

Zone 2 pick up

Z3_PU

BOOLEAN

zone 3 pick up

Settings
ZGPDIS (21G) Group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Operation Disabled/Enabled

ImpedanceAng

0 - 90

Deg

80

Impedance angle in degrees, common for all


zones

OpModeZ1

Disable-Zone
Enable-Zone

Disable-Zone

Operation mode of zone 1

Z1Fwd

0.005 - 3000.000

ohm/p

0.001

30.000

Forward positive sequence impedance


setting for zone 1

Z1Rev

0.005 - 3000.000

ohm/p

0.001

30.000

Reverse positive sequence impedance


setting for zone 1

tZ1

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.100

Time delay to trip for zone 1

OpModeZ2

Disable-Zone
Enable-Zone

Disable-Zone

Operation mode of zone 2

Z2Fwd

0.005 - 3000.000

ohm/p

0.001

30.000

Forward positive sequence impedance


setting for zone 2

Z2Rev

0.005 - 3000.000

ohm/p

0.001

30.000

Reverse positive sequence impedance


setting for zone 2

tZ2

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.500

Time delay to trip for zone 2

OpModeZ3

Disable-Zone
Enable-Zone

Disable-Zone

Operation mode of zone 3

Z3Fwd

0.005 - 3000.000

ohm/p

0.001

30.000

Forward positive sequence impedance


setting for zone 3

Z3Rev

0.005 - 3000.000

ohm/p

0.001

30.000

Reverse positive sequence impedance


setting for zone 3

tZ3

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

1.000

Time delay to trip for zone 3

LoadEnchModZ3

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Load enchroachment mode Off/On of zone 3

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Impedance protection

Table 37:
Name
GlobalBaseSel

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

ZGPDIS (21G) Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)
1-6

Unit
-

Step

Default

6.1.6

Operation principle

6.1.6.1

Full scheme measurement

Description
Selection of one of the Global Base Value
groups

The execution of the different fault loops for phase-to-phase faults are executed in
parallel. The use of full scheme technique gives faster operation time compared to the
switched schemes that uses a pickup element to select correct voltage and current
depending on the fault type.

6.1.6.2

Impedance characteristic
The distance function consists of three zones. Each zone is self polarized offset mho
characteristics with reverse offset. The operating characteristic is in accordance to
figure 60.

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1MRK 502 034-UUS -

jx

Mho, zone3
Mho, zone2
Mho, zone1
R

IEC09000172_1_en.vsd
IEC09000172 V1 EN

Figure 60:

Mho, offset mho characteristic

Zone 3 can be equipped with a load encroachment function which cuts off a section of
the characteristic when enabled. The function is activated by setting the parameter
LoadEnchModZ3 to Enable. Enabling of the load encroachment function increases the
possibility to detect high resistive faults without interfering with the load impedance.
The algorithm for the load encroachment is located in the Load encroachment
(LEPDIS) function, where the relevant settings can be found. Information about load
encroachment from LEPDIS function to zone measurement is sent via the input signal
LDCND in binary format.

6.1.6.3

Basic operation characteristics


Each impedance zone can be Enabled and Disabled by setting OpModeZx (where x is
1-3 depending on selected zone).
The zone reach for phase-to-phase fault is set individually in polar coordinates. The
impedance is set by the parameter ZxFwd and ZxRev and the corresponding angles by
the parameter ImpedanceAng. The setting ImpedanceAng is common for all three zones.

131
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Impedance protection

Z1
F

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

ImpedanceAng

IEC10000176-1-en.vsd
IEC10000176 V1 EN

Figure 61:

Mho, offset mho characteristic for Zone 1 with setting parameters


Z1Fwd, Z1Rev and ImpedanceAng

The measuring loops can be time delayed individually by setting the parameter tZx
(where x is 1-3 depending on selected zone). To release the time delay, the operation
mode for the timers, x (where x is 1-3 depending on selected zone), has to be set to
Enabled. This is also the case for instantaneous operation.
The function are blocked in the following ways:

Activating of input BLOCK blocks the whole function.


Activating of the input BLKZ (fuse failure) blocks all output signals.

The activation of input signal BLKZ can be made by external or internal fuse failure
function.

6.1.6.4

Theory of operation
The mho algorithm is based on the phase comparison of a operating phasor and a
polarizing phasor. When the operating phasor leads the polarizing phasor by more than
90 degrees, the function operates and gives a trip output.

132
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Impedance protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

The characteristic for offset mho is a circle where two points on the circle are the
setting parameters ZxFwd and ZxRev. The vector ZxFwd in the impedance plane has
the settable angle ImpadenceAng and the angle for ZxRev is ImpedanceAng+180.
The condition for operation at phase-to-phase fault is that the angle between the two
compensated voltages Vcomp1 and Vcomp2 is between 90 and 270 (figure 62). The
angle will be 90 or 270 for fault location on the boundary of the circle.
The angle for A-to-B fault can be defined according to equation 30.
V - I AB ZxFwd
b = Arg

V - (- I AB Zx Re v)
(Equation 30)

ANSIEQUATION2320 V1 EN

where

is the VAB voltage

EQUATION1801 V1 EN

IABX
Vcomp2 = VAB - (IL1L 2 ZxFwd )
IAB ZxFwd

V
Vcomp2 = VL1L 2 + (IL1l2 ZxRev )

IABR

-IAB ZxRev
ANSI09000174_1_en.vsd
ANSI09000174 V1 EN

Figure 62:

Simplified offset mho characteristic and voltage vectors for phase A-toB fault.

Operation occurs if 90270.


133
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Impedance protection
6.1.7

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Technical data
Table 38:

ZGPDIS (21G) technical data

Function

Range or value

Accuracy

Number of zones

Forward positive sequence impedance

(0.005-3000.000) /
phase

2.0% static accuracy


Conditions:

Voltage range: (0.1-1.1) x


Vn
Current range: (0.5-30) x In
Angle: at 0 degrees and 85
degrees

Reverse positive sequence impedance

(0.005-3000.000) /
phase

Angle for positive sequence impedance,

(10-90) degrees

Timers

(0.000-60.000) s

0.5% 10 ms

Operate time

55 ms typically

Reset ratio

105% typically

6.2

Loss of excitation LEXPDIS (40)

6.2.1

Identification
Function description
Loss of excitation

IEC 61850
identification

IEC 60617
identification

LEXPDIS

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
40

<
SYMBOL-MM V1 EN

6.2.2

Functionality
There are limits for the low excitation of a synchronous machine. A reduction of the
excitation current weakens the coupling between the rotor and the stator. The machine
may lose the synchronism and start to operate like an induction machine. Then, the
reactive power consumption will increase. Even if the machine does not loose
synchronism it may not be acceptable to operate in this state for a long time. Reduction
of excitation increases the generation of heat in the end region of the synchronous
machine. The local heating may damage the insulation of the stator winding and the
iron core.

134
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Section 6
Impedance protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

To prevent damages to the generator it should be tripped when excitation becomes too
low.

6.2.3

Function block
LEXPDIS (40)
I3P*
V3P*
BLOCK
BLKTRZ1
BLKTRZ2

TRIP
TRZ1
TRZ2
PICKUP
PU_Z1
PU_Z2
XOHM
XPERCENT
ROHM
RPERCENT
ANSI0700031-1-en.vsd

ANSI0700031 V1 EN

Figure 63:

6.2.4

LEXPDIS (40) function block

Signals
Table 39:
Name

LEXPDIS (40) Input signals


Type

Default

Description

I3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Current group connection

V3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Voltage group connection

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

BLKTRZ1

BOOLEAN

Block trip of zone Z1

BLKTRZ2

BOOLEAN

Block trip of zone Z2

Table 40:
Name

LEXPDIS (40) Output signals


Type

Description

TRIP

BOOLEAN

Common trip signal

TRZ1

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from impedance zone Z1

TRZ2

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from impedance zone Z2

PICKUP

BOOLEAN

Common start signal

PU_Z1

BOOLEAN

Pickup signal from impedance zone Z1

PU_Z2

BOOLEAN

Pickup signal from impedance zone Z2

XOHM

REAL

Reactance in Primary Ohms

XPERCENT

REAL

Reactance in percent of Zbase

ROHM

REAL

Resistance in Primary Ohms

RPERCENT

REAL

Resistance in percent of Zbase


135

Technical Manual

Section 6
Impedance protection
6.2.5
Table 41:
Name

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Settings
LEXPDIS (40) Group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Disable/Enable Operation

OperationZ1

Disabled
Enabled

Enabled

Operation Disable/Enable zone Z1

XoffsetZ1

-1000.00 - 1000.00

0.01

-10.00

Offset of Z1 circle top point along X axis in %


of Zbase

Z1diameter

0.01 - 3000.00

0.01

100.00

Diameter of imedance circle for Z1 in % of


Zbase

tZ1

0.00 - 6000.00

0.01

0.01

Trip time delay for Z1

OperationZ2

Disabled
Enabled

Enabled

Operation Disable/Enable zone Z2

XoffsetZ2

-1000.00 - 1000.00

0.01

-10.00

Offset of Z2 circle top point along X axis in %


of Zbase

Z2diameter

0.01 - 3000.00

0.01

200.00

Diameter of imedance circle for Z2 in % of


Zbase

tZ2

0.00 - 6000.00

0.01

1.00

Trip time delay for Z2

Step

Default

Table 42:
Name

LEXPDIS (40) Group settings (advanced)


Values (Range)

Unit

Description

DirSuperv

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Operation Off/On for additional directional


criterion

XoffsetDirLine

-1000.00 - 3000.00

0.01

0.00

Offset of directional line along X axis in % of


Zbase

DirAngle

-180.0 - 180.0

Deg

0.1

-13.0

Angle between directional line and R-axis in


degrees

Step

Default

Table 43:
Name
GlobalBaseSel

6.2.6

LEXPDIS (40) Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)
1-6

Unit
-

Description
Selection of one of the Global Base Value
groups

Operation principle
The Loss of excitation (LEXPDIS ,40) protection in the IED measures the apparent
positive sequence impedance seen out from the generator.

136
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Section 6
Impedance protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Measured mode

Zposseq

Measured apparent impedance

Vposseq
I posseq

EQUATION2051-ANSI V1 EN

(Equation 31)

There are three characteristics in LEXPDIS (40) protection as shown in figure 64.
Naimly:

Offset mho circle for Z1


Offset mho circle for Z2
Directional blinder
X

UnderexitationProtection
protection
Underexcitation
Restrainarea
area
Restrain
R

R
Directional
blinder

Z1, Fast zone


Z2, Slow zone
IEC06000455-2-en.vsd
IEC06000455 V2 EN

Figure 64:

Three characteristics in LEXPDIS (40) protection

When the apparent impedance reaches the zone Z1 this zone will operate, normally
with a short delay. The zone is related to the dynamic stability of the generator.
When the apparent impedance reaches the zone Z2 this zone will operate, normally
with a longer delay. The zone is related to the static stability of the generator.
LEXPDIS (40) protection also has a directional blinder (supervision). See figure 64.

137
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Section 6
Impedance protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

In LEXPDIS (40) function the zone measurement is done as shown in figure 65.
Offset

R
XoffsetZ1

Z1diameter

Z (apparent impedance)

Z1 = Z - (XoffsetZ1 +
Z1diameter/2)

Z1 or Z2

en06000456-2.vsd
IEC06000456 V2 EN

Figure 65:

Zone measurement in LEXPDIS (40) protection function

The impedance Z1 is constructed out from the measured apparent impedance Z and the
impedance corresponding to the centre point of the impedance characteristic (Z1 or
Z2). If the magnitude of this impedance is less than the radius (diameter/2) of the
characteristic, this part of the protection will operate.
If the directional restrain is set off the impedance zone operation will start the
appropriate timer and LEXPDIS (40) will trip after the set delay (tZ1 or tZ2).
If the directional restrain is set On the directional release function must also operate to
enable operation. A new impedance is constructed as XoffsetDirLine. If the phase angle
of this impedance is less than the set DirAngle LEXPDIS (40) function will be
released, see figure 66.

138
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Section 6
Impedance protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Underexcitation Protection
Restrain area

XoffsetDirLine
DirAngle

Z (apparent impedance)

en06000457.vsd
IEC06000457 V1 EN

Figure 66:

Impedance constructed as XoffsetDirLine in LEXPDIS (40) protection

LEXPDIS (40) function is schematically described in figure 67.

139
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Section 6
Impedance protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Positive
sequence
current
phasor
Positive
sequence
voltage
phasor

Apparent
impedance
calculation

Z in
Z1 char.

AND

Z in
Z2 char.

AND

pickupZ1

tZ1
0

TripZ1

pickupZ2

tZ2
0

TripZ2

Dir.
Restrain
OR

Dir.Restrain Enabled

en060004582_ansi.vsd
ANSI06000458 V2 EN

Figure 67:

6.2.7

Simplified logic diagram of LEXPDIS (40) protection

Technical data
Table 44:

LEXPDIS (40) technical data

Function

Range or value

Accuracy

X offset of Mho top point

(1000.001000.00)% of ZBase

2.0% of Vn/In

Diameter of Mho circle

(0.003000.00)% of ZBase

2.0% of Vn/In

Timers

(0.006000.00) s

0.5% 25 ms

6.3

Out-of-step protection OOSPPAM (78)

6.3.1

Identification
Function description
Out-of-step protection

IEC 61850
identification

IEC 60617
identification

OOSPPAM

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
78

<

140
Technical Manual

Section 6
Impedance protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

6.3.2

Functionality
Out-of-step protection (OOSPPAM, 78) function in the IED can be used both for
generator protection application as well as, line protection applications.
The main purpose of the OOSPPAM, 78 function is to detect, evaluate, and take the
required action during pole slipping occurrences in the power system.
The OOSPPAM, 78 function detects pole slip conditions and trips the generator as fast
as possible, after the first pole-slip if the center of oscillation is found to be in zone 1,
which normally includes the generator and its step-up power transformer. If the center
of oscillation is found to be further out in the power system, in zone 2, more than one
pole-slip is usually allowed before the generator-transformer unit is disconnected. If
there are several out-of-step relays in the power system, then the one which finds the
center of oscillation in its zone 1 should operate first.

6.3.3

Function block
OOSPPAM (78)
I3P*
TRIP
V3P*
TRIPZ1
BLOCK
TRIPZ2
BLKGEN
RI
BLKMOT
GENMODE
EXTZONE1
MOTMODE
R
X
ANSI10000106-1-en.vsd
ANSI10000106 V2 EN

Figure 68:

6.3.4

OOSPPAM (78) function block

Signals
Table 45:
Name

OOSPPAM (78) Input signals


Type

Default

Description

I3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Group connection for three-phase current input

V3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Group connection for three-phase voltage input

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

BLKGEN

BOOLEAN

Block operation in generating direction

BLKMOT

BOOLEAN

Block operation in motor direction

EXTZONE1

BOOLEAN

Extension of zone1 reach to zone2 settings

141
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Section 6
Impedance protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Table 46:

OOSPPAM (78) Output signals

Name

6.3.5
Table 47:
Name

Type

Description

TRIP

BOOLEAN

Common trip, issued when either zone 1 or zone 2


give trip

TRIPZ1

BOOLEAN

Zone 1 trip

TRIPZ2

BOOLEAN

Zone 2 trip

RI

BOOLEAN

Set when measured impedance enters lens


characteristic

GENMODE

BOOLEAN

Generator rotates faster than the system during pole slip

MOTMODE

BOOLEAN

Generator rotates slower than the system during pole


slip

REAL

Real part of measured positive-sequence impedance


% of VBase/(sqrt(3)*IBase)

REAL

Imaginary part of measured positive-seq impedance %


of VBase/(sqrt(3)*IBase)

Settings
OOSPPAM (78) Group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Operation On / Off

OperationZ1

Disabled
Enabled

Enabled

Operation Zone1 On / Off

ReachZ1

1.00 - 100.00

0.01

50.00

Percentage part of total forward impedance;


defines Z1 reach

OperationZ2

Disabled
Enabled

Enabled

Operation Zone2 On / Off

tBreaker

0.000 - 1.000

0.001

0.000

Breaker opening time; use default 0s value if


it is unknown

Table 48:
Name

OOSPPAM (78) Group settings (advanced)


Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

NoOfSlipsZ1

1 - 20

Number of pole-slips in zone 1 required to get


zone 1 trip

NoOfSlipsZ2

1 - 60

Number of pole-slips in zone 2 required to get


zone 2 trip

tReset

1.000 - 60.000

0.001

6.000

Time without any slip required to completely


reset function

142
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Impedance protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Table 49:
Name

OOSPPAM (78) Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

GlobalBaseSel

1-6

Selection of one of the Global Base Value


Groups

ForwardR

0.00 - 1000.00

% Zb

0.01

1.00

Real part of total forward impedance for Z2, in


% of VBase/(sqrt(3)*IBase)

ForwardX

0.00 - 1000.00

% Zb

0.01

10.00

Imag. part of total forward impedance for Z2,


in % of VBase/(sqrt(3)*IBase)

ReverseR

0.00 - 1000.00

% Zb

0.01

1.00

Real part of source impedance behind relay,


in % of VBase/(sqrt(3)*IBase)

ReverseX

0.00 - 1000.00

% Zb

0.01

10.00

Imag. part of source impedance behind relay,


in % of VBase/(sqrt(3)*IBase)

Table 50:
Name

OOSPPAM (78) Non group settings (advanced)


Step

Default

pick up Angle

90.0 - 130.0

Deg

0.1

110.0

Angle between two rotors to get the pick up


signal, in deg

TripAngle

15.0 - 90.0

Deg

0.1

60.0

Maximum rotor angle to allow trip signals, in


deg

6.3.6

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

Operation principle
General
Under balanced and stable conditions, a generator operates with a constant rotor angle
(power angle), delivering to the power system active electrical power which is
approximately equal to the mechanical input on the generator axis. The currents and
voltages are constant and stable. An out-of-step condition is characterized by periodic
changes of the rotor angle, that is, the synchronizing power, rotational speed, currents
and voltages. When displayed in the complex impedance plane, these changes are
characterized by a cyclic change in the complex load impedance Z(R, X) as measured
at the terminals of the generator, or at the terminals of a power line connecting two
power sub-systems. This is shown in Figure 69.

143
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Section 6
Impedance protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

trajectory

1.5

of Z(R, X)
The 2nd
pole slip
occurred

Imaginary part (X) of Z in Ohms

The 1st
pole slip
occurred

Pre-disturbance
RE
normal load
- - - --------- - - Z(R, X)
- - 3 ------ ------ - - Zone 2
--- 2 1 --0
--^ --^ ^ ^ ^ ---^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ---^ -^- ^ ^ ^ --^
-Zone 1
------- relay
-R in Ohms
--limit of reach -----lens determined
- - ----- -----0- - pre-disturbance Z(R, X)
- by the setting - - - - -------- - - - - 1 Z(R, X) under 3-phase fault
Pickup Angle = 120 SE
2 Z(R, X) when fault cleared

0.5

-0.5

-1

to the 3rd
pole-slip

X in Ohms

-1.5

-1

-0.5

Z when pole-slip declared

0
0.5
Real part (R) of Z in Ohms

1.5

ANSI10000109-1-en.vsd

ANSI10000109 V1 EN

Figure 69:

Loci of the complex impedance Z(R, X) for a typical case of generator


losing step after a short circuit that was not cleared fast enough

Under typical, normal load conditions, when the protected generator supplies the active
and the reactive power to the power system, the complex impedance Z(R, X) is in the
1st quadrant, point 0 in Figure 69. One can see that under a three-phase fault
conditions, the centre of oscillation is at the point of fault, point 1, which is logical, as
all three voltages are zero or near zero at that point. Under the fault conditions the
generator accelerated and when the fault has finally been cleared, the complex
impedance Z(R, X) jumped to the point 2. By that time, the generator has already lost
its step, Z(R, X) continues it way from the right-hand side to the left-hand side, and the
1st pole-slip cannot be avoided. If the generator is not immediately disconnected, it
then continues pole-slipping see Figure 69, where two pole-slips (two pole-slip cycles)
are shown. Under out-of-step conditions, the centre of oscillation is where the locus of
the complex impedance Z(R, X) crosses the (impedance) line connecting the points SE
(Sending End), and RE (Receiving End). The point on the SE RE line where the
trajectory of Z(R, X) crosses the impedance line can change with time and is mainly a
function of the internal induced voltages at both ends of the equivalent two-machine
system, that is, at points SE and RE.
Measurement of the magnitude, direction and rate-of-change of load impedance
relative to a generators terminals provides a convenient and generally reliable means
of detecting whether machines are out-of-phase and pole-slipping is taking place.
Measurement of the rotor (power) angle is important as well.

144
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Section 6
Impedance protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Rotor (power) angle can be thought of as the angle between the two lines, connecting
point 0 in Figure 69, that is, Z(R, X) under normal load, with the points SE and RE,
respectively. These two lines are not shown in Figure 69. Normal values of the power
angle, that is, under stable, steady-state, load conditions are from 30 to 60 electrical
degrees. It can be observed in Figure 70 that the angle reaches 180 degrees when the
complex impedance Z(R, X) crosses the impedance line SE RE. It then changes the
sign, and continues from -180 degrees to 0 degrees, and so on. Figure 70 shows the
rotor (power) angle and the magnitude of Z(R, X) against the time for the case from
Figure 69.

Impedance Z in Ohm and rotor angle in radian

4
3

|Z| in Ohms
angle in rad

normal
load

Z(R, X) under fault lies


on the impedance line
or near (for 3-ph faults)

2
1

rotor (power)
angle
|Z|

0
fault 500 ms
fault
occurrs

-1
-2
-3
-4

Under 3-phase fault


condition rotor angle
of app. 180 degrees
is measured ...
Z(R,X) crossed
the impedance line, Z-line,
connecting points SE - RE

200

400

600
800
1000
Time in milliseconds

1200

1400

IEC10000110-1-en.vsd
IEC10000110 V1 EN

Figure 70:

Rotor (power) angle and magnitude of the complex impedance Z(R, X)


against the time

In order to be able to fully understand the principles of OOSPPAM (78), a stable case,
that is, a case where the disturbance does not make a generator to go out-of-step, must
be shown.

145
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Section 6
Impedance protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

SE

Imaginary part (X) of Z in Ohms

0.8

relay

X [Ohm]

0.4
0.2
0
-0.2
-0.4
-0.6

this circle forms


the right-hand side
edge of the lens

-0.8
-1

Z(R,X) 20 ms
after line out

fault

- - - - - RE
- ----- ----- 4 - ---zone 2 - ------ 2
---1
------ fault
-3
X-line ^ -^ ^ ^ ^ ---^ ^
^
^
^ ^ ^ ^ ^-- ^ ^ ^ -^
----- Z-line
--------limit of
-- relay
lens -reach
-110 -----zone 1- ------------ ------- ---- - -- - - -- - SE

0.6

-1

RE

-0.5

pre-fault
Z(R,X)
5
0

0 pre-fault Z(R, X)
3 Z(R, X) under fault
5 Z 20 ms after line out
6 pow er line reclosed

0
0.5
Real part (R) of Z in Ohms

1.5

IEC10000111-1-en.vsd

IEC10000111 V1 EN

Figure 71:

A stable case where the disturbance does not make the generator to
go out-of-step

It shall be observed that in a stable case, as shown in Figure 71, where the disturbance
does not cause the generator to lose step, the complex impedance Z(R, X) exits the lens
characteristic on the same side (point 4) it entered it (point 2), and never re-enters the
lens. In a stable case, where the protected generator remains in synchronism, the
complex impedance returns to quadrant 1, and, after the oscillations fade, it returns to
the initial normal load position (point 0), or near.

6.3.6.1

Lens characteristic
A precondition in order to be able to construct a suitable lens characteristic is that the
power system in which OOSPPAM (78) is installed, is modeled as a two-machine
equivalent system, or as a single machine infinite bus equivalent power system. Then
the impedances from the position of OOSPPAM (78) in the direction of the normal
load flow (that is from the measurement point to the remote system) can be taken as
forward. The lens characteristic, as shown in Figure 69 and Figure 71, is obtained so
that two equal in size but differently offset Mho characteristics are set to overlap. The
resultant lens characteristic is the loci of constant rotor (power) angle. An advantage of
this characteristic is that the lens is the loci of complex impedance Z(R, X) for which
the rotor (power) angle is constant, for example 110 degrees or 120 degrees; these are
the angles where stability problems are very likely. Figure 72 illustrates construction of
the lens characteristic for a power system.

146
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Section 6
Impedance protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

X
Position of the OOS
- RE
- - relay is the origin of
- -- - -- ---the R - X plane
----- Ze
- Zone 2
--X-line
----- Zline
determined
-by the ^ ^- ^
---^ ^ ^- ^
^ ^ ^ ^
setting
^ ^ ^ --- ^
--^ ^ ^ReachZ1 ---Ztr
R
---- Zone 1 -relay
-120 -- Z(R,X) ---- Z-line --Zgen
----limit-of-reach --- Lens is -the locus
-circle depends on-of constant
rotor (power)
----the position of the angle,
e.g. 120.
--- - - points SE and RE
- - - - - - - - - Lens' width determined
SE
by the setting Pickup Angle

0.6

Imaginary part (X) of Z in Ohms

0.4
0.2
0
-0.2
-0.4
-0.6

-0.8

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
Real part (R) of Z in Ohms

0.6

0.8

ANSI10000112-1-en.vsd

ANSI10000112 V1 EN

Figure 72:

Construction of the lens characteristic for a power system

ReverseZ

ForwardZ(ForwardR, ForwardX)

Zgen(Rgen, Xgen)

Ztr(Rtr, Xtr)

13.8 kV

Zeq(Req, Xeq)

Infinite power
system

Transformer
13.8 / 220 kV

Generator
13.8 kV

Zline(Rline, Xline)

Power line
220 kV

System
equivalent

SE
REG

RE
Out-Of-Step
protection
OOSPPAM

ReverseR = Rg
ReverseX = Xd

ForwardR = Rtr + Rline + Req


ForwardX = Xtr + Xline + Xeq

All impedances must be referred to the generator voltage 13.8 kV


IEC10000113-1-en.vsd

IEC10000113 V1 EN

Figure 73:

Example of an actual power system

To be able to automatically construct the lens characteristic for a system shown in


Figure 73, the actual power system must be modeled as a two-machine equivalent
system, or as a single machine infinite bus equivalent system, the following
information is necessary: Zgen(Rgen, Xgen), Ztr(Rtr, Xtr), Zline(Rline, Xline),
147
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Section 6
Impedance protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Zeq(Req, Xeq), and the setting PickupAngle, for example 120 degrees. All impedances
must be referred to the voltage level where the out-of-step protection relay is placed; in
this case shown in Figure 73 this is the generator nominal voltage level. The
impedances from the position of the out-of-step protection in the direction of the
normal load flow can be taken as forward.
The out-of-step relay, as in Figure 73 looks into the system and the impedances in that
direction are forward impedances:

ForwardX = Xtr + Xline + Xeq (All values referred to generator voltage)


ForwardR = Rtr + Rline + Req (All values referred to generator voltage)

The impedances that can be measured in the reverse direction are:

ReverseX = Xd' (Generator transient reactance suitable for this protection)


ReverseR = Rg (Relatively very small, can often be neglected)

Resistances are much smaller than reactances, but can in general not be neglected. The
ratio (ForwardX + ReverseX) / (ForwardR + ReverseR) determines the inclination of
the Z-line, connecting the point SE (Sending End) and RE (Receiving End), and is
typically approximately 85 degrees. While the length of the Z-line depends on the
values of ForwardX, ReverseX, ForwardR, and ReverseR, the width of the lens is a
function of the setting PickupAngle.The lens is broader for smaller values of the
PickupAngle, and becomes a circle for PickupAngle = 90 degrees.
When the complex impedance Z(R, X) enters the lens, trouble is imminent, and a
pickup signal is issued. The angle recommended to form the lens is 110 or 120 degrees,
because it is this rotor (power) angle where real trouble with dynamic stability usually
begins. Rotor (power) angle 120 degrees is sometimes called the angle of no return
because if this angle is reached under generator swings, the generator is most likely to
lose step.

6.3.6.2

Detecting an out-of-step condition


An out-of-step condition is characterized by periodic changes of the rotor angle,
synchronizing power, rotational speed, currents and voltages. When displayed in the
complex impedance plane, this changes are characterized by a cyclic change in the
complex load impedance Z(R, X) as measured at the terminals of the generator, or at
the terminals of a power line connecting two power sub-systems. This was shown in
Figure 69. When a synchronous machine is out-of-step, pole-slips occur. To recognize
a pole-slip, the complex impedance Z(R,X) must traverse the lens from right to left in
case of a generator and in the opposite direction in case of a motor. Another
requirement is that the travel across the lens takes not less than a specific minimum
traverse time, typically 40 60 milliseconds. (To require that the impedance Z(R, X)
travels through each of the two halves of the lens for, for example 25 milliseconds,

148
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Section 6
Impedance protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

results in a tendency to miss the 1st pole-slip, that one immediately after the fault has
been cleared.) The above timing is used to discriminate a fault from an out-of-step
condition. In Figure 69, some important points on the trajectory of Z(R, X) are
designated. Point 0: the pre-fault, normal load Z(R, X). Point 1: impedance Z under a
three-phase, low-resistance fault. Z lies practically on, or very near, the Z-line.
Transition of the measured Z from point 0 to point 1 takes app. 20 ms, due to Fourier
filters. Point 2: Z immediately after the fault has been cleared. Transition of the
measured Z from point 1 to point 2 takes approximately 20 ms, due to Fourier filters.
The complex impedance then travels in the direction from the right to the left, and exits
the lens on the opposite side. When the complex impedance exits the lens on the side
opposite to its entrance, the 1st pole-slip has already occurred and more pole-slips can
be expected if the generator is not disconnected. Figure 69 shows two pole-slips.
Figures like Figure 69 and Figure 71 are always possible to draw by means of the
analogue output data from the pole-slip function, and are of great help with eventual
investigations of the performance of the out-of-step function.

6.3.6.3

Maximum slip frequency


The maximum slip frequency fsMax in Hz where a pole-slip can be detected when
using a specific value of the setting (parameter) PickupAngle (which determines the
width of the lens characteristic) is as follows. A parameter in this calculation routine is
the value of the minimum traverse time, traverseTimeMin. The minimum traverse time
determines the minimum time, the complex impedance Z(R, X) must travel through the
lens from one side to the other, in order to recognize that a pole-slip has occurred. The
value of the internal constant traverseTimeMin is a function of the set PickupAngle.For
values of PickupAngle <= 110, traverseTimeMin = 50 ms. For values PickupAngle >
110, traverseTimeMin = 40 ms. The expression which relates the maximum slip
frequency fsMax and the traverseTimeMin is as follows:
fsMax [ Hz ]

PickupAngle []
1000
1.000

traverseTimeMin [ ms ]
180 []

(Equation 32)

ANSIEQUATION2319 V1 EN

The maximum slip frequency fsMax for traverseTimeMin = 50 ms is:


PickupAngle = 90 fsMax = 20 0.500 = 10.000 Hz
PickupAngle = 100 fsMax = 20 0.444 = 8.888 Hz
PickupAngle = 110 fsMax = 20 0.388 = 7.777 Hz

(default 110)

The maximum slip frequency fsMax for traverseTimeMin = 40 ms is:


PickupAngle = 120 fsMax = 25 0.333 = 8.333 Hz

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Impedance protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

PickupAngle = 130 fsMax = 25 0.277 = 6.944 Hz

The minimum value of fsMax is 6.994 Hz. When PickupAngle = 110degrees, fsMax =
7.777Hz. This implies, that the default PickupAngle = 110 degrees covers 90% of cases
as, the typical final slip frequency is between 2 - 5Hz. In practice, however, before the
slip frequency for example, 7.777 Hz is reached, at least three pole-slips have occurred.
The exact instantaneous slip-frequency expressed in Hz (corresponding to number of
pole slips per second) is difficult to calculate. The easiest and most exact method is to
measure time between two successive pole slips. This means that, the instantaneous slipfrequency is measured only after the second pole-slip, if the protected machine is not
already disconnected after the first pole-slip. The measured value of slipsPerSecond
(SLIPFREQ) is equal to the average slip-frequency of the machine between the last
two successive pole-slips.

6.3.6.4

Taking care of the circuit breaker safety


Although out-of-step events are relatively rare, the out-of-step protection should take
care of the circuit breaker safety. The electro-mechanical stress to which the breaker is
exposed shall be minimized. The maximum currents flowing under out-of-step
conditions can be even greater that those for a three-phase short circuit on generator
terminals; see Figure 75. The currents flowing are highest at rotor angle 180 degrees,
and smallest at 0 degrees, where relatively small currents flow. To open the circuit
breaker at 180 degrees, when not only the currents are highest, but the two internal
(that is, induced) voltages at both ends are in opposition, could be fatal for the circuit
breaker. There are two methods available to a user in order to minimize the stress, of
which the 2nd one is more advanced.

The first method


The circuit breaker is only allowed to break the current when the rotor angle has
become less than the set value TripAngle, on its way to 0 electrical degrees. A
recommended value for the setting TripAngle is 90 degrees or less, for example 60
degrees. Figure 74 illustrates the case with TripAngle = 90 degrees. The offset Mho
circle represents loci of the complex impedance Z(R, X) for which the rotor (power)
angle is 90 degrees. If the circuit breaker must not open before the rotor angle has
reached 90 degrees on its way towards 0 degrees, then it is clear that the circle delimits
the R X plane into a no trip and a trip region. For TripAngle = 90 degrees, the
trip command will be issued at point 3 when the complex impedance Z(R, X) exits the
circle. By that time the relay logic had already ascertained the loss of step, and the
general decision to trip the generator has already been taken.

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Section 6
Impedance protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

The second method


This method is more exact. If the break-time of the circuit breaker is known, (and
specified as the setting tBreaker) than it is possible to initiate a trip (break) command
almost exactly tBreaker milliseconds before the rotor (power) angle reaches 0 degrees,
where the currents are at their minimum possible values. The breaker contacts will
open at almost exactly 0 degrees, as illustrated in Figure 75 for tBreaker = 0.060 s. The
point in time when the breaker opening process must be initiated is estimated by
solving on-line the so called synchronizer differential equation. Note that if tBreaker
is left on the initial (default) value, which is zero (0), then the alternative setting
TripAngle will decide when the trip command will be given. If specified tBreaker > 0,
for example tBreaker = 0.040 second, then automatically, the TripAngle will be
ignored and the second, more exact method applied.

Imaginary part (X) of Z in Ohms

0.6

trip
region

0.4

0.2

3
here rotor
angle
is -90

no trip
region
inside
circle

-0.2

-0.4

outside the
circle is the trip
region for
TripAngle <= 90
-0.6

-0.4

X[Ohm]

RE - Receiving End (infinite bus)


loci of Z(R, X)

no trip
region

1
2

no trip
region

rotor angle
= 180

relay

here
rotor angle
is +90

R[Ohm]

Z - line connects
points SE & RE

this circle

is loci of
the rotor
angle = 90

SE - Sending End (generator)


-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
Real part (R) of Z in Ohms

0.6

0.8

IEC10000114-1-en.vsd
IEC10000114 V1 EN

Figure 74:

The imaginary offset Mho circle represents loci of the impedance Z(R,
X) for which the rotor angle is 90 degrees

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Section 6
Impedance protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Current in kA, trip command to CB, rotor angle in rad

35

very high currents due


to out-of-step condition

pos. seq. current in kA


trip command to CB

30

rotor angle in radian


fault cleared

25

2nd

20

current increases under


fault conditions
current decreases

15
fault
occurs

10
5

trip command
issued here
normal load current

min. current
tBreaker = 60 ms

rotor angle

0
-5

after 1st
pole slip

angle towards 0
0

200

400
600
800
Time in milliseconds

1000

1200

IEC10000115-1-en.vsd
IEC10000115 V1 EN

Figure 75:

6.3.6.5

Trip initiation when the break-time of the circuit breaker is known

Design
When the complex impedance Z(R, X) enters the limit-of-reach region, the algorithm
determines the direction impedance Z moves, that is, the direction the lens is traversed
and measures the time taken to traverse the lens from one side to the other. If the
traverse time is more than the limit 40 or 50 ms, a pole-slip is declared. If the complex
impedance Z(R, X) exits the lens on the same side it entered, then it is a stable case and
the protected machine is still in synchronism. If a pole-slip has been detected, then it is
determined in which zone the centre of oscillation is located. If the number of actual poleslips exceeds the maximum number of allowed pole-slips in either of the zones, a trip
command is issued taking care of the circuit breaker safety.

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Impedance protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

UPSRE
UPSIM
UPSMAG
IPSRE
IPSIM

R
X

Calculation of
R and X parts
of the complex
positivesequence
impedance
Z(R, X)

R
X

Z(R,X)
Z(R,X)
within limit of
reach?

NO

Return

YES
Z(R,X)
within lens
characteristic?

UCOSPHI
NO

ROTORANG

Function alert

SLIPFREQ

YES
LEFT
Motor losing
step ?

Calculation of
positive-sequence
active power P,
reactive power Q,
rotor angle
ROTORANG
and
UCOSPHI

Z(R,X)
entered lens
from?

GEBMODE
Z(R,X)
exited lens
on the left-hand
side?
Generator losing
step ?
YES
RIGHT

Was
traverse time
more than
50 ms?

MOTMODE

NO

NO

YES (pole-slip!)

Q
UCOSPHI

ZONE 2

ROTORANG

>= 1

Number
of pole-slips
exceeded in
a zone?

TRIP

NO

ZONE 1

Open
circuit
breaker
safely

TRIPZ1
TRIPZ2

IEC10000116-1-en.vsd
IEC10000116 V1 EN

Figure 76:

6.3.7

OOSPPAM (78) Simplified function block

Technical data
Table 51:
Function

OOSPPAM (78) technical data


Range or value

Accuracy

Remark

VOLTAGE

0.1 2.0 VBase

Better than 1.5 % of true


value or 1 % of rated,
whichever is greater

Better than 0.5 % at nominal


voltage

CURRENT

0.1 5.0 IBase

Better than 1.0 % of true


value or 1 % of rated,
whichever is greater

Better than 0.5 % at nominal


current

0.1 2.0 VBase,


0.1 5.0 IBase

Better than 3.0 % of true


value or 3.0 % of Zbase,
whichever is greater

Better than 1 % at nominal


current and voltage

0.1 2.0 VBase,


0.1 5.0 IBase

Better than 3.0 % of true


value or 3.0 % of Zbase,
whichever is greater

Better than 1 % at nominal


current and voltage

0.1 2.0 VBase,


0.1 5.0 IBase

Better than 3.0 % of true


value or 3 % of rated S,
whichever is greater

Better than 1 % at nominal


current and voltage

Table continues on next page

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Section 6
Impedance protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Function

Range or value

0.1 2.0 VBase,


0.1 5.0 IBase

ROTORANG

Accuracy

Better than 1 % at nominal


current and voltage

Better than 6 degrees

Better than 3 deg at nominal


current and voltage
Under steady-state conditions
with constant slip

SLIPFREQ

0.1 10 Hz

Better than 50 mHz

UCOSPHI

0.1 2.0 VBase,


0.1 5.0 IBase

Better than 3.0 % of true


value or 3.0 % of VBase,
whichever is greater

6.4

Load encroachment LEPDIS

6.4.1

Identification
Function description

IEC 61850
identification

Load encroachment

6.4.2

Remark

Better than 3.0 % of true


value or 3 % of rated S,
whichever is greater

LEPDIS

IEC 60617
identification
-

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
-

Functionality
Heavy load transfer is common in many power networks and may make fault
resistance coverage difficult to achieve. In such a case, Load encroachment (LEPDIS)
function can be used to prevent operation of the of the underimpedance measuring
zones during heavy loads.

6.4.3

Function block
LEPDIS
I3P*
V3P*
BLOCK

DLECND

ANSI10000119-1-en.vsd
ANSI10000119 V1 EN

Figure 77:

LEPDIS function block

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Section 6
Impedance protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

6.4.4

Signals
Table 52:

LEPDIS Input signals

Name

Type

Default

Description

I3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Three phase group signal for current inputs

V3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Three phase group signal for voltage inputs

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

Table 53:

LEPDIS Output signals

Name

Type

DLECND

6.4.5

Settings

Table 54:

LEPDIS Group settings (basic)

Description

INTEGER

Unit

Binary coded starts from load encroachment

Name

Values (Range)

Step

Default

RLd

0.05 - 3000.00

ohm/p

0.01

1.00

Load resistive reach in ohm/phase

LdAngle

5 - 85

Deg

38

Load encroachment inclination of load


angular sector

Table 55:

LEPDIS Non group settings (basic)

Name

Values (Range)

GlobalBaseSel

6.4.6

1-6

Unit
-

Step
1

Default
1

Description

Description
Selection of one of the Global Base Value
groups

Operation principle
The basic impedance algorithm for the operation of Load encroachment LEPDIS is the
same as for the distance zone measuring function. LEPDIS includes three impedance
measuring loops intended for phase-to-phase as well as for three-phase faults.
The difference compared to the distance zone measuring function is in the combination
of measuring quantities (currents and voltages) for different types of faults.
The current pickup condition DLECND is based on the following criteria:
1.
2.

Residual current criteria


Load encroachment characteristic
155

Technical Manual

Section 6
Impedance protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

The DLECND output is non-directional.

6.4.6.1

Load encroachment
Each of the three measuring loops has its own load encroachment characteristic based
on the corresponding loop impedance. The load encroachment functionality is always
active but can be switched off by selecting a high setting.
The outline of the characteristic is presented in figure 78. As illustrated, the resistive
blinders and the angle of the sectors are the same in all four quadrants.
X

RLd
LdAngle

LdAngle

LdAngle

RLd

LdAngle

ANSI10000144-1-en.vsd
ANSI10000144 V1 EN

Figure 78:

Characteristic of load encroachment function

The reach is limited by the minimum operation current and the distance measuring zones.

6.4.6.2

Simplified logic diagrams


Figure 79 schematically presents the creation of the phase-to-phase operating conditions.

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Impedance protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

A
R

AB

Block

3I 0 0.05

&

&

&

3I 0 0.2 Iphmax
&

Bool to
integer

BLOCK

3I 0 < 0.1
&

OR

10 ms 20 ms
t
t

DLECND

&

3I 0 < 0.4 Iphmax

ANSI10000226-1-en.vsd
ANSI10000226 V1 EN

Figure 79:

Phase-to-phase AB operating conditions (residual current criteria)

Special attention is paid to correct phase selection at evolving faults. A DLECND


output signal is created as a combination of the load encroachment characteristic and
current criteria, refer to figure 79. This signal can be configured to PHSEL functional
input signals of the distance protection zone and this way influence the operation of the
phase-to-phase zone measuring elements and their phase related pickup and tripping
signals.

6.4.7

Technical data
Table 56:

LEPDIS technical data

Function

Range or value

Load encroachment criteria:


Load resistance, forward and
reverse
Safety load impedance angle

(1.003000.00) /phase
(5-85) degrees

Reset ratio

105% typically

Accuracy
5.0% static accuracy
2.0 degrees static angular
accuracy
Conditions:
Voltage range: (0.1-1.1) x Vn
Current range: (0.5-30) x In
Angle: at 0 degrees and 85
degrees
-

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158

Section 7
Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Section 7

Current protection

7.1

Four step phase overcurrent protection OC4PTOC


(51/67)

7.1.1

Identification
Function description
Four step phase overcurrent protection

IEC 61850
identification

IEC 60617
identification

OC4PTOC

3I>
4
4

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
51/67

alt

TOC-REVA V1 EN

7.1.2

Functionality
The four step phase overcurrent protection function OC4PTOC (51/67) has
independent inverse time delay settings for step 1 and 4. Step 2 and 3 are always
definite time delayed.
All IEC and ANSI inverse time characteristics are available.
The directional function is voltage polarized with memory. The function can be set to
be directional or non-directional independently for each of the steps.

159
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Section 7
Current protection
7.1.3

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Function block
OC4PTOC (51_67)
I3P*
TRIP
V3P*
TRST1
BLOCK
TRST2
BLK1
TRST3
BLK2
TRST4
BLK3
PICKUP
BLK4
PU_ST1
PU_ST2
PU_ST3
PU_ST4
PU_A
PU_B
PU_C
ANSI08000002-1-en.vsd
ANSI08000002 V1 EN

Figure 80:

7.1.4

OC4PTOC (51/67) function block

Signals
Table 57:
Name

OC4PTOC (51_67) Input signals


Type

Default

Description

I3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Three phase group signal for current inputs

V3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Three phase group signal for voltage inputs

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

BLK1

BOOLEAN

Block of step 1

BLK2

BOOLEAN

Block of step 2

BLK3

BOOLEAN

Block of step 3

BLK4

BOOLEAN

Block of step 4

Table 58:
Name

OC4PTOC (51_67) Output signals


Type

Description

TRIP

BOOLEAN

Common trip signal

TRST1

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from step 1

TRST2

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from step 2

TRST3

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from step 3

TRST4

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from step 4

PICKUP

BOOLEAN

General pickup signal

PU_ST1

BOOLEAN

Start signal from step 1

PU_ST2

BOOLEAN

Start signal from step 2

Table continues on next page


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Section 7
Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Name

7.1.5
Table 59:
Name

Type

Description

PU_ST3

BOOLEAN

Start signal from step 3

PU_ST4

BOOLEAN

Start signal from step 4

PU_A

BOOLEAN

Pickup signal from phase A

PU_B

BOOLEAN

Pickup signal from phase B

PU_C

BOOLEAN

Pickup signal from phase C

Settings
OC4PTOC (51_67) Group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Disable/Enable Operation

DirModeSel1

Disabled
Non-directional
Forward
Reverse

Non-directional

Directional mode of step 1 off / nondirectional / forward / reverse

Characterist1

ANSI Ext. inv.


ANSI Very inv.
ANSI Norm. inv.
ANSI Mod. inv.
ANSI Def. Time
L.T.E. inv.
L.T.V. inv.
L.T. inv.
IEC Norm. inv.
IEC Very inv.
IEC inv.
IEC Ext. inv.
IEC S.T. inv.
IEC L.T. inv.
IEC Def. Time
Reserved
RI type
RD type

ANSI Def. Time

Selection of time delay curve type for step 1

Pickup1

5 - 2500

%IB

1000

Phase current operate level for step1 in % of


IBase

t1

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.000

Definite time delay of step 1

TD1

0.05 - 999.00

0.01

0.05

Time multiplier for the inverse time delay for


step 1

IMin1

1 - 10000

%IB

100

Minimum operate current for step1in% of IBase

t1Min

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.000

Minimum operate time for inverse curves for


step 1

DirModeSel2

Disabled
Non-directional
Forward
Reverse

Non-directional

Directional mode of step 2 off / nondirectional / forward / reverse

Table continues on next page

161
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Section 7
Current protection
Name

Values (Range)

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Pickup2

5 - 2500

%IB

500

Phase current operate level for step 2 in % of


IBase

t2

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.400

Definite time delay of step 2

DirModeSel3

Disabled
Non-directional
Forward
Reverse

Non-directional

Directional mode of step 3 off / nondirectional / forward / reverse

Pickup3

5 - 2500

%IB

250

Phase current operate level for step3 in % of


IBase

t3

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.800

Definite time delay of step 3

DirModeSel4

Disabled
Non-directional
Forward
Reverse

Non-directional

Directional mode of step 4 off / nondirectional / forward / reverse

Characterist4

ANSI Ext. inv.


ANSI Very inv.
ANSI Norm. inv.
ANSI Def. Time
L.T.E. inv.
L.T.V. inv.
L.T. inv.
IEC Norm. inv.
IEC Very inv.
IEC inv.
IEC Ext. inv.
IEC S.T. inv.
IEC L.T. inv.
IEC Def. Time
Reserved
RI type
RD type

ANSI Def. Time

Selection of time delay curve type for step 4

Pickup4

5 - 2500

%IB

175

Phase current operate level for step 4 in % of


IBase

t4

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

2.000

Definite time delay of step 4

TD4

0.05 - 999.00

0.01

0.05

Time multiplier for the inverse time delay for


step 4

IMin4

1 - 10000

%IB

17

Minimum operate current for step4 in % of


IBase

t4Min

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.000

Minimum operate time for inverse curves for


step 4

Table 60:
Name

OC4PTOC (51_67) Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

GlobalBaseSel

1-6

Selection of one of the Global Base Value


groups

MeasType

DFT
RMS

DFT

Selection between DFT and RMS


measurement

162
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Section 7
Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

7.1.6

Monitored data
Table 61:
Name

7.1.7

OC4PTOC (51_67) Monitored data


Type

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

DIR_A

INTEGER

0=No direction
1=Forward
2=Reverse

Direction for phase A

DIR_B

INTEGER

0=No direction
1=Forward
2=Reverse

Direction for phase B

DIR_C

INTEGER

0=No direction
1=Forward
2=Reverse

Direction for phase C

I_A

REAL

Current in phase A

I_B

REAL

Current in phase B

I_C

REAL

Current in phase C

Operation principle
The Four step overcurrent protection function OC4PTOC (51/67) is divided into three
different sub-functions, one for each step. For each step x , where x is step 1, 2, 3 and
4, an operation mode is set by DirModeSelx: Disable/Non-directional/Forward/
Reverse.
The protection design can be decomposed in three parts:

The direction element


The four step over current function
The mode selection
If VT inputs are not available or not connected, setting parameter
DirModeSelx shall be left to default value, Non-directional.

The sampled analog phase currents are processed in a pre-processing function block.
Using a parameter setting MeasType within the general settings for the four step phase
overcurrent protection function OC4PTOC (51/67), it is possible to select the type of
the measurement used for all overcurrent stages. It is possible to select either discrete
Fourier filter (DFT) or true RMS filter (RMS).
If DFT option is selected then only the RMS value of the fundamental frequency
components of each phase current is derived. Influence of DC current component and
higher harmonic current components are almost completely suppressed. If RMS option
is selected then the true RMS values is used. The true RMS value in addition to the
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1MRK 502 034-UUS -

fundamental frequency component includes the contribution from the current DC


component as well as from higher current harmonic. The selected current values are
fed to OC4PTOC (51/67).
In a comparator, for each phase current, the DFT or RMS values are compared to the
set operation current value of the function (Pickup1, Pickup2, Pickup3, Pickup4). If a
phase current is larger than the set operation current, outputs PICKUP, PU_STx,
PU_A, PU_B and PU_C are, without delay, activated. Output signals PU_A, PU_B
and PU_C are common for all steps. This means that the lowest set step will initiate the
activation. The PICKUP signal is common for all three phases and all steps. It shall be
noted that the selection of measured value (DFT or RMS) do not influence the
operation of directional part of OC4PTOC (51/67) .
Service value for individually measured phase currents are also available on the local
HMI for OC4PTOC (51/67) function, which simplifies testing, commissioning and in
service operational checking of the function.
The function can be directional. The direction of the fault current is given as current
angle in relation to the voltage angle. The fault current and fault voltage for the
directional function is dependent of the fault type. To enable directional measurement
at close in faults, causing low measured voltage, the polarization voltage is a
combination of the apparent voltage (85%) and a memory voltage (15%). The
following combinations are used.
Phase-phase short circuit:

Vref_AB = VA-VB Idir_AB = IA-IB


Vref_BC = VB-VC Idir_BC = IB-IC
Vref_CA = VCVA Idir_CA = IC-IA
Phase-ground short circuit:

Vref_A = VA Idir_A = IA
Vref_B = VB Idir_B = IB
Vref_C = VC IdirC = IC

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1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Vref
1
2
2
4

Idir

ANSI09000636-1-en.vsd
ANSI09000636 V1 EN

Figure 81:

Directional characteristic of the phase overcurrent protection

1 RCA = Relay characteristic angle 55


2 ROA = Relay operating angle 80
3 Reverse
4 Forward

If no blockings are given the pickup signals will start the timers of the step. The time
characteristic for step 1 and 4 can be chosen as definite time delay or inverse time
characteristic. Step 2 and 3 are always definite time delayed. A wide range of
standardized inverse time characteristics is available. The possibilities for inverse time
characteristics are described in section "Inverse time characteristics".
All four steps in OC4PTOC (51/67) can be blocked from the binary input BLOCK.
The binary input BLKx (x=1, 2, 3 or 4) blocks the operation of respective step.

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7.1.8

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Technical data
Table 62:

OC4PTOC (51/67) technical data

Function

Setting range

Accuracy

Operate current

(5-2500)% of lBase

1.0% of In at I In
1.0% of I at I > In

Reset ratio

> 95%

Min. operating current

(1-10000)% of lBase

1.0% of In at I In 1.0% of I at
I > In

Independent time delay

(0.000-60.000) s

0.5% 25 ms

Minimum operate time for


inverse characteristics

(0.000-60.000) s

0.5% 25ms

Inverse characteristics, see


table 487, table 488 and table
489

17 curve types

See table 487, table 488 and


table 489

Operate time, nondirectional


pickup function

20 ms typically at 0 to 2 x Iset

Reset time, pickup function

30 ms typically at 2 to 0 x Iset

Operate time, directional pickup


function

30 ms typically at 0 to 2 x Iset

Reset time, directional pickup


funciton

25 ms typically at 2 to 0 x Iset

Critical impulse time

10 ms typically at 0 to 2 x Iset

Impulse margin time

15 ms typically

7.2

Four step residual overcurrent protection EF4PTOC


(51N/67N)

7.2.1

Identification
Function description
Four step residual overcurrent
protection

IEC 61850
identification

IEC 60617
identification

EF4PTOC

IN
4
4

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
51N/67N

alt

TEF-REVA V1 EN

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Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

7.2.2

Functionality
The four step residual overcurrent protection (EF4PTOC, 51N/67N) has independent
inverse time delay settings for step 1 and 4. Step 2 and 3 are always definite time delayed.
All IEC and ANSI inverse time characteristics are available.
The directional function includes 3 options

voltage polarized
current polarized
dual polarized

EF4PTOC (51N/67N) can be set directional or non-directional independently for each


of the steps.
Second harmonic blocking can be set individually for each step.

7.2.3

Function block
EF4PTOC (51N_67N)
I3P*
TRIP
V3P*
TRST1
I3PPOL*
TRST2
BLOCK
TRST3
BLK1
TRST4
BLK2
BFI_3P
BLK3
PUST1
BLK4
PUST2
PUST3
PUST4
PUFW
PUREV
2NDHARMD
ANSI08000004-1-en.vsd
ANSI08000004 V1 EN

Figure 82:

7.2.4

EF4PTOC (51N/67N) function block

Signals
Table 63:
Name

EF4PTOC (51N_67N) Input signals


Type

Default

Description

I3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Three phase group signal for current inputs

V3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Three phase group signal for polarizing voltage inputs

I3PPOL

GROUP
SIGNAL

Three phase group signal for polarizing current inputs

Table continues on next page


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Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Name

Type

Block of function

BLK1

BOOLEAN

Block of step 1 (start and trip)

BLK2

BOOLEAN

Block of step 2 (start and trip)

BLK3

BOOLEAN

Block of step 3 (start and trip)

BLK4

BOOLEAN

Block of step 4 (start and trip)

EF4PTOC (51N_67N) Output signals

Name

Table 65:
Name

Description

BOOLEAN

Table 64:

7.2.5

Default

BLOCK

Type

Description

TRIP

BOOLEAN

Common trip signal

TRST1

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from step 1

TRST2

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from step 2

TRST3

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from step 3

TRST4

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from step 4

BFI_3P

BOOLEAN

General pickup signal

PUST1

BOOLEAN

Pickup signal step 1

PUST2

BOOLEAN

Pickup signal step 2

PUST3

BOOLEAN

Pickup signal step 3

PUST4

BOOLEAN

Pickup signal step 4

PUFW

BOOLEAN

Forward directional pickup signal

PUREV

BOOLEAN

Reverse directional pickup signal

2NDHARMD

BOOLEAN

2nd harmonic block signal

Settings
EF4PTOC (51N_67N) Group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Operation Disable / Enable

AngleRCA

-180 - 180

Deg

65

Relay characteristic angle (RCA)

polMethod

Voltage
Current
Dual

Voltage

Type of polarization

VPolMin

1 - 100

%VB

Minimum voltage level for polarization in % of


VBase

IPolMin

2 - 100

%IB

Minimum current level for polarization in % of


IBase

RNPol

0.50 - 1000.00

ohm

0.01

5.00

Real part of source Z to be used for current


polarisation

Table continues on next page


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Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Name

Step

Default

XNPol

Values (Range)
0.50 - 3000.00

Unit
ohm

0.01

40.00

Description
Imaginary part of source Z to be used for
current polarisation

INDirPU

1 - 100

%IB

10

Residual current level for direction release in


% of IBase

2ndHarmStab

5 - 100

20

Second harmonic restrain operation in % of


IN magnitude

DirModeSel1

Disabled
Non-directional
Forward
Reverse

Non-directional

Directional mode of step 1 (off, nondirectional, forward, reverse)

Characterist1

ANSI Ext. inv.


ANSI Very inv.
ANSI Norm. inv.
ANSI Mod. inv.
ANSI Def. Time
L.T.E. inv.
L.T.V. inv.
L.T. inv.
IEC Norm. inv.
IEC Very inv.
IEC inv.
IEC Ext. inv.
IEC S.T. inv.
IEC L.T. inv.
IEC Def. Time
Reserved
RI type
RD type

ANSI Def. Time

Time delay curve type for step 1

Pickup1

1 - 2500

%IB

100

Residual current pickup for step 1 in % of IBase

t1

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.000

Independent (definite) time delay of step 1

TD1

0.05 - 999.00

0.01

0.05

Time multiplier for the dependent time delay


for step 1

IMin1

1 - 10000

%IB

100

Minimum operate current for step1in% of IBase

t1Min

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.000

Minimum operate time for inverse curves for


step 1

HarmRestrain1

Disabled
Enabled

Enabled

Enable block of step 1 from harmonic restrain

DirModeSel2

Disabled
Non-directional
Forward
Reverse

Non-directional

Directional mode of step 2 (off, nondirectional, forward, reverse)

Pickup2

1 - 2500

%IB

50

Residual current pickup for step 2 in % of IBase

t2

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.400

Independent (definite) time delay of step 2

IMin2

1 - 10000

%IB

50

Minimum operate current for step 2 in % of


IBase

HarmRestrain2

Disabled
Enabled

Enabled

Enable block of step 2 from harmonic restrain

Table continues on next page

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Section 7
Current protection
Name

Values (Range)

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Unit

Step

Default

Description

DirModeSel3

Disabled
Non-directional
Forward
Reverse

Non-directional

Directional mode of step 3 (off, nondirectional, forward, reverse)

Pickup3

1 - 2500

%IB

33

Residual current pickup for step 3 in % of IBase

t3

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.800

Independent (definite) time delay of step 3

IMin3

1 - 10000

%IB

33

Minimum operate current for step 3 in % of


IBase

HarmRestrain3

Disabled
Enabled

Enabled

Enable block of step 3 from harmonic restrain

DirModeSel4

Disabled
Non-directional
Forward
Reverse

Non-directional

Directional mode of step 4 (off, nondirectional, forward, reverse)

Characterist4

ANSI Ext. inv.


ANSI Very inv.
ANSI Norm. inv.
ANSI Mod. inv.
ANSI Def. Time
L.T.E. inv.
L.T.V. inv.
L.T. inv.
IEC Norm. inv.
IEC Very inv.
IEC inv.
IEC Ext. inv.
IEC S.T. inv.
IEC L.T. inv.
IEC Def. Time
Reserved
RI type
RD type

ANSI Def. Time

Time delay curve type for step 4

Pickup4

1 - 2500

%IB

17

Residual current pickup for step 4 in % of IBase

t4

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

1.200

Independent (definite) time delay of step 4

TD4

0.05 - 999.00

0.01

0.05

Time multiplier for the dependent time delay


for step 4

IMin4

1 - 10000

%IB

17

Minimum operate current for step 4 in % of


IBase

t4Min

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.000

Minimum operate time in inverse curves step 4

HarmRestrain4

Disabled
Enabled

Enabled

Enable block of step 4 from harmonic restrain

Table 66:
Name
GlobalBaseSel

EF4PTOC (51N_67N) Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)
1-6

Unit
-

Step
1

Default
1

Description
Selection of one of the Global Base Value
groups

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Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

7.2.6

Monitored data
Table 67:
Name

7.2.7

EF4PTOC (51N_67N) Monitored data


Type

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

IOp

REAL

Operating current level

VPol

REAL

kV

Polarizing voltage level

IPol

REAL

Polarizing current level

VPolIang

REAL

deg

Angle between polarizing


voltage and operating current

IPOLIANG

REAL

deg

Angle between polarizing


current and operating current

Operation principle
This function has the following three Analog Inputs on its function block in the
configuration tool:
1.
2.
3.

I3P, input used for Operating Quantity.


V3P, input used for Voltage Polarizing Quantity.
I3PPOL, input used for Current Polarizing Quantity.

These inputs are connected from the corresponding pre-processing function blocks in
the Configuration Tool within PCM600.

7.2.7.1

Operating quantity within the function


The function always uses Residual Current (3I0) for its operating quantity. The residual
current can be:
1.

directly measured (when a dedicated CT input of the IED is connected in PCM600


to the fourth analog input of the pre-processing block connected to EF4PTOC (51N/
67N) function input I3P). This dedicated IED CT input can be for example,
connected to:

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1MRK 502 034-UUS -

2.

parallel connection of current instrument transformers in all three phases


(Holm-Green connection).
one single core balance, current instrument transformer (cable CT).
one single current instrument transformer located between power system
WYE point and ground (that is, current transformer located in the neutral
grounding of a WYE connected transformer winding).
one single current instrument transformer located between two parts of a
protected object (that is, current transformer located between two WYE
points of double WYE shunt capacitor bank).

calculated from three-phase current input within the IED (when the fourth analog
input into the pre-processing block connected to EF4PTOC (51N/67N) function
Analog Input I3P is not connected to a dedicated CT input of the IED in
PCM600). In such case the pre-processing block will calculate 3I0 from the first
three inputs into the pre-processing block by using the following formula:

I op = 3 Io = IA + IB + IC
(Equation 33)

EQUATION2011-ANSI V1 EN

where:
IA, IB, IC

are fundamental frequency phasors of three individual phase currents.

The residual current is pre-processed by a discrete Fourier filter. Thus the phasor of the
fundamental frequency component of the residual current is derived. The phasor
magnitude is used within the EF4PTOC (51N/67N) protection to compare it with the
set operation current value of the four steps (Pickup1, Pickup2, Pickup3 or Pickup4). If
the residual current is larger than the set operation current and the step is used in nondirectional mode a signal from the comparator for this step is set to true. This signal
will, without delay, activate the output signal PUSTx (x=step 1-4) for this step and a
common PICKUP signal.

7.2.7.2

Internal polarizing
A polarizing quantity is used within the protection in order to determine the direction
to the ground fault (Forward/Reverse).
The function can be set to use voltage polarizing, current polarizing or dual polarizing.

Voltage polarizing
When voltage polarizing is selected the protection will use the residual voltage -3V0 as
polarizing quantity V3P. This voltage can be:

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Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

1.

2.

directly measured (when a dedicated VT input of the IED is connected in PCM600


to the fourth analog input of the pre-processing block connected to EF4PTOC (51N/
67N) function input V3P). This dedicated IED VT input shall be then connected to
open delta winding of a three phase main VT.
calculated from three phase voltage input within the IED (when the fourth analog
input into the pre-processing block connected to EF4PTOC (51N/67N) analog
function input V3P is NOT connected to a dedicated VT input of the IED in
PCM600). In such case the pre-processing block will calculate -3V0 from the first
three inputs into the pre-processing block by using the following formula:

VVPol = 3 Vo = VA + VB + VC
EQUATION2012-ANSI V1 EN

(Equation 34)

where:
VA, VB, VC

are fundamental frequency phasors of three individual phase voltages.

Note! In order to use this all three phase-to-ground voltages must be connected to three IED VT inputs.

The residual voltage is pre-processed by a discrete fourier filter. Thus, the phasor of the
fundamental frequency component of the residual voltage is derived. This phasor is
used together with the phasor of the operating current, in order to determine the
direction to the ground fault (Forward/Reverse). In order to enable voltage polarizing
the magnitude of polarizing voltage shall be bigger than a minimum level defined by
setting parameter VpolMin.
It shall be noted that 3V0 is used to determine the location of the ground fault. This
insures the required inversion of the polarizing voltage within the ground-fault function.

Current polarizing
When current polarizing is selected the function will use the residual current (3I0) as
polarizing quantity IPol. This current can be:
1.

directly measured (when a dedicated CT input of the IED is connected in PCM600


to the fourth analog input of the pre-processing block connected to EF4PTOC (51N/
67N) function input I3PPOL). This dedicated IED CT input is then typically
connected to one single current transformer located between power system WYE
point and ground (current transformer located in the WYE point of a WYE
connected transformer winding).

2.

For some special line protection applications this dedicated IED CT input
can be connected to parallel connection of current transformers in all three
phases (Holm-Green connection)

calculated from three phase current input within the IED (when the fourth analog
input into the pre-processing block connected to EF4PTOC (51N/67N) function
173

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Section 7
Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

analog input I3PPOL is NOT connected to a dedicated CT input of the IED in


PCM600). In such case the pre-processing block will calculate 3I0 from the first
three inputs into the pre-processing block by using the following formula:
I Pol = 3 Io = IA + IB + IC
EQUATION2019-ANSI V1 EN

(Equation 35)

where:
IA, IB and IC are fundamental frequency phasors of three individual phase currents.

The residual polarizing current is pre-processed by a discrete fourier filter. Thus the
phasor of the fundamental frequency component of the residual current is derived. This
phasor is then multiplied with pre-set equivalent zero-sequence source Impedance in
order to calculate equivalent polarizing voltage VIPol in accordance with the following
formula:
VIPol = Zo S I Pol = ( RNPol + j XNPOL ) I Pol
EQUATION2013-ANSI V1 EN

(Equation 36)

which will be then used, together with the phasor of the operating current, in order to
determine the direction to the ground fault (Forward/Reverse). In order to enable
current polarizing the magnitude of polarizing current shall be bigger than a minimum
level defined by setting parameter IPolMin.

Dual polarizing
When dual polarizing is selected the function will use the vectorial sum of the voltage
based and current based polarizing in accordance with the following formula:
VTotPol = VVPol + VIPol = -3V0 + Z 0 s IPol = -3V0 + ( RNPol + jXNPol ) IPol
ANSIEQUATION1878 V1 EN

(Equation 37)

Then the phasor of the total polarizing voltage VTotPol will be used, together with the
phasor of the operating current, to determine the direction of the ground fault (Forward/
Reverse).

7.2.7.3

External polarizing for ground-fault function


The individual steps within the protection can be set as non-directional. When this
setting is selected it is then possible via function binary input BLKn(where x indicates
the relevant step within the protection) to provide external directional control (that is,

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Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

torque control) by for example using one of the following functions if available in the
IED:
1.
2.

7.2.7.4

Distance protection directional function.


Negative sequence based overcurrent function.

Base quantities within the protection


The base quantities are entered as global settings for all functions in the IED. Base
current (IBase) shall be entered as rated phase current of the protected object in
primary amperes. Base voltage (VBase) shall be entered as rated phase-to-phase
voltage of the protected object in primary kV.

7.2.7.5

Internal ground-fault protection structure


The protection is internally divided into the following parts:
1.
2.
3.

Four residual overcurrent steps.


Directional supervision element for residual overcurrent steps with integrated
directional comparison step for communication based ground-fault protection
schemes (permissive or blocking).
Second harmonic blocking element with additional feature for sealed-in blocking
during switching of parallel transformers.

Each part is described separately in the following sections.

7.2.7.6

Four residual overcurrent steps


Each overcurrent step uses operating quantity Iop (residual current) as measuring
quantity. Each of the four residual overcurrent steps has the following built-in facilities:

Directional mode can be set to Disabled/Non-directional/Forward/Reverse. By


this parameter setting the directional mode of the step is selected. It shall be noted
that the directional decision (Forward/Reverse) is not made within each residual
overcurrent step itself. The direction of the fault is determined in a directional
element common for all steps.
Residual current pickup value.
Type of operating characteristic. By this parameter setting it is possible to select
inverse or definitive time delay for step 1 and 4 separately. Step 2 and 3 are always
definite time delayed. All of the standard IEC and ANSI inverse characteristics are

175
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Section 7
Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

available. For the complete list of available inverse curves please refer to section
"Inverse time characteristics".
Time delay related settings. By these parameter settings the properties like definite
time delay, minimum operating time for inverse curves and reset time delay are
defined.
Supervision by second harmonic blocking feature (Enabled/Disabled). By this
parameter setting it is possible to prevent operation of the step if the second
harmonic content in the residual current exceeds the preset level.

Simplified logic diagram for one residual overcurrent step is shown in figure 83.

Characteristn=DefTime

|IOP|

Pickupx

tx
OR

a>b

TRSTx

PUSTx

AND

Inverse
BLKx
BLOCK

Characteristn=Inverse
2ndH_BLOCK_Int

OR

HarmRestrainx=Disabled
OR

DirModeSelx=Disabled

STEPx_DIR_Int

DirModeSelx=Non-directional
DirModeSelx=Forward
DirModeSelx=Reverse

FORWARD_Int

REVERSE_Int

AND

OR

AND

ANSI09000638-1-en.vsd

ANSI09000638 V1 EN

Figure 83:

Simplified logic diagram for residual overcurrent step n= step 1 and 4

The protection can be completely blocked from the binary input BLOCK. Output
signals for respective step, PUSTx and TRSTx, can be blocked from the binary input
BLKn.

7.2.7.7

Directional supervision element with integrated directional comparison


function
It shall be noted that at least one of the four residual overcurrent steps
shall be set as directional in order to enable execution of the directional
supervision element and the integrated directional comparison function.
The protection has integrated directional feature. As the operating quantity current Iop
is always used. The polarizing method is determined by the parameter setting

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Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

polMethod. The polarizing quantity will be selected by the function in one of the
following three ways:
1.
2.
3.

When polMethod = Voltage, VVPol will be used as polarizing quantity.


When polMethod = Current, VIpol will be used as polarizing quantity.
WhenpolMethod = Dual, VTotPol will be used as polarizing quantity.

The operating and polarizing quantity are then used inside the directional element, as
shown in figure 84, in order to determine the direction of the ground fault.

Reverse
Area

0.6INDirPU
VPol=-3Vo

AngleRCA
INDirPU

Forward
Area
Iop=3Io

ANSI07000066-2-en.vsd
ANSI07000066 V2 EN

Figure 84:

Operating characteristic for ground-fault directional element

Two relevant setting parameters for directional supervision element are:

Directional element will be internally enabled to operate as soon as Iop is bigger


than 40% of INDirPU and directional condition is fulfilled in set direction.
Relay characteristic angle AngleRCA, which defines the position of forward and
reverse areas in the operating characteristic.

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Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Directional comparison step, built-in within directional supervision element, will set
EF4PTOC (51N/67N) function output binary signals:
1.
2.

PUFW=1 when operating quantity magnitude Iop x cos( - AngleRCA) is bigger


than setting parameterINDirPU and directional supervision element detects fault in
forward direction.
PUREV=1 when operating quantity magnitude Iop x cos( - AngleRCA) is bigger
than 60% of setting parameter INDirPU and directional supervision element
detects fault in reverse direction.

These signals shall be used for communication based ground-fault teleprotection


communication schemes (permissive or blocking).
Simplified logic diagram for directional supervision element with integrated directional
comparison step is shown in figure 85:

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Section 7
Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

|Iop|

a
b

0.6

a>b

X
a

INDirPU

0.4

PUREV

AND

REVERSE_Int

a>b

FORWARD_Int

PUFW

AND

FWD
OR

VPolMin

polMethod=Dual

VPol

polMethod=Current

T
0.0 F

OR
IPol
0.0
RNPol
XNPol

IPolMin
Iop
VTPol

RVS

T
F
VIPol

Complex
Number

0.0

T
F

AND

FORWARD_Int

AND

REVERSE_Int

Directional
Characteristic

AngleRCA

polMethod=Voltage

STAGE1_DIR_Int
STAGE2_DIR_Int
STAGE3_DIR_Int
STAGE4_DIR_Int

OR
AND

BLOCK

ANSI07000067-3-en.vsd
ANSI07000067 V3 EN

Figure 85:

7.2.8

Simplified logic diagram for directional supervision element with integrated directional comparison step

Technical data
Table 68:

EF4PTOC (51N/67N) technical data

Function

Range or value

Accuracy

Operate current

(1-2500)% of lBase

1.0% of In at I In
1.0% of I at I > In

Reset ratio

> 95%

Operate current for directional


comparison

(1100)% of lBase

1.0% of In

Min. operating current

(1-10000)% of lBase

1.0% of In at I < In 1.0% of I


at I < In

Table continues on next page


179
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Section 7
Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Function

Range or value

Accuracy

Minimum operate time for


inverse characteristics

(0.000-60.000) s

0.5% 25 ms

Timers

(0.000-60.000) s

0.5% 25 ms

Inverse characteristics, see


table 487, table 488 and table 489

17 curve types

See table 487, table 488 and


table 489

Minimum polarizing voltage

(1100)% of VBase

0.5% of Vn

Minimum polarizing current

(2-100)% of IBase

1.0% of In

Real part of source Z used for


current polarization

(0.50-1000.00) W/phase

Imaginary part of source Z used


for current polarization

(0.503000.00) W/phase

Operate time, non-directional


pickup function

30 ms typically at 0.5 to 2 x Iset

Reset time, non-directional


pickup function

30 ms typically at 2 to 0.5 x Iset

Operate time, directional pickup


function

30 ms typically at 0,5 to 2 x IN

Reset time, directional pickup


function

30 ms typically at 2 to 0,5 x IN

7.3

Sensitive directional residual overcurrent and power


protection SDEPSDE (67N)

7.3.1

Identification
Function description
Sensitive directional residual over
current and power protection

7.3.2

IEC 61850
identification
SDEPSDE

IEC 60617
identification
-

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
67N

Functionality
In isolated networks or in networks with high impedance grounding, the ground fault
current is significantly smaller than the short circuit currents. In addition to this, the
magnitude of the fault current is almost independent on the fault location in the
network. The protection can be selected to use either the residual current or residual
power component 3V03I0cos j, for operating quantity. There is also available one nondirectional 3I0 step and one non-directional 3V0 overvoltage tripping step.

180
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Section 7
Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

7.3.3

Function block
SDEPSDE (67N)
I3P*
V3P*
BLOCK
BLKVN

TRIP
TRDIRIN
TRNDIN
TRVN
PICKUP
PUDIRIN
PUNDIN
PUVN
PUFW
PUREV
CND
VNREL
ANSI08000036-1-en.vsd

ANSI08000036 V1 EN

Figure 86:

7.3.4

SDEPSDE (67N) function block

Signals
Table 69:
Name

SDEPSDE (67N) Input signals


Type

Default

Description

I3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Three phase group signal for current inputs

V3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Three phase group signal for voltage inputs

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

BLKVN

BOOLEAN

Blocks the non-directional voltage residual outputs

Table 70:
Name

SDEPSDE (67N) Output signals


Type

Description

TRIP

BOOLEAN

Common trip signal

TRDIRIN

BOOLEAN

Trip of the directional residual overcurrent

TRNDIN

BOOLEAN

Trip of non-directional residual overcurrent

TRVN

BOOLEAN

Trip of non-directional residual overvoltage

PICKUP

BOOLEAN

General pickup signal

PUDIRIN

BOOLEAN

Pick up of the directional residual overcurrent function

PUNDIN

BOOLEAN

Pick up of non directional residual overcurrent

PUVN

BOOLEAN

Pick up of non directional residual overvoltage

PUFW

BOOLEAN

Pick up of directional function for fault in forward


direction

Table continues on next page

181
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Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Name

7.3.5
Table 71:
Name

Type

Description

PUREV

BOOLEAN

Pick up of directional function for fault in reverse


direction

CND

INTEGER

Direction of fault

VNREL

BOOLEAN

Residual voltage release of operation of directional


modes

Settings
SDEPSDE (67N) Group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Operation Disable / Enable

OpModeSel

3I0Cosfi
3I03V0Cosfi
3I0 and fi

3I0Cosfi

Selection of operation mode for protection

DirMode

Forward
Reverse

Forward

Direction of operation forward or reverse

RCADir

-179 - 180

Deg

-90

Relay characteristic angle RCA

RCAComp

-10.0 - 10.0

Deg

0.1

0.0

Relay characteristic angle compensation

ROADir

0 - 90

Deg

90

Relay open angle ROA used as release in


phase mode

INCosPhiPU

0.25 - 200.00

%IB

0.01

1.00

Set level for 3I0cosPhi, directional residual


overcurrent, in % of IBase

SN_PU

0.25 - 200.00

%SB

0.01

10.00

Set level for 3I0U0cosPhi, starting inverse


time count, in % of SBase

INDirPU

0.25 - 200.00

%IB

0.01

5.00

Set level for directional residual overcurrent


protection, in % of IBase

tDef

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.100

Definite time delay directional residual


overcurrent

SRef

0.03 - 200.00

%SB

0.01

10.00

Reference value of residual power for inverse


time count, in % of SBase

TDSN

0.00 - 2.00

0.01

0.10

Time multiplier setting for directional residual


power mode

OpINNonDir

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Operation of non-directional residual


overcurrent protection

INNonDirPU

1.00 - 400.00

%IB

0.01

10.00

Set level for non-directional residual


overcurrent, in % of IBase

tINNonDir

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

1.000

Time delay for non-directional residual


overcurrent

Table continues on next page

182
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Section 7
Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Name

Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

TimeChar

ANSI Ext. inv.


ANSI Very inv.
ANSI Norm. inv.
ANSI Mod. inv.
ANSI Def. Time
L.T.E. inv.
L.T.V. inv.
L.T. inv.
IEC Norm. inv.
IEC Very inv.
IEC inv.
IEC Ext. inv.
IEC S.T. inv.
IEC L.T. inv.
IEC Def. Time
Reserved
RI type
RD type

IEC Norm. inv.

Operation curve selection for IDMT operation

t_MinTripDelay

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.040

Minimum operate time for IEC IDMT curves

TDIN

0.00 - 2.00

0.01

1.00

IDMT time multiplier for non-directional


residual overcurrent

OpVN

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Operation of non-directional residual


overvoltage

VN_PU

1.00 - 300.00

%VB

0.01

20.00

Set level for non-dir residual voltage, % of


Vbase

tVN

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.100

Time delay for non-directional residual


overvoltage

INRelPU

0.25 - 200.00

%IB

0.01

1.00

Residual release current for all directional


modes, in % of IBase

VNRelPU

1.00 - 300.00

%VB

0.01

3.00

Residual release volt for all dir modes, % of


VBase

Step

Default

Table 72:
Name
GlobalBaseSel

SDEPSDE (67N) Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)
1-6

Unit
-

Description
Selection of one of the Global Base Value
groups

183
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Section 7
Current protection
7.3.6

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Monitored data
Table 73:

SDEPSDE (67N) Monitored data

Name

Type

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

INCOSPHI

REAL

Mag of residual current along


polarizing qty 3I0cos(Fi-RCA)

IN

REAL

Measured magnitude of the


residual current 3I0

VN

REAL

kV

Measured magnitude of the


residual voltage 3V0

SN

REAL

MVA

Measured magnitude of
residual power 3I03V0cos(FiRCA)

ANG FI-RCA

REAL

deg

Angle between 3V0 and 3I0


minus RCA (Fi-RCA)

7.3.7

Operation principle

7.3.7.1

Function inputs
The function is using phasors of the residual current and voltage. Group signals I3P
and V3P containing phasors of residual current and voltage is taken from pre-processor
blocks.
The sensitive directional ground fault protection has the following sub-functions
included:

7.3.7.2

Directional residual current protection measuring 3I0cos


is defined as the angle between the residual current 3I0 and the reference voltage
compensated with the set characteristic angle RCADir (=ang(3I0)-ang(Vref) ). Vref =
-3V0 ejRCADIr. RCADir is normally set equal to 0 in a high impedance grounded
network with a neutral point resistor as the active current component is appearing out
on the faulted feeder only. RCADir is set equal to -90 in an isolated network as all
currents are mainly capacitive. The function operates when 3I0cos gets larger than
the set value.

184
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Section 7
Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Vref

RCA = 0, ROA = 90

3I0

= ang(3I0) - ang(3Vref)
-3V0=Vref

3I0 cos

en06000648_ansi.vsd
ANSI06000648 V1 EN

Figure 87:

RCADir set to 0
Vref

RCA = -90, ROA = 90

3I0
3I0 cos
= ang(3I0) ang(Vref)
-3V0

en06000649_ansi.vsd
ANSI06000649 V1 EN

Figure 88:

RCADir set to -90

For trip, both the residual current 3I0cos and the release voltage 3V0, must be larger
than the set levels: INCosPhiPU and VNRelPU.

185
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Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

When the function is activated binary output signals PICKUP and PUDIRIN are
activated. If the activation is active after the set delay tDef the binary output signals
TRIP and TRDIRIN are activated. The trip from this sub-function has definite time delay.
There is a possibility to increase the operate level for currents where the angle is
larger than a set value as shown in figure 89. This is equivalent to blocking of the
function if > ROADir. This option is used to handle angle error for the instrument
transformers.

3I0

3I0 cos

Operate area

-3V0=Vref

RCA = 0

ROA

en06000650_ansi.vsd
ANSI06000650 V1 EN

Figure 89:

Characteristic with ROADir restriction

The function indicates forward/reverse direction to the fault. Reverse direction is


defined as 3I0cos ( + 180) the set value.
It is also possible to tilt the characteristic to compensate for current transformer angle
error with a setting RCAComp as shown in the figure 90:

186
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Section 7
Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Operate area

-3V0=Vref

Instrument
transformer
angle error

RCA = 0

RCAcomp
Characteristic after
angle compensation

3I0 (prim)

3I0 (to prot)

en06000651_ansi.vsd
ANSI06000651 V1 EN

Figure 90:

7.3.7.3

Explanation of RCAComp

Directional residual power protection measuring 3I0 3V0 cos


is defined as the angle between the residual current 3I0 and the reference voltage
compensated with the set characteristic angle RCADir (=ang(3I0)ang(Vref) ). Vref =
-3V0 e-jRCA. The function operates when 3I0 3V0 cos gets larger than the set value.
For trip, both the residual power 3I0 3V0 cos , the residual current 3I0 and the
release voltage 3V0, shall be larger than the set levels (SN_PU, INRelPU and VNRelPU).
When the function is activated binary output signals PICKUP and PUDIRIN are
activated. If the activation is active after the set delay tDef or after the inverse time
delay (setting TDSN) the binary output signals TRIP and TRDIRIN are activated.
The function shall indicate forward/reverse direction to the fault. Reverse direction is
defined as 3I0 3V0cos ( + 180) the set value.

187
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Section 7
Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

This variant has the possibility of choice between definite time delay and inverse time
delay.
The inverse time delay is defined as:
tinv =

TDSN (3I 0 3V0 cos (reference))


3I 0 3V0 cos (measured )
(Equation 38)

EQUATION2032-ANSI V2 EN

7.3.7.4

Directional residual current protection measuring 3I0 and


The function will operate if the residual current is larger that the set value and the angle
= ang(3I0)-ang(Vref) is within the sector RCADir ROADir
RCA = 0
ROA = 80

Operate area
3I0
80

-3V0

en06000652_ansi.vsd
ANSI06000652 V1 EN

Figure 91:

Example of characteristic

For trip, both the residual current 3I0 and the release voltage 3V0, shall be larger than
the set levels INDirPU and VNRelPU and the angle shall be in the set sector ROADir
and RCADir.
When the function is activated binary output signals PICKUP and PUDIRIN are
activated. If the activation is active after the set delay tDef the binary output signals
TRIP and TRDIRIN are activated.
188
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Section 7
Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

The function indicate forward/reverse direction to the fault. Reverse direction is


defined as is within the angle sector: RCADir + 180 ROADir
This variant shall have definite time delay.

7.3.7.5

Directional functions
For all the directional functions there are directional pickup signals PUFW: fault in the
forward direction, and PUREV: Pickup in the reverse direction. Even if the directional
function is set to operate for faults in the forward direction a fault in the reverse
direction will give the pickup signal PUREV. Also if the directional function is set to
operate for faults in the reverse direction a fault in the forward direction will give the
pickup signal PUFW.

7.3.7.6

Non-directional ground fault current protection


This function will measure the residual current without checking the phase angle. The
function will be used to detect cross-country faults. This function can serve as
alternative or back-up to distance protection with phase preference logic.
If available the non-directional function is using the calculated residual current, derived
as sum of the phase currents. This will give a better ability to detect cross-country
faults with high residual current, also when dedicated core balance CT for the sensitive
ground fault protection will saturate.
This variant shall have the possibility of choice between definite time delay and
inverse time delay. The inverse time delay shall be according to IEC 60255-3.
For trip, the residual current 3I0 shall be larger than the set levels (INNonDirPU).
When the function is activated binary output signal PUNDIN is activated. If the
activation is active after the set delay tINNonDir or after the inverse time delay the
binary output signals TRIP and TRNDIN are activated.

7.3.7.7

Residual overvoltage release and protection


The directional function shall be released when the residual voltage gets higher than a
set level.
There shall also be a separate trip, with its own definite time delay, from this set
voltage level.
For trip, the residual voltage 3V0 shall be larger than the set levels (UN_PU).
Trip from this function can be blocked from the binary input BLKVN.
189

Technical Manual

Section 7
Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

When the function is activated binary output signal PUVN is activated. If the activation
is active after the set delay tVNNonDir TRIP and TRUN are activated. A simplified
logical diagram of the total function is shown in figure 92.
PUNDIN

INNonDirPU
UN_PU

0-t
0

TRNDIN

0-t
0

TRVN

PUVN

OpMODE=INcosPhi

Pickup_N

AND

INCosPhiPU
OpMODE=INVNCosPhi

AND

OR

PUDIRIN

AND

INVNCosPhiPU

SN

Phi in RCA +- ROA

AND

TRDIRIN

TimeChar = InvTime

AND

OpMODE=IN and Phi

TimeChar = DefTime

DirMode = Forw

AND

AND

OR
PUFW

Forw
DirMode = Rev

AND

PUREV

Rev

en06000653_ansi.vsd
ANSI06000653 V1 EN

Figure 92:

Simplified logical diagram of the sensitive ground-fault current protection

190
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Section 7
Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

7.3.8

Technical data
Table 74:

SDEPSDE (67N) technical data

Function

Range or value

Operate level for 3I0cosj


directional residual overcurrent

Operate level for 3I03V0 cosj


directional residual power

Operate level for 3I0 and j


residual overcurrent

Operate level for non-directional


overcurrent

(0.25-200.00)% of lBase
At low setting:
(2.5-10) mA
(10-50) mA
(0.25-200.00)% of SBase
At low setting:
(0.25-5.00)% of SBase
(0.25-200.00)% of lBase
At low setting:
(2.5-10) mA
(10-50) mA
(1.00-400.00)% of lBase
At low setting:
(10-50) mA

Accuracy
1.0% of In at I In
1.0% of I at I > In
0.5 mA
1.0 mA
1.0% of Sn at S Sn
1.0% of S at S > Sn
10% of set value
1.0% of In at In
1.0% of I at I > In
0.5 mA
1.0 mA
1.0% of In at I In
1.0% of I at I > In
1.0 mA

Operate level for non-directional


residual overvoltage

(1.00-200.00)% of VBase

0.5% of Vn at VVn
0.5% of V at V > Vn

Residual release current for all


directional modes

(0.25-200.00)% of lBase

1.0% of In at I In
1.0% of I at I > In

At low setting:
(2.5-10) mA
(10-50) mA

0.5 mA
1.0 mA

Residual release voltage for all


directional modes

(1.00 - 300.00)% of VBase

0.5% of Vn at VVn
0.5% of V at V > Vn

Reset ratio

> 95%

Timers

(0.000-60.000) s

0.5% 25 ms

Inverse characteristics, see


table 487, table 488 and table
489

17 curve types

See table 487, table 488 and


table 489
Class 5 + 150 ms

Relay characteristic angle RCA

(-179 to 180) degrees

2.0 degrees

Relay open angle ROA

(0-90) degrees

2.0 degrees

Operate time, non-directional


residual over current

80 ms typically at 0.5 to 2 x Iset

Reset time, non-directional


residual over current

90 ms typically at 1.2 to 0.5 x Iset

Operate time, non-directional


residual overvoltage

70 ms typically at 0.8 to 1.5 x Uset

Reset time, non-directional


residual overvoltage

120 ms typically at 1.2 to 0.8 x Uset

Table continues on next page

191
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Section 7
Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Function

Range or value

Accuracy

Operate time, directional


residual over current

260 ms typically at 0.5 to 2 x Iset

Reset time, directional residual


over current

170 ms typically at 2 to 0.5 x Iset

Critical impulse time nondirectional residual over current

100 ms typically at 0 to 2 x Iset


20 ms typically at 0 to 10 x Iset

Impulse margin time nondirectional residual over current

25 ms typically

7.4

Thermal overload protection, two time constants


TRPTTR (49)

7.4.1

Identification
Function description
Thermal overload protection, two time
constants

IEC 61850
identification

IEC 60617
identification

TRPTTR

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
49

SYMBOL-A V1 EN

7.4.2

Functionality
If a power transformer or generator reaches very high temperatures the equipment
might be damaged. The insulation within the transformer/generator will have forced
ageing. As a consequence of this the risk of internal phase-to-phase or phase-to-ground
faults will increase. High temperature will degrade the quality of the transformer/
generator insulation.
The thermal overload protection estimates the internal heat content of the transformer/
generator (temperature) continuously. This estimation is made by using a thermal
model of the transformer/generator with two time constants, which is based on current
measurement.
Two warning pickup levels are available. This enables actions in the power system to
be done before dangerous temperatures are reached. If the temperature continues to
increase to the trip value, the protection initiates a trip of the protected transformer/
generator.

192
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Section 7
Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

7.4.3

Function block
TRPTTR (49)
I3P*
TRIP
BLOCK
PICKUP
COOLING
ALARM1
RESET
ALARM2
LOCKOUT
WARNING
ANSI08000037-1-en.vsd
ANSI08000037 V1 EN

Figure 93:

7.4.4

TRPTTR (49) function block

Signals
TRPTTR is not provided with external temperature sensor in first
release of 650 series. The only input that influences the temperature
measurement is the binary input COOLING.
Table 75:
Name

TRPTTR (49) Input signals


Type

Default

Description

I3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Three phase group signal for current input

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

COOLING

BOOLEAN

Cooling input changes IBase setting and time constant

RESET

BOOLEAN

Reset of function

Table 76:
Name

TRPTTR (49) Output signals


Type

Description

TRIP

BOOLEAN

Trip Signal

PICKUP

BOOLEAN

Pickup signal

ALARM1

BOOLEAN

First level alarm signal

ALARM2

BOOLEAN

Second level alarm signal

LOCKOUT

BOOLEAN

Lockout signal

WARNING

BOOLEAN

Trip within set warning time

193
Technical Manual

Section 7
Current protection
7.4.5
Table 77:
Name

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Settings
TRPTTR (49) Group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Disable/Enable Operation

IRef

10.0 - 1000.0

%IB

1.0

100.0

Reference current in % of IBase

IBase1

30.0 - 250.0

%IB

1.0

100.0

Base current IBase1 without cooling input in


% of IBase

IBase2

30.0 - 250.0

%IB

1.0

100.0

Base current IBase2 with cooling input in %


of IBase

Tau1

1.0 - 500.0

Min

1.0

60.0

Time constant without cooling input

Tau2

1.0 - 500.0

Min

1.0

60.0

Time constant with cooling input

IHighTau1

30.0 - 250.0

%IB1

1.0

100.0

Current setting for rescaling TC1 by TC1IHIGH

Tau1High

5 - 2000

%tC1

100

Multiplier to TC1 when current is >IHIGH-TC1

ILowTau1

30.0 - 250.0

%IB1

1.0

100.0

Current setting for rescaling TC1 by TC1-ILOW

Tau1Low

5 - 2000

%tC1

100

Multiplier to TC1 when current is <ILOW-TC1

IHighTau2

30.0 - 250.0

%IB2

1.0

100.0

Current setting for rescaling TC2 by TC2IHIGH

Tau2High

5 - 2000

%tC2

100

Multiplier to TC2 when current is >TC2-IHIGH

ILowTau2

30.0 - 250.0

%IB2

1.0

100.0

Current setting for rescaling TC2 by TC2-ILOW

Tau2Low

5 - 2000

%tC2

100

Multiplier to TC2 when current is <ILOW-TC2

ITrip

50.0 - 250.0

%IBx

1.0

110.0

Steady state operate current level

Alarm1

50.0 - 99.0

%Itr

1.0

80.0

First alarm level

Alarm2

50.0 - 99.0

%Itr

1.0

90.0

Second alarm level

LockoutReset

10.0 - 95.0

%Itr

1.0

60.0

Lockout reset level

Warning

1.0 - 500.0

Min

0.1

30.0

Time setting, below which warning would be


set

Step

Default

Table 78:
Name
GlobalBaseSel

TRPTTR (49) Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)
1-6

Unit
-

Description
Selection of one of the Global Base Value
groups

194
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Section 7
Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

7.4.6

Monitored data
Table 79:

TRPTTR (49) Monitored data

Name

7.4.7

Type

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

TTRIP

REAL

Estimated time to trip (in min)

TTRIPCAL

INTEGER

Calculated time status to trip:


not active/long time/active

TRESCAL

INTEGER

Calculated time status to


reset: not active/long time/
active

TRESLO

REAL

Estimated time to reset of the


function (in min)

HEATCONT

REAL

Percentage of the heat


content of the transformer

I-MEASUR

REAL

Current measured by the


function in % of the rated
current

Operation principle
The sampled analog phase currents are pre-processed and for each phase current the
true RMS value of each phase current is derived. These phase current values are fed to
the Thermal overload protection, two time constants (TRPTTR, 49).
From the largest of the three phase currents a relative final temperature (heat content)
is calculated according to the expression:

Q final

I
=
I ref

(Equation 39)

EQUATION1171 V1 EN

where:
I

is the largest phase current

Iref

is a given reference current

If this calculated relative temperature is larger than the relative temperature level
corresponding to the set operate (trip) current a pickup output signal PICKUP is activated.
The actual temperature at the actual execution cycle is calculated as:

195
Technical Manual

Section 7
Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Q final > Q n

If

EQUATION1172 V1 EN

(Equation 40)

Dt

Qn = Qn -1 + ( Q final - Q n-1 ) 1 - e t

(Equation 41)

EQUATION1173 V1 EN

Q final < Qn

If

EQUATION1174 V1 EN

Qn = Q final - ( Q final - Q n -1 ) e
EQUATION1175 V1 EN

(Equation 42)

Dt

(Equation 43)

where:
Qn

is the calculated present temperature

Qn-1

is the calculated temperature at the previous


time step

Qfinal

is the calculated final (steady state)


temperature with the actual current

Dt

is the time step between calculation of the


actual and final temperature

is the set thermal time constant Tau1 or Tau2


for the protected transformer

The calculated transformer relative temperature can be monitored as it is exported from


the function as a real figure HEATCONT.
When the transformer temperature reaches any of the set alarm levels Alarm1 or
Alarm2 the corresponding output signals ALARM1 or ALARM2 are activated. When
the temperature of the object reaches the set trip level which corresponds to continuous
current equal to ITrip the output signal TRIP is activated.
There is also a calculation of the present time to operation with the present current.
This calculation is only performed if the final temperature is calculated to be above the
operation temperature:

Q
- Qoperate
toperate = -t ln final
Q final - Q n

EQUATION1176 V1 EN

(Equation 44)

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Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

The calculated time to trip can be monitored as it is exported from the function as a
real figure TTRIP.
After a trip, caused by the thermal overload protection, there can be a lockout to
reconnect the tripped circuit. The output lockout signal LOCKOUT is activated when
the temperature of the object is above the set lockout release temperature setting ResLo.
The time to lockout release is calculated, That is, a calculation of the cooling time to a
set value.

Q
- Qlockout _ release
tlockout _ release = -t ln final

Q
Q
final
n

EQUATION1177 V1 EN

(Equation 45)

In the above equation, the final temperature is calculated according to equation 39.
Since the transformer normally is disconnected, the current I is zero and thereby the
final is also zero. The calculated component temperature can be monitored as it is
exported from the function as a real figure, TRESLO.
When the current is so high that it has given a pickup signal PICKUP, the estimated
time to trip is continuously calculated and given as analog output TTRIP. If this
calculated time get less than the setting time Warning, set in minutes, the output
WARNING is activated.

197
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Section 7
Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Final Temp
> TripTemp

PICKUP

actual heat comtent

Calculation
of heat
content

I3P
Calculation
of final
temperature

ALARM1

Actual Temp >


Alarm1,Alarm2
Temp

ALARM2

Current base used


TRIP
Actual Temp
> TripTemp
Binary input:
Forced cooling
Enabled/
Disabled

Management of
setting
parameters: Tau

S
R

Tau used

LOCKOUT

Actual Temp
< Recl
Temp

Calculation
of time to
trip

Calculation
of time to
reset of
lockout

TTRIP
WARNING if time to trip < set value

TRESLO

ANSI08000040-1-en.vsd
ANSI08000040 V1 EN

Figure 94:

Functional overview of TRPTTR (49)

198
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Section 7
Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

7.4.8

Technical data
Table 80:

TRPTTR (49) technical data

Function

Range or value

Accuracy

Base current 1 and 2

(30250)% of IBase

1.0% of In

Operate time:

Ip = load current before overload


occurs
Time constant = (1500)
minutes

IEC 602558, class 5 + 200 ms

Alarm pickup 1 and 2

(5099)% of heat content trip


value

2.0% of heat content trip

Operate current

(50250)% of IBase

1.0% of In

Reset level temperature

(1095)% of heat content trip

2.0% of heat content trip

I 2 - I p2
t = t ln 2
I - Ib 2

EQUATION1356 V1 EN

(Equation 46)

I = Imeasured

7.5

Breaker failure protection CCRBRF (50BF)

7.5.1

Identification
Function description
Breaker failure protection

IEC 61850
identification

IEC 60617
identification

CCRBRF

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
50BF

3I>BF
SYMBOL-U V1 EN

7.5.2

Functionality
Breaker failure protection (CCRBRF, 50BF) ensures fast back-up tripping of
surrounding breakers in case the protected breaker fails to open. CCRBRF (50BF) can
be current based, contact based, or an adaptive combination of these two conditions.
Current check with extremely short reset time is used as check criterion to achieve high
security against unnecessary operation.
Contact check criteria can be used where the fault current through the breaker is small.

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Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Breaker failure protection (CCRBRF, 50BF) current criteria can be fulfilled by one or
two phase currents, or one phase current plus residual current. When those currents
exceed the user defined settings, the function is activated. These conditions increase
the security of the back-up trip command.
CCRBRF (50BF) function can be programmed to give a three-phase re-trip of the
protected breaker to avoid unnecessary tripping of surrounding breakers.

7.5.3

Function block
CCRBRF (50BF)
I3P*
BLOCK
BFI_3P
52A_A
52A_B
52A_C

TRBU
TRRET

ANSI09000272-1-en.vsd
ANSI09000272 V1 EN

Figure 95:

7.5.4

CCRBRF (50BF) function block

Signals
Table 81:
Name

CCRBRF (50BF) Input signals


Type

Default

Description

I3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Three phase group signal for current inputs

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

BFI_3P

BOOLEAN

Three phase breaker failure initiation

52a_A

BOOLEAN

Circuit breaker closed in phase A

52a_B

BOOLEAN

Circuit breaker closed in phase B

52a_C

BOOLEAN

Circuit breaker closed in phase C

Table 82:
Name

CCRBRF (50BF) Output signals


Type

Description

TRBU

BOOLEAN

Back-up trip by breaker failure protection function

TRRET

BOOLEAN

Retrip by breaker failure protection function

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Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

7.5.5
Table 83:
Name

Settings
CCRBRF (50BF) Group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Disable/Enable Operation

FunctionMode

Current
Contact
Current&Contact

Current

Detection principle for back-up trip

BuTripMode

2 out of 4
1 out of 3
1 out of 4

1 out of 3

Back-up trip mode

RetripMode

Retrip Off
CB Pos Check
No CBPos Check

Retrip Off

Operation mode of re-trip logic

Pickup_PH

5 - 200

%IB

10

Phase current pickup in % of IBase

Pickup_N

2 - 200

%IB

10

Operate residual current level in % of IBase

t1

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.000

Time delay of re-trip

t2

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.150

Time delay of back-up trip

Table 84:
Name
Pickup_BlkCont

Table 85:
Name
GlobalBaseSel

7.5.6

CCRBRF (50BF) Group settings (advanced)


Values (Range)
5 - 200

Unit

Step

%IB

Default
20

Description
Current for blocking of 52a operation in % of
Ibase

CCRBRF (50BF) Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)
1-6

Unit

Step

Default
1

Description
Selection of one of the Global Base Value
groups

Monitored data
Table 86:
Name

CCRBRF (50BF) Monitored data


Type

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

I_A

REAL

Measured current in phase A

I_B

REAL

Measured current in phase B

I_C

REAL

Measured current in phase C

IN

REAL

Measured residual current

201
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Section 7
Current protection
7.5.7

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Operation principle
Breaker failure protection (CCRBRF) is initiated from protection trip command, either
from protection functions within the IED or from external protection devices.
The initiate signal is general for all three phases. A re-trip attempt can be made after a
set time delay. The re-trip function can be done with or without current or contact
check. With the current check the re-trip is only performed if the current through the
circuit breaker is larger than the operate current level. With contact check the re-trip is
only performed if breaker is indicated as closed.
The initiate signal can be an internal or external protection trip signal. This signal will
initiate the back-up trip timer. If the opening of the breaker is successful this is
detected by the function, both by detection of low RMS current and by a special
adapted algorithm. The special algorithm enables a very fast detection of successful
breaker opening, that is, fast resetting of the current measurement. If the current
detection has not detected breaker opening before the back-up timer has run its time a
back-up trip is initiated.
Further the following possibilities are available:

In the current detection it is possible to use three different options: 1 out of 3


where it is sufficient to detect failure to open (high current) in one pole, 1 out of 4
where it is sufficient to detect failure to open (high current) in one pole or high
residual current and 2 out of 4 where at least two current (phase current and/or
residual current) shall be high for breaker failure detection.
The current detection level for the residual current can be set different from the
setting of phase current detection.
Back-up trip is always made with current or contact check.It is possible to have
this option activated for small load currents only.

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Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Current
AND
BLOCK

AND

START

t1

Current &
Contact

STIL1

AND

OR

OR

OR
AND

CBCLD

TRRET

AND
Contact
L2

L3
en08000007.vsd

IEC08000007 V1 EN

Figure 96:

Simplified logic scheme of the retrip function

Internal logical signals PU_A, PU_B, PU_C have logical value 1 when current in
respective phase has magnitude larger than setting parameter Pickup_PH.
Internal logical signal PU_N has logical value 1 when neutral current has magnitude
larger than setting parameter Pickup_N.

7.5.8

Technical data
Table 87:

CCRBRF (50BF) technical data

Function

Range or value

Accuracy

Operate phase current

(5-200)% of lBase

1.0% of In at I In
1.0% of I at I > In

Reset ratio, phase current

> 95%

Operate residual current

(2-200)% of lBase

1.0% of In at I In
1.0% of I at I > In

Reset ratio, residual


current

> 95%

Phase current pickup for


blocking of contact
function

(5-200)% of lBase

1.0% of In at I In
1.0% of I at I > In

Reset ratio

> 95%

Timers

(0.000-60.000) s

0.5% 10 ms

Operate time for current


detection

35 ms typically

Reset time for current


detection

10 ms maximum

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Section 7
Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

7.6

Pole discrepancy protection CCRPLD (52PD)

7.6.1

Identification
Function description
Pole discrepancy protection

IEC 61850
identification

IEC 60617
identification

CCRPLD

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
52PD

PD
SYMBOL-S V1 EN

7.6.2

Functionality
Circuit breakers and disconnectors can end up with their phase poles in different
positions (close-open), due to electrical or mechanical failures.An open phase can
cause negative and zero sequence currents which cause thermal stress on rotating
machines and can cause unwanted operation of zero sequence or negative sequence
current functions.
Normally the affected breaker is tripped to correct such a situation. If the situation
warrants the surrounding breakers should be tripped to clear the unsymmetrical load
situation.
The pole discrepancy function operates based on information from the circuit breaker
logic with additional criteria from unsymmetrical phase currents when required.

7.6.3

Function block
CCRPLD (52PD)
I3P*
TRIP
BLOCK
PICKUP
CLOSECMD
OPENCMD
EXTPDIND
ANSI08000041-1-en.vsd
ANSI08000041 V1 EN

Figure 97:

CCRPLD (52PD) function block

204
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Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

7.6.4

Signals
Table 88:

CCRPLD (52PD) Input signals

Name

Type
GROUP
SIGNAL

Three phase group signal for current inputs

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

CLOSECMD

BOOLEAN

Close command to CB

OPENCMD

BOOLEAN

Open command to CB

EXTPDIND

BOOLEAN

Pole discrepancy signal from CB logic

CCRPLD (52PD) Output signals

Name

Table 90:
Name

Description

I3P

Table 89:

7.6.5

Default

Type

Description

TRIP

BOOLEAN

Trip signal to CB

PICKUP

BOOLEAN

Trip condition TRUE, waiting for time delay

Settings
CCRPLD (52PD) Group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Disable/Enable Operation

tTrip

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.300

Time delay between trip condition and trip


signal

ContactSel

Disabled
PD signal from CB

Disabled

Contact function selection

CurrentSel

Disabled
CB oper monitor
Continuous monitor

Disabled

Current function selection

CurrUnsymPU

0 - 100

80

Unsym magn of lowest phase current


compared to the highest.

CurrRelPU

0 - 100

%IB

10

Current magnitude for release of the function


in % of IBase

Table 91:
Name
GlobalBaseSel

CCRPLD (52PD) Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)
1-6

Unit
-

Step
1

Default
1

Description
Selection of one of the Global Base Value
groups

205
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Section 7
Current protection
7.6.6

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Monitored data
Table 92:

CCRPLD (52PD) Monitored data

Name

7.6.7

Type

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

IMin

REAL

Lowest phase current

IMax

REAL

Highest phase current

Operation principle
The detection of pole discrepancy can be made in two different ways. If the contact
based function is used an external logic can be made by connecting the auxiliary
contacts of the circuit breaker so that a pole discrepancy is indicated, see figure 98.
C.B.

52a
52a
52a

52b

poleDiscrepancy Signal from C.B.

52b
52b

ANSI_en05000287.vsd

ANSI05000287 V1 EN

Figure 98:

Pole discrepancy external detection logic

This binary signal is connected to a binary input of the IED. The appearance of this
signal will start a timer that will give a trip signal after the set time delay.
Pole discrepancy can also be detected by means of phase selective current
measurement. The sampled analog phase currents are pre-processed in a discrete
Fourier filter (DFT) block. From the fundamental frequency components of each phase
current the RMS value of each phase current is derived. The smallest and the largest
phase current are derived. If the smallest phase current is lower than the setting
CurrUnsymPU times the largest phase current the settable trip timer (tTrip) is started.
The tTrip timer gives a trip signal after the set delay. The TRIP signal is a pulse 150
ms long. The current based pole discrepancy function can be set to be active either
continuously or only directly in connection to breaker open or close command.

206
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Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

BLOCK

ContactSel
AND

EXTPDIND

AND

tTrip
t

150 ms
TRIP

OR

CLOSECMD

tTrip+200 ms
OR

OPENCMD

AND

CurrentSel
Unsymmetrical
current detection

ANSI08000014-1-en.vsd
ANSI08000014 V1 EN

Figure 99:

Simplified block diagram of pole discrepancy function - contact and


current based

The pole discordance protection is blocked if the input signal BLOCK is high.
The BLOCK signal is a general purpose blocking signal of the pole discrepancy
protection. It can be connected to a binary input in the IED in order to receive a block
command from external devices or can be software connected to other internal
functions in the IED itself in order to receive a block command from internal functions.
Through OR gate it can be connected to both binary inputs and internal function outputs.
If the pole discrepancy protection is enabled, then two different criteria can generate a
trip signal TRIP:

7.6.7.1

Pole discrepancy signaling from the circuit breaker.


Unsymmetrical current detection.

Pole discrepancy signaling from circuit breaker


If one or two poles of the circuit breaker have failed to open or to close (pole
discrepancy status), then the function input EXTPDIND is activated from the pole
discrepancy signal in figure 98. After a settable time tTrip, a 150 ms trip pulse
command TRIP is generated by the pole discrepancy protection.

207
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Section 7
Current protection
7.6.7.2

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Unsymmetrical current detection


Unsymmetrical current indicated if:

any phase current is lower than CurrUnsymPU of the highest current in the three
phases.
the highest phase current is greater than CurrRelPU of IBase.

If these conditions are true, an unsymmetrical condition is detected. This detection is


enabled to generate a trip after a set time delay tTrip if the detection occurs in the next
200 ms after the circuit breaker has received a command to open trip or close and if the
unbalance persists. The 200 ms limitation is for avoiding unwanted operation during
unsymmetrical load conditions.
The pole discrepancy protection is informed that a trip or close command has been
given to the circuit breaker through the inputs CLOSECMD (for closing command
information) and OPENCMD (for opening command information). These inputs can be
connected to terminal binary inputs if the information are generated from the field (that
is from auxiliary contacts of the close and open push buttons) or may be software
connected to the outputs of other integrated functions (that is close command from a
control function or a general trip from integrated protections).

7.6.8

Technical data
Table 93:

CCRPLD (52PD) technical data

Function

Range or value

Accuracy

Operate value, current


asymmetry level

(0-100) %

1.0% of In

Reset ratio

>95%

Time delay

(0.000-60.000) s

0.5% 25 ms

7.7

Directional over-/under-power protection GOPPDOP/


GUPPDUP (32/37)

7.7.1

Functionality
The directional over-/under-power protection GOPPDOP (32)/GUPPDUP (37) can be
used wherever a high/low active, reactive or apparent power protection or alarming is
required. The functions can alternatively be used to check the direction of active or

208
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Section 7
Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

reactive power flow in the power system. There are a number of applications where
such functionality is needed. Some of them are:

detection of reversed active power flow


detection of high reactive power flow

Each function has two steps with definite time delay. Reset times for both steps can be
set as well.

7.7.2

Directional overpower protection GOPPDOP (32)

7.7.2.1

Identification
Function description
Directional overpower protection

IEC 61850
identification
GOPPDOP

IEC 60617
identification

P>

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
32

DOCUMENT172362-IMG158942
V1 EN

7.7.2.2

Function block
GOPPDOP (32)
I3P*
V3P*
BLOCK
BLK1
BLK2

TRIP
TRIP1
TRIP2
BFI_3P
PICKUP1
PICKUP2
P
PPERCENT
Q
QPERCENT
ANSI08000506-1-en.vsd

ANSI08000506 V1 EN

Figure 100:

GOPPDOP (32) function block

209
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Section 7
Current protection
7.7.2.3

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Signals
Table 94:

GOPPDOP (32) Input signals

Name

Type

Three phase group signal for current inputs

V3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Three phase group signal for voltage inputs

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

BLK1

BOOLEAN

Block of step 1

BLK2

BOOLEAN

Block of step 2

GOPPDOP (32) Output signals

Name

Table 96:
Name

Description

GROUP
SIGNAL

Table 95:

7.7.2.4

Default

I3P

Type

Description

TRIP

BOOLEAN

Common trip signal

TRIP1

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from stage 1

TRIP2

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from stage 2

BFI_3P

BOOLEAN

General pickup signal

PICKUP1

BOOLEAN

Pickup signal from stage 1

PICKUP2

BOOLEAN

Pickup signal from stage 2

REAL

Active Power

PPERCENT

REAL

Active power in % of calculated power base value

REAL

Reactive power

QPERCENT

REAL

Reactive power in % of calculated power base value

Settings
GOPPDOP (32) Group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Operation Disable / Enable

OpMode1

Disabled
OverPower

OverPower

Operation mode 1

Power1

0.0 - 500.0

0.1

1.0

Power setting for stage 1 in % of calculated


power base value

Angle1

-180.0 - 180.0

Deg

0.1

0.0

Characteristic angle for stage 1

TripDelay1

0.010 - 6000.000

0.001

1.000

Trip delay for stage 1

OpMode2

Disabled
OverPower

OverPower

Operation mode 2

Table continues on next page


210
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Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Name

Unit

Step

Power2

0.0 - 500.0

0.1

1.0

Power setting for stage 2 in % of calculated


power base value

Angle2

-180.0 - 180.0

Deg

0.1

0.0

Characteristic angle for stage 2

TripDelay2

0.010 - 6000.000

0.001

1.000

Trip delay for stage 2

Table 97:
Name
k

Table 98:
Name

Values (Range)

Default

Description

GOPPDOP (32) Group settings (advanced)


Values (Range)
0.00 - 0.99

Unit
-

Step

Default

0.01

0.00

Step

Default

Description
Low pass filter coefficient for power
measurement, V and I

GOPPDOP (32) Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)

Unit

Description

GlobalBaseSel

1-6

Selection of one of the Global Base Value


groups

Mode

A, B, C
Arone
Pos Seq
AB
BC
CA
A
B
C

Pos Seq

Mode of measurement for current and voltage

7.7.2.5

Monitored data
Table 99:
Name

7.7.3

GOPPDOP (32) Monitored data


Type

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

REAL

MW

Active Power

PPERCENT

REAL

Active power in % of
calculated power base value

REAL

MVAr

Reactive power

QPERCENT

REAL

Reactive power in % of
calculated power base value

Directional underpower protection GUPPDUP (37)

211
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Section 7
Current protection
7.7.3.1

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Identification
Function description

IEC 61850
identification

Directional underpower protection

IEC 60617
identification

GUPPDUP

P<

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
37

SYMBOL-LL V1 EN

7.7.3.2

Function block
GUPPDUP (37)
I3P*
V3P*
BLOCK
BLK1
BLK2

TRIP
TRIP1
TRIP2
BFI_3P
PICKUP1
PICKUP2
P
PPERCENT
Q
QPERCENT
ANSI08000507-1-en.vsd

ANSI08000507 V1 EN

Figure 101:

7.7.3.3

GUPPDUP (37) function block

Signals
Table 100:
Name

GUPPDUP (37) Input signals


Type

Default

Description

I3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Three phase group signal for current inputs

V3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Three phase group signal for voltage inputs

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

BLK1

BOOLEAN

Block of step 1

BLK2

BOOLEAN

Block of step 2

Table 101:
Name

GUPPDUP (37) Output signals


Type

Description

TRIP

BOOLEAN

Common trip signal

TRIP1

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from stage 1

TRIP2

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from stage 2

BFI_3P

BOOLEAN

General pickup signal

Table continues on next page


212
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Section 7
Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Name

7.7.3.4
Table 102:
Name

Type

Description

PICKUP1

BOOLEAN

Pickup signal from stage 1

PICKUP2

BOOLEAN

Pickup signal from stage 2

REAL

Active Power

PPERCENT

REAL

Active power in % of calculated power base value

REAL

Reactive power

QPERCENT

REAL

Reactive power in % of calculated power base value

Settings
GUPPDUP (37) Group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Operation Disable / Enable

OpMode1

Disabled
UnderPower

UnderPower

Operation mode 1

Power1

0.0 - 500.0

0.1

1.0

Power setting for stage 1 in % of calculated


power base value

Angle1

-180.0 - 180.0

Deg

0.1

0.0

Characteristic angle for stage 1

TripDelay1

0.010 - 6000.000

0.001

1.000

Trip delay for stage 1

OpMode2

Disabled
UnderPower

UnderPower

Operation mode 2

Power2

0.0 - 500.0

0.1

1.0

Power setting for stage 2 in % of calculated


power base value

Angle2

-180.0 - 180.0

Deg

0.1

0.0

Characteristic angle for stage 2

TripDelay2

0.010 - 6000.000

0.001

1.000

Trip delay for stage 2

Table 103:
Name
TD

GUPPDUP (37) Group settings (advanced)


Values (Range)
0.00 - 0.99

Unit
-

Step

Default

0.01

0.00

Description
Low pass filter coefficient for power
measurement, V and I

213
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Section 7
Current protection

Table 104:
Name

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

GUPPDUP (37) Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

GlobalBaseSel

1-6

Selection of one of the Global Base Value


groups

Mode

A, B, C
Arone
Pos Seq
AB
BC
CA
A
B
C

Pos Seq

Mode of measurement for current and voltage

7.7.3.5

Monitored data
Table 105:
Name

7.7.4

GUPPDUP (37) Monitored data


Type

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

REAL

MW

Active Power

PPERCENT

REAL

Active power in % of
calculated power base value

REAL

MVAr

Reactive power

QPERCENT

REAL

Reactive power in % of
calculated power base value

Operation principle
A simplified scheme showing the principle of the power protection function is shown
in figure 102. The function has two stages with individual settings.

214
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Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Chosen current
phasors

Chosen voltage
phasors

P
Complex
power
calculation

Derivation of
S( composant)
in Char angle

S( angle)

t
0

S( angle) <
Power1

TRIP1
PICKUP1

S( angle) <
Power2

t
0

TRIP2
PICKUP2

P = POWRE
Q = POWIM

ANSI06000438-2-en.vsd
ANSI06000438 V2 EN

Figure 102:

Simplified logic diagram of the power protection function

The function will use voltage and current phasors calculated in the pre-processing
blocks. The apparent complex power is calculated according to chosen formula as
shown in table 106.
Table 106:

Complex power calculation

Set value: Mode


A, B, C

Formula used for complex power calculation

S = V A I A* + VB I B* + VC I C *
EQUATION2055-ANSI V1 EN

Arone

S = V AB I A* - VBC IC *
EQUATION2056-ANSI V1 EN

PosSeq

(Equation 49)

S = VAB ( I A* - I B* )
EQUATION2058-ANSI V1 EN

BC

(Equation 48)

S = 3 VPosSeq I PosSeq*
EQUATION2057-ANSI V1 EN

AB

(Equation 47)

(Equation 50)

S = VBC ( I B* - IC * )
EQUATION2059-ANSI V1 EN

(Equation 51)

Table continues on next page

215
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Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Set value: Mode


CA

Formula used for complex power calculation

S = VCA ( I C * - I A* )
EQUATION2060-ANSI V1 EN

S = 3 VA I A*
EQUATION2061-ANSI V1 EN

(Equation 53)

S = 3 VB I B*
EQUATION2062-ANSI V1 EN

(Equation 52)

(Equation 54)

S = 3 VC I C *
EQUATION2063-ANSI V1 EN

(Equation 55)

The active and reactive power is available from the function and can be used for
monitoring and fault recording.
The component of the complex power S = P + jQ in the direction Angle1(2) is
calculated. If this angle is 0 the active power component P is calculated. If this angle
is 90 the reactive power component Q is calculated.
The calculated power component is compared to the power pick up setting Power1(2).
For directional underpower protection, a pickup signal PICKUP1(2) is activated if the
calculated power component is smaller than the pick up value. For directional
overpower protection, a pickup signal PICKUP1(2) is activated if the calculated power
component is larger than the pick up value. After a set time delay TripDelay1(2) a trip
TRIP1(2) signal is activated if the pickup signal is still active. At activation of any of
the two stages a common signal PICKUP will be activated. At trip from any of the two
stages also a common signal TRIP will be activated.
To avoid instability there is a hysteresis in the power function. The absolute hysteresis
for stage 1(2) is 0.5 p.u. for Power1(2) 1.0 p.u., else the hysteresis is 0.5 Power1(2).
If the measured power drops under the (Power1(2) - hysteresis) value, the over-power
function will reset after 0.06 seconds. If the measured power comes over the
(Power1(2) + hysteresis) value, the under-power function will reset after 0.06 seconds.
The reset means that the pickup signal will drop out and that the timer of the stage will
reset.

7.7.4.1

Low pass filtering


In order to minimize the influence of the noise signal on the measurement it is possible
to introduce the recursive, low pass filtering of the measured values for S (P, Q). This

216
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Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

will make slower measurement response to the step changes in the measured quantity.
Filtering is performed in accordance with the following recursive formula:

S = TD SOld + (1 TD ) SCalculated
(Equation 56)

EQUATION1959-ANSI V1 EN

Where
S

is a new measured value to be used for the protection function

Sold

is the measured value given from the function in previous execution cycle

SCalculated is the new calculated value in the present execution cycle


TD

is settable parameter by the end user which influence the filter properties

Default value for parameter TD is 0.00. With this value the new calculated value is
immediately given out without any filtering (that is without any additional delay).
When TD is set to value bigger than 0, the filtering is enabled. A typical value for
TD=0.92 in case of slow operating functions.

7.7.5

Technical data
Table 107:

GOPPDOP, GUPPDUP (32/37) technical data

Function

Range or value

Accuracy

(0.0500.0)% of SBase

1.0% of Sr at S < Sr
1.0% of S at S > Sr1)

(1.0-2.0)% of SBase

< 50% of set value 2)

(2.0-10)% of SBase

< 20% of set value 3)

Characteristic angle

(-180.0180.0) degrees

2 degrees

Timers

(0.010 - 6000.000) s

0.5% 25 ms

Power level

1)

Accuracy valid for 50 Hz. At 60 Hz both accuracies are 2.0%


Accuracy valid for 50 Hz. At 60 Hz the accuracy is -50/+100%
3) Accuracy valid for 50 Hz. At 60 Hz the accuracy is 40%
2)

217
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Section 7
Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

7.8

Accidental energizing protection for synchronous


generator AEGGAPC (50AE)

7.8.1

Identification
Function description
Accidental energizing protection for
synchronous generator

7.8.2

IEC 61850
identification
AEGGAPC

IEC 60617
identification
U<I>

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
50AE

Functionality
Inadvertent or accidental energizing of off-line generators has occurred often enough
due to operating errors, breaker head flashovers, control circuit malfunctions, or a
combination of these causes. Inadvertently energized generator operates as induction
motor drawing a large current from the system. The voltage supervised overcurrent
protection is used to protect the inadvertently energized generator.
Accidental energizing protection for synchronous generator (AEGGAPC, 50AE) takes
the maximum phase current input from the generator terminal side or from generator
neutral side and maximum phase to phase voltage inputs from the terminal side.
AEGGAPC (50AE) is enabled when the terminal voltage drops below the specified
voltage level for the preset time.

7.8.3

Function block
AEGGAPC (50AE)
I3P*
TRIP
V3P*
RI
BLOCK
ARMED
BLKTR
ANSI09000783-1-en.vsd
ANSI09000783 V1 EN

Figure 103:

AEGGAPC (50AE) Function block

218
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Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

7.8.4

Signals
Table 108:

AEGGAPC (50AE) Input signals

Name

Type
GROUP
SIGNAL

Three Phase Current input

V3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Three Phase Voltage input

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

BLKTR

BOOLEAN

Block of trip

AEGGAPC (50AE) Output signals

Name

Table 110:
Name

Description

I3P

Table 109:

7.8.5

Default

Type

Description

TRIP

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from inadvertant energization protection

RI

BOOLEAN

Pick up from inadvertant energization

Enabled

BOOLEAN

True when accidental energizing protection is armed

Settings
AEGGAPC (50AE) Group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Disable/Enable Operation

IPickup

2 - 900

%IB

120

Phase current pickup in % of IBase

tOC

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.030

Trip time daly for overcurrent level

27_pick_up

2 - 200

%VB

50

Undervoltage level to arm protection in % of


Vbase

tArm

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

5.000

Time delay to arm protection with


undervoltage pickup

59_Drop_out

2 - 200

%VB

80

Over voltage level to disarm protection in %


of Vbase

tDisarm

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.500

Time delay to disarm protection when voltage


greater than drop out level

Table 111:
Name
GlobalBaseSel

AEGGAPC (50AE) Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)
1-6

Unit
-

Step
1

Default
1

Description
Selection of one of the Global Base Value
Groups

219
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Current protection
7.8.6

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Operation principle
Accidental energizing protection for synchronous generator AEGGAPC (50AE)
function is connected to three phase current input either from the generator terminal
side or from generator neutral point side and three phase voltage from the generator
terminals. The maximum of the three phase-to-phase voltages and maximum of the
three phase currents are measured.
When the maximum phase-to-phase voltage is less than the 27_pick_up for the period
tArm, it is ensured that the generator is off-line. The Enabled signal will initiate the
overcurrent function. If the calculated maximum current of the three phases is larger
than IPickup for the period tOC then the TRIP signal becomes activated. Also PICKUP
signal becomes activated when overcurrent is detected.
When the maximum phase-to-phase voltage is larger than 59_Drop_out for the period
tDisarm, it is ensured generator is on line. During this state, undervoltage operation is
disarmed, blocking the overcurrent operation and thus the function becomes inoperative.
BLOCK input can be used to block AEGGAPC (50AE). In addition, the BLKTR input
that blocks the TRIP signal is also present. The input BLKTR can be used if
AEGGAPC (50AE) is to be used only for monitoring purposes.
Imax_DFT

a
a>b

IPickup

tOC
AND

Operation = Enabled

TRIP

BLOCK
RI

Enabled

tArm

Uph-ph_max_DFT
a
a<b
27_pick_up

AND
ON - Delay
tDisarm

a
a>b
59_Drop_out

OUT

NOUT

OR

b
ON - Delay
ANSI09000784-1-en.vsd

ANSI09000784 V1 EN

Figure 104:

AEGGAPC (50AE) logic diagram

220
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Section 7
Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

7.8.7

Technical data
Table 112:

AEGGAPC (50AE) technical data

Function

Range or value

Accuracy

Operate value,
overcurrent

(2-900)% of IBase

1,0% of In at I<In
1.0% of I at I>In

Reset ratio, overcurrent

>95%

Transient overreach,
overcurrent function

<20% at = 100 ms

Critical impulse time,


overcurrent

10 ms typically at 0 to 2 x Iset

Impulse margin time,


overcurrent

15 ms typically

Operate value,
undervoltage

(2-200)% of VBase

0.5% of Vn at V<Vn
0.5% of V at V>Vn

Critical impulse time,


undervoltage

10 ms typically at 2 to 0 x Vset

Impulse margin time,


undervoltage

15 ms typically

Operate value,
overvoltage

(2-200)% of VBase

0.5% of Vn at V<Vn
0.5% of V at V>Vn

Timers

(0.000-60.000) s

0.5% 25 ms

7.9

Negative-sequence time overcurrent protection for


machines NS2PTOC (46I2)

7.9.1

Identification
Function description
Negative sequence time overcurrent
protection for machines

7.9.2

IEC 61850
identification
NS2PTOC

IEC 60617
identification
2I2>

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
46I2

Functionality
Negative-sequence time overcurrent protection for machines NS2PTOC (46I2) is
intended primarily for the protection of generators against possible overheating of the
rotor caused by negative sequence component in the stator current.
The negative sequence currents in a generator may, among others, be caused by:

221
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Section 7
Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Unbalanced loads
Line to line faults
Line to ground faults
Broken conductors
Malfunction of one or more poles of a circuit breaker or a disconnector

NS2PTOC (46I2) can also be used as a backup protection, that is, to protect the
generator in case line protections or circuit breakers fail to clear unbalanced system faults.
To provide an effective protection for the generator for external unbalanced conditions,
NS2PTOC (46I2) is able to directly measure the negative sequence current. NS2PTOC
(46I2) also has a time delay characteristic which matches the heating characteristic of
2
the generator I 2 t = K as defined in standard IEEE C50.13.
where:
I2

is negative sequence current expressed in per unit of the rated


generator current

is operating time in seconds

is a constant which depends of the generators size and design

NS2PTOC (46I2) has a wide range of K settings and the sensitivity and capability of
detecting and tripping for negative sequence currents down to the continuous capability
of a generator.
A separate output is available as an alarm feature to warn the operator of a potentially
dangerous situation.

7.9.3

Function block
NS2PTOC (46I2)
I3P*
BLOCK
BLK1
BLK2

TRIP
TRST1
TRST2
PICKUP
PU_ST1
PU_ST2
ALARM
NSCURR
ANSI08000359-2-en.vsd

ANSI08000359 V2 EN

Figure 105:

NS2PTOC (46I2) function block

222
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Section 7
Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

7.9.4

Signals
Table 113:

NS2PTOC (46I2) Input signals

Name

Type
GROUP
SIGNAL

Group connection for neg seq.

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

BLK1

BOOLEAN

Block of step 1

BLK2

BOOLEAN

Block of step 2

NS2PTOC (46I2) Output signals

Name

Table 115:
Name

Description

I3P

Table 114:

7.9.5

Default

Type

Description

TRIP

BOOLEAN

Common trip signal

TRST1

BOOLEAN

Trip signal for step 1

TRST2

BOOLEAN

Trip sognal for step 2

PICKUP

BOOLEAN

Common start signal

PU_ST1

BOOLEAN

Pickup signal for step 1

PU_ST2

BOOLEAN

Pickup signal for step2

ALARM

BOOLEAN

Alarm signal

NSCURR

REAL

Negative sequence current in primary amps

Settings
NS2PTOC (46I2) Group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Disable/Enable Operation

tAlarm

0.00 - 6000.00

0.01

3.00

Time delay for alarm ( operated by pick up


signal) in seconds

OpStep1

Disabled
Enabled

Enabled

Enable execution of step 1

I2-1>

3 - 500

%IB

10

Step 1 Neg. Seq. Current pickup level, in %


of IBase

CurveType1

Definite
Inverse

Definite

Selection of definite or inverse timecharacteri. for step 1

t1

0.00 - 6000.00

0.01

10.00

Definite time delay for trip of step 1, in sec

tResetDef1

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.000

Time delay for reset of definite timer of step 1,


in sec

K1

1.0 - 99.0

0.1

10.0

Neg. seq. capability value of generator for


step 1, in sec

Table continues on next page


223
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Section 7
Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Name

Values (Range)

Unit

t1Min

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

5.000

Minimum trip time for inverse delay of step 1,


in sec

t1Max

0.00 - 6000.00

0.01

1000.00

Maximum trip delay for step 1, in sec

ResetMultip1

0.01 - 20.00

0.01

1.00

Reset multiplier for K1, defines reset time of


inverse curve

OpStep2

Disabled
Enabled

Enabled

Enable execution of step 2

I2-2>

3 - 500

%IB

10

Step 2 Neg. Seq. Current pickup level, in %


of IBase

t2

0.00 - 6000.00

0.01

10.00

Definite time delay for trip of step 2, in sec

tResetDef2

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.000

Time delay for reset of definite timer of step 2,


in sec

Table 116:
Name
GlobalBaseSel

7.9.6

Default

Description

NS2PTOC (46I2) Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)
1-6

Unit

Step

Default
1

Description
Selection of one of the Global Base Value
groups

Monitored data
Table 117:
Name
NSCURR

7.9.7

Step

NS2PTOC (46I2) Monitored data


Type
REAL

Values (Range)
-

Unit
A

Description
Negative sequence current in
primary amps

Operation principle
The negative sequence time overcurrent protection for machines (NS2PTOC, 46I2)
function directly measures the amplitude of the negative phase sequence component of
the measured current. NS2PTOC (46I2) sets the PICKUP, PU_ST1 or PU_ST2 outputs
active and starts to count trip time only when the measured negative sequence current
value rises above the set value of parameters I2-1> or I2-2> respectively.
To avoid oscillation in the output signals, a certain hysteresis has been included. For
both steps, the reset ratio is 0.97.
Step 1 of NS2PTOC (46I2) can operate in the Definite Time (DT) or Inverse Time
(IDMT) mode depending on the selected value for the CurveType1 parameter. If
CurveType1= Definite, NS2PTOC (46I2) operates with a Definite Time Delay
characteristic and if CurveType1 = Inverse, NS2PTOC (46I2) operates with an Inverse

224
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Section 7
Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Time Delay characteristic. Step 2 can only operate in the Definite Time (DT) mode.
The characteristic defines the time period between the moment when measured
negative sequence current exceeds the set pickup levels in parameter I2-1> or I2-2>
until the trip signal is initiated.
Definite time delay is not dependent on the magnitude of measured negative sequence
current. Once the measured negative sequence current exceeds the set level, the
settable definite timer t1 or t2 respectively, starts to count and the corresponding trip
signal gets activated after the pre-set definite time delay has elapsed. Reset time in
definite time mode is determined by the setting parameters tResetDef1 or tResetDef2
respectively. If NS2PTOC (46I2) has already picked up but not tripped and measured
negative sequence current goes below the pickup value, the pickup outputs remains
active for the time defined by the resetting parameters.
A BLOCK input signal resets NS2PTOC (46I2) momentarily.
When the parameter CurveType1 is set to Inverse, an inverse curve is selected
according to selected value for parameter K1. The minimum trip time setting of
parameter t1Min and reset time parameter ResetMultip1 also influence step operation.
However, to match the heating characteristics of the generator, the reset time is
depending on the setting of parameter K1, which must be set according to the
generators negative sequence current capacity.

K = I 2 2t
EQUATION2112 V1 EN

Where:
I2

is negative sequence current expressed in per unit of the rated generator current

is operating time in seconds

is a constant [s], which depends on generator size and design

225
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Section 7
Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Operate
time

t1Max
(Default= 1000 s)

t1Min
(Default= 5 s)

K1

Current I2-1>
IEC09000691-2-en.vsd
IEC09000691 V2 EN

Figure 106:

Inverse time characteristic with t1Min and t1Max

For a detailed description of inverse time characteristic, see chapter "Inverse time
characteristics".
The reset time is exponential and is given by the following expression:

ResetMultip
ResetTime [ s ] =
2

K1

I
NS

1
I Pickup

(Equation 57)

ANSIEQUATION2111 V1 EN

Where
INS

is the measured negative sequence current

IPickup

is the desired pickup level in pu of rated generator current

ResetMultip

is multiplier of the generator capability constant K equal to setting K1 and thus defines
reset time of inverse time characteristic

226
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Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

7.9.7.1

Pickup sensitivity
The trip pickup levels Current I2-1> and I2-2> of NS2PTOC (46I2) are freely settable
over a range of 3 to 500 % of rated generator current IBase. The wide range of pickup
setting is required in order to be able to protect generators of different types and sizes.
After pickup, a certain hysteresis is used before resetting NS2PTOC (46I2). For both
steps the reset ratio is 0.97.

7.9.7.2

Alarm function
The alarm function is operated by PICKUP signal and used to warn the operator for an
abnormal situation, for example, when generator continuous negative sequence current
capability is exceeded, thereby allowing corrective action to be taken before removing
the generator from service. A settable time delay tAlarm is provided for the alarm
function to avoid false alarms during short-time unbalanced conditions.

7.9.7.3

Logic diagram
DT time
selected
Negative sequence current

t1

TRST1

OR

a>b

I2-1>

PU_ST1

AND
Inverse

Operation=Enabled
BLK1

Inverse time
selected

BLOCK

ANSI08000466-2-en.vsd
ANSI08000466 V2 EN

Figure 107:

Simplified logic diagram for step 1 of Negative sequence time


overcurrent protection for machines (NS2PTOC, 46I2)

Step 2 for Negative sequence time overcurrent protection for machines (NS2PTOC,
46I2) is similar to step 1 above except that it lacks the inverse characteristic.

227
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Section 7
Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

PU_ST1
PU_ST2

PICKUP

OR
tAlarm

TRST1
TRST2

ALARM
TRIP

OR

ANSI09000690-2-en.vsd
ANSI09000690 V2 EN

Figure 108:

7.9.8

Simplified logic diagram for the PICKUP, ALARM and TRIP signals for
NS2PTOC (46I2)

Technical data
Table 118:

NS2PTOC (46I2) technical data

Function

Range or value

Accuracy

Operate value, step 1


and 2, negative sequence
overcurrent

(3-500)% of IBase

1.0% of Ir at I < In
1.0% of I at I > In

Reset ratio, step 1 and 2

>95%

Operate time, pickup

30 ms typically at 0 to 2 x Iset
20 ms typically at 0 to 10 x Iset

Reset time, pickup

40 ms typically at 2 to 0 x Iset

Time characteristics

Definite or Inverse

Inverse time
characteristic step 1,
I 22t = K

K=1.0-99.0

Class 5 + 40 ms

Reset time, inverse


characteristic step 1,
I 22t = K

K=0.01-20.00

Class 10 + 40 ms

Maximum trip delay, step


1 IDMT

(0.00-6000.00) s

0.5% 25 ms

Minimum trip delay, step


1 IDMT

(0.000-60.000) s

0.5% 25 ms

Timers

(0.00-6000.00) s

0.5% 25 ms

228
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Section 7
Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

7.10

Voltage-restrained time overcurrent protection


VR2PVOC (51V)

7.10.1

Identification
Function description

IEC 61850
identification

Voltage-restrained time overcurrent


protection

7.10.2

VR2PVOC

IEC 60617
identification
U<I>

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
51V

Functionality
Voltage-restrained time overcurrent protection (VR2PVOC, 51V) function is
recommended as a backup protection for generators.
The overcurrent protection feature has a settable current level that can be used either
with definite time or inverse time characteristic. Additionally, it can be voltage controlled/
restrained.
One undervoltage step with definite time characteristic is also available with the
function in order to provide funcionality for overcurrent protection with undervoltage
seal-in.

7.10.3

Function block
VR2PVOC (51V)
I3P*
V3P*
BLOCK
BLKOC
BLKUV

TRIP
TROC
27 Trip
PICKUP
PU_OC
27 PU
IMAX
VUmin
ANSI10000118-1-en.vsd

ANSI10000118 V1 EN

Figure 109:

VR2PVOC (51V) function block

229
Technical Manual

Section 7
Current protection
7.10.4

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Signals
Table 119:
Name

VR2PVOC (51V) Input signals


Type

Default

Description

I3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Three phase group signal for current inputs

V3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Three phase group signal for voltage inputs

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function both stages

BLKOC

BOOLEAN

Block of voltage restraint overcurrent stage (ANSI 51V)

BLKUV

BOOLEAN

Block of under voltage function

Table 120:
Name

VR2PVOC (51V) Output signals


Type

Description

TRIP

BOOLEAN

Common trip signal

TROC

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from voltage restraint overcurrent stage

27 Trip

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from undervoltage function

PICKUP

BOOLEAN

General pickup signal

PU_OC

BOOLEAN

Pick up signal from voltage restraint overcurrent stage

27 PU

BOOLEAN

Pick up signal from undervoltage function

IMAX

REAL

Maximum phase current magnitude

VUmin

REAL

Minimum ph-to-ph voltage magnitude

230
Technical Manual

Section 7
Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

7.10.5
Table 121:
Name

Settings
VR2PVOC (51V) Group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Disable/Enable Operation

Pickup_Curr

2.0 - 5000.0

%IB

1.0

120.0

Pick up current level in % of IBase

Characterist

ANSI Ext. inv.


ANSI Very inv.
ANSI Norm. inv.
ANSI Mod. inv.
ANSI Def. Time
L.T.E. inv.
L.T.V. inv.
L.T. inv.
IEC Norm. inv.
IEC Very inv.
IEC inv.
IEC Ext. inv.
IEC S.T. inv.
IEC L.T. inv.
IEC Def. Time

IEC Norm. inv.

Time delay curve type for 51V

tDef_OC

0.00 - 6000.00

0.01

0.50

Independent (definite) time delay for OC

0.05 - 999.00

0.01

1.00

Time multiplier for the IDMT curves

t_MinTripDelay

0.00 - 6000.00

0.01

0.05

Minimum operate time for IDMT curves

Operation_UV

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Operation of under-voltage stage (ANSI 27)


Off / On

PickUp_Volt

2.0 - 100.0

%VB

0.1

50.0

Operate undervoltage level for UV in % of


Vbase

tDef_UV

0.00 - 6000.00

0.01

1.00

Operate time delay in sec for definite time use


of UV

EnBlkLowV

Disabled
Enabled

Enabled

Enable internal low voltage level blocking for


UV

BlkLowVolt

0.0 - 5.0

%VB

0.1

3.0

Internal low voltage blocking level for UV in %


of Vbase

Table 122:
Name

VR2PVOC (51V) Group settings (advanced)


Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

VDepMode

Step
Slope

Slope

Voltage dependent mode OC (step, slope)

VDepFact

5.0 - 100.0

0.1

25.0

Pick up current level in % of pickup when V<


25% of VBase

VHighLimit

30.0 - 100.0

%VB

0.1

100.0

Voltage high limit setting in % of Vbase

231
Technical Manual

Section 7
Current protection

Table 123:
Name
GlobalBaseSel

7.10.6

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

VR2PVOC (51V) Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)
1-6

Unit

Step

Default
1

Description
Selection of one of the Global Base Value
groups

Monitored data
Table 124:

VR2PVOC (51V) Monitored data

Name

Type

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

IMAX

REAL

Maximum phase current


magnitude

VUmin

REAL

kV

Minimum ph-to-ph voltage


magnitude

7.10.7

Operation principle

7.10.7.1

Measured quantities
The voltage-restrained time overcurrent protection (VR2PVOC, 51V) function is
always connected to three-phase current and three-phase voltage input in the
configuration tool (ACT), but it will always measure the maximum of the three-phase
currents and the minimum of the three phase-to-phase voltages.

7.10.7.2

Base quantities
The parameter settings for the base quantities, which represent the base (100%) for
pickup levels of all measuring stages shall be entered as setting parameters for
VR2PVOC (51V) function.
Common base IED values for primary current (IBase), primary voltage (VBase), and
primary power (SBase) are set in Global base values for the settings function
GBASVAL. Setting GlobalBaseSel is used to select a GBASVAL function for the
reference of base values.
IBase shall be entered as rated phase current of the protected object in primary amperes.
VBase shall be entered as rated phase-to-phase voltage of the protected object in
primary kV.

232
Technical Manual

Section 7
Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

7.10.7.3

Overcurrent protection
The overcurrent step simply compares the magnitude of the measured current quantity
with the set pickup level. The overcurrent step picks up if the magnitude of the
measured current quantity is bigger than the set level.

Voltage restraint/control feature

The overcurrent protection operation is made dependent of a measured voltage


quantity. This means that the pickup level of the overcurrent step is not constant but
decreases with the decrease in the magnitude of the measured voltage quantity. Two
different types of dependencies are available:

Voltage restraint overcurrent (when setting parameter VDepMode = Slope)


Current Pickup Level

PickupCurr

VDepFact * PickupCurr

0,25

VHighLimit

VBase

ANSI10000123-1-en.vsd
ANSI10000123 V1 EN

Figure 110:

Example for current pickup level variation as function of measured


voltage magnitude in Slope mode of operation

Voltage controlled overcurrent (when setting parameter VDepMode = Step)

233
Technical Manual

Section 7
Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Current Pickup Level

PickupCurr

VDepFact * PickupCurr

VHighLimit

VBase
ANSI10000124-1-en.vsd

ANSI10000124 V1 EN

Figure 111:

Example for current pickup level variation as function of measured


voltage magnitude in Step mode of operation

This feature simply changes the set overcurrent pickup level in accordance with
magnitude variations of the measured voltage. This feature also affects the pickup
current value for the calculation of operate times for IDMT curves (the overcurrent
with IDMT curve operates faster during low voltage conditions).

234
Technical Manual

Section 7
Current protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

7.10.7.4

Logic diagram
DEF time
selected
OR

MaxPhCurr

TROC

PU_OC

a>b

PickupCurr

Inverse
Inverse
time
selected

Voltage
control or
restraint
feature

MinPh-Ph Voltage

ANSI10000214-1-en.vsd
ANSI10000214 V1 EN

Figure 112:

Simplified internal logic diagram for overcurrent function

DEF time
selected
MinPh-PhVoltage

TRUV

b>a

PickupVolt

AND

PU_UV

Operation_UV=On
BLKUV
ANSI10000213-1-en.vsd
ANSI10000213 V1 EN

Figure 113:

Simplified internal logic diagram for undervoltage function

235
Technical Manual

Section 7
Current protection
7.10.7.5

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Undervoltage protection
The undervoltage step simply compares the magnitude of the measured voltage
quantity with the set pickup level. The undervoltage step picks up if the magnitude of
the measured voltage quantity is smaller than the set level.
The pickup signal starts a definite time delay. If the value of the pickup signal is one
for longer than the set time delay, the undervoltage step sets its trip signal to one.
This undervoltage with additional ACT logic can be used to provide funcionality for
overcurrent protection with undervoltage seal-in.

7.10.8

Technical data
Table 125:

VR2PVOC (51V) technical data

Function

Range or value

Accuracy

Pickup overcurrent

(2 - 5000)% of IBase

1.0% of Ir at I<Ir
1.0% of I at I>Ir

Definite time delay

(0.00 - 6000.00) s

0.5% 25 ms

Inverse characteristics,
see table 487, table 488
and table 489

17 curves type

See table 487, table 488 and


table489

Operate time pickup


overcurrent

30 ms typically at 0 to 2 x Iset
20 ms typically at 0 to 10 x Iset

Reset time pickup


overcurrent

40 ms typically at 2 to 0 x Iset

Pickup undervoltage

(2.0 - 100.0)% of VBase

0.5 % of Vr

Operate time pickup


undervoltage

30 ms typically 2 to 0 x Vset

Reset time pickup


undervoltage

40 ms typically at 0 to 2 x Vset

High voltage limit, voltage


dependent operation

(30 - 100)% of VBase

1.0 % of Vr

Reset ratio, overcurrent

> 95%

Reset ratio, undervoltage

< 105%

Overcurrent:
Critical impulse time
Impulse margin time

10 ms typically at 0 to 2 x Iset
15 ms typically

236
Technical Manual

Section 8
Voltage protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Section 8

Voltage protection

8.1

Two step undervoltage protection UV2PTUV (27)

8.1.1

Identification
Function description

IEC 61850
identification

Two step undervoltage protection

IEC 60617
identification

UV2PTUV

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
27

2U<
SYMBOL-R-2U-GREATER THAN
V1 EN

8.1.2

Functionality
Undervoltages can occur in the power system during faults or abnormal conditions.
Two step undervoltage protection (UV2PTUV, 27) function can be used to open circuit
breakers to prepare for system restoration at power outages or as long-time delayed backup to primary protection.
UV2PTUV (27) has two voltage steps, where step 1 is settable as inverse or definite
time delayed. Step 2 is always definite time delayed.

8.1.3

Function block
UV2PTUV (27)
V3P*
BLOCK
BLK1
BLK2

TRIP
TRST1
TRST2
PICKUP
PU_ST1
PU_ST1_A
PU_ST1_B
PU_ST1_C
PU_ST2
ANSI09000285-1-en.vsd

ANSI09000285 V1 EN

Figure 114:

UV2PTUV (27) function block

237
Technical Manual

Section 8
Voltage protection
8.1.4

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Signals
Table 126:

UV2PTUV (27) Input signals

Name

Type
GROUP
SIGNAL

Three phase group signal for voltage inputs

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

BLK1

BOOLEAN

Block of step 1

BLK2

BOOLEAN

Block of step 2

UV2PTUV (27) Output signals

Name

Table 128:
Name

Description

V3P

Table 127:

8.1.5

Default

Type

Description

TRIP

BOOLEAN

Common trip signal

TRST1

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from step 1

TRST2

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from step 2

PICKUP

BOOLEAN

General pickup signal

PU_ST1

BOOLEAN

Start signal from step 1

PU_ST1_A

BOOLEAN

Pick up signal from step 1 phase A

PU_ST1_B

BOOLEAN

Pick up signal from step 1 phase B

PU_ST1_C

BOOLEAN

Pick up signal from step 1 phase C

PU_ST2

BOOLEAN

Start signal from step 2

Settings
UV2PTUV (27) Group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Disable/Enable Operation

OperationStep1

Disabled
Enabled

Enabled

Enable execution of step 1

Characterist1

Definite time
Inverse curve A
Inverse curve B

Definite time

Selection of time delay curve type for step 1

OpMode1

1 out of 3
2 out of 3
3 out of 3

1 out of 3

Number of phases required to operate (1 of 3,


2 of 3, 3 of 3) from step 1

Pickup1

1 - 100

%VB

70

Voltage start value (DT & IDMT) in % of


VBase for step 1

t1

0.00 - 6000.00

0.01

5.00

Definite time delay of step 1

Table continues on next page

238
Technical Manual

Section 8
Voltage protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Name

Values (Range)

Unit

t1Min

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

5.000

Minimum operate time for inverse curves for


step 1

TD1

0.05 - 1.10

0.01

0.05

Time multiplier for the inverse time delay for


step 1

OperationStep2

Disabled
Enabled

Enabled

Enable execution of step 2

OpMode2

1 out of 3
2 out of 3
3 out of 3

1 out of 3

Number of phases required to operate (1 of 3,


2 of 3, 3 of 3) from step 2

Pickup2

1 - 100

%VB

50

Voltage start value (DT & IDMT) in % of


VBase for step 2

t2

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

5.000

Definie time delay of step 2

Table 129:
Name

Step

Default

Description

UV2PTUV (27) Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

GlobalBaseSel

1-6

Selection of one of the Global Base Value


groups

ConnType

PhN DFT
PhN RMS
PhPh DFT
PhPh RMS

PhN DFT

Group selector for connection type

8.1.6

Monitored data
Table 130:
Name

8.1.7

UV2PTUV (27) Monitored data


Type

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

V_A

REAL

kV

Voltage in phase A

V_B

REAL

kV

Voltage in phase B

V_C

REAL

kV

Voltage in phase C

Operation principle
Two-step undervoltage protection (UV2PTUV ,27) is used to detect low power system
voltage. UV2PTUV (27) has two voltage measuring steps with separate time delays. If
one, two or three phase voltages decrease below the set value, a corresponding
PICKUP signal is generated. UV2PTUV (27) can be set to PICKUP/TRIP based on 1
out of 3, 2 out of 3 or 3 out of 3 of the measured voltages, being below the set point. If
the voltage remains below the set value for a time period corresponding to the chosen
time delay, the corresponding trip signal is issued. The time delay characteristic is

239
Technical Manual

Section 8
Voltage protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

settable for step 1 and can be either definite or inverse time delayed. Step 2 is always
definite time delayed.
UV2PTUV (27) can be set to measure phase-to-ground fundamental value, phase-tophase fundamental value, phase-to-ground true RMS value or phase-to-phase true
RMS value. The choice of the measuring is done by the parameter ConnType. The
voltage related settings are made in percent of base voltage which is set in kV phase-tophase voltage. This means operation for phase-to-ground voltage under:
Vpickup < (%) VBase(kV )
3
(Equation 58)

EQUATION1606 V1 EN

and operation for phase-to-phase voltage under:


Vpickup < (%) VBase(kV)
(Equation 59)

EQUATION1991-ANSI V1 EN

When phase-to-ground voltage measurement is selected the function


automatically introduces division of the base value by the square root
of three.

8.1.7.1

Measurement principle
Depending on the set ConnType value, UV2PTUV (27) measures phase-to-ground or
phase-to-phase voltages and compare against set values, Pickup1 and Pickup2. The
parameters OpMode1 and OpMode2 influence the requirements to activate the
PICKUP outputs. Either 1 out of 3, 2 out of 3, or 3 out of 3 measured voltages have to
be lower than the corresponding set point to issue the corresponding PICKUP signal.
To avoid oscillations of the output PICKUP signal, a hysteresis has been included.

8.1.7.2

Time delay
The time delay for step 1 can be either definite time delay (DT) or inverse time
overcurrent (TOV). Step 2 is always definite time delay (DT). For the inverse time
delay two different modes are available; inverse curve A and inverse curve B.
The type A curve is described as:

240
Technical Manual

Section 8
Voltage protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

t=

TD
Vpickup < -V
Vpickup <
(Equation 60)

ANSIEQUATION1431 V1 EN

The type B curve is described as:


t=

TD 480

Vpickup < -V

- 0.5
32
Vpickup <

2.0

+ 0.055

(Equation 61)

EQUATION1608 V1 EN

The lowest voltage is always used for the inverse time delay integration. The details of
the different inverse time characteristics are shown in section 20.3 "Inverse time
characteristics".
Trip signal issuing requires that the undervoltage condition continues for at least the
user set time delay. This time delay is set by the parameter t1 and t2 for definite time
mode (DT) and by some special voltage level dependent time curves for the inverse
time mode (TOV). If the pickup condition, with respect to the measured voltage ceases
during the delay time, the corresponding pickup output is reset.

8.1.7.3

Blocking
It is possible to block Two step undervoltage protection (UV2PTUV ,27) partially or
completely, by binary input signals or by parameter settings, where:

8.1.7.4

BLOCK:

blocks all outputs

BLK1:

blocks all pickup and trip outputs related to step 1

BLK2:

blocks all pickup and trip outputs related to step 2

Design
The voltage measuring elements continuously measure the three phase-to-neutral
voltages or the three phase-to-phase voltages. Recursive fourier filters or true RMS
filters of input voltage signals are used. The voltages are individually compared to the
set value, and the lowest voltage is used for the inverse time characteristic integration.
A special logic is included to achieve the 1 out of 3, 2 out of 3 and 3 out of 3 criteria to
fulfill the PICKUP condition. The design of Two step undervoltage protection
UV2PTUV (27) is schematically shown in Figure 115.

241
Technical Manual

Section 8
Voltage protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

VL1 or VA

VL2 or VB

VL3 or VC

Comparator
V < Pickup1
Comparator
V < Pickup1
Comparator
V < Pickup1

Voltage Phase
Selector
OpMode1
1 out of 3
2 out of 3
3 out of 3

PU_ST1_A

Phase1

PU_ST1_B

Phase2

PU_ST1_C

Phase3 Pickup

&
Trip
Output
Logic

PICKUP

PU_ST1

OR

Step1
MinVoltSelect
or

Comparator
V < Pickup2
Comparator
V < Pickup2
Comparator
V < Pickup2

Time integrator
t1

Voltage Phase
Selector
OpMode2
1 out of 3
2 out of 3
3 out of 3

TRST1

OR

TRIP

Phase1

PU_ST2

OR
Phase2
Phase3 Pickup

&
Trip
Output
Logic

PICKUP

Step2
Timer
t2

TRIP

TRST2

OR

OR PICKUP

OR

TRIP

ANSI08000016-1-en.vsd
ANSI08000016 V1 EN

Figure 115:

Schematic design of Two step undervoltage protection UV2PTUV (27)

242
Technical Manual

Section 8
Voltage protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

8.1.8

Technical data
Table 131:

UV2PTUV (27) technical data

Function

Range or value

Accuracy

Operate voltage, low and


high step

(1100)% of VBase

0.5% of Vn

Reset ratio

<105%

Inverse time
characteristics for low
and high step, see
table 491

See table 491

Definite time delay, step 1

(0.00 - 6000.00) s

0.5% 25 ms

Definite time delays, step


2

(0.000-60.000) s

0.5% 25 ms

Minimum operate time,


inverse characteristics

(0.00060.000) s

0.5% 25 ms

Operate time, pickup


function

30 ms typically at 2 to 0.5 x Vset

Reset time, pickup


function

40 ms typically at 0.5 to 2 x Vset

Critical impulse time

10 ms typically at 2 to 0 x Vset

Impulse margin time

15 ms typically

8.2

Two step overvoltage protection OV2PTOV (59)

8.2.1

Identification
Function description
Two step overvoltage protection

IEC 61850
identification

IEC 60617
identification

OV2PTOV

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
59

2U>
SYMBOL-C-2U SMALLER THAN
V1 EN

8.2.2

Functionality
Overvoltages may occur in the power system during abnormal conditions such as
sudden power loss, tap changer regulating failures, open line ends on long lines etc.

243
Technical Manual

Section 8
Voltage protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

OV2PTOV (59) has two voltage steps, where step 1 can be set as inverse or definite
time delayed. Step 2 is always definite time delayed.
OV2PTOV (59) has an extremely high reset ratio to allow settings close to system
service voltage.

8.2.3

Function block
OV2PTOV (59)
V3P*
BLOCK
BLK1
BLK2

TRIP
TRST1
TRST2
PICKUP
PU_ST1
PU_ST1_A
PU_ST1_B
PU_ST1_C
PU_ST2
ANSI09000278-1-en.vsd

ANSI09000278 V1 EN

Figure 116:

8.2.4

OV2PTOV function block (59)

Signals
Table 132:
Name

OV2PTOV (59) Input signals


Type

Default

Description

V3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Three phase group signal for voltage inputs

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

BLK1

BOOLEAN

Block of step 1

BLK2

BOOLEAN

Block of step 2

Table 133:
Name

OV2PTOV (59) Output signals


Type

Description

TRIP

BOOLEAN

Common trip signal

TRST1

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from step 1

TRST2

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from step 2

PICKUP

BOOLEAN

General pickup signal

PU_ST1

BOOLEAN

Start signal from step 1

PU_ST1_A

BOOLEAN

Pick up signal from step 1 phase A

PU_ST1_B

BOOLEAN

Pick up signal from step 1 phase B

PU_ST1_C

BOOLEAN

Pick up signal from step 1 phase C

PU_ST2

BOOLEAN

Start signal from step 2

244
Technical Manual

Section 8
Voltage protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

8.2.5
Table 134:
Name

Settings
OV2PTOV (59) Group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Disable/Enable Operation

OperationStep1

Disabled
Enabled

Enabled

Enable execution of step 1

Characterist1

Definite time
Inverse curve A
Inverse curve B
Inverse curve C

Definite time

Selection of time delay curve type for step 1

OpMode1

1 out of 3
2 out of 3
3 out of 3

1 out of 3

Number of phases required to operate (1 of 3,


2 of 3, 3 of 3) from step 1

Pickup1

1 - 200

%VB

120

Voltage start value (DT & IDMT) in % of


VBase for step 1

t1

0.00 - 6000.00

0.01

5.00

Definite time delay of step 1

t1Min

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

5.000

Minimum operate time for inverse curves for


step 1

TD1

0.05 - 1.10

0.01

0.05

Time multiplier for the inverse time delay for


step 1

OperationStep2

Disabled
Enabled

Enabled

Enable execution of step 2

OpMode2

1 out of 3
2 out of 3
3 out of 3

1 out of 3

Number of phases required to operate (1 of 3,


2 of 3, 3 of 3) from step 2

Pickup2

1 - 200

%VB

150

Voltage start value (DT & IDMT) in % of


VBase for step 2

t2

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

5.000

Definite time delay of step 2

Table 135:
Name

OV2PTOV (59) Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

GlobalBaseSel

1-6

Selection of one of the Global Base Value


groups

ConnType

PhN DFT
PhN RMS
PhPh DFT
PhPh RMS

PhN DFT

Group selector for connection type

245
Technical Manual

Section 8
Voltage protection
8.2.6

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Monitored data
Table 136:
Name

8.2.7

OV2PTOV (59) Monitored data


Type

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

V_A

REAL

kV

Voltage in phase A

V_B

REAL

kV

Voltage in phase B

V_C

REAL

kV

Voltage in phase C

Operation principle
Two step overvoltage protection OV2PTOV (59) is used to detect high power system
voltage. OV2PTOV (59) has two steps with separate time delays. If one-, two- or threephase voltages increase above the set value, a corresponding PICKUP signal is issued.
OV2PTOV (59) can be set to PICKUP/TRIP, based on 1 out of 3, 2 out of 3 or 3 out of
3 of the measured voltages, being above the set point. If the voltage remains above the
set value for a time period corresponding to the chosen time delay, the corresponding
trip signal is issued.
The time delay characteristic is settable for step 1 and can be either definite or inverse
time delayed. Step 2 is always definite time delayed.
The voltage related settings are made in percent of the global set base voltage VBase,
which is set in kV, phase-to-phase.
OV2PTOV (59) can be set to measure phase-to-ground fundamental value, phase-tophase fundamental value, phase-to-ground RMS value or phase-to-phase RMS value.
The choice of measuring is done by the parameter ConnType.
The voltage related settings are made in percent of base voltage which is set in kV phaseto-phase voltage. OV2PTOV (59) will operate if the voltage gets higher than the set
percentage of the set global base voltage VBase. This means operation for phase-toground voltage over:
Vpickup > (%) VBase(kV ) / 3
EQUATION1610 V2 EN

(Equation 62)

and operation for phase-to-phase voltage over:


Vpickup > (%) VBase(kV)
EQUATION1992 V1 EN

(Equation 63)

246
Technical Manual

Section 8
Voltage protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

When phase-to-ground voltage measurement is selected the function


automatically introduces division of the base value by the square root
of three.

8.2.7.1

Measurement principle
All the three voltages are measured continuously, and compared with the set values,
Pickup1 and Pickup2. The parameters OpMode1 and OpMode2 influence the
requirements to activate the PICKUP outputs. Either 1 out of 3, 2 out of 3 or 3 out of 3
measured voltages have to be higher than the corresponding set point to issue the
corresponding PICKUP signal.
To avoid oscillations of the output PICKUP signal, a hysteresis has been included.

8.2.7.2

Time delay
The time delay for step 1 can be either definite time delay (DT) or inverse time
overcurrent (TOV). Step 2 is always definite time delay (DT). For the inverse time
delay three different modes are available:

inverse curve A
inverse curve B
inverse curve C

The type A curve is described as:


t=

TD
V Vpickup >
Vpickup >

EQUATION1625 V2 EN

(Equation 64)

The type B curve is described as:


t=

TD 480
0.035
V Vpickup >
32
0.5
Vpickup >

ANSIEQUATION2287 V2 EN

(Equation 65)

The type C curve is described as:


t=

TD 480
+ 0.035
V Vpickup >
32
0.5
Vpickup >

ANSIEQUATION2288 V2 EN

(Equation 66)

247
Technical Manual

Section 8
Voltage protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

The highest phase (or phase-to-phase) voltage is always used for the inverse time delay
integration, see Figure 117. The details of the different inverse time characteristics are
shown in section "Inverse time characteristics"

Voltage
Inverse Time Voltage

VA
VB
VC

Time
en05000016_ansi.vsd
ANSI05000016 V1 EN

Figure 117:

Voltage used for the inverse time characteristic integration

A TRIP requires that the overvoltage condition continues for at least the user set time
delay. This time delay is set by the parameter t1 and t2 for definite time mode (DT) and
by selected voltage level dependent time curves for the inverse time mode (TOV). If
the PICKUP condition, with respect to the measured voltage ceases during the delay
time, the corresponding PICKUP output is reset.

8.2.7.3

Blocking
It is possible to block two step overvoltage protection (OV2PTOV ,59) partially or
completely, by binary input signals where:
BLOCK:

blocks all outputs

BLK1:

blocks all pickup and trip outputs related to step 1

BLK2:

blocks all pickup and trip outputs related to step 2

248
Technical Manual

Section 8
Voltage protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

8.2.7.4

Design
The voltage measuring elements continuously measure the three phase-to-ground
voltages or the three phase-to-phase voltages. Recursive Fourier filters filter the input
voltage signals. The phase voltages are individually compared to the set value, and the
highest voltage is used for the inverse time characteristic integration. A special logic is
included to achieve the 1 out of 3, 2 out of 3 or 3 out of 3 criteria to fulfill the PICKUP
condition. The design of Two step overvoltage protection (OV2PTOV ,59) is
schematically described in Figure 118.

249
Technical Manual

Section 8
Voltage protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Comparator
V > Pickup1

VL1 or VA

VL2 or VB

Comparator
V > Pickup1

VL3 or VC

Comparator
V > Pickup1

PU_ST1_A

Phase 1

Voltage Phase
Selector
OpMode1
1 out of 3
2 outof 3
3 out of 3

PU_ST1_B

Phase 2

PU_ST1_C

Phase 3 Pickup

&
Trip
Output
Logic

PICKUP

PU_ST1

OR

Step 1
MaxVoltSelect

Comparator
V > Pickup2
Comparator
V > Pickup2
Comparator
V > Pickup2

Time integrator
t1

Voltage Phase
Selector
OpMode2
1 out of 3
2 outof 3
3 out of 3

TRIP

TRST1

OR

Phase 1
Phase 2

PU_ST2

OR

Phase 3 Pickup

&
Trip
Output
Logic

PICKUP

Step 2
Timer
t2

TRIP

TRST2

OR

OR

OR

PICKUP

TRIP

ANSI08000012-1-en.vsd
ANSI08000012 V1 EN

Figure 118:

Schematic design of Two step overvoltage protection (OV2PTOV, 59)

250
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Voltage protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

8.2.8

Technical data
Table 137:

OV2PTOV (59) technical data

Function

Range or value

Accuracy

Operate voltage, low and


high step

(1-200)% of VBase

0.5% of Vn at V < Vn
0.5% of V at V > Vn

Reset ratio

>95%

Inverse time
characteristics for low
and high step, see
table 490

See table 490

Definite time delay, step 1

(0.00 - 6000.00) s

0.5% 25 ms

Definite time delays, step


2

(0.000-60.000) s

0.5% 25 ms

Minimum operate time,


Inverse characteristics

(0.000-60.000) s

0.5% 25 ms

Operate time, pickup


function

30 ms typically at 0 to 2 x Vset

Reset time, pickup


function

40 ms typically at 2 to 0 x Vset

Critical impulse time

10 ms typically at 0 to 2 x Vset

Impulse margin time

15 ms typically

8.3

Two step residual overvoltage protection ROV2PTOV


(59N)

8.3.1

Identification
Function description
Two step residual overvoltage
protection

IEC 61850
identification

IEC 60617
identification

ROV2PTOV

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
59N

3U0>
IEC10000168 V1 EN

8.3.2

Functionality
Residual voltages may occur in the power system during ground faults.

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1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Two step residual overvoltage protection ROV2PTOV (59N) function calculates the
residual voltage from the three-phase voltage input transformers or measures it from a
single voltage input transformer fed from a broken delta or neutral point voltage
transformer.
ROV2PTOV (59N) has two voltage steps, where step 1 can be set as inverse or definite
time delayed. Step 2 is always definite time delayed.

8.3.3

Function block
ROV2PTOV (59N)
V3P*
BLOCK
BLK1
BLK2

TRIP
TRST1
TRST2
PICKUP
PU_ST1
PU_ST2
ANSI09000273_1_en.vsd

ANSI09000273 V1 EN

Figure 119:

8.3.4

ROV2PTOV (59N) function block

Signals
Table 138:
Name

ROV2PTOV (59N) Input signals


Type

Default

Description

V3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Three phase group signal for voltage inputs

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

BLK1

BOOLEAN

Block of step 1

BLK2

BOOLEAN

Block of step 2

Table 139:
Name

ROV2PTOV (59N) Output signals


Type

Description

TRIP

BOOLEAN

Common trip signal

TRST1

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from step 1

TRST2

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from step 2

PICKUP

BOOLEAN

General pickup signal

PU_ST1

BOOLEAN

Start signal from step 1

PU_ST2

BOOLEAN

Start signal from step 2

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1MRK 502 034-UUS -

8.3.5
Table 140:
Name

Settings
ROV2PTOV (59N) Group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Disable/Enable Operation

OperationStep1

Disabled
Enabled

Enabled

Enable execution of step 1

Characterist1

Definite time
Inverse curve A
Inverse curve B
Inverse curve C

Definite time

Selection of time delay curve type for step 1

Pickup1

1 - 200

%VB

30

Voltage start value (DT & IDMT) in % of


VBase for step 1

t1

0.00 - 6000.00

0.01

5.00

Definite time delay of step 1

t1Min

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

5.000

Minimum operate time for inverse curves for


step 1

TD1

0.05 - 1.10

0.01

0.05

Time multiplier for the inverse time delay for


step 1

OperationStep2

Disabled
Enabled

Enabled

Enable execution of step 2

Pickup2

1 - 100

%VB

45

Voltage start value (DT & IDMT) in % of


VBase for step 2

t2

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

5.000

Definite time delay of step 2

Table 141:
Name
GlobalBaseSel

8.3.6

ROV2PTOV (59N) Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)
1-6

Step

Default
1

Description
Selection of one of the Global Base Value
groups

Monitored data
Table 142:
Name
VLevel

8.3.7

Unit

ROV2PTOV (59N) Monitored data


Type
REAL

Values (Range)
-

Unit
kV

Description
Magnitude of measured
voltage

Operation principle
Two step residual overvoltage protection ROV2PTOV (59N) is used to detect high singlephase voltage, such as high residual voltage, also called 3V0. The residual voltage can

253
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Section 8
Voltage protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

be measured directly from a voltage transformer in the neutral of a power transformer


or from a three-phase voltage transformer, where the secondary windings are
connected in an open delta. Another possibility is to measure the three-phase voltages
and internally in the IED calculate the corresponding residual voltage and connect this
calculated residual voltage to ROV2PTOV (59N). ROV2PTOV (59N) has two steps
with separate time delays. If the single-phase (residual) voltage remains above the set
value for a time period corresponding to the chosen time delay, the corresponding
TRIP signal is issued.
The time delay characteristic is setable for step 1 and can be either definite or inverse
time delayed. Step 2 is always definite time delayed.
The voltage related settings are made in percent of the global phase-to-phase base
voltage divided by 3.

8.3.7.1

Measurement principle
The residual voltage is measured continuously, and compared with the set values,
Pickup1 and Pickup2.
To avoid oscillations of the output PICKUP signal, a hysteresis has been included.

8.3.7.2

Time delay
The time delay for step 1 can be either definite time delay (DT) or inverse time delay
(TOV). Step 2 is always definite time delay (DT). For the inverse time delay three
different modes are available:

inverse curve A
inverse curve B
inverse curve C

The type A curve is described as:


t=

TD
V Vpickup >
Vpickup >

EQUATION1625 V2 EN

(Equation 67)

The type B curve is described as:


t=

TD 480
0.035
V Vpickup >
32
0.5
Vpickup >

ANSIEQUATION2287 V2 EN

(Equation 68)

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1MRK 502 034-UUS -

The type C curve is described as:


t=

TD 480
+ 0.035
V Vpickup >
32
0.5
Vpickup >
(Equation 69)

ANSIEQUATION2288 V2 EN

The details of the different inverse time characteristics are shown in section "Inverse
time characteristics".
TRIP signal issuing requires that the residual overvoltage condition continues for at
least the user set time delay. This time delay is set by the parameter t1 and t2 for
definite time mode (DT) and by some special voltage level dependent time curves for
the inverse time mode (TOV).
If the PICKUP condition, with respect to the measured voltage ceases during the delay
time, the corresponding PICKUP output is reset.

8.3.7.3

Blocking
It is possible to block Two step residual overvoltage protection (ROV2PTOV, 59N)
partially or completely, by binary input signals where:

8.3.7.4

BLOCK:

blocks all outputs

BLK1:

blocks all pickupand trip outputs related to step 1

BLK2:

blocks all pickup and trip inputs related to step 2

Design
The voltage measuring elements continuously measure the residual voltage. Recursive
Fourier filters filter the input voltage signal. The single input voltage is compared to
the set value, and is also used for the inverse time characteristic integration. The design
of Two step residual overvoltage protection (ROV2PTOV, 59N) is schematically
described in Figure 120.

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Voltage protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

VN

Comparator
VN > Pickup1
PICKUP

Time integrator
t1

Comparator
VN > Pickup2

TRIP

TRST1

Pickup
&
Trip
Output
Logic
Step 1

PU_ST2

Phase 1

PICKUP

Timer
t2

PU_ST1

Phase 1

TRIP

TRST2
Pickup
&
Trip
Output
Logic
Step 2

OR

OR

PICKUP

TRIP

ANSI08000013-1-en.vsd
ANSI08000013 V1 EN

Figure 120:

Schematic design of Two step residual overvoltage protection


(ROV2PTOV, 59N)

The design of Two step residual overvoltage protection (ROV2PTOV,


59N) is schematically described in Figure 120. VN is a signal included
in the three phase group signal V3P which shall be connected to output
AI3P of the SMAI. If a connection is made to the 4 input GRPx_N (x is
equal to instance number 2 to 12) on the SMAI, VN is this signal else
VN is the vectorial sum of the three inputs GRPx_A to GRPx_C.

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1MRK 502 034-UUS -

8.3.8

Technical data
Table 143:

ROV2PTOV (59N) technical data

Function

Range or value

Accuracy

Operate voltage, step 1

(1-200)% of VBase

0.5% of Vn at V < Vn
0.5% of V at V > Vn

Operate voltage, step 2

(1100)% of VBase

0.5% of Vn at V < Vn
0.5% of V at V > Vn

Reset ratio

>95%

Inverse time
characteristics for low
and high step, see
table 492

See table 492

Definite time setting, step


1

(0.006000.00) s

0.5% 25 ms

Definite time setting, step


2

(0.00060.000) s

0.5% 25 ms

Minimum operate time for


step 1 inverse
characteristic

(0.000-60.000) s

0.5% 25 ms

Operate time, pickup


function

30 ms typically at 0 to 2 x Vset

Reset time, pickup


function

40 ms typically at 2 to 0 x Vset

Critical impulse time

10 ms typically at 0 to 2 x Vset

Impulse margin time

15 ms typically

8.4

Overexcitation protection OEXPVPH (24)

8.4.1

Identification
Function description
Overexcitation protection

IEC 61850
identification

IEC 60617
identification

OEXPVPH

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
24

U/f >
SYMBOL-Q V1 EN

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Section 8
Voltage protection
8.4.2

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Functionality
When the laminated core of a power transformer or generator is subjected to a
magnetic flux density beyond its design limits, stray flux will flow into non-laminated
components not designed to carry flux and cause eddy currents to flow. The eddy
currents can cause excessive heating and severe damage to insulation and adjacent
parts in a relatively short time. The function has settable inverse operating curves and
independent alarm stages.

8.4.3

Function block
OEXPVPH (24)
V3P*
BLOCK
RESET

TRIP
BFI
ALARM
ANSI09000008-1-en.vsd

ANSI09000008 V1 EN

Figure 121:

8.4.4

OEXPVPH (24) function block

Signals
Table 144:
Name

OEXPVPH (24) Input signals


Type

Default

Description

V3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Three phase group signal for voltages

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

RESET

BOOLEAN

Reset of function

Table 145:
Name

OEXPVPH (24) Output signals


Type

Description

TRIP

BOOLEAN

Common trip signal

BFI

BOOLEAN

General pickup signal

ALARM

BOOLEAN

Overexcitation alarm signal

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1MRK 502 034-UUS -

8.4.5
Table 146:
Name

Settings
OEXPVPH (24) Group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Operation Disable / Enable

Pickup1

100.0 - 180.0

%VB/f

0.1

110.0

Operate level of V/Hz at no load and rated


freq in % of (Vbase/frated)

Pickup2

100.0 - 200.0

%VB/f

0.1

140.0

High level of V/Hz above which tMin is used,


in % of (Vbase/fn)

t_MinTripDelay

0.005 - 60.000

0.001

7.000

Minimum trip delay for V/Hz curve

TDForIEEECurve

1 - 60

Time multiplier for IEEE inverse type curve

AlarmPickup

50.0 - 120.0

0.1

100.0

Alarm pickup level

tAlarm

0.00 - 9000.00

0.01

5.00

Alarm time delay

Step

Default

Table 147:
Name

OEXPVPH (24) Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)

Unit

Description

GlobalBaseSel

1-6

Selection of one of the Global Base Value


groups

VoltConn

Pos Seq
UL1
UL2
UL3
UL1L2
UL2L3
UL3L1

Pos Seq

Selection of measured voltage

8.4.6

Monitored data
Table 148:
Name

OEXPVPH (24) Monitored data


Type

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

TMTOTRIP

REAL

Calculated time to trip for


overexcitation, in sec

VPERHZ

REAL

V/Hz

Voltage to frequency ratio in


per-unit

THERMSTA

REAL

Overexcitation thermal status


in % of trip pickup

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Voltage protection
8.4.7

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Operation principle
The importance of Overexcitation protection (OEXPVPH, 24) function is growing as
the power transformers as well as other power system elements today operate most of
the time near their designated limits.
Modern design transformers are more sensitive to overexcitation than earlier types.
This is a result of the more efficient designs and designs which rely on the
improvement in the uniformity of the excitation level of modern systems. Thus, if
emergency that includes overexcitation does occur, transformers may be damaged
unless corrective action is promptly taken. Transformer manufacturers recommend an
overexcitation protection as a part of the transformer protection system.
Overexcitation results from excessive applied voltage, possibly in combination with
below-normal frequency. Such condition may occur when a transformer unit is on load,
but are more likely to arise when it is on open circuit, or at a loss of load occurrence.
Transformers directly connected to generators are in particular danger to experience
overexcitation condition. It follows from the fundamental transformer equation, see
equation 70, that peak flux density Bmax is directly proportional to induced voltage E,
and inversely proportional to frequency f, and turns n.
E = 4.44 f n Bmax A
(Equation 70)

EQUATION898 V2 EN

The relative excitation M is therefore according to equation 71.


M ( p.u.) =

E f

( Vr ) ( fn )

ANSIEQUATION2296 V1 EN

(Equation 71)

Disproportional variations in quantities E and f may give rise to core overfluxing. If the
core flux density Bmax increases to a point above saturation level (typically 1.9 Tesla),
the flux will no longer be contained within the core, but will extend into other (nonlaminated) parts of the power transformer and give rise to eddy current circulations.
Overexcitation will result in:

overheating of the non-laminated metal parts


a large increase in magnetizing currents
an increase in core and winding temperature
an increase in transformer vibration and noise

Protection against overexcitation is based on calculation of the relative volt per hertz (V/
Hz) ratio. Protection initiates a reduction of excitation, and if this fails, or is not

260
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1MRK 502 034-UUS -

possible, the TRIP signal will disconnect the transformer from the source after a delay
ranging from seconds to minutes, typically 5-10 seconds.
Overexcitation protection may be of particular concern on directly connected generator
unit transformers. Directly connected generator-transformers are subjected to a wide
range of frequencies during the acceleration and deceleration of the turbine. In such
cases, OEXPVPH (24) may trip the field breaker during a start-up of a machine, by
means of the overexcitation ALARM signal. If this is not possible, the power
transformer can be disconnected from the source, after a delay, by the TRIP signal.
The IEC 60076 - 1 standard requires that transformers operate continuously at 10%
above rated voltage at no load, and rated frequency. At no load, the ratio of the actual
generator terminal voltage to the actual frequency should not exceed 1.1 times the ratio
of transformer rated voltage to the rated frequency on a sustained basis, see
equation 72.
E
f

1.1

Vn
fn
(Equation 72)

EQUATION1630 V1 EN

or equivalently, with 1.1 Vn = Pickup1 according to equation 73.


E
f

Pickup1
fn
(Equation 73)

ANSIEQUATION2297 V2 EN

where:

Pickup1 is the maximum continuously allowed voltage at no load, and rated frequency.

Pickup1 is a setting parameter. The setting range is 100% to 180%. If the user does not
know exactly what to set, then the default value for Pickup1 = 110 % for the standard
IEC 60076-1 shall be used.
In OEXPVPH (24), the relative excitation M is expressed according to equation 74.
M ( p.u.) =

E f
Vn fn

ANSIEQUATION2299 V1 EN

(Equation 74)

It is clear from the above formula that, for an unloaded power transformer, M = 1 for
any E and f, where the ratio E/f is equal to Vn/fn. A power transformer is not

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1MRK 502 034-UUS -

overexcited as long as the relative excitation is M Pickup1, Pickup1 expressed in %


of Vn/fn.
It is assumed that overexcitation is a symmetrical phenomenon, caused by events such
as loss-of-load, etc. It will be observed that a high phase-to-ground voltage does not
mean overexcitation. For example, in an ungrounded power system, a single phase-toground fault means high voltages of the healthy two phases-to-ground, but no
overexcitation on any winding. The phase-to-phase voltages will remain essentially
unchanged. The important voltage is the voltage between the two ends of each winding.

8.4.7.1

Measured voltage
Selected voltage signal is used by OEXPVPH (24) function. A check is made if the
Selected voltage signal is higher than 70% of rated phase-to-ground voltage, when
below this value, OEXPVPH (24) exits immediately, and no excitation is calculated.
The frequency value is received from the pre-processing block. The function is in
operation for frequencies within the range of 33-60 Hz and of 42-75 Hz for 50 Hz and
60 Hz respectively.

OEXPVPH (24) can be connected to any power transformer side, independent


from the power flow.
The side with a possible load tap changer must not be used.

8.4.7.2

Operate time of the overexcitation protection


The operate time of OEXPVPH (24) is a function of the relative overexcitation.
The so called IEEE law approximates a square law and has been chosen based on
analysis of the various transformers overexcitation capability characteristics. They can
match the transformer core capability well.
The square law is according to equation 75.
top =

0.18 TD

PUV Hz - 1

0.18 TD
overexcitation

ANSIEQUATION2298 V2 EN

(Equation 75)

where:
M

the relative excitation

Pickup1 Operate level of over-excitation function at no load in % of (/frated)


TD

is time multiplier for inverse time functions, see figure 123.

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1MRK 502 034-UUS -

The relative excitation M is calculated using equation121

Vmeasured

fmeasured
=

VBase

frated

Vmeasured

frated

VBase fmeasured

ANSIEQUATION2404 V1 EN

Inverse delays as per figure 123, can be modified (limited) by a special definite delay
setting t_MinTripDelay, see figure 122.
delay in s
t_MaxTrip
Delay

under excitation

inverse delay law

overexcitation
t_MinTripDelay
0
M=Pickup1
Pickup1

Mmax Pickup1
Mmax
Emax

Overexcitation M-Pickup1
Excitation M

E (only if f = fn = const)
ANSI99001067-2en.vsd

ANSI99001067 V2 EN

Figure 122:

Restrictions imposed on inverse delays by

A definite maximum time of 1800 seconds can be used to limit the operate time at low
degrees of overexcitation. Inverse delays longer than 1800 seconds will not be allowed.
In case the inverse delay is longer than 1800 seconds, OEXPVPH (24) trips.
A definite minimum time, t_MinTripDelay, can be used to limit the operate time at
high degrees of overexcitation. In case the inverse delay is shorter than
t_MinTripDelay, OEXPVPH (24) function trips after t_MinTripDelay seconds. The
inverse delay law is not valid for values exceeding Mmax. The delay will be tMin,
irrespective of the overexcitation level, when values exceed Mmax (that is, M>Pickup1).

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1MRK 502 034-UUS -

IEEE OVEREXCITATION CURVES

Time (s)

1000

100
TD = 60

TD = 20

TD = 10
TD = 9
TD = 8
TD = 7
TD = 6
TD = 5

10

TD = 4
TD = 3
TD = 2

TD = 1
1

10

20

OVEREXCITATION IN %

30

40

(M-Emaxcont)*100)
en01000373_ansi.vsd

ANSI01000373 V1 EN

Figure 123:

Delays inversely proportional to the square of the overexcitation

The critical value of excitation M is determined indirectly via OEXPVPH (24) setting
Pickup2. Pickup2 can be thought of as a no-load-rated-frequency voltage, where the
inverse law should be replaced by a short definite delay, t_MinTripDelay. If, for
example, Pickup2 = 140 %, then M is according to equation 76.
M=

( Pickup2 f )
Vn/fn

ANSIEQUATION2286 V1 EN

= 1.40
(Equation 76)

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1MRK 502 034-UUS -

8.4.7.3

Cooling
Overexcitation protection function (OEXPVPH, 24) is basically a thermal protection;
therefore a cooling process has been introduced. Exponential cooling process is
applied, with a default time constant of 20 minutes. This means that if the voltage and
frequency return to normal values (no more overexcitation), the normal temperature is
assumed to be reached not before approximately 5 times the default time constant of 20
minutes. If an overexcitation condition would return before that, the time to trip will be
shorter than it would be otherwise.

8.4.7.4

Overexcitation protection function measurands


A monitored data value, TMTOTRIP, is available on the local HMI and in PCM600.
This value is an estimation of the remaining time to trip (in seconds), if the
overexcitation remained on the level it had when the estimation was done. This
information can be useful with small or moderate overexcitations.
The relative excitation M, shown on the local HMI and in PCM600 has a monitored
data value VPERHZ, is calculated from the expression:
M ( p.u.) =

E f
Vn fn

ANSIEQUATION2299 V1 EN

(Equation 77)

If VPERHZ value is less than settingPickup1 (in %), the power transformer is
underexcited. If VPERHZ is equal to Pickup1 (in %), the excitation is exactly equal to
the power transformer continuous capability. If VPERHZ is higher than Pickup1, the
protected power transformer is overexcited. For example, if VPERHZ = 1.100, while
Pickup1 = 110 %, then the power transformer is exactly on its maximum continuous
excitation limit.
Monitored data value THERMSTA shows the thermal status of the protected power
transformer iron core. THERMSTA gives the thermal status in % of the trip value
which corresponds to 100%. THERMSTA should reach 100% at the same time, as
TMTOTRIP reaches 0 seconds. If the protected power transformer is then for some
reason not switched off, THERMSTA shall go over 100%.
If the delay as per IEEE law, is limited by t_MinTripDelay, then THERMSTA will
generally not reach 100% at the same time, as TMTOTRIP reaches 0 seconds. For
example, if, at low degrees of overexcitation, the very long delay is limited by 30
minutes, then the TRIP output signal of OEXPVPH (24) will be set to 1 before
THERMSTA reaches 100%.

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8.4.7.5

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Overexcitation alarm
A separate step, AlarmPickup, is provided for alarming purpose. It is normally set 2%
lower than (Pickup1) and has a definite time delay, tAlarm. This will give the operator
an early abnormal voltages warning.

8.4.7.6

Logic diagram
BLOCK

AlarmPickup
t>tAlarm

t>tMin

t
Pickup1

Calculation
Ei
of internal
induced
voltage Ei

M=
(Ei / f)
(Vn / fn)

AND

TRIP

tMin
TD

ALARM

tAlarm

M>Pickup1

V3P

AND

TDForIEEE
1800 s

t
M>Pickup2

Pickup2

M = relative Pickup as service value


ANSI09000161-3-en.vsd
ANSI09000161 V3 EN

Figure 124:

A simplified logic diagram of the Overexcitation protection OEXPVPH


(24)

Simplification of the diagram is in the way the IEEE delays are calculated. The cooling
process is not shown. It is not shown that voltage and frequency are separately checked
against their respective limit values.

8.4.8

Technical data
Table 149:

OEXPVPH (24) technical data

Function

Range or value

Accuracy

Pickup value, pickup

(100180)% of (VBase/fn)

0.5% of V

Pickup value, alarm

(50120)% of pickup level

0.5% of Vn at V Vn
0.5% of V at V > Vn

Pickup value, high level

(100200)% of (VBase/fn)

0.5% of V

Table continues on next page

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Voltage protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Function
Curve type

Range or value

Accuracy

IEEE

Class 5 + 40 ms

IEEE : t =

(0.18 TD)
( M - 1) 2

EQUATION1645 V1 EN

(Equation 78)

where M = (E/f)/(Vn/fn)
Minimum time delay for inverse
function

(0.00060.000) s

0.5% 25 ms

Alarm time delay

(0.00060.000) s

0.5% 25 ms

8.5

100% Stator ground fault protection, 3rd harmonic


based STEFPHIZ (59THD)

8.5.1

Identification
Function description
100% Stator ground fault protection,
3rd harmonic based

8.5.2

IEC 61850
identification
STEFPHIZ

IEC 60617
identification
-

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
59THD

Functionality
Stator ground fault is a fault type having relatively high fault rate. The generator
systems normally have high impedance grounding, that is, grounding via a neutral
point resistor. This resistor is normally dimensioned to give an ground fault current in
the range 3 15 A at a solid ground-fault directly at the generator high voltage
terminal. The relatively small ground fault currents give much less thermal and
mechanical stress on the generator, compared to the short circuit case, which is
between conductors of two phases. Anyhow, the ground faults in the generator have to
be detected and the generator has to be tripped, even if longer fault time compared to
internal short circuits, can be allowed.
In normal non-faulted operation of the generating unit the neutral point voltage is close
to zero, and there is no zero sequence current flow in the generator. When a phase-toground fault occurs the neutral point voltage will increase and there will be a current
flow through the neutral point resistor.
To detect a ground fault on the windings of a generating unit one may use a neutral
point overvoltage protection, a neutral point overcurrent protection, a zero sequence
overvoltage protection or a residual differential protection. These protections are
simple and have served well during many years. However, at best these simple
267

Technical Manual

Section 8
Voltage protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

schemes protect only 95% of the stator winding. They leave 5% close to the neutral
end unprotected. Under unfavorable conditions the blind zone may extend up to 20%
from the neutral.
The 95% stator ground fault protection measures the fundamental frequency voltage
component in the generator star point and it operates when it exceeds the preset value.
By applying this principle approximately 95% of the stator winding can be protected.
In order to protect the last 5% of the stator winding close to the neutral end the 3rd
harmonic voltage measurement can be performed. In 100% Stator E/F 3rd harmonic
protection either the 3rd harmonic voltage differential principle, the neutral point 3rd
harmonic undervoltage principle or the terminal side 3rd harmonic overvoltage
principle can be applied. However, differential principle is strongly recommended.
Combination of these two measuring principles provides coverage for entire stator
winding against ground faults.
stator winding
N

x E3

(1- x) E3

RN

uN
Samples of the
neutral voltage
from which the
fundamental and
3rd harmonic
voltages are
filtered out

CB 1 may not exist


T

CB 1

Transformer

Rf

CB 2

1- x
1 or 100 %
Neutral point fundamental frequency
over-voltage protection 5% - 100%

over- voltage protection 10% 100%

uT
Samples of the
terminal voltage
from which the
3rd harmonic
voltage is filtered
out

3rd
harmonic
Differential
differential
0% 30%
0% - 30%

ANSI10000202-1-en.vsd

ANSI10000202 V1 EN

Figure 125:

Protection principles for STEFPHIZ (59TD) function

268
Technical Manual

Section 8
Voltage protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

8.5.3

Function block
STEFPHIZ (59THD)
NEUTVOLT*
TRIP
TERMVOLT*
TRIP3H
52A
TRIP_VN
BLOCK
PICKUP
BLOCK3RD
PU_3H
BLOCKVN
PU_VN
DV3
BV3
ANSI07000033 -3-en.vsd
ANSI07000033 V3 EN

Figure 126:

8.5.4

STEFPHIZ (59THD) function block

Signals
Table 150:
Name

STEFPHIZ (59THD) Input signals


Type

Default

Description

NEUTVOLT

GROUP
SIGNAL

Voltage connection neutral side

TERMVOLT

GROUP
SIGNAL

Open-Delta connection on Terminal side

52a

BOOLEAN

Input 1 (TRUE) means breaker between gen. & tr. is


closed

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Complete block of the stator ground fault protecion


function

BLOCK3RD

BOOLEAN

Block of the 3rd harmonic-based parts of the protection

BLOCKVN

BOOLEAN

Block of the fund. harmonic-based part of the protection

Table 151:
Name

STEFPHIZ (59THD) Output signals


Type

Description

TRIP

BOOLEAN

Main, common trip command

TRIP3H

BOOLEAN

Trip by one of two 3rd harmonic voltage-based prot.

TRIP_VN

BOOLEAN

Trip by fund. freq. neutral over-voltage protection

PICKUP

BOOLEAN

Main, common pick up signal

PU_3H

BOOLEAN

Start by one of two 3rd harmonic voltage-based prot.

PU_VN

BOOLEAN

Pick up signal by fund. freq. neutral over-voltage prot.

DV3

REAL

Diff. between 3rd harm. volt. at both sides of gen.

BV3

REAL

Bias voltage, a part of UN3

269
Technical Manual

Section 8
Voltage protection
8.5.5
Table 152:
Name

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Settings
STEFPHIZ (59THD) Group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Disable/Enable Operation

Beta

0.50 - 10.00

0.01

3.00

Portion of 3rd harm voltage in neutral point


used as bias

CBexists

No
Yes

No

Defines if generator CB exists (between Gen


& Transformer)

FactorCBopen

1.00 - 10.00

0.01

1.00

Beta is multiplied by this factor when CB is


open

VN3rdHPU

0.5 - 10.0

0.1

2.0

Pickup 3rd Harm V< protection (when


activated) % of VB/1,732

VT3BlkLevel

0.1 - 10.0

0.1

1.0

If VT3 is below limit 3rdH Diff is blocked, in %


of VB/1,732

VNFundPU

1.0 - 50.0

0.1

5.0

Pickup fundamental VN> protection (95%


SEF), % of VB/1,732

t3rdH

0.020 - 60.000

0.001

1.000

Operation delay of 3rd harm-based protection


(100% SEF) in s

tVNFund

0.020 - 60.000

0.001

0.500

Operation delay of fundamental VN>


protection (95% SEF) in s

Table 153:
Name

STEFPHIZ (59THD) Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

GlobalBaseSel

1-6

Selection of one of the Global Base Value


groups

TVoltType

NoVoltage
ResidualVoltage
AllThreePhases
PhaseA
PhaseB
PhaseC

ResidualVoltage

Used connection type for gen. terminal


voltage transformer

270
Technical Manual

Section 8
Voltage protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

8.5.6

Monitored data
Table 154:
Name

8.5.7

STEFPHIZ (59THD) Monitored data


Type

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

VT3

REAL

kV

Mag. of 3rd harm. voltage at


generator terminal side

VN3

REAL

kV

Mag. of 3rd harm. voltage at


generator neutral side

E3

REAL

kV

Total induced stator 3rd


harmonic voltage

ANGLE

REAL

deg

Angle between 3rd harmonic


votage phasors

DV3

REAL

kV

Diff. between 3rd harm. volt.


at both sides of gen.

BV3

REAL

kV

Bias voltage, a part of UN3

V_N

REAL

kV

Fund. frequency voltage at


generator neutral

Operation principle
The protection is a combination of the 95% fundamental frequency ground fault
protection and the100% Stator ground fault protection, 3 rd harmonic based,
(STEFPHIZ, 59THD). The 3rd harmonic based 100% stator ground fault protection is
using the 3rd harmonic voltage generated by the generator itself. To assure reliable
function of the protection it is necessary that the 3rd harmonic voltage generation is at
least 0.8 V RMS on VT secondary side.
The 3rd harmonic voltage generated by the generator has the same phase angle in the
three phases. It has the characteristic of a zero sequence component. If the generator is
connected to the power system via a block transformer that cannot transform zero
sequence voltages between the voltage levels, the 3rd harmonic voltage, that is V3N and
V3T in fig 127, in the generator system is not influenced by the external power system.
At normal operation the generator third harmonic voltage characteristic can be
described as in figure 127.
Note that angle between V3N and V3T is typically close to 180.

271
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Section 8
Voltage protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

V3

- DV3 +
+
V3T,A
-

V3N

+
V3T,B
-

+
V3T,C
-

V3T

V3N

en06000448_ansi.vsd
ANSI06000448 V1 EN

Figure 127:

Generator 3rd harmonic voltage characteristic at normal operation

The generator is modeled as parts of a winding where a 3rd harmonic voltage is


induced along the winding, represented by the end voltages V3N and V3T in the figure.
Via the winding capacitances to ground and the neutral point resistor there will be a
small 3rd harmonic current flow, giving the voltages V3N and V3T. It can easily be seen
that the 3rd harmonic voltage in the generator neutral point (V3N) will be close to zero
in case of a stator ground-fault close to the neutral. This fact alone can be used as an
indication of stator ground-fault. To enable better sensitivity and stability also
measurement of the generator's 3rd harmonic voltage V3T is also used. In addition to
the decrease of V3N the generator voltage V3T will increase under the stator groundfault close to the generator neutral point. Therefore the 3rd harmonic voltage V3T ,
(which is a zero sequence voltage) is used by the protection. In the 3rd harmonic
voltage differential protection algorithm equation 79 is used:

272
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Section 8
Voltage protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

V3N + V3T Beta V 3N


EQUATION2359-ANSI V1 EN

(Equation 79)

V3N, and V3T are third harmonic phasors with real and imaginary parts. The factor Beta
must be set not to risk operation under non-faulted conditions.
The voltage V3N is measured via a voltage transformer between the generator neutral
point and ground. The voltage V3T can be measured in different ways. The setting
TVoltType defines how the protection function is fed from voltage transformers at the
high voltage side of the generator. (If V3T is lower than the set level VT3BlkLevel,
STEFPHIZ (59THD) function is blocked. The choices of TVoltType are:
NoVoltage: There is no voltage measured from the generator terminal side. This can be
the case when there are only phase-to-phase voltage transformers available at the
generator terminal side. In this case the protection will operate as a simple neutral point
3rd harmonic undervoltage protection, which must be blocked externally during
generator start-up and shut-down.
ResidualVoltage: The function is fed from a broken delta connection of the phase to
ground connected voltage transformers at the generator terminal side,
V3T=(1/3)*V_Broken_Delta.
AllThreePhases: The function is fed from the three phase to ground connected voltage
transformers at the generator terminal side. The 3rd harmonic voltage V3T is calculated
in the IED, V3T=(1/3)*(V3A+V3B+V3C).
PhaseA, PhaseB, or PhaseC: The function is fed from one phase voltage transformer
only. The 3rd harmonic zero sequence voltage is assumed to be equal to any of the
phase voltages, as the third harmonic voltage is of zero sequence type, V3T=V3Lx.
A simplified block diagram describing the stator ground fault protection function
shown in figure 128.

273
Technical Manual

Section 8
Voltage protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Samples:
Generator
terminal
voltage

3rd
harmonic
Fourier
filtering
giving VT3

Samples:
Generator
neutral point
voltage

3rd
harmonic
Fourier
filtering
giving VN3

Complex VT3

Stator
Ground
Fault
detection
3rd
harmonic
based

TRIP
TRIP3H

Pickup

Pickup
and trip
logic

TRIPVN
PU3H
PU_VN

Complex VN3

Fundamental frequency residual


voltage

Pickup

Stator
Ground
Fault
detection
95 %

Pickup

CB Status
Block

ANSI10000240-1-en.vsd
ANSI10000240 V1 EN

Figure 128:

Simplified logic diagram for stator ground fault protection

STEFPHIZ (59THD) function can be described in a simplified logical diagram as


shown in figure 129. Note that the 3rd harmonic numerical filters are not part of the
stator ground-fault protection function.
These third harmonic voltages are calculated by the preprocessing blocks connected to
the function.

274
Technical Manual

Section 8
Voltage protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Beta
V3N+V3T

V3N

ab
PU3H

AND
t
0

VT3BlkLevel
V3T

ab

TRIP3H
PICKUP

OR

TRIP

OR
a

VNFundPU
V_N

PU_VN

ba

TRIPVN

t
0

en07000001_ansi.vsd
ANSI07000001 V1 EN

Figure 129:

Simplified Pickup and Trip logical diagram of the STEFPHIZ (59THD)


protection

There are two different cases of generator block configuration; with or without
generator circuit breaker. If there is no generator breaker the capacitive coupling to
ground is the same under all operating conditions. When there is a generator breaker,
the capacitive coupling to ground differs between the operating conditions when the
generator is running with the generator breaker open (before synchronization) and with
the circuit breaker closed. This can be shown as in figure 130.
-

UV3

- DV3 +
+
V3T,A
-

V3N

+
V3T,B
-

+
V3T,C
-

Ctr/3

Ctr/3

Ctr/3

en07000002-2_ansi.vsd
ANSI07000002 V2 EN

Figure 130:

Generator block with generator circuit breaker


275

Technical Manual

Section 8
Voltage protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

With the circuit breaker open, the total capacitance will be smaller compared to normal
operating conditions. This means that the neutral point 3rd harmonic voltage will be
reduced compared to the normal operating condition. Therefore, there is a possibility to
reduce the sensitivity of the protection when the generator circuit breaker is open.
With the setting CBexists change of the sensitivity is enabled. If the binary input signal
52a is activated the set sensitivity is valid. If the generator circuit breaker is opened the
binary input 52a is deactivated and the sensitivity is changed. This is done by changing
the factor Beta which is multiplied with a set constant FactorCBopen.
In addition to the binary outputs also some analog outputs are available from the
protection function in order to enable easier commissioning:
E3: the magnitude of the 3rd harmonic voltage induced in the stator given in primary volts
VN3: the magnitude of the 3rd harmonic voltage measured in the neutral point of the
generator
VT3: the magnitude of the 3rd harmonic voltage measured in the terminal point of the
generator
ANGLE: the angle between the phasors VN3 and VT3 given in radians
DV3: the magnitude of the 3rd harmonic differential voltage
BV3: the magnitude of the 3rd harmonic bias voltage
V_N: the fundamental frequency voltage measured in the neutral point of the generator

8.5.8

Technical data
Table 155:

STEFPHIZ (59THD) technical data

Function

Range or value

Accuracy

Fundamental frequency level


UN (95% Stator EF)

(1.050.0)% of VBase

0.5% of Vn

Third harmonic differential level

(0.510.0)% of VBase

5.0% of Vn

Third harmonic differential block


level

(0.110.0)% of VBase

5.0% of Vn

Timers

(0.02060.000) s

0.5% 25 ms

Filter characteristic:
Fundamental
Third harmonic

Reject third harmonic by 140


Reject fundamental harmonic by
140

276
Technical Manual

Section 9
Frequency protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Section 9

Frequency protection

9.1

Underfrequency protection SAPTUF (81)

9.1.1

Identification
Function description
Underfrequency protection

IEC 61850
identification

IEC 60617
identification

SAPTUF

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
81

f<
SYMBOL-P V1 EN

9.1.2

Functionality
Underfrequency occurs as a result of lack of generation in the network.
Underfrequency protection SAPTUF (81) is used for load shedding systems, remedial
action schemes, gas turbine startup and so on.
SAPTUF (81) is provided with an undervoltage blocking.

9.1.3

Function block
SAPTUF (81)
V3P*
BLOCK

TRIP
PICKUP
RESTORE
BLKDMAGN
ANSI09000282-1-en.vsd

ANSI09000282 V1 EN

Figure 131:

SAPTUF (81) function block

277
Technical Manual

Section 9
Frequency protection
9.1.4

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Signals
Table 156:

SAPTUF (81) Input signals

Name

Type
GROUP
SIGNAL

Three phase group signal for voltage inputs

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

SAPTUF (81) Output signals

Name

Table 158:
Name

Description

V3P

Table 157:

9.1.5

Default

Type

Description

TRIP

BOOLEAN

Common trip signal

PICKUP

BOOLEAN

General pickup signal

RESTORE

BOOLEAN

Restore signal for load restoring purposes

BLKDMAGN

BOOLEAN

Measurement blocked due to low voltage amplitude

Settings
SAPTUF (81) Group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Disable/Enable Operation

PUFrequency

35.00 - 75.00

Hz

0.01

48.80

Frequency set value

tDelay

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.200

Operate time delay

tRestore

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.000

Restore time delay

RestoreFreq

45.00 - 65.00

Hz

0.01

49.90

Restore frequency if frequency is above


frequency value

9.1.6

Monitored data
Table 159:
Name
FREQ

9.1.7

SAPTUF (81) Monitored data


Type
REAL

Values (Range)
-

Unit
Hz

Description
Measured frequency

Operation principle
Underfrequency protection (SAPTUF, 81) function is used to detect low power system
frequency. If the frequency remains below the set value for a time period

278
Technical Manual

Section 9
Frequency protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

corresponding to the chosen time delay, the corresponding trip signal is issued. To
avoid an unwanted trip due to uncertain frequency measurement at low voltage
magnitude, a voltage controlled blocking of the function is available from the
preprocessing function, that is, if the voltage is lower than the set blocking voltage in
the preprocessing function, the function is blocked and no PICKUP or TRIP signal is
issued.

9.1.7.1

Measurement principle
The fundamental frequency of the measured input voltage is measured continuously,
and compared with the set value, PUFrequency. The frequency function is dependent
on the voltage magnitude. If the voltage magnitude decreases the setting
MinValFreqMeas in the SMAI preprocessing function, which is set as a percentage of
a global base voltage parameter, SAPTUF (81) gets blocked, and the output
BLKDMAGN is issued. All voltage settings are made in percent of the setting of the
global parameter VBase.
To avoid oscillations of the output PICKUP signal, a hysteresis has been included.

9.1.7.2

Time delay
The time delay for SAPTUF (81) is a settable definite time delay, specified by the
setting tDelay.
Trip signal issuing requires that the under frequency condition continues for at least the
user set time delay. If the PICKUP condition, with respect to the measured frequency
ceases during the delay time, and is not fulfilled again within a defined reset time, the
PICKUP output is reset.
On the RESTORE output of SAPTUF (81) a 100 ms pulse is issued, after a time delay
corresponding to the setting of tRestore, when the measured frequency returns to the
level corresponding to the setting RestoreFreq.

9.1.7.3

Blocking
It is possible to block underfrequency protection SAPTUF (81) completely, by binary
input signal:
BLOCK:

blocks all outputs

If the measured voltage level decreases below the setting of MinValFreqMeas in the
preprocessing function, both the PICKUP and the TRIP outputs, are blocked.

279
Technical Manual

Section 9
Frequency protection
9.1.7.4

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Design
The frequency measuring element continuously measures the frequency of the positive
sequence voltage and compares it to the setting PUFrequency. The frequency signal is
filtered to avoid transients due to switchings and faults in the power systems. When the
frequency has returned back to the setting of RestoreFreq, the RESTORE output is
issued after the time delay tRestore. The design of Under frequency protection
SAPTUF (81) is schematically described in figure 132.

BLOCK
OR

BLKDMAGN

BLOCK

freqNotValid

Frequency

Comparator
f < PUFrequency

DefiniteTimeDelay

PICKUP

TimeDlyOperate

TRIP

Pickup
&
Trip
Output
Logic

PICKUP

TRIP

100 ms
Comparator
f > RestoreFreq

RESTORE

TimeDlyRestore

ANSI09000034-1-en.vsd
ANSI09000034 V1 EN

Figure 132:

9.1.8

Simplified logic diagram for SAPTUF (81)

Technical data
Table 160:

SAPTUF (81) Technical data

Function

Range or value

Accuracy

Operate value, pickup function

(35.00-75.00) Hz

2.0 mHz

Operate value, restore frequency

(45 - 65) Hz

2.0 mHz

Operate time, pickup function

At 50 Hz: 200 ms typically at fset +0.5 Hz to


fset -0.5 Hz
At 60 Hz: 170 ms typically at fset +0.5 Hz to
fset -0.5 Hz

Table continues on next page

280
Technical Manual

Section 9
Frequency protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Function

Range or value

Accuracy

Reset time, pickup function

At 50 Hz: 60 ms typically at fset -0.5 Hz to fset


+0.5 Hz
At 60 Hz: 50 ms typically at fset -0.5 Hz to fset
+0.5 Hz

Operate time delay

(0.000-60.000)s

<250 ms

Restore time delay

(0.000-60.000)s

<150 ms

9.2

Overfrequency protection SAPTOF (81)

9.2.1

Identification
Function description
Overfrequency protection

IEC 61850
identification

IEC 60617
identification

SAPTOF

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
81

f>
SYMBOL-O V1 EN

9.2.2

Functionality
Overfrequency protection function SAPTOF (81) is applicable in all situations, where
reliable detection of high fundamental power system frequency is needed.
Overfrequency occurs at sudden load drops or shunt faults in the power network. Close
to the generating plant, generator governor problems can also cause over frequency.
SAPTOF (81) is used mainly for generation shedding and remedial action schemes. It
is also used as a frequency stage initiating load restoring.
SAPTOF (81) is provided with an undervoltage blocking.

9.2.3

Function block
SAPTOF (81)
V3P*
BLOCK

TRIP
BFI
BLKDMAGN
ANSI09000280-1-en.vsd

ANSI09000280 V1 EN

Figure 133:

SAPTOF (81) function block

281
Technical Manual

Section 9
Frequency protection
9.2.4

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Signals
Table 161:

SAPTOF (81) Input signals

Name

Type
GROUP
SIGNAL

Three phase group signal for voltage inputs

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

SAPTOF (81) Output signals

Name

Table 163:
Name

Description

V3P

Table 162:

9.2.5

Default

Type

Description

TRIP

BOOLEAN

Common trip signal

BFI

BOOLEAN

General pickup signal

BLKDMAGN

BOOLEAN

Measurement blocked due to low amplitude

Settings
SAPTOF (81) Group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Operation Disable / Enable

PUFrequency

35.00 - 75.00

Hz

0.01

51.20

Frequency set value

tDelay

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.200

Operate time delay

9.2.6

Monitored data
Table 164:
Name
FREQ

9.2.7

SAPTOF (81) Monitored data


Type
REAL

Values (Range)
-

Unit
Hz

Description
Measured frequency

Operation principle
Overfrequency protection SAPTOF (81) is used to detect high power system
frequency. SAPTOF (81) has a settable definite time delay. If the frequency remains
above the set value for a time period corresponding to the chosen time delay, the
corresponding TRIP signal is issued. To avoid an unwanted TRIP due to uncertain
frequency measurement at low voltage magnitude, a voltage controlled blocking of the
function is available from the preprocessing function, that is, if the voltage is lower

282
Technical Manual

Section 9
Frequency protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

than the set blocking voltage in the preprocessing function, the function is blocked and
no PICKUP or TRIP signal is issued.

9.2.7.1

Measurement principle
The fundamental frequency of the positive sequence voltage is measured continuously,
and compared with the set value, PUFrequency. Over frequency protection SAPTOF
(81) is dependent on the voltage magnitude. If the voltage magnitude decreases below
the setting MinValFreqMeas in the SMAI preprocessing function, which is set as a
percentage of a global base voltage parameter VBase, SAPTOF (81) is blocked, and the
output BLKDMAGN is issued. All voltage settings are made in percent of the global
parameter VBase. To avoid oscillations of the output PICKUP signal, a hysteresis has
been included.

9.2.7.2

Time delay
The time delay for SAPTOF (81) is a settable definite time delay, specified by the
setting tDelay.
TRIP signal issuing requires that the over frequency condition continues for at least the
user set time delay. If the PICKUP condition, with respect to the measured frequency
ceases during the delay time, and is not fulfilled again within a defined reset time, the
PICKUP output is reset.

9.2.7.3

Blocking
It is possible to block Over frequency protection (SAPTOF, 81) completely, by binary
input signals or by parameter settings, where:
BLOCK:

blocks all outputs

If the measured voltage level decreases below the setting of MinValFreqMeas in the
preprocessing function Signal Matrix for analog inputs (SMAI), both the PICKUP and
the TRIP outputs, are blocked.

9.2.7.4

Design
The frequency measuring element continuously measures the frequency of the positive
sequence voltage and compares it to the setting PUFrequency. The frequency signal is
filtered to avoid transients due to switchings and faults in the power system. The
design of Over frequency protection (SAPTOF, 81) is schematically described in
figure 134.
283

Technical Manual

Section 9
Frequency protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

BLOCK
BLOCK

Frequency

BLKDMAGN

OR

freqNotValid

Definite Time Delay

Comparator
f > PUFrequency

TimeDlyOperate

PICKUP

Pickup
&
Trip
Output
Logic

PICKUP

TRIP
TRIP

ANSI09000033-1-en.vsd
ANSI09000033 V1 EN

Figure 134:

9.2.8

Schematic design of overfrequency protection SAPTOF (81)

Technical data
Table 165:

SAPTOF (81) technical data

Function

9.3

Range or value

Accuracy

Operate value, pickup function

(35.00-75.00) Hz

2.0 mHz at
symmetrical threephase voltage

Operate time, pickup function

At 50 Hz: 200 ms typically at fset -0.5 Hz to


fset +0.5 Hz
At 60 Hz: 170 ms at fset -0.5 Hz to fset +0.5 Hz

Reset time, pickup function

At 50 and 60 Hz: 55 ms typically at fset +0.5


Hz to fset-0.5 Hz

Timer

(0.000-60.000)s

<250 ms

Rate-of-change frequency protection SAPFRC (81)

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Frequency protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

9.3.1

Identification
Function description

IEC 61850
identification

Rate-of-change frequency protection

IEC 60617
identification

SAPFRC

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
81

df/dt >
<
SYMBOL-N V1 EN

9.3.2

Functionality
Rate-of-change frequency protection function (SAPFRC,81) gives an early indication
of a main disturbance in the system. SAPFRC (81) can be used for generation
shedding, load shedding and remedial action schemes. SAPFRC (81) can discriminate
between positive or negative change of frequency.
SAPFRC (81) is provided with an undervoltage blocking.

9.3.3

Function block
SAPFRC (81)
V3P*
BLOCK

TRIP
PICKUP
RESTORE
BLKDMAGN
ANSI09000281-1-en.vsd

ANSI09000281 V1 EN

Figure 135:

9.3.4

SAPFRC (81) function block

Signals
Table 166:
Name

SAPFRC (81) Input signals


Type

Default

Description

V3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Three phase group signal for voltage inputs

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

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Frequency protection

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Table 167:

SAPFRC (81) Output signals

Name

9.3.5
Table 168:
Name

Type

Description

TRIP

BOOLEAN

Operate/trip signal for frequency gradient

PICKUP

BOOLEAN

Start/pick-up signal for frequency gradient

RESTORE

BOOLEAN

Restore signal for load restoring purposes

BLKDMAGN

BOOLEAN

Blocking indication due to low magnitude

Settings
SAPFRC (81) Group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Disable/Enable Operation

PUFreqGrad

-10.00 - 10.00

Hz/s

0.01

0.50

Frequency gradient pick up value, the sign


defines direction

tTrip

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.200

Operate time delay in positive / negative


frequency gradient mode

RestoreFreq

45.00 - 65.00

Hz

0.01

49.90

Restore is enabled if frequency is above set


frequency value

tRestore

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.000

Restore time delay

9.3.6

Operation principle
Rate-of-change frequency protection SAPFRC (81) is used to detect fast power system
frequency changes, increase as well as, decrease at an early stage. SAPFRC (81) has a
settable definite time delay. If the rate-of-change of frequency remains below the set
value, for negative rate-of-change, for a time period equal to the chosen time delay, the
TRIP signal is issued. If the rate-of-change of frequency remains above the set value,
for positive rate-of-change, for a time period equal to the chosen time delay, the TRIP
signal is issued. To avoid an unwanted trip due to uncertain frequency measurement at
low voltage magnitude, a voltage controlled blocking of the function is available from
the preprocessing function that is, if the voltage is lower than the set blocking voltage
in the preprocessing function, the function is blocked and no PICKUP or TRIP signal
is issued. If the frequency recovers, after a frequency decrease, a restore signal is issued.

9.3.6.1

Measurement principle
The rate-of-change of the fundamental frequency of the selected voltage is measured
continuously, and compared with the set value, PUFreqGrad. Rate-of-change
frequency protection SAPFRC (81) is also dependent on the voltage magnitude. If the
voltage magnitude decreases below the setting MinValFreqMeas in the preprocessing

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1MRK 502 034-UUS -

function, which is set as a percentage of a global base voltage parameter, SAPFRC (81)
is blocked, and the output BLKDMAGN is issued. The sign of the setting
PUFreqGrad, controls if SAPFRC (81) reacts on a positive or on a negative change in
frequency. If SAPFRC (81) is used for decreasing frequency that is, the setting
PUFreqGrad has been given a negative value, and a trip signal has been issued, then a
100 ms pulse is issued on the RESTORE output, when the frequency recovers to a
value higher than the setting RestoreFreq. A positive setting of PUFreqGrad, sets
SAPFRC (81) to PICKUP and TRIP for frequency increases.
To avoid oscillations of the output PICKUP signal, a hysteresis has been included.

9.3.6.2

Time delay
SAPFRC (81) has a settable definite time delay, tTrip.
Trip signal issuing requires that SAPFRC (81) condition continues for at least the user
set time delay, tTrip. If the PICKUP condition, with respect to the measured frequency
ceases during the delay time, and is not fulfilled again within a defined reset time, the
PICKUP output is reset after the reset time has elapsed.
The RESTORE output of SAPFRC (81) is set, after a time delay equal to the setting of
tRestore, when the measured frequency has returned to the level corresponding to
RestoreFreq, after an issue of the TRIP output signal. If tRestore is set to 0.000 s the
restore functionality is disabled, and no output will be given. The restore functionality
is only active for lowering frequency conditions and the restore sequence is disabled if
a new negative frequency gradient is detected during the restore period, defined by the
settings RestoreFreq and tRestore.

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Frequency protection
9.3.6.3

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Design
BLOCK

OR

BLOCK
BLKDMAGN

freqNotValid

Rate-of-Change
of Frequency

Comparator
If
[PUFreqGrad<0
AND
df/dt < PUFreqGrad]
OR
[PUFreqGrad>0
AND
df/dt > PUFreqGrad]
Then
PICKUP

PICKUP Definite Time Delay

Pickup
&
Trip
Output
Logic

PICKUP

tTrip

TRIP

100 ms
Frequency

Comparator
f > RestoreFreq

RESTORE

tRestore

ANSI08000009_en_1.vsd
ANSI08000009 V1 EN

Figure 136:

9.3.7

Schematic design of Rate-of-change frequency protection SAPFRC (81)

Technical data
Table 169:

SAPFRC (81) technical data

Function

Range or value

Accuracy

Operate value, pickup function

(-10.00-10.00) Hz/s

10.0 mHz/s

Operate value, restore enable


frequency

(45.00 - 65.00) Hz

2.0 mHz

Timers

(0.000 - 60.000) s

<130 ms

Operate time, pickup function

At 50 Hz: 100 ms typically


At 60 Hz: 80 ms typically

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Secondary system supervision

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Section 10

Secondary system supervision

10.1

Fuse failure supervision SDDRFUF

10.1.1

Identification
Function description
Fuse failure supervision

10.1.2

IEC 61850
identification
SDDRFUF

IEC 60617
identification
-

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
-

Functionality
The aim of the fuse failure supervision function (SDDRFUF) is to block voltage
measuring functions at failures in the secondary circuits between the voltage
transformer and the IED in order to avoid unwanted operations that otherwise might
occur.
The fuse failure supervision function basically has three different algorithms, negative
sequence and zero sequence based algorithms and an additional delta voltage and delta
current algorithm.
The negative sequence detection algorithm is recommended for IEDs used in isolated
or high-impedance grounded networks. It is based on the negative-sequence measuring
quantities, a high value of voltage without the presence of the negative-sequence
current 3I2.
The zero sequence detection algorithm is recommended for IEDs used in directly or
low impedance grounded networks. It is based on the zero sequence measuring
quantities, a high value of voltage 3V0 without the presence of the residual current 3I0.
A criterion based on delta current and delta voltage measurements can be added to the
fuse failure supervision function in order to detect a three phase fuse failure, which in
practice is more associated with voltage transformer switching during station operations.
For better adaptation to system requirements, an operation mode setting has been
introduced which makes it possible to select the operating conditions for negative
sequence and zero sequence based function. The selection of different operation modes
makes it possible to choose different interaction possibilities between the negative
sequence and zero sequence based algorithm.
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Secondary system supervision
10.1.3

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Function block
SDDRFUF
I3P*
V3P*
BLOCK
52A
MCBOP
89B

BLKZ
BLKV
3PH
DLD1PH
DLD3PH

ANSI08000220-1-en.vsd
ANSI08000220 V1 EN

Figure 137:

10.1.4

SDDRFUF function block

Signals
Table 170:
Name

SDDRFUF Input signals


Type

Default

Description

I3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Three phase group signal for current inputs

V3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Three phase group signal for voltage inputs

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

52a

BOOLEAN

Active when circuit breaker is closed

MCBOP

BOOLEAN

Active when external Miniature Circuit Breaker opens


protected voltage circuit

89b

BOOLEAN

Active when line disconnect switch is open

Table 171:
Name

SDDRFUF Output signals


Type

Description

BLKZ

BOOLEAN

Start of current and voltage controlled function

BLKV

BOOLEAN

General pickup

3PH

BOOLEAN

Three-phase pickup

DLD1PH

BOOLEAN

Dead line condition in at least one phase

DLD3PH

BOOLEAN

Dead line condition in all three phases

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10.1.5
Table 172:
Name

Settings
SDDRFUF Group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Disabled
Enabled

Enabled

Disable/Enable Operation

OpModeSel

Disabled
V2I2
V0I0
V0I0 OR V2I2
V0I0 AND V2I2
OptimZsNs

V0I0

Operating mode selection

3V0PU

1 - 100

%VB

30

Pickup of residual overvoltage element in %


of VBase

3I0PU

1 - 100

%IB

10

Pickup of residual undercurrent element in %


of IBase

3V2PU

1 - 100

%VB

30

Pickup of negative sequence overvoltage


element in % of VBase

3I2PU

1 - 100

%IB

10

Pickup of negative sequence undercurrent


element in % of IBase

OpDVDI

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Operation of change based function Disable/


Enable

DVPU

1 - 100

%VB

60

Pickup of change in phase voltage in % of


VBase

DIPU

1 - 100

%IB

15

Pickup of change in phase current in % of


IBase

VPPU

1 - 100

%VB

70

Pickup of phase voltage in % of VBase

50P

1 - 100

%IB

10

Pickup of phase current in % of IBase

SealIn

Disabled
Enabled

Enabled

Seal in functionality Disable/Enable

VSealInPU

1 - 100

%VB

70

Pickup of seal-in phase voltage in % of VBase

IDLDPU

1 - 100

%IB

Pickup for phase current detection in % of


IBase for dead line detection

VDLDPU

1 - 100

%VB

60

Pickup for phase voltage detection in % of


VBase for dead line detection

Table 173:
Name
GlobalBaseSel

SDDRFUF Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)
1-6

Unit
-

Step
1

Default
1

Description
Selection of one of the Global Base Value
groups

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Secondary system supervision
10.1.6

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Monitored data
Table 174:
Name

SDDRFUF Monitored data


Type

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

3I0

REAL

Magnitude of zero sequence


current

3I2

REAL

Magnitude of negative
sequence current

3V0

REAL

kV

Magnitude of zero sequence


voltage

3V2

REAL

kV

Magnitude of negative
sequence voltage

10.1.7

Operation principle

10.1.7.1

Zero and negative sequence detection


The zero and negative sequence function continuously measures the currents and
voltages in all three phases and calculates: (see figure 138)

the zero-sequence voltage 3V0


the zero-sequence current 3I0
the negative sequence current 3I2
the negative sequence voltage 3V2

The measured signals are compared with their respective set values 3V0PU and 3I0PU,
3V2PU and 3I2PU.
The function enable the internal signal FuseFailDetZeroSeq if the measured zerosequence voltage is higher than the set value 3V0PU and the measured zero-sequence
current is below the set value 3I0PU.
The function enable the internal signal FuseFailDetNegSeq if the measured negative
sequence voltage is higher than the set value 3V2PU and the measured negative
sequence current is below the set value 3I2PU.
A drop off delay of 100 ms for the measured zero-sequence and negative sequence
current will prevent a false fuse failure detection at un-equal breaker opening at the two
line ends.

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Sequence Detection
3I0PU
IA

CurrZeroSeq
Zero
sequence
filter

IB

3I0
a
b

a>b

100 ms
t

3I2

Negative
sequence
filter

IC

a
b

3I2PU

CurrNegSeq

a>b

100 ms
t

AND

AND

3V0PU

FuseFailDetZeroSeq

FuseFailDetNegSeq
VoltZeroSeq

VA

Zero
sequence
filter

VB

Negative
sequence
filter

VC

a
b

3V0

a>b
VoltNegSeq

a
b

3V2

a>b

3V2PU

ANSI10000036-1-en.vsd
ANSI10000036 V1 EN

Figure 138:

Simplified logic diagram for sequence detection part

The calculated values 3V0, 3I0, 3I2 and 3V2 are available as service values on local
HMI and monitoring tool in PCM600.

10.1.7.2

Delta current and delta voltage detection


A simplified diagram for the functionality is found in figure 139. The calculation of the
change is based on vector change which means that it detects both amplitude and phase
angle changes. The calculated delta quantities are compared with their respective set
values DIPU and DVPU and the algorithm, detects a fuse failure if a sufficient change
in voltage without a sufficient change in current is detected in each phase separately.
The following quantities are calculated in all three phases:

The change in voltage DV


The change in current DI

The internal FuseFailDetDVDI signal is activated if the following conditions are


fulfilled for a phase:

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The magnitude of the phase-ground voltage has been above VPPU for more than
1.5 cycle
The magnitude of DV is higher than the corresponding setting DVPU
The magnitude of DI is below the setting DIPU

and at least one of the following conditions are fulfilled:

The magnitude of the phase current in the same phase is higher than the setting 50P
The circuit breaker is closed (52a = True)

The first criterion means that detection of failure in one phase together with high
current for the same phase will set the output. The measured phase current is used to
reduce the risk of false fuse failure detection. If the current on the protected line is low,
a voltage drop in the system (not caused by fuse failure) is not by certain followed by
current change and a false fuse failure might occur.
The second criterion requires that the delta condition shall be fulfilled in any phase at
the same time as circuit breaker is closed. Opening circuit breaker at one end and
energizing the line from other end onto a fault could lead to wrong start of the fuse
failure function at the end with the open breaker. If this is considering to be an
important disadvantage, connect the 52a input to FALSE. In this way only the first
criterion can activate the delta function.

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DVDI Detection
DVDI detection Phase 1
IA

One cycle
delay
|DI|

a
b

DIPU
VA

a>b

One cycle
delay
|DV|

a
b

DVPU
a
b

VPPU
IB

a>b

20 ms
t

a>b

AND

1.5 cycle
t

DVDI detection Phase 2

VB

Same logic as for phase 1

IC

DVDI detection Phase 3

VC

Same logic as for phase 1

VA

a
b

IA
50P

a
b

a<b

a>b

AND

52A
VB

a
b

IB

AND

a
b

a
b

IC

a
b

OR

AND

a<b

a>b

AND

AND
VC

OR

OR

OR

AND

a<b

a>b

AND

AND

OR

OR

AND
OR

FuseFailDetDVDI

Reclosing_Reclaim_and_Inhibit_timers%3DANSI100
00257%3D1%3Den%3DOriginal[1].vsd
ANSI10000034 V1 EN

Figure 139:

Simplified logic diagram for DV/DI detection part


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Secondary system supervision
10.1.7.3

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Dead line detection


A simplified diagram for the functionality is found in figure 140. A dead phase
condition is indicated if both the voltage and the current in one phase is below their
respective setting values VDLDPU and IDLDPU. If at least one phase is considered to
be dead the output DLD1PH and the internal signal DeadLineDet1Ph is activated. If all
three phases are considered to be dead the output DLD3PH is activated
Dead Line Detection
IA

a
b

IB

a
b

IC

a
b

a<b

AllCurrLow

AND
a<b
a<b

IDLDPU
VA

DeadLineDet1Ph
a
b

VB

a
b

VC

a
b

a<b
a<b

AND
OR
AND
AND

a<b

DLD1PH

AND

DLD3PH

AND

AND

VDLDPU
intBlock

ANSI0000035-1-en.vsd
ANSI0000035 V1 EN

Figure 140:

10.1.7.4

Simplified logic diagram for Dead Line detection part

Main logic
A simplified diagram for the functionality is found in figure 141. The fuse failure
supervision function (SDDRFUF) can be switched on or off by the setting parameter
Operation to Enabled or Disabled.
For increased flexibility and adaptation to system requirements an operation mode
selector, OpModeSel, has been introduced to make it possible to select different
operating modes for the negative and zero sequence based algorithms. The different
operation modes are:

Disabled; The negative and zero sequence function is disabled


V2I2; Negative sequence is selected
V0I0; Zero sequence is selected

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V0I0 OR V2I2; Both negative and zero sequence is activated and working in
parallel in an OR-condition
V0I0 AND V2I2; Both negative and zero sequence is activated and working in
series (AND-condition for operation)
OptimZsNs; Optimum of negative and zero sequence (the function that has the
highest magnitude of measured negative and zero sequence current will be activated)

The delta function can be activated by setting the parameter OpDVDI to Enabled.
When selected it operates in parallel with the sequence based algorithms.
As soon as any fuse failure situation is detected, signals FuseFailDetZeroSeq,
FuseFailDetNegSeq or FuseFailDetDVDI, and the specific functionality is released,
the function will activate the output signal BLKV. The output signal BLKZ will be
activated as well if not the internal dead phase detection, DeadLineDet1Ph, is activated
at the same time. The output BLKV can be used for blocking voltage related measuring
functions (under voltage protection, synchro-check, and so on). For blocking of
impedance protection functions output BLKZ shall be used.
If the fuse failure situation is present for more than 5 seconds and the setting parameter
SealIn is set to Enabled it will be sealed in as long as at least one phase voltages is
below the set value VSealInPU. This will keep the BLKV and BLKZ signals activated
as long as any phase voltage is below the set value VSealInPU. If all three phase
voltages drop below the set value VSealInPU and the setting parameter SealIn is set to
Enabled also the output signal 3PH will be activated. The signals 3PH, BLKV and
BLKZ signals will now be active as long as any phase voltage is below the set value
VSealInPU.
If SealIn is set to Enabled fuse failure condition is stored in the non volatile memory in
the IED. At start-up (due to auxiliary power interruption or re-start due to configuration
change) the IED checks the stored value in its non volatile memory and re-establishes
the conditions present before the shut down. All phase voltages must became above
VSealInPU before fuse failure is de-activated and inhibits the block of different
protection functions.
The output signal BLKV will also be active if all phase voltages have been above the
setting VSealInPU for more than 60 seconds, the zero or negative sequence voltage has
been above the set value 3V0PU and 3V2PU for more than 5 seconds, all phase
currents are below the setting IDLDPU (operate level for dead line detection) and the
circuit breaker is closed (input 52a is activated).
The input signal MCBOP is supposed to be connected via a terminal binary input to the
N.C. auxiliary contact of the miniature circuit breaker protecting the VT secondary
circuit. The MCBOP signal sets the output signals BLKV and BLKZ in order to block
all the voltage related functions when the MCB is open independent of the setting of
OpModeSel or OpDVDI. An additional drop-out timer of 150 ms prolongs the presence

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of MCBOP signal to prevent the unwanted operation of voltage dependent function


due to non simultaneous closing of the main contacts of the miniature circuit breaker.
The input signal 89b is supposed to be connected via a terminal binary input to the
N.C. auxiliary contact of the line disconnector. The 89b signal sets the output signal
BLKV in order to block the voltage related functions when the line disconnector is
open. The impedance protection function does not have to be affected since there will
be no line currents that can cause malfunction of the distance protection.
The output signals 3PH, BLKV and BLKZ as well as the signals DLD1PH and
DLD3PH from dead line detections are blocked if any of the following conditions occur:

The operation mode selector OpMode is set to Disabled


The input BLOCK is activated
The IED is in TEST status (TEST-ACTIVE is high) and the function has been
blocked from the HMI (BlockFUSE=Yes)

The input BLOCK is a general purpose blocking signal of the fuse failure supervision
function. It can be connected to a binary input of the IED in order to receive a block
command from external devices or can be software connected to other internal
functions of the IED. Through OR gate it can be connected to both binary inputs and
internal function outputs.

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Fuse failure detection


Main logic
TEST
TEST ACTIVE

AND

BlocFuse = Yes
BLOCK

intBlock

OR

All VP < VSealInPU


OR

AND

AND

AND

SealIn = Enabled

3PH

AND
Any VP < VsealInPU
FuseFailDetDVDI
AND

OpDVDI = Enabled

OR

5s
t

FuseFailDetZeroSeq
AND

AND
FuseFailDetNegSeq
AND
V2I2
V0I0

CurrZeroSeq
CurrNegSeq

OR

V0I0 OR V2I2

OpModeSel

V0I0 AND V2I2


OptimZsNs
OR
a
b

AND

a>b

AND
200 ms
t

DeadLineDet1Ph

AND
150 ms
t

MCBOP

All VP > VsealInPU

60 sec
t

VoltZeroSeq
VoltNegSeq

OR

OR

OR

OR

AND

AND

BLKZ

BLKV

AND
5 sec
t

AllCurrLow
52a
89b

ANSI10000041-1-en.vsd
ANSI10000041 V1 EN

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Secondary system supervision
Figure 141:

10.1.8

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Simplified logic diagram for fuse failure supervision function, Main logic

Technical data
Table 175:

SDDRFUF technical data

Function

Range or value

Accuracy

Operate voltage, zero sequence

(1-100)% of VBase

1.0% of Vn

Operate current, zero sequence

(1100)% of IBase

1.0% of In

Operate voltage, negative sequence

(1100)% of VBase

0.5% of Vn

Operate current, negative sequence

(1100)% of IBase

1.0% of In

Operate voltage change pickup

(1100)% of VBase

5.0% of Vn

Operate current change pickup

(1100)% of IBase

5.0% of In

Operate phase voltage

(1-100)% of VBase

0.5% of Un

Operate phase current

(1-100)% of IBase

1.0% of In

Operate phase dead line voltage

(1-100)% of VBase

0.5% of Un

Operate phase dead line current

(1-100)% of IBase

1.0% of In

10.2

Breaker close/trip circuit monitoring TCSSCBR

10.2.1

Identification
Function description
Breaker close/trip circuit monitoring

10.2.2

IEC 61850
identification
TCSSCBR

IEC 60617
identification
-

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
-

Functionality
The trip circuit monitoring function TCSSCBR is designed for supervision of control
circuits. A fault in a control circuit is detected by using a dedicated output contact that
contains the monitoring functionality.
The function picks up and trips when TCSSCBR detects a trip circuit failure. The trip
time characteristic for the function is of definite time (DT) type. The function trips
after a predefined operating time and resets when the fault disappears.

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10.2.3

Function block

GUID-6F85BD70-4D18-4A00-A410-313233025F3A V2 EN

Figure 142:

10.2.4

Function block

Signals
Table 176:

TCSSCBR Input signals

Name

Type
BOOLEAN

Trip circuit fail indication from I/O-card

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

TCSSCBR Output signals

Name

Type

ALARM

Table 178:
Name

Description

TCS_STATE

Table 177:

10.2.5

Default

Description

BOOLEAN

Trip circuit fault indication

Settings
TCSSCBR Non group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Disabled
Enabled

Enabled

Operation Disabled/Enabled

tDelay

0.020 - 300.000

0.001

3.000

Operate time delay

10.2.6

Operation principle
The function can be enabled and disabled with the Operation setting. The
corresponding parameter values are Enable and Disable.
The operation of trip circuit monitoring can be described by using a module diagram.
All the modules in the diagram are explained in the next sections.

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Secondary system supervision

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

GUID-9D3B79CB-7E06-4260-B55F-B7FA004CB2AC V1 EN

Figure 143:

Functional module diagram

Trip circuit supervision generates a current of approximately 1.0 mA


through the supervised circuit. It must be ensured that this current will
not cause a latch up of the controlled object.

To protect the trip circuit supervision circuits in the IED, the output
contacts are provided with parallel transient voltage suppressors. The
breakdown voltage of these suppressors is 400 +/ 20 V DC.

Timer
The binary input BLOCK can be used to block the function. The activation of the
BLOCK input deactivates the ALARM output and resets the internal timer.

10.2.7

Technical data
Table 179:

TCSSCBR Technical data

Function
Operate time delay

Range or value
(0.020 - 300.000) s

Accuracy
0,5% 110 ms

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Control

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Section 11

Control

11.1

Synchronism check, energizing check, and


synchronizing SESRSYN (25)

11.1.1

Identification
Function description
Synchrocheck, energizing check, and
synchronizing

IEC 61850
identification

IEC 60617
identification

SESRSYN

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
25

sc/vc
SYMBOL-M V1 EN

11.1.2

Functionality
The Synchronizing function allows closing of asynchronous networks at the correct
moment including the breaker closing time, which improves the network stability.
Synchrocheck, energizing check, and synchronizing (SESRSYN, 25) function checks
that the voltages on both sides of the circuit breaker are in synchronism, or with at least
one side dead to ensure that closing can be done safely.
SESRSYN (25) function includes a built-in voltage selection scheme for double bus
arrangements.
Manual closing as well as automatic reclosing can be checked by the function and can
have different settings.
For systems which are running asynchronous a synchronizing function is provided.
The main purpose of the synchronizing function is to provide controlled closing of
circuit breakers when two asynchronous systems are going to be connected. It is used
for slip frequencies that are larger than those for synchronism check and lower than a
set maximum level for the synchronizing function.

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11.1.3

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Function block
SESRSYN (25)
V3PB1*
SYNOK
V3PB2*
AUTOSYOK
V3PL1*
AUTOENOK
BLOCK
MANSYOK
BLKSYNCH
MANENOK
BLKSC
TSTSYNOK
BLKENERG
TSTAUTSY
BUS1_OP
TSTMANSY
BUS1_CL
TSTENOK
BUS2_OP
VSELFAIL
BUS2_CL
B1SEL
LNQOPEN
B2SEL
LNQCLD
LNSEL
VB1OK
SYNPROGR
VB1FF
SYNFAIL
VB2OK
FRDIFSYN
VB2FF
FRDERIVA
VLNOK
VOKSC
VLNFF
VDIFFSC
STARTSYN
FRDIFFA
TSTSYNCH
PHDIFFA
TSTSC
FRDIFFM
TSTENERG
PHDIFFM
AENMODE
VDIFFME
MENMODE
FRDIFFME
PHDIFFME
MODEAEN
MODEMEN
ANSI08000219 V1 EN

Figure 144:

11.1.4

SESRSYN (25) function block

Signals
Table 180:
Name

SESRSYN (25) Input signals


Type

Default

Description

V3PB1

GROUP
SIGNAL

Voltage input for Bus bar 1

V3PB2

GROUP
SIGNAL

Voltage input for Bus bar 2

V3PL1

GROUP
SIGNAL

Voltage input for Line 1

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

General block

BLKSYNCH

BOOLEAN

Block synchronizing

BLKSC

BOOLEAN

Block synchro check

BLKENERG

BOOLEAN

Block energizing check

BUS1_OP

BOOLEAN

Open status for CB or disconnector connected to bus1

BUS1_CL

BOOLEAN

Close status for CB and disconnector connected to bus1

BUS2_OP

BOOLEAN

Open status for CB or disconnector connected to bus2

Table continues on next page

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1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Name

Type

Default

Description

BUS2_CL

BOOLEAN

Close status for CB and disconnector connected to bus2

LNQOPEN

BOOLEAN

Open status for CB or disconnector connected to line

LNQCLD

BOOLEAN

Close status for CB or disconnector connected to line

VB1OK

BOOLEAN

Bus1 voltage transformer OK

VB1FF

BOOLEAN

Bus1 voltage transformer fuse failure

VB2OK

BOOLEAN

Bus2 voltage transformer OK

VB2FF

BOOLEAN

Bus2 voltage transformer fuse failure

VLNOK

BOOLEAN

Line voltage transformer OK

VLNFF

BOOLEAN

Line voltage transformer fuse failure

STARTSYN

BOOLEAN

Start synchronizing

TSTSYNCH

BOOLEAN

Set synchronizing in test mode

TSTSC

BOOLEAN

Set synchro check in test mode

TSTENERG

BOOLEAN

Set energizing check in test mode

AENMODE

INTEGER

Input for setting of automatic energizing mode

MENMODE

INTEGER

Input for setting of manual energizing mode

Table 181:
Name

SESRSYN (25) Output signals


Type

Description

SYNOK

BOOLEAN

Synchronizing OK output

AUTOSYOK

BOOLEAN

Auto synchronism-check OK

AUTOENOK

BOOLEAN

Automatic energizing check OK

MANSYOK

BOOLEAN

Manual synchronism-check OK

MANENOK

BOOLEAN

Manual energizing check OK

TSTSYNOK

BOOLEAN

Synchronizing OK test output

TSTAUTSY

BOOLEAN

Auto synchronism-check OK test output

TSTMANSY

BOOLEAN

Manual synchronism-check OK test output

TSTENOK

BOOLEAN

Energizing check OK test output

VSELFAIL

BOOLEAN

Selected voltage transformer fuse failed

B1SEL

BOOLEAN

Bus1 selected

B2SEL

BOOLEAN

Bus2 selected

LNSEL

BOOLEAN

Line selected

SYNPROGR

BOOLEAN

Synchronizing in progress

SYNFAIL

BOOLEAN

Synchronizing failed

FRDIFSYN

BOOLEAN

Frequency difference out of limit for synchronizing

FRDERIVA

BOOLEAN

Frequency derivative out of limit for synchronizing

VOKSC

BOOLEAN

Voltage amplitudes above set limits

Table continues on next page


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Name

11.1.5
Table 182:
Name

Type

Description

VDIFFSC

BOOLEAN

Voltage difference out of limit

FRDIFFA

BOOLEAN

Frequency difference out of limit for Auto operation

PHDIFFA

BOOLEAN

Phase angle difference out of limit for Auto operation

FRDIFFM

BOOLEAN

Frequency difference out of limit for Manual operation

PHDIFFM

BOOLEAN

Phase angle difference out of limit for Manual Operation

VDIFFME

REAL

Calculated difference in voltage

FRDIFFME

REAL

Calculated difference in frequency

PHDIFFME

REAL

Calculated difference of phase angle

MODEAEN

INTEGER

Selected mode for automatic energizing

MODEMEN

INTEGER

Selected mode for manual energizing

Settings
SESRSYN (25) Group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Disable/Enable Operation

PhaseShift

-180 - 180

Deg

Phase shift

VRatio

0.20 - 5.00

0.01

1.00

Voltage ratio

OperationSynch

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Operation for synchronizing function Off/On

FreqDiffMin

0.003 - 0.250

Hz

0.001

0.010

Minimum frequency difference limit for


synchronizing

FreqDiffMax

0.050 - 0.250

Hz

0.001

0.200

Maximum frequency difference limit for


synchronizing

FreqRateChange

0.000 - 0.500

Hz/s

0.001

0.300

Maximum allowed frequency rate of change

tBreaker

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.080

Closing time of the breaker

tClosePulse

0.050 - 60.000

0.001

0.200

Breaker closing pulse duration

tMaxSynch

0.00 - 6000.00

0.01

600.00

Resets synchronization if no close has been


made before set time

tMinSynch

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

2.000

Minimum time to accept synchronizing


conditions

OperationSC

Disabled
Enabled

Enabled

Operation for synchronism-check function Off/


On

VDiffSC

2.0 - 50.0

%VB

1.0

15.0

Voltage difference limit in % of VBase

FreqDiffA

0.003 - 1.000

Hz

0.001

0.010

Frequency difference limit between bus and


line Auto

FreqDiffM

0.003 - 1.000

Hz

0.001

0.010

Frequency difference limit between bus and


line Manual

Table continues on next page

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1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Name

Step

Default

PhaseDiffA

5.0 - 90.0

Deg

1.0

25.0

Phase angle difference limit between bus and


line Auto

PhaseDiffM

5.0 - 90.0

Deg

1.0

25.0

Phase angle difference limit between bus and


line Manual

tSCA

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.100

Time delay for synchrocheck Auto

tSCM

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.100

Time delay for synchrocheck Manual

AutoEnerg

Disabled
DLLB
DBLL
Both

DBLL

Automatic energizing check mode

ManEnerg

Disabled
DLLB
DBLL
Both

Both

Manual energizing check mode

ManEnergDBDL

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Manual dead bus, dead line energizing

tAutoEnerg

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.100

Time delay for automatic energizing check

tManEnerg

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.100

Time delay for manual energizing check

Table 183:
Name

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

SESRSYN (25) Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

GlobalBaseSel

1-6

Selection of one of the Global Base Value


groups

MeasVoltLine1

UL1
UL1L2
PosSeq

UL1

Measured voltage for Line 1

MeasVoltBus1

UL1
UL1L2
PosSeq

UL1

Measured voltage for Busbar 1

MeasVoltBus2

UL1
UL1L2
PosSeq

UL1

Measured voltage for Busbar 2

11.1.6

Monitored data
Table 184:
Name

SESRSYN (25) Monitored data


Type

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

VDIFFME

REAL

kV

Calculated difference in
voltage

FRDIFFME

REAL

Hz

Calculated difference in
frequency

PHDIFFME

REAL

deg

Calculated difference of
phase angle

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Control

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

11.1.7

Operation principle

11.1.7.1

Basic functionality
The synchronism check function measures the conditions across the circuit breaker and
compares them to set limits. The output is only given when all measured quantities are
simultaneously within their set limits.
The energizing check function measures the bus and line voltages and compares them
to both high and low threshold detectors. The output is given only when the actual
measured quantities match the set conditions.
The synchronizing function measures the conditions across the circuit breaker, and also
determines the angle change occurring during the closing delay of the circuit breaker,
from the measured slip frequency. The output is given only when all measured
conditions are simultaneously within their set limits. The issue of the output is timed to
give closure at the optimal time including the time for the circuit breaker and the
closing circuit.
For single circuit breaker arrangements, SESRSYN (25) function blocks have the
capability to make the necessary voltage selection. The selection of correct voltage is
made using auxiliary contacts of the bus disconnectors.
The internal logic for each function block as well as, the input and outputs, and the
settings with default setting and setting ranges is described in this document. For
application related information, please refer to the application manual.

11.1.7.2

Synchronism check
The voltage difference, frequency difference and phase angle difference values are
measured in the IED centrally and are available for the synchronism check function for
evaluation. If the bus voltage is connected as phase-phase and the line voltage as phaseneutral (or the opposite), this need to be compensated. This is done with a setting,
which scales up the line voltage to a level equal to the bus voltage.
When the function is set to OperationSC = Enabled, the measuring will start.
The function compares bus and line values with the set values for acceptable
frequency, phase angle and voltage difference: FreqDiffA, FreqDiffM, PhaseDiffA,
PhaseDiffM and VDiffSC. If a compensation factor is set due to the use of different
voltages on the bus and line, the factor is deducted from the line voltage before the
comparison of the phase angle values.
The frequency on both sides of the circuit breaker is also measured. The frequencies
must not deviate from the rated frequency more than +/-5Hz. The frequency difference

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1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Section 11
Control

between the bus frequency and the line frequency is measured and may not exceed the
set value.
Two sets of settings for frequency difference and phase angle difference are available
and used for the manual closing and autoreclose functions respectively, as required.
The inputs BLOCK and BLKSC are available for total block of the complete
Synchronism check function and block of the Synchronism check function
respectively. Input TSTSC will allow testing of the function where the fulfilled
conditions are connected to a separate test output.
The outputs MANSYOK and AUTOSYOK are activated when the actual measured
conditions match the set conditions for the respective output. The output signal can be
delayed independently for MANSYOK and AUTOSYOK conditions.
A number of outputs are available as information about fulfilled checking conditions.
VOKSC shows that the voltages are high, VDIFFSC, FRDIFFA, FRDIFFM,
PHDIFFA, PHDIFFM shows when the voltage difference, frequency difference and
phase angle difference conditions are met.

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Control

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Note! Similar logic for Manual Synchronism check.


OperationSC = Enabled
AND

AND

TSTAUTSY

TSTSC
BLKSC
BLOCK

AND
OR
AND

AUTOSYOK

0-60 s
t

AND

tSCA

VDiffSC

Bus voltage >80% of


Vbase
Line voltage >80% of

AND

50 ms
t

VOKSC

AND

Vbase
1

FreqDiffA

PhaseDiffA

voltageDifferenceValue
frequencyDifferenceValue
phaseAngleDifferenceValue

VDIFFSC
FRDIFFA
PHDIFFA
VDIFFME
FRDIFFME

PHDIFFME

ANSI08000018_1_en.vsd
ANSI08000018 V1 EN

Figure 145:

11.1.7.3

Simplified logic diagram for the Synchronism check function

Synchronizing
When the function is set to OperationSynch = Enabled the measuring will be performed.
The function compares the values for the bus and line voltage which is a supervision
that the voltages are both live. If both sides are live, the measured values are compared
with the set values for acceptable frequency, rate of change of frequency, phase angle
and voltage difference.
Measured frequencies between the settings for the maximum and minimum frequency
will initiate the measuring and the evaluation of the angle change to allow operation to
be sent in the right moment including the set tBreaker time. There is a phase angle
release internally to block any incorrect closing pulses. At operation the SYNOK
output will be activated with a pulse tClosePulse and the function reset. The function

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Control

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

will also reset if the syncronizing conditions are not fulfilled within the set tMaxSynch
time. This prevents that the functions are, by mistake, maintained in operation for a
long time, waiting for conditions to be fulfilled.
The inputs BLOCK and BLKSYNCH are available for total block of the complete
function respective of the synchronizing part. TSTSYNCH will allow testing of the
function where the fulfilled conditions are connected to a separate output.
SESRSYN (25)
OPERATION SYNCH
Disabled
Enabled
TEST MODE
Disabled
Enabled
STARTSYN
AND

BLOCK
BLKSYNCH

OR

AND

S
R

SYNPROGR

Voltage difference <


10% of VBase
Bus voltage > 80% of
VBase

SYNOK

AND

OR

Line voltage > 80% of


VBase
AND

FreqDiffMax

OR

TSTSYNOK

AND

FreqDiffMin
FreqRateChange
fBus&fLine 5 Hz

AND

tClose
Pulse

tMax
Synch

PhaseDiff < 15 deg

SYNFAIL

PhaseDiff=closing angle
ANSI08000020_1_en.vsd
ANSI08000020 V1 EN

Figure 146:

11.1.7.4

Simplified logic diagram for the synchronizing function

Energizing check
Voltage values are measured in the IED centrally and are available for evaluation by
the Synchronism check function.
The frequency on both sides of the circuit breaker is also measured. The frequencies
must not deviate from the rated frequency more than +/-5Hz.
The Energizing direction can be selected individually for the Manual and the
Automatic functions respectively. When the conditions are met the outputs

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Control

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

AUTOENOK and MANENOK respectively will be activated if the fuse supervision


conditions are fulfilled. The output signal can be delayed independently for
MANENOK and AUTOENOK conditions. The Energizing direction can also be
selected by an integer input AENMODE respective MENMODE, which for example,
can be connected to a Binary to Integer function block (B16I). Integers supplied shall
be 1=off, 2=DLLB, 3=DBLL and 4= Both. Not connected input with connection of
INTZERO output from Fixed Signals (FIXDSIGN) function block will mean that the
setting is done from Parameter Setting tool. The active position can be read on outputs
MODEAEN resp MODEMEN. The modes are 0=OFF, 1=DLLB, 2=DBLL and 3=Both.
The inputs BLOCK and BLKENERG are available for total block of the complete
SESRSYN (25) function respective block of the Energizing check function.
TSTENERG will allow testing of the function where the fulfilled conditions are
connected to a separate test output.

11.1.7.5

Voltage selection
The voltage selection module including supervision of included voltage transformer
fuses for the different arrangements is a basic part of the SESRSYN (25) function and
determines the parameters fed to the Synchronizing, Synchrocheck and Energizing
check functions. This includes the selection of the appropriate Line and Bus voltages
and fuse supervision.
The default voltages used will be VLine and VBus1. This is also the case when
external voltage selection is provided. Fuse failure supervision for the used inputs must
also be connected.
The voltage selection function, selected voltages, and fuse conditions are the
Synchronism check and Energizing check inputs.
For the disconnector positions it is advisable to use (NO) a and (NC) b type contacts to
supply Disconnector Open and Closed positions but, it is also possible to use an
inverter for one of the positions.

11.1.7.6

Fuse failure supervision


External fuse failure signals or signals from a tripped fuse switch/MCB are connected
to binary inputs that are configured to the inputs of SESRSYN (25) functions in the
IED. Alternatively, the internal signals from fuse failure supervision can be used when
available. There are two alternative connection possibilities. Inputs labelled OK must
be connected if the available contact indicates that the voltage circuit is healthy. Inputs
labelled FF must be connected if the available contact indicates that the voltage circuit
is faulty.

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Control

The VB1OK/VB2OK and VB1FF/VB2FF inputs are related to the busbar voltage and
the VLNOK and VLNFF inputs are related to the line voltage. Configure them to the
binary input or function outputs that indicate the status of the external fuse failure of
the busbar and line voltages. In the event of a fuse failure, the energizing check
function is blocked. The synchronism check function requires full voltage on both
sides and will be blocked automatically in the event of fuse failures.

11.1.7.7

Voltage selection for a single circuit breaker with double busbars


This function uses the binary input from the disconnectors auxiliary contacts BUS1_OPBUS1_CL for Bus 1, and BUS2_OP-BUS2_CL for Bus 2 to select between bus 1 and
bus 2 voltages. If the disconnector connected to bus 1 is closed and the disconnector
connected to bus 2 is opened the bus 1 voltage is used. All other combinations use the
bus 2 voltage. The Outputs B1SEL and B2SEL respectively indicate the selected Bus
voltage.
The function checks the fuse-failure signals for bus 1, bus 2 and line voltage
transformers. Inputs VB1OK-VB1FF supervise the fuse for Bus 1 and VB2OK-VB2FF
supervises the fuse for Bus 2. VLNOK and VLNFF supervises the fuse for the Line
voltage transformer. The inputs fail (FF) or healthy (OK) can alternatively be used
dependent on the available signal. If a fuse-failure is detected in the selected voltage
source an output signal VSELFAIL is set. This output signal is true if the selected bus
or line voltages have a fuse failure. This output as well as the function can be blocked
with the input signal BLOCK. The function logic diagram is shown in figure 147.

313
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Control

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

BUS1_OP
BUS1_CL

B1SEL

AND

bus1Voltage

busVoltage

bus2Voltage

VB1OK
VB1FF

AND

OR

VB2OK
VB2FF

OR

VLNOK
VLNFF

OR

OR

AND

selectedFuseOK

AND

VSELFAIL

AND

BLOCK
SESRSYN__Logic_diagram_for_the_v
oltageselectionfunctionofa
singlecircuit.vsd
ANSI08000019 V1 EN

Figure 147:

11.1.8

Logic diagram for the voltage selection function of a single circuit breaker with double busbars

Technical data
Table 185:

SESRSYN (25) technical data

Function

Range or value

Accuracy

Phase shift, jline - jbus

(-180 to 180) degrees

Voltage ratio, Vbus/Vline

0.2 to 5.0

Frequency difference limit


between bus and line

(0.003-1.000) Hz

2.0 mHz

Phase angle difference limit


between bus and line

(5.0-90.0) degrees

2.0 degrees

Voltage difference limit between


bus and line

0.5% of Vn

Table continues on next page

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Control

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Function

Range or value

Accuracy

Time delay output for


synchronism check

(0.000-60.000) s

0.5% 25 ms

Time delay for energizing check

(0.000-60.000) s

0.5% 25 ms

Closing time for the circuit breaker

(0.000-60.000) s

0.5% 25 ms

11.2

Apparatus control

11.2.1

Functionality
The apparatus control functions are used for control and supervision of circuit
breakers, disconnectors and grounding switches within a bay. Permission to operate is
given after evaluation of conditions from other functions such as interlocking,
synchronism check, operator place selection and external or internal blockings.
In normal security, the command is processed and the resulting position is not
supervised. However with enhanced security, the command is processed and the
resulting position is supervised.

11.2.2

Bay control QCBAY

11.2.2.1

Identification
Function description
Bay control

11.2.2.2

IEC 61850
identification
QCBAY

IEC 60617
identification
-

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
-

Functionality
The Bay control QCBAY function is used together with Local remote and local remote
control functions to handle the selection of the operator place per bay. QCBAY also
provides blocking functions that can be distributed to different apparatuses within the
bay.

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11.2.2.3

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Function block
QCBAY
LR_OFF
LR_LOC
LR_REM
LR_VALID
BL_UPD
BL_CMD

PSTO
UPD_BLKD
CMD_BLKD
LOC
REM

IEC09000080_1_en.vsd
IEC09000080 V1 EN

Figure 148:

11.2.2.4

QCBAY function block

Signals
Table 186:

QCBAY Input signals

Name

Type

External Local/Remote switch is in Off position

LR_LOC

BOOLEAN

External Local/Remote switch is in Local position

LR_REM

BOOLEAN

External Local/Remote switch is in Remote position

LR_VALID

BOOLEAN

Data representing the L/R switch position is valid

BL_UPD

BOOLEAN

Steady signal to block the position updates

BL_CMD

BOOLEAN

Steady signal to block the command

QCBAY Output signals

Name

Table 188:
Name
AllPSTOValid

Description

BOOLEAN

Table 187:

11.2.2.5

Default

LR_OFF

Type

Description

PSTO

INTEGER

Value for the operator place allocation

UPD_BLKD

BOOLEAN

Update of position is blocked

CMD_BLKD

BOOLEAN

Function is blocked for commands

LOC

BOOLEAN

Local operation allowed

REM

BOOLEAN

Remote operation allowed

Settings
QCBAY Non group settings (basic)
Values (Range)
Priority
No priority

Unit
-

Step
-

Default
Priority

Description
Priority of originators

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1MRK 502 034-UUS -

11.2.3

Local remote LOCREM

11.2.3.1

Identification
Function description

IEC 61850
identification

Local remote

11.2.3.2

IEC 60617
identification

LOCREM

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
-

Functionality
The signals from the local HMI or from an external local/remote switch are applied via
the function blocks LOCREM and LOCREMCTRL to the Bay control (QCBAY)
function block. A parameter in function block LOCREM is set to choose if the switch
signals are coming from the local HMI or from an external hardware switch connected
via binary inputs.

11.2.3.3

Function block
LOCREM
CTRLOFF
LOCCTRL
REMCTRL
LHMICTRL

OFF
LOCAL
REMOTE
VALID
IEC09000076_1_en.vsd

IEC09000076 V1 EN

Figure 149:

11.2.3.4

LOCREM function block

Signals
Table 189:
Name

LOCREM Input signals


Type

Default

Description

CTRLOFF

BOOLEAN

Disable control

LOCCTRL

BOOLEAN

Local in control

REMCTRL

BOOLEAN

Remote in control

LHMICTRL

INTEGER

LHMI control

Table 190:
Name

LOCREM Output signals


Type

Description

OFF

BOOLEAN

Control is disabled

LOCAL

BOOLEAN

Local control is activated

REMOTE

BOOLEAN

Remote control is activated

VALID

BOOLEAN

Outputs are valid

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Control
11.2.3.5
Table 191:
Name
ControlMode

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Settings
LOCREM Non group settings (basic)
Values (Range)
Internal LR-switch
External LR-switch

Unit

Step

Default
Internal LR-switch

Description
Control mode for internal/external LR-switch

11.2.4

Local remote control LOCREMCTRL

11.2.4.1

Identification
Function description
Local remote control

11.2.4.2

IEC 61850
identification
LOCREMCTRL

IEC 60617
identification
-

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
-

Functionality
The signals from the local HMI or from an external local/remote switch are applied via
the function blocks LOCREM and LOCREMCTRL to the Bay control (QCBAY)
function block. A parameter in function block LOCREM is set to choose if the switch
signals are coming from the local HMI or from an external hardware switch connected
via binary inputs.

11.2.4.3

Function block
LOCREMCTRL
^PSTO1
^HMICTR1
^PSTO2
^HMICTR2
^PSTO3
^HMICTR3
^PSTO4
^HMICTR4
^PSTO5
^HMICTR5
^PSTO6
^HMICTR6
^PSTO7
^HMICTR7
^PSTO8
^HMICTR8
^PSTO9
^HMICTR9
^PSTO10
^HMICTR10
^PSTO11
^HMICTR11
^PSTO12
^HMICTR12
IEC09000074_1_en.vsd
IEC09000074 V1 EN

Figure 150:

LOCREMCTRL function block

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11.2.4.4

Signals
Table 192:
Name

Type

Default

Description

PSTO1

INTEGER

PSTO input channel 1

PSTO2

INTEGER

PSTO input channel 2

PSTO3

INTEGER

PSTO input channel 3

PSTO4

INTEGER

PSTO input channel 4

PSTO5

INTEGER

PSTO input channel 5

PSTO6

INTEGER

PSTO input channel 6

PSTO7

INTEGER

PSTO input channel 7

PSTO8

INTEGER

PSTO input channel 8

PSTO9

INTEGER

PSTO input channel 9

PSTO10

INTEGER

PSTO input channel 10

PSTO11

INTEGER

PSTO input channel 11

PSTO12

INTEGER

PSTO input channel 12

Table 193:
Name

11.2.4.5

LOCREMCTRL Input signals

LOCREMCTRL Output signals


Type

Description

HMICTR1

INTEGER

Bitmask output 1 to local remote LHMI input

HMICTR2

INTEGER

Bitmask output 2 to local remote LHMI input

HMICTR3

INTEGER

Bitmask output 3 to local remote LHMI input

HMICTR4

INTEGER

Bitmask output 4 to local remote LHMI input

HMICTR5

INTEGER

Bitmask output 5 to local remote LHMI input

HMICTR6

INTEGER

Bitmask output 6 to local remote LHMI input

HMICTR7

INTEGER

Bitmask output 7 to local remote LHMI input

HMICTR8

INTEGER

Bitmask output 8 to local remote LHMI input

HMICTR9

INTEGER

Bitmask output 9 to local remote LHMI input

HMICTR10

INTEGER

Bitmask output 10 to local remote LHMI input

HMICTR11

INTEGER

Bitmask output 11 to local remote LHMI input

HMICTR12

INTEGER

Bitmask output 12 to local remote LHMI input

Settings
The function does not have any parameters available in Local HMI or Protection and
Control IED Manager (PCM600).

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11.2.5

Operation principle

11.2.5.1

Bay control QCBAY


The functionality of the Bay control (QCBAY) function is not defined in the IEC 61850
81 standard, which means that the function is a vendor specific logical node.
The function sends information about the Permitted Source To Operate (PSTO) and
blocking conditions to other functions within the bay for example, switch control
functions, voltage control functions and measurement functions.

Local panel switch

The local panel switch is a switch that defines the operator place selection. The switch
connected to this function can have three positions remote/local/off. The positions are
here defined so that remote means that operation is allowed from station/remote level
and local from the IED level. The local/remote switch is normally situated on the control/
protection IED itself, which means that the position of the switch and its validity
information are connected internally, and not via I/O boards. When the switch is
mounted separately on the IED the signals are connected to the function via I/O boards.
When the local panel switch is in Off position all commands from remote and local
level will be ignored. If the position for the local/remote switch is not valid the PSTO
output will always be set to faulty state (3), which means no possibility to operate.
To adapt the signals from the local HMI or from an external local/remote switch, the
function blocks LOCREM and LOCREMCTRL are needed and connected to QCBAY.

Permitted Source To Operate (PSTO)

The actual state of the operator place is presented by the value of the Permitted Source
To Operate, PSTO signal. The PSTO value is evaluated from the local/remote switch
position according to table 194. In addition, there is one configuration parameter that
affects the value of the PSTO signal. If the parameter AllPSTOValid is set and LRswitch position is in Local or Remote state, the PSTO value is set to 5 (all), that is, it is
permitted to operate from both local and remote level without any priority. When the
external panel switch is in Off position the PSTO value shows the actual state of switch
that is, 0. In this case it is not possible to control anything.
Table 194:
Local panel switch
positions

PSTO values for different Local panel switch positions


PSTO value

AllPSTOValid
(configuration
parameter)

Possible locations that shall be able to


operate

0 = Off

--

Not possible to operate

1 = Local

FALSE

Local Panel

1 = Local

TRUE

Local or Remote level without any


priority

Table continues on next page


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Local panel switch


positions

PSTO value

AllPSTOValid
(configuration
parameter)

Possible locations that shall be able to


operate

2 = Remote

FALSE

Remote level

2 = Remote

TRUE

Local or Remote level without any


priority

3 = Faulty

--

Not possible to operate

Blockings

The blocking states for position indications and commands are intended to provide the
possibility for the user to make common blockings for the functions configured within
a complete bay.
The blocking facilities provided by the bay control function are the following:

Blocking of position indications, BL_UPD. This input will block all inputs related
to apparatus positions for all configured functions within the bay.
Blocking of commands, BL_CMD. This input will block all commands for all
configured functions within the bay.
Blocking of function, BLOCK, signal from DO (Data Object) Behavior (IEC 61850
81). If DO Behavior is set to "blocked" it means that the function is active, but no
outputs are generated, no reporting, control commands are rejected and functional
and configuration data is visible.

The switching of the Local/Remote switch requires at least system operator level. The
password will be requested at an attempt to operate if authority levels have been
defined in the IED. Otherwise the default authority level, SuperUser, can handle the
control without LogOn. The users and passwords are defined in PCM600.

11.2.5.2

Local remote/Local remote control LOCREM/LOCREMCTRL


The function block Local remote (LOCREM) handles the signals coming from the local/
remote switch. The connections are seen in figure 151, where the inputs on function
block LOCREM are connected to binary inputs if an external switch is used. When a
local HMI is used, the inputs are not used and are set to FALSE in the configuration.
The outputs from the LOCREM function block control the output PSTO (Permitted
Source To Operate) on Bay control (QCBAY).

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LOCREM
CTRLOFF
OFF
LOCCTRL
LOCAL
REMCTRL REMOTE
LHMICTRL
VALID

QCBAY
LR_ OFF
PSTO
LR_ LOC UPD_ BLKD
LR_ REM CMD_ BLKD
LR_ VALID
LOC
BL_ UPD
REM
BL_ CMD

LOCREMCTRL
PSTO1
HMICTR1
PSTO2
HMICTR2
PSTO3
HMICTR3
PSTO4
HMICTR4
PSTO5
HMICTR5
PSTO6
HMICTR6
PSTO7
HMICTR7
PSTO8
HMICTR8
PSTO9
HMICTR9
PSTO10
HMICTR10
PSTO11
HMICTR11
PSTO12
HMICTR12
IEC 09000208_1_en. vsd
IEC09000208 V2 EN

Figure 151:

Configuration for the local/remote handling for a local HMI with two
bays and two screen pages

The switching of the local/remote switch requires at least system operator level. The
password will be requested at an attempt to operate if authority levels have been
defined in the IED. Otherwise the default authority level, SuperUser, can handle the
control without LogOn. The users and passwords are defined in PCM600.

11.3

Logic rotating switch for function selection and LHMI


presentation SLGGIO

11.3.1

Identification
Function description
Logic rotating switch for function
selection and LHMI presentation

IEC 61850
identification
SLGGIO

IEC 60617
identification
-

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
-

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11.3.2

Functionality
The logic rotating switch for function selection and LHMI presentation function
(SLGGIO) (or the selector switch function block) is used to get a selector switch
functionality similar to the one provided by a hardware selector switch. Hardware
selector switches are used extensively by utilities, in order to have different functions
operating on pre-set values. Hardware switches are however sources for maintenance
issues, lower system reliability and an extended purchase portfolio. The logic selector
switches eliminate all these problems.

11.3.3

Function block
SLGGIO
BLOCK
PSTO
UP
DOWN

^P01
^P02
^P03
^P04
^P05
^P06
^P07
^P08
^P09
^P10
^P11
^P12
^P13
^P14
^P15
^P16
^P17
^P18
^P19
^P20
^P21
^P22
^P23
^P24
^P25
^P26
^P27
^P28
^P29
^P30
^P31
^P32
SWPOSN
IEC09000091_1_en.vsd

IEC09000091 V1 EN

Figure 152:

11.3.4

SLGGIO function block

Signals
Table 195:
Name

SLGGIO Input signals


Type

Default

Description

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

PSTO

INTEGER

Operator place selection

UP

BOOLEAN

Binary "UP" command

DOWN

BOOLEAN

Binary "DOWN" command

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Table 196:
Name

SLGGIO Output signals


Type

Description

P01

BOOLEAN

Selector switch position 1

P02

BOOLEAN

Selector switch position 2

P03

BOOLEAN

Selector switch position 3

P04

BOOLEAN

Selector switch position 4

P05

BOOLEAN

Selector switch position 5

P06

BOOLEAN

Selector switch position 6

P07

BOOLEAN

Selector switch position 7

P08

BOOLEAN

Selector switch position 8

P09

BOOLEAN

Selector switch position 9

P10

BOOLEAN

Selector switch position 10

P11

BOOLEAN

Selector switch position 11

P12

BOOLEAN

Selector switch position 12

P13

BOOLEAN

Selector switch position 13

P14

BOOLEAN

Selector switch position 14

P15

BOOLEAN

Selector switch position 15

P16

BOOLEAN

Selector switch position 16

P17

BOOLEAN

Selector switch position 17

P18

BOOLEAN

Selector switch position 18

P19

BOOLEAN

Selector switch position 19

P20

BOOLEAN

Selector switch position 20

P21

BOOLEAN

Selector switch position 21

P22

BOOLEAN

Selector switch position 22

P23

BOOLEAN

Selector switch position 23

P24

BOOLEAN

Selector switch position 24

P25

BOOLEAN

Selector switch position 25

P26

BOOLEAN

Selector switch position 26

P27

BOOLEAN

Selector switch position 27

P28

BOOLEAN

Selector switch position 28

P29

BOOLEAN

Selector switch position 29

P30

BOOLEAN

Selector switch position 30

P31

BOOLEAN

Selector switch position 31

P32

BOOLEAN

Selector switch position 32

SWPOSN

INTEGER

Switch position as integer value

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11.3.5
Table 197:
Name

Settings
SLGGIO Non group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Operation Enable/Disable

NrPos

2 - 32

32

Number of positions in the switch

OutType

Pulsed
Steady

Steady

Output type, steady or pulse

tPulse

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.200

Operate pulse duration

tDelay

0.000 - 60000.000

0.010

0.000

Output time delay

StopAtExtremes

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Stop when min or max position is reached

11.3.6

Monitored data
Table 198:
Name
SWPOSN

11.3.7

SLGGIO Monitored data


Type
INTEGER

Values (Range)
-

Unit
-

Description
Switch position as integer
value

Operation principle
The logic rotating switch for function selection and LHMI presentation (SLGGIO)
function has two operating inputs UP and DOWN. When a signal is received on the
UP input, the block will activate the output next to the present activated output, in
ascending order (if the present activated output is 3 for example and one operates the
UP input, then the output 4 will be activated). When a signal is received on the DOWN
input, the block will activate the output next to the present activated output, in
descending order (if the present activated output is 3 for example and one operates
the DOWN input, then the output 2 will be activated). Depending on the output
settings the output signals can be steady or pulsed. In case of steady signals, in case of
UP or DOWN operation, the previously active output will be deactivated. Also,
depending on the settings one can have a time delay between the UP or DOWN
activation signal positive front and the output activation.
Besides the inputs visible in the application configuration in the Application
Configuration tool, there are other possibilities that will allow an user to set the desired
position directly (without activating the intermediate positions), either locally or
remotely, using a select before execute dialog. One can block the function operation,
by activating the BLOCK input. In this case, the present position will be kept and
further operation will be blocked. The operator place (local or remote) is specified
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through the PSTO input. If any operation is allowed the signal INTONE from the
Fixed signal function block can be connected. SLGGIO function block has also an
integer value output, that generates the actual position number. The positions and the
block names are fully settable by the user. These names will appear in the menu, so the
user can see the position names instead of a number.

11.4

Selector mini switch VSGGIO

11.4.1

Identification
Function description

IEC 61850
identification

Selector mini switch

11.4.2

IEC 60617
identification

VSGGIO

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
-

Functionality
The Selector mini switch VSGGIO function block is a multipurpose function used for a
variety of applications, as a general purpose switch.
VSGGIO can be controlled from the menu or from a symbol on the single line diagram
(SLD) on the local HMI.

11.4.3

Function block
VSGGIO
BLOCK
PSTO
IPOS1
IPOS2

BLOCKED
POSITION
POS1
POS2
CMDPOS12
CMDPOS21
IEC09000341-1-en.vsd

IEC09000341 V1 EN

11.4.4

Signals
Table 199:
Name

VSGGIO Input signals


Type

Default

Description

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

PSTO

INTEGER

Operator place selection

IPOS1

BOOLEAN

Position 1 indicating input

IPOS2

BOOLEAN

Position 2 indicating input

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Table 200:

VSGGIO Output signals

Name

11.4.5
Table 201:
Name

Type

Description

BLOCKED

BOOLEAN

The function is active but the functionality is blocked

POSITION

INTEGER

Position indication, integer

POS1

BOOLEAN

Position 1 indication, logical signal

POS2

BOOLEAN

Position 2 indication, logical signal

CMDPOS12

BOOLEAN

Execute command from position 1 to position 2

CMDPOS21

BOOLEAN

Execute command from position 2 to position 1

Settings
VSGGIO Non group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Disable/Enable Operation

CtlModel

Dir Norm
SBO Enh

Dir Norm

Specifies the type for control model according


to IEC 61850

Mode

Steady
Pulsed

Pulsed

Operation mode

tSelect

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

30.000

Max time between select and execute signals

tPulse

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.200

Command pulse lenght

11.4.6

Operation principle
Selector mini switch (VSGGIO) function can be used for double purpose, in the same
way as switch controller (SCSWI) functions are used:

for indication on the single line diagram (SLD). Position is received through the
IPOS1 and IPOS2 inputs and distributed in the configuration through the POS1
and POS2 outputs, or to IEC 61850 through reporting, or GOOSE.
for commands that are received via the local HMI or IEC 61850 and distributed in
the configuration through outputs CMDPOS12 and CMDPOS21.
The output CMDPOS12 is set when the function receives a CLOSE command
from the local HMI when the SLD is displayed and the object is chosen.
The output CMDPOS21 is set when the function receives an OPEN command
from the local HMI when the SLD is displayed and the object is chosen.

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It is important for indication in the SLD that the a symbol is associated


with a controllable object, otherwise the symbol won't be displayed on
the screen. A symbol is created and configured in GDE tool in PCM600.
The PSTO input is connected to the Local remote switch to have a selection of
operators place , operation from local HMI (Local) or through IEC 61850 (Remote).
An INTONE connection from Fixed signal function block (FXDSIGN) will allow
operation from local HMI.
As it can be seen, both indications and commands are done in double-bit
representation, where a combination of signals on both inputs/outputs generate the
desired result.
The following table shows the relationship between IPOS1/IPOS2 inputs and the name
of the string that is shown on the SLD. The value of the strings are set in PST.
IPOS1

IPOS2

Name of displayed string

Default string value

PosUndefined

P00

Position1

P01

Position2

P10

PosBadState

P11

11.5

IEC 61850 generic communication I/O functions


DPGGIO

11.5.1

Identification
Function description
IEC 61850 generic communication I/O
functions

11.5.2

IEC 61850
identification
DPGGIO

IEC 60617
identification
-

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
-

Functionality
The IEC 61850 generic communication I/O functions (DPGGIO) function block is
used to send double indications to other systems or equipment in the substation. It is
especially used in the interlocking and reservation station-wide logics.

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11.5.3

Function block
DPGGIO
OPEN
CLOSE
VALID

POSITION

IEC09000075_1_en.vsd
IEC09000075 V1 EN

Figure 153:

11.5.4

Signals
Table 202:
Name

DPGGIO Input signals


Type

Default

Description

OPEN

BOOLEAN

Open indication

CLOSE

BOOLEAN

Close indication

VALID

BOOLEAN

Valid indication

Table 203:

DPGGIO Output signals

Name
POSITION

11.5.5

DPGGIO function block

Type
INTEGER

Description
Double point indication

Settings
The function does not have any parameters available in Local HMI or Protection and
Control IED Manager (PCM600).

11.5.6

Operation principle
Upon receiving the input signals, the IEC 61850 generic communication I/O functions
(DPGGIO) function block will send the signals over IEC 61850-8-1 to the equipment
or system that requests these signals. To be able to get the signals, PCM600 must be
used to define which function block in which equipment or system should receive this
information.

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11.6

Single point generic control 8 signals SPC8GGIO

11.6.1

Identification
Function description

IEC 61850
identification

Single point generic control 8 signals

11.6.2

IEC 60617
identification

SPC8GGIO

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
-

Functionality
The Single point generic control 8 signals (SPC8GGIO) function block is a collection
of 8 single point commands, designed to bring in commands from REMOTE (SCADA)
to those parts of the logic configuration that do not need extensive command receiving
functionality (for example, SCSWI). In this way, simple commands can be sent
directly to the IED outputs, without confirmation. Confirmation (status) of the result of
the commands is supposed to be achieved by other means, such as binary inputs and
SPGGIO function blocks. The commands can be pulsed or steady.

11.6.3

Function block
SPC8GGIO
BLOCK
PSTO

^OUT1
^OUT2
^OUT3
^OUT4
^OUT5
^OUT6
^OUT7
^OUT8

IEC09000086_1_en.vsd
IEC09000086 V1 EN

Figure 154:

11.6.4

SPC8GGIO function block

Signals
Table 204:
Name

SPC8GGIO Input signals


Type

Default

Description

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

PSTO

INTEGER

Operator place selection

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Table 205:

SPC8GGIO Output signals

Name

11.6.5
Table 206:
Name

Type

Description

OUT1

BOOLEAN

Output 1

OUT2

BOOLEAN

Output2

OUT3

BOOLEAN

Output3

OUT4

BOOLEAN

Output4

OUT5

BOOLEAN

Output5

OUT6

BOOLEAN

Output6

OUT7

BOOLEAN

Output7

OUT8

BOOLEAN

Output8

Settings
SPC8GGIO Non group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Operation Disabled/Enabled

Latched1

Pulsed
Latched

Pulsed

Setting for pulsed/latched mode for output 1

tPulse1

0.01 - 6000.00

0.01

0.10

Output1 Pulse Time

Latched2

Pulsed
Latched

Pulsed

Setting for pulsed/latched mode for output 2

tPulse2

0.01 - 6000.00

0.01

0.10

Output2 Pulse Time

Latched3

Pulsed
Latched

Pulsed

Setting for pulsed/latched mode for output 3

tPulse3

0.01 - 6000.00

0.01

0.10

Output3 Pulse Time

Latched4

Pulsed
Latched

Pulsed

Setting for pulsed/latched mode for output 4

tPulse4

0.01 - 6000.00

0.01

0.10

Output4 Pulse Time

Latched5

Pulsed
Latched

Pulsed

Setting for pulsed/latched mode for output 5

tPulse5

0.01 - 6000.00

0.01

0.10

Output5 Pulse Time

Latched6

Pulsed
Latched

Pulsed

Setting for pulsed/latched mode for output 6

tPulse6

0.01 - 6000.00

0.01

0.10

Output6 Pulse Time

Latched7

Pulsed
Latched

Pulsed

Setting for pulsed/latched mode for output 7

tPulse7

0.01 - 6000.00

0.01

0.10

Output7 Pulse Time

Latched8

Pulsed
Latched

Pulsed

Setting for pulsed/latched mode for output 8

tPulse8

0.01 - 6000.00

0.01

0.10

Output8 pulse time

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11.6.6

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Operation principle
The PSTO input will determine which the allowed position for the operator (LOCAL,
REMOTE, ALL) is. Upon sending a command from an allowed operator position, one
of the 8 outputs will be activated. The settings Latchedx and tPulsex (where x is the
respective output) will determine if the signal will be pulsed (and how long the pulse
is) or latched (steady). BLOCK will block the operation of the function in case a
command is sent, no output will be activated.
PSTO is the universal operator place selector for all control functions.
Even if PSTO can be configured to allow LOCAL or ALL operator
positions, the only functional position usable with the SPC8GGIO
function block is REMOTE.

11.7

Automation bits AUTOBITS

11.7.1

Identification
Function description
AutomationBits, command function for
DNP3

11.7.2

IEC 61850
identification
AUTOBITS

IEC 60617
identification
-

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
-

Functionality
The Automation bits function (AUTOBITS) is used to configure the DNP3 protocol
command handling.

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11.7.3

Function block
AUTOBITS
BLOCK
PSTO

^CMDBIT1
^CMDBIT2
^CMDBIT3
^CMDBIT4
^CMDBIT5
^CMDBIT6
^CMDBIT7
^CMDBIT8
^CMDBIT9
^CMDBIT10
^CMDBIT11
^CMDBIT12
^CMDBIT13
^CMDBIT14
^CMDBIT15
^CMDBIT16
^CMDBIT17
^CMDBIT18
^CMDBIT19
^CMDBIT20
^CMDBIT21
^CMDBIT22
^CMDBIT23
^CMDBIT24
^CMDBIT25
^CMDBIT26
^CMDBIT27
^CMDBIT28
^CMDBIT29
^CMDBIT30
^CMDBIT31
^CMDBIT32
IEC09000030-1-en.vsd

IEC09000030 V1 EN

Figure 155:

11.7.4

AUTOBITS function block

Signals
Table 207:
Name

AUTOBITS Input signals


Type

Default

Description

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

PSTO

INTEGER

Operator place selection

Table 208:
Name

AUTOBITS Output signals


Type

Description

CMDBIT1

BOOLEAN

Command out bit 1

CMDBIT2

BOOLEAN

Command out bit 2

CMDBIT3

BOOLEAN

Command out bit 3

Table continues on next page

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Name

11.7.5
Table 209:
Name
Operation

Type

Description

CMDBIT4

BOOLEAN

Command out bit 4

CMDBIT5

BOOLEAN

Command out bit 5

CMDBIT6

BOOLEAN

Command out bit 6

CMDBIT7

BOOLEAN

Command out bit 7

CMDBIT8

BOOLEAN

Command out bit 8

CMDBIT9

BOOLEAN

Command out bit 9

CMDBIT10

BOOLEAN

Command out bit 10

CMDBIT11

BOOLEAN

Command out bit 11

CMDBIT12

BOOLEAN

Command out bit 12

CMDBIT13

BOOLEAN

Command out bit 13

CMDBIT14

BOOLEAN

Command out bit 14

CMDBIT15

BOOLEAN

Command out bit 15

CMDBIT16

BOOLEAN

Command out bit 16

CMDBIT17

BOOLEAN

Command out bit 17

CMDBIT18

BOOLEAN

Command out bit 18

CMDBIT19

BOOLEAN

Command out bit 19

CMDBIT20

BOOLEAN

Command out bit 20

CMDBIT21

BOOLEAN

Command out bit 21

CMDBIT22

BOOLEAN

Command out bit 22

CMDBIT23

BOOLEAN

Command out bit 23

CMDBIT24

BOOLEAN

Command out bit 24

CMDBIT25

BOOLEAN

Command out bit 25

CMDBIT26

BOOLEAN

Command out bit 26

CMDBIT27

BOOLEAN

Command out bit 27

CMDBIT28

BOOLEAN

Command out bit 28

CMDBIT29

BOOLEAN

Command out bit 29

CMDBIT30

BOOLEAN

Command out bit 30

CMDBIT31

BOOLEAN

Command out bit 31

CMDBIT32

BOOLEAN

Command out bit 32

Settings
AUTOBITS Non group settings (basic)
Values (Range)
Disabled
Enabled

Unit
-

Step
-

Default
Disabled

Description
Disable/Enable Operation

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11.7.6

Operation principle
Automation bits function (AUTOBITS) has 32 individual outputs which each can be
mapped as a Binary Output point in DNP3. The output is operated by a "Object 12" in
DNP3. This object contains parameters for control-code, count, on-time and off-time.
To operate an AUTOBITS output point, send a control-code of latch-On, latch-Off, pulseOn, pulse-Off, Trip or Close. The remaining parameters will be regarded were
appropriate. ex: pulse-On, on-time=100, off-time=300, count=5 would give 5 positive
100 ms pulses, 300 ms apart.
There is a BLOCK input signal, which will disable the operation of the function, in the
same way the setting Operation: Enabled/Disabled does. That means that, upon
activation of the BLOCK input, all 32 CMDBITxx outputs will be set to 0. The
BLOCK acts like an overriding, the function still receives data from the DNP3 master.
Upon deactivation of BLOCK, all the 32 CMDBITxx outputs will be set by the DNP3
master again, momentarily. For AUTOBITS , the PSTO input determines the operator
place. The command can be written to the block while in Remote. If PSTO is in
Local then no change is applied to the outputs.
For description of the DNP3 protocol implementation, refer to DNP3 communication
protocol manual.

11.8

Function commands for IEC 60870-5-103 I103CMD

11.8.1

Functionality
I103CMD is a command function block in control direction with pre-defined output
signals.

11.8.2

Function block
I103CMD
BLOCK

16-AR
17-DIFF
18-PROT
IEC10000282-1-en.vsd

IEC10000282 V1 EN

Figure 156:

I103CMD function block

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11.8.3

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Signals
Table 210:

I103CMD Input signals

Name

Type

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Table 211:

Table 212:
Name
FunctionType

Description
Block of commands

I103CMD Output signals

Name

11.8.4

Default

Type

Description

16-AR

BOOLEAN

Information number 16, block of autorecloser

17-DIFF

BOOLEAN

Information number 17, block of differential protection

18-PROT

BOOLEAN

Information number 18, block of protection

Settings
I103CMD Non group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

1 - 255

Step

Default
1

Description
Function type (1-255)

11.9

IED commands for IEC 60870-5-103 I103IEDCMD

11.9.1

Functionality
I103IEDCMD is a command block in control direction with defined IED functions.

11.9.2

Function block
BLOCK

I103IEDCMD
19-LEDRS
23-GRP1
24-GRP2
25-GRP3
26-GRP4
IEC10000283-1-en.vsd

IEC10000283 V1 EN

Figure 157:

I103IEDCMD function block

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11.9.3

Signals
Table 213:

I103IEDCMD Input signals

Name

Type

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Table 214:

Table 215:
Name
FunctionType

Description
Block of commands

I103IEDCMD Output signals

Name

11.9.4

Default

Type

Description

19-LEDRS

BOOLEAN

Information number 19, reset LEDs

23-GRP1

BOOLEAN

Information number 23, activate setting group 1

24-GRP2

BOOLEAN

Information number 24, activate setting group 2

25-GRP3

BOOLEAN

Information number 25, activate setting group 3

26-GRP4

BOOLEAN

Information number 26, activate setting group 4

Settings
I103IEDCMD Non group settings (basic)
Values (Range)
1 - 255

Unit
-

Step
1

Default
255

Description
Function type (1-255)

11.10

Function commands user defined for IEC


60870-5-103 I103USRCMD

11.10.1

Functionality
I103USRCMD is a command block in control direction with user defined output
signals. These function blocks include the FunctionType parameter for each block in
the private range, and the Information number parameter for each output signal.

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11.10.2

Function block
BLOCK

I103USRCMD
^OUTPUT1
^OUTPUT2
^OUTPUT3
^OUTPUT4
^OUTPUT5
^OUTPUT6
^OUTPUT7
^OUTPUT8
IEC10000284-1-en.vsd

IEC10000284 V1 EN

Figure 158:

11.10.3

I103USRCMD function block

Signals
Table 216:

I103USRCMD Input signals

Name

Type

BLOCK

Table 217:

Table 218:
Name

Description
Block of commands

I103USRCMD Output signals

Name

11.10.4

Default

BOOLEAN

Type

Description

OUTPUT1

BOOLEAN

Command output 1

OUTPUT2

BOOLEAN

Command output 2

OUTPUT3

BOOLEAN

Command output 3

OUTPUT4

BOOLEAN

Command output 4

OUTPUT5

BOOLEAN

Command output 5

OUTPUT6

BOOLEAN

Command output 6

OUTPUT7

BOOLEAN

Command output 7

OUTPUT8

BOOLEAN

Command output 8

Settings
I103USRCMD Non group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

FunctionType

1 - 255

Function type (1-255)

PulseMode

Steady
Pulsed

Pulsed

Pulse mode

PulseLength

0.200 - 60.000

0.001

0.400

Pulse length

InfNo_1

1 - 255

Information number for output 1 (1-255)

Table continues on next page


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Name

Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

InfNo_2

1 - 255

Information number for output 2 (1-255)

InfNo_3

1 - 255

Information number for output 3 (1-255)

InfNo_4

1 - 255

Information number for output 4 (1-255)

InfNo_5

1 - 255

Information number for output 5 (1-255)

InfNo_6

1 - 255

Information number for output 6 (1-255)

InfNo_7

1 - 255

Information number for output 7 (1-255)

InfNo_8

1 - 255

Information number for output 8 (1-255)

11.11

Function commands generic for IEC 60870-5-103


I103GENCMD

11.11.1

Functionality
I103GENCMD is used for transmitting generic commands over IEC 60870-5-103. The
function has two outputs signals CMD_OFF and CMD_ON that can be used to
implement double-point command schemes.

11.11.2

Function block
BLOCK

I103GENCMD
^CMD_OFF
^CMD_ON
IEC10000285-1-en.vsd

IEC10000285 V1 EN

Figure 159:

11.11.3

I103GENCMD function block

Signals
Table 219:
Name
BLOCK

Table 220:
Name

I103GENCMD Input signals


Type
BOOLEAN

Default
0

Description
Block of command

I103GENCMD Output signals


Type

Description

CMD_OFF

BOOLEAN

Command output OFF

CMD_ON

BOOLEAN

Command output ON

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11.11.4
Table 221:
Name

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Settings
I103GENCMD Non group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

FunctionType

1 - 127

Function type (1-255)

PulseLength

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.400

Pulse length

InfNo

32 - 239

32

Information number for command output


(1-255)

11.12

IED commands with position and select for IEC


60870-5-103 I103POSCMD

11.12.1

Functionality
I103POSCMD has double-point position indicators that are getting the position value
as an integer (for example from the POSITION output of the SCSWI function block)
and sending it over IEC 60870-5-103 (1=OPEN; 2=CLOSE); as per standard, 0 and 3
values of the position are not supported.
The BLOCK input will block only the signals in monitoring direction (the position
information), not the commands via IEC 60870-5-103. The SELECT input is used to
indicate that the monitored apparatus has been selected (in a select-before-operate type
of control)

11.12.2

Function block
I103POSCMD
BLOCK
POSITION
SELECT
IEC10000286-1-en.vsd
IEC10000286 V1 EN

Figure 160:

11.12.3

I103POSCMD function block

Signals
Table 222:
Name

I103POSCMD Input signals


Type

Default

Description

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of command

POSITION

INTEGER

Position of controllable object

SELECT

BOOLEAN

Select of controllable object

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11.12.4
Table 223:
Name

Settings
I103POSCMD Non group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

FunctionType

1 - 255

Fucntion type (1-255)

InfNo

160 - 196

160

Information number for command output


(1-255)

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342

Section 12
Logic

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Section 12

Logic

12.1

Tripping logic SMPPTRC (94)

12.1.1

Identification
Function description
Tripping logic

IEC 61850
identification

IEC 60617
identification

SMPPTRC

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
94

I->O
SYMBOL-K V1 EN

12.1.2

Functionality
A function block for protection tripping is provided for each circuit breaker involved in
the tripping of the fault. It provides pulse prolongation to ensure a trip pulse of
sufficient length, as well as all functionality necessary for correct co-operation with
autoreclosing functions.
The trip function block includes functionality for breaker lock-out.

12.1.3

Function block
SMPPTRC (94)
BLOCK
TRIP
TRINP_3P
CLLKOUT
SETLKOUT
RSTLKOUT
ANSI09000284-1-en.vsd
ANSI09000284 V1 EN

Figure 161:

SMPPTRC (94) function block

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12.1.4

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Signals
Table 224:

SMPPTRC (94) Input signals

Name

Type
BOOLEAN

Block of function

TRINP_3P

BOOLEAN

Trip all phases

SETLKOUT

BOOLEAN

Input for setting the circuit breaker lockout function

RSTLKOUT

BOOLEAN

Input for resetting the circuit breaker lockout function

SMPPTRC (94) Output signals

Name

Table 226:
Name

Description

BLOCK

Table 225:

12.1.5

Default

Type

Description

TRIP

BOOLEAN

Common trip signal

CLLKOUT

BOOLEAN

Circuit breaker lockout output (set until reset)

Settings
SMPPTRC (94) Group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Disabled
Enabled

Enabled

Disable/Enable Operation

tTripMin

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.150

Minimum duration of trip output signal

Table 227:
Name

SMPPTRC (94) Group settings (advanced)


Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

TripLockout

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

On: Activate output (CLLKOUT) and trip latch,


Off: Only output

AutoLock

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

On: Lockout from input (SETLKOUT) and trip,


Off: Only input

12.1.6

Operation principle
The duration of a trip output signal from tripping logic SMPPTRC (94) is settable
(tTripMin). The pulse length should be long enough to secure the breaker opening.
For three-pole tripping, SMPPTRC (94) has a single input (TRINP_3P) through which
all trip output signals from the protection functions within the IED, or from external
protection functions via one or more of the IEDs binary inputs, are routed. It has a

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1MRK 502 034-UUS -

single trip output (TRIP) for connection to one or more of the IEDs binary outputs, as
well as to other functions within the IED requiring this signal.

ANSI05000789 V2 EN

Figure 162:

Simplified logic diagram for three pole trip

The breaker close lockout function can be activated from an external trip signal from
another protection function via input (SETLKOUT) or internally at a three-pole trip, if
desired.
Lockout can be activated either by activating the input (SETLKOUT) or automatically
from trip output by setting AutoLock to Enabled. A Lockout condition will be indicated
by activation of the output (CLLKOUT). If lockout has been activated it can only be
reset by activating the input (RSTLKOUT).
If TripLockout is set to Enabled an active Lockout will result in a three phase trip
output. In this way if both AutoLock and TripLockout is set to Enabled the trip will
always be three-phase and sealed in.

12.1.7

Technical data
Table 228:

SMPPTRC (94) technical data

Function

Range or value

Accuracy

Trip action

3-ph

Timers

(0.000-60.000) s

0.5% 10 ms

12.2

Trip matrix logic TMAGGIO

12.2.1

Identification
Function description
Trip matrix logic

IEC 61850
identification
TMAGGIO

IEC 60617
identification
-

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
-

345
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12.2.2

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Functionality
Trip matrix logic TMAGGIO function is used to route trip signals and other logical
output signals to different output contacts on the IED.
TMAGGIO output signals and the physical outputs allows the user to adapt the signals
to the physical tripping outputs according to the specific application needs.

12.2.3

Function block
TMAGGIO
INPUT1
INPUT2
INPUT3
INPUT4
INPUT5
INPUT6
INPUT7
INPUT8
INPUT9
INPUT10
INPUT11
INPUT12
INPUT13
INPUT14
INPUT15
INPUT16
INPUT17
INPUT18
INPUT19
INPUT20
INPUT21
INPUT22
INPUT23
INPUT24
INPUT25
INPUT26
INPUT27
INPUT28
INPUT29
INPUT30
INPUT31
INPUT32

OUTPUT1
OUTPUT2
OUTPUT3

IEC09000105 V1 EN

Figure 163:

12.2.4

TMAGGIO function block

Signals
Table 229:
Name

TMAGGIO Input signals


Type

Default

Description

INPUT1

BOOLEAN

Binary input 1

INPUT2

BOOLEAN

Binary input 2

INPUT3

BOOLEAN

Binary input 3

Table continues on next page


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Logic

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Name

Type

Default

Description

INPUT4

BOOLEAN

Binary input 4

INPUT5

BOOLEAN

Binary input 5

INPUT6

BOOLEAN

Binary input 6

INPUT7

BOOLEAN

Binary input 7

INPUT8

BOOLEAN

Binary input 8

INPUT9

BOOLEAN

Binary input 9

INPUT10

BOOLEAN

Binary input 10

INPUT11

BOOLEAN

Binary input 11

INPUT12

BOOLEAN

Binary input 12

INPUT13

BOOLEAN

Binary input 13

INPUT14

BOOLEAN

Binary input 14

INPUT15

BOOLEAN

Binary input 15

INPUT16

BOOLEAN

Binary input 16

INPUT17

BOOLEAN

Binary input 17

INPUT18

BOOLEAN

Binary input 18

INPUT19

BOOLEAN

Binary input 19

INPUT20

BOOLEAN

Binary input 20

INPUT21

BOOLEAN

Binary input 21

INPUT22

BOOLEAN

Binary input 22

INPUT23

BOOLEAN

Binary input 23

INPUT24

BOOLEAN

Binary input 24

INPUT25

BOOLEAN

Binary input 25

INPUT26

BOOLEAN

Binary input 26

INPUT27

BOOLEAN

Binary input 27

INPUT28

BOOLEAN

Binary input 28

INPUT29

BOOLEAN

Binary input 29

INPUT30

BOOLEAN

Binary input 30

INPUT31

BOOLEAN

Binary input 31

INPUT32

BOOLEAN

Binary input 32

Table 230:
Name

TMAGGIO Output signals


Type

Description

OUTPUT1

BOOLEAN

OR function betweeen inputs 1 to 16

OUTPUT2

BOOLEAN

OR function between inputs 17 to 32

OUTPUT3

BOOLEAN

OR function between inputs 1 to 32

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12.2.5
Table 231:
Name

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Settings
TMAGGIO Group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Disabled
Enabled

Enabled

Operation Disable / Enable

PulseTime

0.050 - 60.000

0.001

0.150

Output pulse time

OnDelay

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.000

Output on delay time

OffDelay

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.000

Output off delay time

ModeOutput1

Steady
Pulsed

Steady

Mode for output 1, steady or pulsed

ModeOutput2

Steady
Pulsed

Steady

Mode for output 2, steady or pulsed

ModeOutput3

Steady
Pulsed

Steady

Mode for output 3, steady or pulsed

12.2.6

Operation principle
Trip matrix logic (TMAGGIO) block is provided with 32 input signals and 3 output
signals. The function block incorporates internal logic OR gates in order to provide the
necessary grouping of connected input signals (for example, for tripping and alarming
purposes) to the three output signals from the function block.
Internal built-in OR logic is made in accordance with the following three rules:
1.
2.
3.

when any one of first 16 inputs signals (INPUT1 to INPUT16) has logical value 1
(TRUE) the first output signal (OUTPUT1) will get logical value 1 (TRUE).
when any one of second 16 inputs signals (INPUT17 to INPUT32) has logical
value 1 (TRUE) the second output signal (OUTPUT2) will get logical value 1
(TRUE).
when any one of all 32 input signals (INPUT1 to INPUT32) has logical value 1
(TRUE) the third output signal (OUTPUT3) will get logical value 1 (TRUE).

By use of the settings ModeOutput1, ModeOutput2, ModeOutput3, PulseTime,


OnDelay and OffDelay the behavior of each output can be customized. The OnDelay is
always active and will delay the input to output transition by the set time. The
ModeOutput for respective output decides wether the output shall be steady with an dropoff delay as set by OffDelay or if it shall give a pulse with duration set by PulseTime.
Note that for pulsed operation since the inputs are connected in an OR-function a new
pulse will only be given on the output if all related inputs are reset and then one is
activated again. And for steady operation the of delay will start when all related inputs
have reset. Detailed logical diagram is shown in figure 164

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1MRK 502 034-UUS -

PulseTime

AND

ModeOutput1

Input 1
OR

AND

On Delay Time 1

Off Delay Time 1

Input 16

OR

Output 1

PulseTime

AND

ModeOutput2

Input 17

AND
On Delay Time 2
0

OR

Input 32

AND

OR

Output 2

Off Delay Time 2

PulseTime

AND

ModeOutput3

OR

On Delay Time 3

Off Delay Time 3

AND

OR

Output 3

ANSI10000055-1-en.vsd
ANSI10000055 V1 EN

Figure 164:

Trip matrix internal logic

Output signals from TMAGGIO are typically connected to other logic blocks or
directly to output contacts in the IED. When used for direct tripping of the circuit
breaker(s) the pulse time delay shall be set to approximately 0.150 seconds in order to
obtain satisfactory minimum duration of the trip pulse to the circuit breaker trip coils.

12.3

Configurable logic blocks

12.3.1

Standard configurable logic blocks

12.3.1.1

Functionality
A number of logic blocks and timers are available for the user to adapt the
configuration to the specific application needs.

OR function block.

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Logic

12.3.1.2

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

INVERTER function blocks that inverts the input signal.

PULSETIMER function block can be used, for example, for pulse extensions or
limiting of operation of outputs.

GATE function block is used for whether or not a signal should be able to pass
from the input to the output.

XOR function block.

LOOPDELAY function block used to delay the output signal one execution cycle.

TIMERSET function has pick-up and drop-out delayed outputs related to the
input signal. The timer has a settable time delay.

AND function block.

SRMEMORY function block is a flip-flop that can set or reset an output from two
inputs respectively. Each block has two outputs where one is inverted. The
memory setting controls if the block's output should reset or return to the state it
was, after a power interruption.

RSMEMORY function block is a flip-flop that can reset or set an output from two
inputs respectively. Each block has two outputs where one is inverted. The
memory setting controls if the block's output should reset or return to the state it
was, after a power interruption. Reset input has priority.

OR function block
Identification
Function description
OR Function block

IEC 61850
identification
OR

IEC 60617
identification
-

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
-

Functionality

The OR function is used to form general combinatory expressions with boolean


variables. The OR function block has six inputs and two outputs. One of the outputs is
inverted.

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Function block
OR
INPUT1
INPUT2
INPUT3
INPUT4
INPUT5
INPUT6

OUT
NOUT

IEC09000288-1-en.vsd
IEC09000288 V1 EN

Figure 165:

OR function block

Signals
Table 232:

OR Input signals

Name

Type

Default

Description

INPUT1

BOOLEAN

Input signal 1

INPUT2

BOOLEAN

Input signal 2

INPUT3

BOOLEAN

Input signal 3

INPUT4

BOOLEAN

Input signal 4

INPUT5

BOOLEAN

Input signal 5

INPUT6

BOOLEAN

Input signal 6

Table 233:

OR Output signals

Name

Type

Description

OUT

BOOLEAN

Output signal

NOUT

BOOLEAN

Inverted output signal

Settings

The function does not have any parameters available in Local HMI or Protection and
Control IED Manager (PCM600).

12.3.1.3

Inverter function block INVERTER


Identification
Function description
Inverter function block

IEC 61850
identification
INVERTER

IEC 60617
identification
-

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
-

351
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Section 12
Logic

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Function block
INVERTER
INPUT

OUT
IEC09000287-1-en.vsd

IEC09000287 V1 EN

Figure 166:

INVERTER function block

Signals
Table 234:

INVERTER Input signals

Name

Type

INPUT

BOOLEAN

Table 235:

Default
0

Description
Input signal

INVERTER Output signals

Name

Type

OUT

BOOLEAN

Description
Output signal

Settings

The function does not have any parameters available in Local HMI or Protection and
Control IED Manager (PCM600).

12.3.1.4

PULSETIMER function block


Identification
Function description

IEC 61850
identification

PULSETIMER function block

PULSETIMER

IEC 60617
identification
-

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
-

Functionality

The pulse function can be used, for example for pulse extensions or limiting of
operation of outputs. The PULSETIMER has a settable length.

Function block
PULSETIMER
INPUT

OUT
IEC09000291-1-en.vsd

IEC09000291 V1 EN

Figure 167:

PULSETIMER function block

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1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Signals
Table 236:

PULSETIMER Input signals

Name

Type

INPUT

BOOLEAN

Table 237:

Default
0

Description
Input signal

PULSETIMER Output signals

Name

Type

OUT

Description

BOOLEAN

Output signal

Settings
Table 238:
Name
t

12.3.1.5

PULSETIMER Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)
0.000 - 90000.000

Unit

Step

0.001

Default
0.010

Description
Pulse time length

Controllable gate function block GATE


Identification
Function description

IEC 61850
identification

Controllable gate function block

GATE

IEC 60617
identification
-

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
-

Functionality

The GATE function block is used for controlling if a signal should pass from the input
to the output or not, depending on setting.

Function block
GATE
INPUT

OUT
IEC09000295-1-en.vsd

IEC09000295 V1 EN

Figure 168:

GATE function block

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1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Signals
Table 239:

GATE Input signals

Name

Type

INPUT

Default

BOOLEAN

Table 240:

Description
Input signal

GATE Output signals

Name

Type

OUT

Description

BOOLEAN

Output signal

Settings
Table 241:
Name
Operation

12.3.1.6

GATE Group settings (basic)


Values (Range)
Disabled
Enabled

Unit

Step

Default
Disabled

Description
Operation Disabled/Enabled

Exclusive OR function block XOR


Identification
Function description

IEC 61850
identification

Exclusive OR function block

XOR

IEC 60617
identification
-

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
-

Functionality

The exclusive OR function (XOR) is used to generate combinatory expressions with


boolean variables. XOR has two inputs and two outputs. One of the outputs is inverted.
The output signal is 1 if the input signals are different and 0 if they are equal.

Function block
XOR
INPUT1
INPUT2

OUT
NOUT
IEC09000292-1-en.vsd

IEC09000292 V1 EN

Figure 169:

XOR function block

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Section 12
Logic

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Signals
Table 242:

XOR Input signals

Name

Type

Default

Description

INPUT1

BOOLEAN

Input signal 1

INPUT2

BOOLEAN

Input signal 2

Table 243:

XOR Output signals

Name

Type

Description

OUT

BOOLEAN

Output signal

NOUT

BOOLEAN

Inverted output signal

Settings

The function does not have any parameters available in Local HMI or Protection and
Control IED Manager (PCM600).

12.3.1.7

Loop delay function block LOOPDELAY


Function description

IEC 61850
identification

Logic loop delay function block

IEC 60617
identification

LOOPDELAY

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
-

The Logic loop delay function block (LOOPDELAY) function is used to delay the
output signal one execution cycle.

Function block
LOOPDELAY
INPUT

OUT
IEC09000296-1-en.vsd

IEC09000296 V1 EN

Figure 170:

LOOPDELAY function block

Signals
Table 244:
Name
INPUT

LOOPDELAY Input signals


Type
BOOLEAN

Default
0

Description
Input signal

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Logic

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Table 245:

LOOPDELAY Output signals

Name

Type

OUT

Description

BOOLEAN

Output signal, signal is delayed one execution cycle

Settings

The function does not have any parameters available in Local HMI or Protection and
Control IED Manager (PCM600).

12.3.1.8

Timer function block TIMERSET


Identification
Function description

IEC 61850
identification

Timer function block

IEC 60617
identification

TIMERSET

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
-

Functionality

The function block TIMERSET has pick-up and drop-out delayed outputs related to
the input signal. The timer has a settable time delay (t).

Input
tdelay

On
Off

tdelay

en08000289-2-en.vsd
IEC08000289 V1 EN

Figure 171:

TIMERSET Status diagram

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Logic

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Function block
TIMERSET
INPUT

ON
OFF
IEC09000290-1-en.vsd

IEC09000290 V1 EN

Figure 172:

TIMERSET function block

Signals
Table 246:

TIMERSET Input signals

Name

Type

INPUT

BOOLEAN

Table 247:

Default
0

Description
Input signal

TIMERSET Output signals

Name

Type

Description

ON

BOOLEAN

Output signal, pick-up delayed

OFF

BOOLEAN

Output signal, drop-out delayed

Settings
Table 248:
Name

TIMERSET Group settings (basic)


Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Operation Disabled/Enabled

0.000 - 90000.000

0.001

0.000

Delay for settable timer n

12.3.1.9

AND function block


Identification
Function description
AND function block

IEC 61850
identification
AND

IEC 60617
identification
-

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
-

Functionality

The AND function is used to form general combinatory expressions with boolean
variables. The AND function block has four inputs and two outputs.

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Logic

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Default value on all four inputs are logical 1 which makes it possible for the user to
just use the required number of inputs and leave the rest un-connected. The output
OUT has a default value 0 initially, which suppresses one cycle pulse if the function
has been put in the wrong execution order.

Function block
AND
INPUT1
INPUT2
INPUT3
INPUT4

OUT
NOUT

IEC09000289-1-en.vsd
IEC09000289 V1 EN

Figure 173:

AND function block

Signals
Table 249:

AND Input signals

Name

Type

Default

Description

INPUT1

BOOLEAN

Input signal 1

INPUT2

BOOLEAN

Input signal 2

INPUT3

BOOLEAN

Input signal 3

INPUT4

BOOLEAN

Input signal 4

Table 250:

AND Output signals

Name

Type

Description

OUT

BOOLEAN

Output signal

NOUT

BOOLEAN

Inverted output signal

Settings

The function does not have any parameters available in Local HMI or Protection and
Control IED Manager (PCM600).

12.3.1.10

Set-reset memory function block SRMEMORY


Identification
Function description
Set-reset memory function block

IEC 61850
identification
SRMEMORY

IEC 60617
identification
-

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
-

358
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Section 12
Logic

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Functionality

The Set-Reset function SRMEMORY is a flip-flop with memory that can set or reset
an output from two inputs respectively. Each SRMEMORY function block has two
outputs, where one is inverted. The memory setting controls if the flip-flop after a
power interruption will return the state it had before or if it will be reset. For a SetReset flip-flop, SET input has higher priority over RESET input.
Table 251:
SET

Truth table for the Set-Reset (SRMEMORY) function block


RESET

OUT

NOUT

Function block
SRMEMORY
SET
RESET

OUT
NOUT
IEC09000293-1-en.vsd

IEC09000293 V1 EN

Figure 174:

SRMEMORY function block

Signals
Table 252:
Name

SRMEMORY Input signals


Type

Default

Description

SET

BOOLEAN

Input signal to set

RESET

BOOLEAN

Input signal to reset

Table 253:
Name

SRMEMORY Output signals


Type

Description

OUT

BOOLEAN

Output signal

NOUT

BOOLEAN

Inverted output signal

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Logic

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Settings
Table 254:
Name
Memory

12.3.1.11

SRMEMORY Group settings (basic)


Values (Range)

Unit

Off
On

Step

Default
On

Description
Operating mode of the memory function

Reset-set with memory function block RSMEMORY


Identification
Function description

IEC 61850
identification

Reset-set with memory function block

RSMEMORY

IEC 60617
identification
-

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
-

Functionality

The Reset-set with memory function block (RSMEMORY) is a flip-flop with memory
that can reset or set an output from two inputs respectively. Each RSMEMORY
function block has two outputs, where one is inverted. The memory setting controls if
the flip-flop after a power interruption will return the state it had before or if it will be
reset. For a Reset-Set flip-flop, RESET input has higher priority over SET input.
Table 255:

Truth table for RSMEMORY function block

RESET

SET

OUT

NOUT

Last
value

Inverted last
value

Function block
RSMEMORY
SET
RESET

OUT
NOUT
IEC09000294-1-en.vsd

IEC09000294 V1 EN

Figure 175:

RSMEMORY function block

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Logic

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Signals
Table 256:

RSMEMORY Input signals

Name

Type

Default

Description

SET

BOOLEAN

Input signal to set

RESET

BOOLEAN

Input signal to reset

Table 257:

RSMEMORY Output signals

Name

Type

Description

OUT

BOOLEAN

Output signal

NOUT

BOOLEAN

Inverted output signal

Settings
Table 258:
Name
Memory

12.3.2

RSMEMORY Group settings (basic)


Values (Range)

Unit

Disabled
Enabled

Step

Default

Description

Enabled

Operating mode of the memory function

Technical data
Table 259:
Logic block

Configurable logic blocks


Quantity with cycle time
5 ms
20 ms

100 ms

Range or value

Accuracy

AND

60

60

160

OR

60

60

160

XOR

10

10

20

INVERTER

30

30

80

SRMEMORY

10

10

20

RSMEMORY

10

10

20

GATE

10

10

20

PULSETIMER

10

10

20

(0.000
90000.000) s

0.5% 25 ms

TIMERSET

10

10

20

(0.000
90000.000) s

0.5% 25 ms

LOOPDELAY

10

10

20

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Logic

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

12.4

Fixed signals FXDSIGN

12.4.1

Identification
Function description

IEC 61850
identification

Fixed signals

12.4.2

IEC 60617
identification

FXDSIGN

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
-

Functionality
The Fixed signals function (FXDSIGN) generates a number of pre-set (fixed) signals
that can be used in the configuration of an IED, either for forcing the unused inputs in
other function blocks to a certain level/value, or for creating certain logic.

12.4.3

Function block
FXDSIGN
OFF
ON
INTZERO
INTONE
INTALONE
REALZERO
STRNULL
ZEROSMPL
GRP_OFF

IEC09000037.vsd
IEC09000037 V1 EN

Figure 176:

12.4.4

FXDSIGN function block

Signals
Table 260:
Name

FXDSIGN Output signals


Type

Description

OFF

BOOLEAN

Boolean signal fixed off

ON

BOOLEAN

Boolean signal fixed on

INTZERO

INTEGER

Integer signal fixed zero

INTONE

INTEGER

Integer signal fixed one

INTALONE

INTEGER

Integer signal fixed all ones

REALZERO

REAL

Real signal fixed zero

Table continues on next page

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Logic

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Name

12.4.5

Type

Description

STRNULL

STRING

String signal with no characters

ZEROSMPL

GROUP SIGNAL

Channel id for zero sample

GRP_OFF

GROUP SIGNAL

Group signal fixed off

Settings
The function does not have any settings available in Local HMI or Protection and
Control IED Manager (PCM600).

12.4.6

Operation principle
There are nine outputs from FXDSIGN function block:

OFF is a boolean signal, fixed to OFF (boolean 0) value


ON is a boolean signal, fixed to ON (boolean 1) value
INTZERO is an integer number, fixed to integer value 0
INTONE is an integer number, fixed to integer value 1
INTALONE is an integer value FFFF (hex)
REALZERO is a floating point real number, fixed to 0.0 value
STRNULL is a string, fixed to an empty string (null) value
ZEROSMPL is a channel index, fixed to 0 value
GRP_OFF is a group signal, fixed to 0 value

12.5

Boolean 16 to integer conversion B16I

12.5.1

Identification
Function description
Boolean 16 to integer conversion

12.5.2

IEC 61850
identification
B16I

IEC 60617
identification
-

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
-

Functionality
Boolean 16 to integer conversion function (B16I) is used to transform a set of 16
binary (logical) signals into an integer.

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Logic
12.5.3

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Function block
B16I
BLOCK
IN1
IN2
IN3
IN4
IN5
IN6
IN7
IN8
IN9
IN10
IN11
IN12
IN13
IN14
IN15
IN16

OUT

IEC09000035-1-en.vsd
IEC09000035 V1 EN

Figure 177:

12.5.4

B16I function block

Signals
Table 261:
Name

B16I Input signals


Type

Default

Description

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

IN1

BOOLEAN

Input 1

IN2

BOOLEAN

Input 2

IN3

BOOLEAN

Input 3

IN4

BOOLEAN

Input 4

IN5

BOOLEAN

Input 5

IN6

BOOLEAN

Input 6

IN7

BOOLEAN

Input 7

IN8

BOOLEAN

Input 8

IN9

BOOLEAN

Input 9

IN10

BOOLEAN

Input 10

IN11

BOOLEAN

Input 11

IN12

BOOLEAN

Input 12

IN13

BOOLEAN

Input 13

IN14

BOOLEAN

Input 14

IN15

BOOLEAN

Input 15

IN16

BOOLEAN

Input 16

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1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Table 262:

B16I Output signals

Name

Type

OUT

12.5.5

Description

INTEGER

Output value

Settings
The function does not have any parameters available in local HMI or Protection and
Control IED Manager (PCM600)

12.5.6

Monitored data
Table 263:

B16I Monitored data

Name
OUT

12.5.7

Type
INTEGER

Values (Range)
-

Unit

Description

Output value

Operation principle
Boolean 16 to integer conversion function (B16I) is used to transform a set of 16
binary (logical) signals into an integer. The BLOCK input will freeze the output at the
last value.

12.6

Boolean 16 to integer conversion with logic node


representation B16IFCVI

12.6.1

Identification
Function description
Boolean 16 to integer conversion with
logic node representation

12.6.2

IEC 61850
identification
B16IFCVI

IEC 60617
identification
-

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
-

Functionality
Boolean 16 to integer conversion with logic node representation function (B16IFCVI)
is used to transform a set of 16 binary (logical) signals into an integer.

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Logic
12.6.3

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Function block
B16IFCVI
BLOCK
IN1
IN2
IN3
IN4
IN5
IN6
IN7
IN8
IN9
IN10
IN11
IN12
IN13
IN14
IN15
IN16

OUT

IEC09000624-1-en.vsd
IEC09000624 V1 EN

Figure 178:

12.6.4

B16IFCVI function block

Signals
Table 264:
Name

B16IFCVI Input signals


Type

Default

Description

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

IN1

BOOLEAN

Input 1

IN2

BOOLEAN

Input 2

IN3

BOOLEAN

Input 3

IN4

BOOLEAN

Input 4

IN5

BOOLEAN

Input 5

IN6

BOOLEAN

Input 6

IN7

BOOLEAN

Input 7

IN8

BOOLEAN

Input 8

IN9

BOOLEAN

Input 9

IN10

BOOLEAN

Input 10

IN11

BOOLEAN

Input 11

IN12

BOOLEAN

Input 12

IN13

BOOLEAN

Input 13

IN14

BOOLEAN

Input 14

IN15

BOOLEAN

Input 15

IN16

BOOLEAN

Input 16

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Table 265:

B16IFCVI Output signals

Name

Type

OUT

12.6.5

Description

INTEGER

Output value

Settings
The function does not have any parameters available in local HMI or Protection and
Control IED Manager (PCM600)

12.6.6

Monitored data
Table 266:

B16IFCVI Monitored data

Name
OUT

12.6.7

Type
INTEGER

Values (Range)
-

Unit

Description

Output value

Operation principle
Boolean 16 to integer conversion with logic node representation function (B16IFCVI)
is used to transform a set of 16 binary (logical) signals into an integer. The BLOCK
input will freeze the output at the last value.

12.7

Integer to boolean 16 conversion IB16A

12.7.1

Identification
Function description
Integer to boolean 16 conversion

12.7.2

IEC 61850
identification
IB16A

IEC 60617
identification
-

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
-

Functionality
Integer to boolean 16 conversion function (IB16A) is used to transform an integer into
a set of 16 binary (logical) signals.

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12.7.3

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Function block
IB16A
BLOCK
INP

OUT1
OUT2
OUT3
OUT4
OUT5
OUT6
OUT7
OUT8
OUT9
OUT10
OUT11
OUT12
OUT13
OUT14
OUT15
OUT16
IEC09000036-1-en.vsd

IEC09000036 V1 EN

Figure 179:

12.7.4

IB16A function block

Signals
Table 267:
Name

IB16A Input signals


Type

Default

Description

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

INP

INTEGER

INP

Table 268:
Name

IB16A Output signals


Type

Description

OUT1

BOOLEAN

Output 1

OUT2

BOOLEAN

Output 2

OUT3

BOOLEAN

Output 3

OUT4

BOOLEAN

Output 4

OUT5

BOOLEAN

Output 5

OUT6

BOOLEAN

Output 6

OUT7

BOOLEAN

Output 7

OUT8

BOOLEAN

Output 8

OUT9

BOOLEAN

Output 9

OUT10

BOOLEAN

Output 10

OUT11

BOOLEAN

Output 11

OUT12

BOOLEAN

Output 12

OUT13

BOOLEAN

Output 13

Table continues on next page

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Logic

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Name

12.7.5

Type

Description

OUT14

BOOLEAN

Output 14

OUT15

BOOLEAN

Output 15

OUT16

BOOLEAN

Output 16

Settings
The function does not have any parameters available in local HMI or Protection and
Control IED Manager (PCM600)

12.7.6

Operation principle
Integer to boolean 16 conversion function (IB16A) is used to transform an integer into
a set of 16 binary (logical) signals. IB16A function is designed for receiving the integer
input locally. The BLOCK input will freeze the logical outputs at the last value.

12.8

Integer to boolean 16 conversion with logic node


representation IB16FCVB

12.8.1

Identification
Function description
Integer to boolean 16 conversion with
logic node representation

12.8.2

IEC 61850
identification
IB16FCVB

IEC 60617
identification
-

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
-

Functionality
Integer to boolean conversion with logic node representation function (IB16FCVB) is
used to transform an integer to 16 binary (logic) signals.
IB16FCVB function can receive remote values over IEC61850 depending on the
operator position input (PSTO).

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Logic
12.8.3

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Function block
IB16FCVB
BLOCK
PSTO

OUT1
OUT2
OUT3
OUT4
OUT5
OUT6
OUT7
OUT8
OUT9
OUT10
OUT11
OUT12
OUT13
OUT14
OUT15
OUT16
IEC09000399-1-en.vsd

IEC09000399 V1 EN

Figure 180:

12.8.4

IB16FCVB function block

Signals
Table 269:
Name

IB16FCVB Input signals


Type

Default

Description

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

PSTO

INTEGER

Operator place selection

Table 270:
Name

IB16FCVB Output signals


Type

Description

OUT1

BOOLEAN

Output 1

OUT2

BOOLEAN

Output 2

OUT3

BOOLEAN

Output 3

OUT4

BOOLEAN

Output 4

OUT5

BOOLEAN

Output 5

OUT6

BOOLEAN

Output 6

OUT7

BOOLEAN

Output 7

OUT8

BOOLEAN

Output 8

OUT9

BOOLEAN

Output 9

OUT10

BOOLEAN

Output 10

OUT11

BOOLEAN

Output 11

OUT12

BOOLEAN

Output 12

Table continues on next page


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Logic

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Name

12.8.5

Type

Description

OUT13

BOOLEAN

Output 13

OUT14

BOOLEAN

Output 14

OUT15

BOOLEAN

Output 15

OUT16

BOOLEAN

Output 16

Settings
The function does not have any parameters available in local HMI or Protection and
Control IED Manager (PCM600)

12.8.6

Operation principle
Integer to boolean conversion with logic node representation function (IB16FCVB) is
used to transform an integer into a set of 16 binary (logical) signals. IB16FCVB
function can receive an integer from a station computer for example, over IEC
61850. The BLOCK input will freeze the logical outputs at the last value.
The operator position input (PSTO) determines the operator place. The integer number
can be written to the block while in Remote. If PSTO is in Off or Local, then no
change is applied to the outputs.

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Monitoring

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Section 13

Monitoring

13.1

IEC 61850 generic communication I/O functions


SPGGIO

13.1.1

Identification
Function description

IEC 61850
identification

IEC 61850 generic communication I/O


functions

13.1.2

IEC 60617
identification

SPGGIO

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
-

Functionality
IEC61850 generic communication I/O functions (SPGGIO) is used to send one single
logical signal to other systems or equipment in the substation.

13.1.3

Function block
SPGGIO
BLOCK
^IN
IEC09000237_en_1.vsd
IEC09000237 V1 EN

Figure 181:

13.1.4

SPGGIO function block

Signals
Table 271:
Name

SPGGIO Input signals


Type

Default

Description

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

IN

BOOLEAN

Input status

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Monitoring
13.1.5

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Settings
The function does not have any parameters available in Local HMI or Protection and
Control IED Manager (PCM600).

13.1.6

Operation principle
Upon receiving a signal at its input, IEC61850 generic communication I/O functions
(SPGGIO) function sends the signal over IEC 61850-8-1 to the equipment or system
that requests this signal. To get the signal, PCM600 must be used to define which
function block in which equipment or system should receive this information.

13.2

IEC 61850 generic communication I/O functions 16


inputs SP16GGIO

13.2.1

Identification
Function description
IEC 61850 generic communication I/O
functions 16 inputs

13.2.2

IEC 61850
identification
SP16GGIO

IEC 60617
identification
-

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
-

Functionality
IEC 61850 generic communication I/O functions 16 inputs (SP16GGIO) function is
used to send up to 16 logical signals to other systems or equipment in the substation.

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Monitoring

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

13.2.3

Function block
SP16GGIO
BLOCK
^IN1
^IN2
^IN3
^IN4
^IN5
^IN6
^IN7
^IN8
^IN9
^IN10
^IN11
^IN12
^IN13
^IN14
^IN15
^IN16
IEC09000238_en_1.vsd
IEC09000238 V1 EN

Figure 182:

13.2.4

SP16GGIO function block

Signals
Table 272:
Name

SP16GGIO Input signals


Type

Default

Description

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

IN1

BOOLEAN

Input 1 status

IN2

BOOLEAN

Input 2 status

IN3

BOOLEAN

Input 3 status

IN4

BOOLEAN

Input 4 status

IN5

BOOLEAN

Input 5 status

IN6

BOOLEAN

Input 6 status

IN7

BOOLEAN

Input 7 status

IN8

BOOLEAN

Input 8 status

IN9

BOOLEAN

Input 9 status

IN10

BOOLEAN

Input 10 status

IN11

BOOLEAN

Input 11 status

IN12

BOOLEAN

Input 12 status

IN13

BOOLEAN

Input 13 status

IN14

BOOLEAN

Input 14 status

IN15

BOOLEAN

Input 15 status

IN16

BOOLEAN

Input 16 status

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Monitoring
13.2.5

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Settings
The function does not have any parameters available in Local HMI or Protection and
Control IED Manager (PCM600).

13.2.6

MonitoredData
Table 273:
Name

SP16GGIO Monitored data


Type

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

OUT1

GROUP
SIGNAL

Output 1 status

OUT2

GROUP
SIGNAL

Output 2 status

OUT3

GROUP
SIGNAL

Output 3 status

OUT4

GROUP
SIGNAL

Output 4 status

OUT5

GROUP
SIGNAL

Output 5 status

OUT6

GROUP
SIGNAL

Output 6 status

OUT7

GROUP
SIGNAL

Output 7 status

OUT8

GROUP
SIGNAL

Output 8 status

OUT9

GROUP
SIGNAL

Output 9 status

OUT10

GROUP
SIGNAL

Output 10 status

OUT11

GROUP
SIGNAL

Output 11 status

OUT12

GROUP
SIGNAL

Output 12 status

OUT13

GROUP
SIGNAL

Output 13 status

OUT14

GROUP
SIGNAL

Output 14 status

OUT15

GROUP
SIGNAL

Output 15 status

OUT16

GROUP
SIGNAL

Output 16 status

OUTOR

GROUP
SIGNAL

Output status logic OR gate


for input 1 to 16

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1MRK 502 034-UUS -

13.2.7

Operation principle
Upon receiving signals at its inputs, IEC 61850 generic communication I/O functions
16 inputs (SP16GGIO) function will send the signals over IEC 61850-8-1 to the
equipment or system that requests this signals. To be able to get the signal, one must
use other tools, described in the Engineering manual and define which function block
in which equipment or system should receive this information.
There are also 16 output signals that show the input status for each input as well as an
OR type output combined for all 16 input signals. These output signals are handled in
PST.

13.3

IEC 61850 generic communication I/O functions


MVGGIO

13.3.1

Identification
Function description

IEC 61850
identification

IEC61850 generic communication I/O


functions

13.3.2

MVGGIO

IEC 60617
identification
-

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
-

Functionality
IEC61850 generic communication I/O functions (MVGGIO) function is used to send
the instantaneous value of an analog output to other systems or equipment in the
substation. It can also be used inside the same IED, to attach a RANGE aspect to an
analog value and to permit measurement supervision on that value.

13.3.3

Function block
MVGGIO
BLOCK
^IN

^VALUE
RANGE
IEC09000239-2-en.vsd

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13.3.4

Signals
Table 274:

MVGGIO Input signals

Name

Type
BOOLEAN

Block of function

IN

REAL

Analog input value

MVGGIO Output signals

Name

Table 276:
Name

Description

BLOCK

Table 275:

13.3.5

Default

Type

Description

VALUE

REAL

Magnitude of deadband value

RANGE

INTEGER

Range

Settings
MVGGIO Non group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

BasePrefix

micro
milli
unit
kilo
Mega
Giga
Tera

unit

Base prefix (multiplication factor)

MV db

1 - 300

Type

10

Cycl: Report interval (s), Db: In % of range,


Int Db: In %s

MV zeroDb

0 - 100000

m%

500

Zero point clamping in 0.001% of range

MV hhLim

-5000.00 - 5000.00

xBase

0.01

900.00

High High limit multiplied with the base prefix


(multiplication factor)

MV hLim

-5000.00 - 5000.00

xBase

0.01

800.00

High limit multiplied with the base prefix


(multiplication factor)

MV lLim

-5000.00 - 5000.00

xBase

0.01

-800.00

Low limit multiplied with the base prefix


(multiplication factor)

MV llLim

-5000.00 - 5000.00

xBase

0.01

-900.00

Low Low limit multiplied with the base prefix


(multiplication factor)

MV min

-5000.00 - 5000.00

xBase

0.01

-1000.00

Minimum value multiplied with the base prefix


(multiplication factor)

MV max

-5000.00 - 5000.00

xBase

0.01

1000.00

Maximum value multiplied with the base


prefix (multiplication factor)

MV dbType

Cyclic
Dead band
Int deadband

Dead band

Reporting type

MV limHys

0.000 - 100.000

0.001

5.000

Hysteresis value in % of range (common for


all limits)

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13.3.6

Monitored data
Table 277:

MVGGIO Monitored data

Name

13.3.7

Type

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

VALUE

REAL

Magnitude of deadband value

RANGE

INTEGER

0=Normal
1=High
2=Low
3=High-High
4=Low-Low

Range

Operation principle
Upon receiving an analog signal at its input, IEC61850 generic communication I/O
functions (MVGGIO) will give the instantaneous value of the signal and the range, as
output values. In the same time, it will send over IEC 61850-8-1 the value, to other
IEC 61850 clients in the substation.

13.4

Measurements

13.4.1

Functionality
Measurement functions is used for power system measurement, supervision and
reporting to the local HMI, monitoring tool within PCM600 or to station level for
example, via IEC 61850. The possibility to continuously monitor measured values of
active power, reactive power, currents, voltages, frequency, power factor etc. is vital
for efficient production, transmission and distribution of electrical energy. It provides
to the system operator fast and easy overview of the present status of the power system.
Additionally, it can be used during testing and commissioning of protection and control
IEDs in order to verify proper operation and connection of instrument transformers
(CTs and VTs). During normal service by periodic comparison of the measured value
from the IED with other independent meters the proper operation of the IED analog
measurement chain can be verified. Finally, it can be used to verify proper direction
orientation for distance or directional overcurrent protection function.
The available measured values of an IED are depending on the actual
hardware (TRM) and the logic configuration made in PCM600.
All measured values can be supervised with four settable limits that is, low-low limit,
low limit, high limit and high-high limit. A zero clamping reduction is also supported,
that is, the measured value below a settable limit is forced to zero which reduces the
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impact of noise in the inputs. There are no interconnections regarding any settings or
parameters, neither between functions nor between signals within each function.
Zero clampings are handled by ZeroDb for each signal separately for each of the
functions. For example, the zero clamping of U12 is handled by VLZeroDB in
VMMXU, zero clamping of I1 is handled by ILZeroDb in CMMXU.
Dead-band supervision can be used to report measured signal value to station level
when change in measured value is above set threshold limit or time integral of all
changes since the last time value updating exceeds the threshold limit. Measure value
can also be based on periodic reporting.
The measurement function, CVMMXN, provides the following power system quantities:

P, Q and S: three phase active, reactive and apparent power


PF: power factor
V: phase-to-phase voltage magnitude
I: phase current magnitude
F: power system frequency

The output values are displayed in the local HMI under Main menu/Tests/Function
status/Monitoring/CVMMXN/Outputs
The measuring functions CMMXU, VNMMXU and VMMXU provide physical
quantities:

I: phase currents (magnitude and angle) (CMMXU)


V: voltages (phase-to-ground and phase-to-phase voltage, magnitude and angle)
(VMMXU, VNMMXU)

It is possible to calibrate the measuring function above to get better then class 0.5
presentation. This is accomplished by angle and magnitude compensation at 5, 30 and
100% of rated current and at 100% of rated voltage.
The power system quantities provided, depends on the actual hardware,
(TRM) and the logic configuration made in PCM600.
The measuring functions CMSQI and VMSQI provide sequential quantities:

I: sequence currents (positive, zero, negative sequence, magnitude and angle)


V: sequence voltages (positive, zero and negative sequence, magnitude and angle).

The CVMMXN function calculates three-phase power quantities by using fundamental


frequency phasors (DFT values) of the measured current respectively voltage signals.
The measured power quantities are available either, as instantaneously calculated
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quantities or, averaged values over a period of time (low pass filtered) depending on
the selected settings.

13.4.2

Measurements CVMMXN

13.4.2.1

Identification
Function description

IEC 61850
identification

Measurements

IEC 60617
identification

CVMMXN

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
-

P, Q, S, I, U, f

SYMBOL-RR V1 EN

13.4.2.2

Function block
The available function blocks of an IED are depending on the actual hardware (TRM)
and the logic configuration made in PCM600.
CVMMXN
I3P*
V3P*

S
S_RANGE
P_INST
P
P_RANGE
Q_INST
Q
Q_RANGE
PF
PF_RANGE
ILAG
ILEAD
V
V_RANGE
I
I_RANGE
F
F_RANGE
ANSI10000051-1-en.vsd

ANSI10000051 V1 EN

Figure 183:

13.4.2.3

CVMMXN function block

Signals
Table 278:
Name

CVMMXN Input signals


Type

Default

Description

I3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Three phase group signal for current inputs

V3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Three phase group signal for voltage inputs

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Table 279:

CVMMXN Output signals

Name

13.4.2.4
Table 280:
Name

Type

Description

REAL

Apparent power magnitude of deadband value

S_RANGE

INTEGER

Apparent power range

P_INST

REAL

Active power

REAL

Active power magnitude of deadband value

P_RANGE

INTEGER

Active power range

Q_INST

REAL

Reactive power

REAL

Reactive power magnitude of deadband value

Q_RANGE

INTEGER

Reactive power range

PF

REAL

Power factor magnitude of deadband value

PF_RANGE

INTEGER

Power factor range

ILAG

BOOLEAN

Current is lagging voltage

ILEAD

BOOLEAN

Current is leading voltage

REAL

Calculated voltage magnitude of deadband value

V_RANGE

INTEGER

Calcuated voltage range

REAL

Calculated current magnitude of deadband value

I_RANGE

INTEGER

Calculated current range

REAL

System frequency magnitude of deadband value

F_RANGE

INTEGER

System frequency range

Settings
CVMMXN Non group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Disable/Enable Operation

GlobalBaseSel

1-6

Selection of one of the Global Base Value


groups

Mode

A, B, C
Arone
Pos Seq
AB
BC
CA
A
B
C

A, B, C

Selection of measured current and voltage

PowMagFact

0.000 - 6.000

0.001

1.000

Magnitude factor to scale power calculations

PowAngComp

-180.0 - 180.0

Deg

0.1

0.0

Angle compensation for phase shift between


measured I & V

Table continues on next page

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Name

Step

Default

Values (Range)
0.00 - 1.00

Unit
-

0.01

0.00

Description
Low pass filter coefficient for power
measurement

SLowLim

0.0 - 2000.0

%SB

0.1

80.0

Low limit in % of SBase

SLowLowLim

0.0 - 2000.0

%SB

0.1

60.0

Low Low limit in % of SBase

SMin

0.0 - 2000.0

%SB

0.1

50.0

Minimum value in % of SBase

SMax

0.0 - 2000.0

%SB

0.1

200.0

Maximum value in % of SBase

SRepTyp

Cyclic
Dead band
Int deadband

Cyclic

Reporting type

PMin

-2000.0 - 2000.0

%SB

0.1

-200.0

Minimum value in % of SBase

PMax

-2000.0 - 2000.0

%SB

0.1

200.0

Maximum value in % of SBase

PRepTyp

Cyclic
Dead band
Int deadband

Cyclic

Reporting type

QMin

-2000.0 - 2000.0

%SB

0.1

-200.0

Minimum value in % of SBase

QMax

-2000.0 - 2000.0

%SB

0.1

200.0

Maximum value in % of SBase

QRepTyp

Cyclic
Dead band
Int deadband

Cyclic

Reporting type

PFMin

-1.000 - 1.000

0.001

-1.000

Minimum value

PFMax

-1.000 - 1.000

0.001

1.000

Maximum value

PFRepTyp

Cyclic
Dead band
Int deadband

Cyclic

Reporting type

VMin

0.0 - 200.0

%VB

0.1

50.0

Minimum value in % of UBase

VMax

0.0 - 200.0

%VB

0.1

200.0

Maximum value in % of UBase

VRepTyp

Cyclic
Dead band
Int deadband

Cyclic

Reporting type

IMin

0.0 - 500.0

%IB

0.1

50.0

Minimum value in % of IBase

IMax

0.0 - 500.0

%IB

0.1

200.0

Maximum value in % of IBase

IRepTyp

Cyclic
Dead band
Int deadband

Cyclic

Reporting type

FrMin

0.000 - 100.000

Hz

0.001

0.000

Minimum value

FrMax

0.000 - 100.000

Hz

0.001

70.000

Maximum value

FrRepTyp

Cyclic
Dead band
Int deadband

Cyclic

Reporting type

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Table 281:
Name

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

CVMMXN Non group settings (advanced)


Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

SDbRepInt

1 - 300

Type

10

Cycl: Report interval (s), Db: In % of range,


Int Db: In %s

SZeroDb

0 - 100000

m%

500

Zero point clamping in 0.001% of range

SHiHiLim

0.0 - 2000.0

%SB

0.1

150.0

High High limit in % of SBase

SHiLim

0.0 - 2000.0

%SB

0.1

120.0

High limit in % of SBase

PHiHiLim

-2000.0 - 2000.0

%SB

0.1

150.0

High High limit in % of SBase

SLimHyst

0.000 - 100.000

0.001

5.000

Hysteresis value in % of range (common for


all limits)

PDbRepInt

1 - 300

Type

10

Cycl: Report interval (s), Db: In % of range,


Int Db: In %s

PZeroDb

0 - 100000

m%

500

Zero point clamping

PHiLim

-2000.0 - 2000.0

%SB

0.1

120.0

High limit in % of SBase

PLowLim

-2000.0 - 2000.0

%SB

0.1

-120.0

Low limit in % of SBase

PLowLowLim

-2000.0 - 2000.0

%SB

0.1

-150.0

Low Low limit in % of SBase

PLimHyst

0.000 - 100.000

0.001

5.000

Hysteresis value in % of range (common for


all limits)

QDbRepInt

1 - 300

Type

10

Cycl: Report interval (s), Db: In % of range,


Int Db: In %s

QZeroDb

0 - 100000

m%

500

Zero point clamping

QHiHiLim

-2000.0 - 2000.0

%SB

0.1

150.0

High High limit in % of SBase

QHiLim

-2000.0 - 2000.0

%SB

0.1

120.0

High limit in % of SBase

QLowLim

-2000.0 - 2000.0

%SB

0.1

-120.0

Low limit in % of SBase

QLowLowLim

-2000.0 - 2000.0

%SB

0.1

-150.0

Low Low limit in % of SBase

QLimHyst

0.000 - 100.000

0.001

5.000

Hysteresis value in % of range (common for


all limits)

PFDbRepInt

1 - 300

Type

10

Cycl: Report interval (s), Db: In % of range,


Int Db: In %s

PFZeroDb

0 - 100000

m%

500

Zero point clamping

PFHiHiLim

-1.000 - 1.000

0.001

1.000

High High limit (physical value)

PFHiLim

-1.000 - 1.000

0.001

0.800

High limit (physical value)

PFLowLim

-1.000 - 1.000

0.001

-0.800

Low limit (physical value)

PFLowLowLim

-1.000 - 1.000

0.001

-1.000

Low Low limit (physical value)

PFLimHyst

0.000 - 100.000

0.001

5.000

Hysteresis value in % of range (common for


all limits)

VDbRepInt

1 - 300

Type

10

Cycl: Report interval (s), Db: In % of range,


Int Db: In %s

VZeroDb

0 - 100000

m%

500

Zero point clamping

VHiHiLim

0.0 - 200.0

%VB

0.1

150.0

High High limit in % of UBase

VHiLim

0.0 - 200.0

%VB

0.1

120.0

High limit in % of UBase

Table continues on next page


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1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Name

Step

Default

VLowLim

Values (Range)
0.0 - 200.0

Unit
%VB

0.1

80.0

Description
Low limit in % of UBase

VLowLowLim

0.0 - 200.0

%VB

0.1

60.0

Low Low limit in % of UBase

VLimHyst

0.000 - 100.000

0.001

5.000

Hysteresis value in % of range (common for


all limits)

IDbRepInt

1 - 300

Type

10

Cycl: Report interval (s), Db: In % of range,


Int Db: In %s

IZeroDb

0 - 100000

m%

500

Zero point clamping

IHiHiLim

0.0 - 500.0

%IB

0.1

150.0

High High limit in % of IBase

IHiLim

0.0 - 500.0

%IB

0.1

120.0

High limit in % of IBase

ILowLim

0.0 - 500.0

%IB

0.1

80.0

Low limit in % of IBase

ILowLowLim

0.0 - 500.0

%IB

0.1

60.0

Low Low limit in % of IBase

ILimHyst

0.000 - 100.000

0.001

5.000

Hysteresis value in % of range (common for


all limits)

FrDbRepInt

1 - 300

Type

10

Cycl: Report interval (s), Db: In % of range,


Int Db: In %s

FrZeroDb

0 - 100000

m%

500

Zero point clamping

FrHiHiLim

0.000 - 100.000

Hz

0.001

65.000

High High limit (physical value)

FrHiLim

0.000 - 100.000

Hz

0.001

63.000

High limit (physical value)

FrLowLim

0.000 - 100.000

Hz

0.001

47.000

Low limit (physical value)

FrLowLowLim

0.000 - 100.000

Hz

0.001

45.000

Low Low limit (physical value)

FrLimHyst

0.000 - 100.000

0.001

5.000

Hysteresis value in % of range (common for


all limits)

VMagComp5

-10.000 - 10.000

0.001

0.000

Magnitude factor to calibrate voltage at 5% of


Vn

VMagComp30

-10.000 - 10.000

0.001

0.000

Magnitude factor to calibrate voltage at 30%


of Vn

VMagComp100

-10.000 - 10.000

0.001

0.000

Magnitude factor to calibrate voltage at 100%


of Vn

IMagComp5

-10.000 - 10.000

0.001

0.000

Magnitude factor to calibrate current at 5% of


In

IMagComp30

-10.000 - 10.000

0.001

0.000

Magnitude factor to calibrate current at 30%


of In

IMagComp100

-10.000 - 10.000

0.001

0.000

Magnitude factor to calibrate current at 100%


of In

IAngComp5

-10.000 - 10.000

Deg

0.001

0.000

Angle calibration for current at 5% of In

IAngComp30

-10.000 - 10.000

Deg

0.001

0.000

Angle calibration for current at 30% of In

IAngComp100

-10.000 - 10.000

Deg

0.001

0.000

Angle calibration for current at 100% of In

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13.4.2.5

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Monitored data
Table 282:

CVMMXN Monitored data

Name

Type

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

REAL

MVA

Apparent power magnitude of


deadband value

REAL

MW

Active power magnitude of


deadband value

REAL

MVAr

Reactive power magnitude of


deadband value

PF

REAL

Power factor magnitude of


deadband value

REAL

kV

Calculated voltage magnitude


of deadband value

REAL

Calculated current magnitude


of deadband value

REAL

Hz

System frequency magnitude


of deadband value

13.4.3

Phase current measurement CMMXU

13.4.3.1

Identification
Function description
Phase current measurement

IEC 61850
identification

IEC 60617
identification

CMMXU

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
-

I
SYMBOL-SS V1 EN

13.4.3.2

Function block
The available function blocks of an IED are depending on the actual hardware (TRM)
and the logic configuration made in PCM600.

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1MRK 502 034-UUS -

CMMXU
I3P*

I_A
IA_RANGE
IA_ANGL
I_B
IB_RANGE
IB_ANGL
I_C
IC_RANGE
IC_ANGL

ANSI08000225-1-en.vsd
ANSI08000225 V1 EN

Figure 184:

13.4.3.3

CMMXU function block

Signals
Table 283:
Name
I3P

Table 284:
Name

CMMXU Input signals


Type
GROUP
SIGNAL

Default
-

Description
Three phase group signal for current inputs

CMMXU Output signals


Type

Description

I_A

REAL

IA Amplitude

IA_RANGE

INTEGER

Phase A current magnitude range

IA_ANGL

REAL

IA Angle

I_B

REAL

IB Amplitude

IB_RANGE

INTEGER

Phase B current magnitude range

IB_ANGL

REAL

IB Angle

I_C

REAL

IC Amplitude

IC_RANGE

INTEGER

Phase C current magnitude range

IC_ANGL

REAL

IC Angle

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13.4.3.4
Table 285:
Name

Settings
CMMXU Non group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Disable/Enable Operation

GlobalBaseSel

1-6

Selection of one of the Global Base Value


groups

ILDbRepInt

1 - 300

Type

10

Cycl: Report interval (s), Db: In % of range,


Int Db: In %s

ILMax

0 - 500000

1300

Maximum value

ILRepTyp

Cyclic
Dead band
Int deadband

Dead band

Reporting type

ILAngDbRepInt

1 - 300

Type

10

Cycl: Report interval (s), Db: In % of range,


Int Db: In %s

Table 286:
Name

CMMXU Non group settings (advanced)


Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

ILZeroDb

0 - 100000

m%

500

Zero point clamping

ILHiHiLim

0 - 500000

1200

High High limit (physical value)

ILHiLim

0 - 500000

1100

High limit (physical value)

ILLowLim

0 - 500000

Low limit (physical value)

ILLowLowLim

0 - 500000

Low Low limit (physical value)

ILMin

0 - 500000

Minimum value

ILLimHys

0.000 - 100.000

0.001

5.000

Hysteresis value in % of range and is


common for all limits

IMagComp5

-10.000 - 10.000

0.001

0.000

Magnitude factor to calibrate current at 5% of


In

IMagComp30

-10.000 - 10.000

0.001

0.000

Magnitude factor to calibrate current at 30%


of In

IMagComp100

-10.000 - 10.000

0.001

0.000

Magnitude factor to calibrate current at 100%


of In

IAngComp5

-10.000 - 10.000

Deg

0.001

0.000

Angle calibration for current at 5% of In

IAngComp30

-10.000 - 10.000

Deg

0.001

0.000

Angle calibration for current at 30% of In

IAngComp100

-10.000 - 10.000

Deg

0.001

0.000

Angle calibration for current at 100% of In

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13.4.3.5

Monitored data
Table 287:

CMMXU Monitored data

Name

Type

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

I_A

REAL

IA Amplitude

IA_ANGL

REAL

deg

IA Angle

I_B

REAL

IB Amplitude

IB_ANGL

REAL

deg

IB Angle

I_C

REAL

IC Amplitude

IC_ANGL

REAL

deg

IC Angle

13.4.4

Phase-phase voltage measurement VMMXU

13.4.4.1

Identification
Function description
Phase-phase voltage measurement

IEC 61850
identification

IEC 60617
identification

VMMXU

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
-

U
SYMBOL-UU V1 EN

13.4.4.2

Function block
The available function blocks of an IED are depending on the actual hardware (TRM)
and the logic configuration made in PCM600.
VMMXU
V3P*

V_AB
VAB_RANG
VAB_ANGL
V_BC
VBC_RANG
VBC_ANGL
V_CA
VCA_RANG
VCA_ANGL
ANSI08000223-1-en.vsd

ANSI08000223 V1 EN

Figure 185:

VMMXU function block

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13.4.4.3

Signals
Table 288:

VMMXU Input signals

Name

Type

V3P

Table 289:

Table 290:
Name

Description
Three phase group signal for voltage inputs

VMMXU Output signals

Name

13.4.4.4

Default

GROUP
SIGNAL

Type

Description

V_AB

REAL

V_AB Amplitude

VAB_RANG

INTEGER

VAB Magnitude range

VAB_ANGL

REAL

VAB Angle

V_BC

REAL

V_BC Amplitude

VBC_RANG

INTEGER

VBC Magnitude range

VBC_ANGL

REAL

VBC Angle

V_CA

REAL

V_CA Amplitude

VCA_RANG

INTEGER

VCA Amplitude range

VCA_ANGL

REAL

VCA Angle

Settings
VMMXU Non group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Operation Disable / Enable

GlobalBaseSel

1-6

Selection of one of the Global Base Value


groups

VLDbRepInt

1 - 300

Type

10

Cycl: Report interval (s), Db: In % of range,


Int Db: In %s

VLMax

0 - 4000000

170000

Maximum value

VLRepTyp

Cyclic
Dead band
Int deadband

Dead band

Reporting type

VLAngDbRepInt

1 - 300

Type

10

Cycl: Report interval (s), Db: In % of range,


Int Db: In %s

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Monitoring

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Table 291:
Name

VMMXU Non group settings (advanced)


Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

VLZeroDB

0 - 100000

m%

500

Zero point clamping

VLHiHilLim

0 - 4000000

160000

High High limit (physical value)

VLHiLim

0 - 4000000

150000

High limit (physical value)

VLLowLim

0 - 4000000

125000

Low limit (physical value)

VLowLowLim

0 - 4000000

115000

Low Low limit (physical value)

VLMin

0 - 4000000

Minimum value

VLLimHys

0.000 - 100.000

0.001

5.000

Hysteresis value in % of range and is


common for all limits

13.4.4.5

Monitored data
Table 292:

VMMXU Monitored data

Name

Type

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

V_AB

REAL

kV

V_AB Amplitude

VAB_ANGL

REAL

deg

VAB Angle

V_BC

REAL

kV

V_BC Amplitude

VBC_ANGL

REAL

deg

VBC Angle

V_CA

REAL

kV

V_CA Amplitude

VCA_ANGL

REAL

deg

VCA Angle

13.4.5

Current sequence component measurement CMSQI

13.4.5.1

Identification
Function description
Current sequence component
measurement

IEC 61850
identification

IEC 60617
identification

CMSQI

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
-

I1, I2, I0
SYMBOL-VV V1 EN

13.4.5.2

Function block
The available function blocks of an IED are depending on the actual hardware (TRM)
and the logic configuration made in PCM600.

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Monitoring

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

CMSQI
I3P*

3I0
3I0RANG
3I0ANGL
I1
I1RANG
I1ANGL
I2
I2RANG
I2ANGL
IEC08000221-2-en.vsd

IEC08000221 V2 EN

Figure 186:

13.4.5.3

CMSQI function block

Signals
Table 293:

CMSQI Input signals

Name

Type

I3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Table 294:

Table 295:
Name

Description
Three phase group signal for current inputs

CMSQI Output signals

Name

13.4.5.4

Default

Type

Description

3I0

REAL

3I0 Amplitude

3I0RANG

INTEGER

3I0 Magnitude range

3I0ANGL

REAL

3I0 Angle

I1

REAL

I1 Amplitude

I1RANG

INTEGER

I1Amplitude range

I1ANGL

REAL

I1 Angle

I2

REAL

I2 Amplitude

I2RANG

INTEGER

I2 Magnitude range

I2ANGL

REAL

I2Angle

Settings
CMSQI Non group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Operation Disable / Enable

3I0DbRepInt

1 - 300

Type

10

Cycl: Report interval (s), Db: In % of range,


Int Db: In %s

3I0Min

0 - 500000

Minimum value

Table continues on next page

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Monitoring

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Name

Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

3I0Max

0 - 500000

3300

Maximum value

3I0RepTyp

Cyclic
Dead band
Int deadband

Dead band

Reporting type

3I0LimHys

0.000 - 100.000

0.001

5.000

Hysteresis value in % of range and is


common for all limits

3I0AngDbRepInt

1 - 300

Type

10

Cycl: Report interval (s), Db: In % of range,


Int Db: In %s

I1DbRepInt

1 - 300

Type

10

Cycl: Report interval (s), Db: In % of range,


Int Db: In %s

I1Min

0 - 500000

Minimum value

I1Max

0 - 500000

1300

Maximum value

I1RepTyp

Cyclic
Dead band
Int deadband

Dead band

Reporting type

I1AngDbRepInt

1 - 300

Type

10

Cycl: Report interval (s), Db: In % of range,


Int Db: In %s

I2DbRepInt

1 - 300

Type

10

Cycl: Report interval (s), Db: In % of range,


Int Db: In %s

I2Min

0 - 500000

Minimum value

I2Max

0 - 500000

1300

Maximum value

I2RepTyp

Cyclic
Dead band
Int deadband

Dead band

Reporting type

I2LimHys

0.000 - 100.000

0.001

5.000

Hysteresis value in % of range and is


common for all limits

I2AngDbRepInt

1 - 300

Type

10

Cycl: Report interval (s), Db: In % of range,


Int Db: In %s

Table 296:
Name

CMSQI Non group settings (advanced)


Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

3I0ZeroDb

0 - 100000

m%

500

Zero point clamping

3I0HiHiLim

0 - 500000

3600

High High limit (physical value)

3I0HiLim

0 - 500000

3300

High limit (physical value)

3I0LowLim

0 - 500000

Low limit (physical value)

3I0LowLowLim

0 - 500000

Low Low limit (physical value)

I1ZeroDb

0 - 100000

m%

500

Zero point clamping

I1HiHiLim

0 - 500000

1200

High High limit (physical value)

I1HiLim

0 - 500000

1100

High limit (physical value)

I1LowLim

0 - 500000

Low limit (physical value)

I1LowLowLim

0 - 500000

Low Low limit (physical value)

Table continues on next page


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Monitoring
Name

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

I1LimHys

0.000 - 100.000

0.001

5.000

Hysteresis value in % of range and is


common for all limits

I2ZeroDb

0 - 100000

m%

500

Zero point clamping

I2HiHiLim

0 - 500000

1200

High High limit (physical value)

I2HiLim

0 - 500000

1100

High limit (physical value)

I2LowLim

0 - 500000

Low limit (physical value)

I2LowLowLim

0 - 500000

Low Low limit (physical value)

13.4.5.5

Monitored data
Table 297:

CMSQI Monitored data

Name

Type

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

3I0

REAL

3I0 Amplitude

3I0ANGL

REAL

deg

3I0 Angle

I1

REAL

I1 Amplitude

I1ANGL

REAL

deg

I1 Angle

I2

REAL

I2 Amplitude

I2ANGL

REAL

deg

I2Angle

13.4.6

Voltage sequence measurement VMSQI

13.4.6.1

Identification
Function description
Voltage sequence measurement

IEC 61850
identification

IEC 60617
identification

VMSQI

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
-

U1, U2, U0

SYMBOL-TT V1 EN

13.4.6.2

Function block
The available function blocks of an IED are depending on the actual hardware (TRM)
and the logic configuration made in PCM600.

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Monitoring

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

VMSQI
V3P*

3V0
3V0RANG
3V0ANGL
V1
V1RANG
V1ANGL
V2
V2RANG
V2ANGL
ANSI08000224-1-en.vsd

ANSI08000224 V1 EN

Figure 187:

13.4.6.3

VMSQI function block

Signals
Table 298:

VMSQI Input signals

Name

Type

V3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Table 299:

Table 300:
Name

Description
Three phase group signal for voltage inputs

VMSQI Output signals

Name

13.4.6.4

Default

Type

Description

3V0

REAL

3U0 Amplitude

3V0RANG

INTEGER

3V0 Magnitude range

3V0ANGL

REAL

3U0 Angle

V1

REAL

U1 Amplitude

V1RANG

INTEGER

V1 Magnitude range

V1ANGL

REAL

U1 Angle

V2

REAL

U2 Amplitude

V2RANG

INTEGER

V2 Magnitude range

V2ANGL

REAL

U2 Angle

Settings
VMSQI Non group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Disable/Enable Operation

3V0DbRepInt

1 - 300

Type

10

Cycl: Report interval (s), Db: In % of range,


Int Db: In %s

3V0Min

0 - 2000000

Minimum value

Table continues on next page

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Monitoring
Name

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

3V0Max

0 - 2000000

318000

Maximum value

3V0RepTyp

Cyclic
Dead band
Int deadband

Dead band

Reporting type

3V0LimHys

0.000 - 100.000

0.001

5.000

Hysteresis value in % of range and is


common for all limits

3V0AngDbRepInt

1 - 300

Type

10

Cycl: Report interval (s), Db: In % of range,


Int Db: In %s

V1DbRepInt

1 - 300

Type

10

Cycl: Report interval (s), Db: In % of range,


Int Db: In %s

V1Min

0 - 2000000

Minimum value

V1Max

0 - 2000000

106000

Maximum value

V1RepTyp

Cyclic
Dead band
Int deadband

Dead band

Reporting type

V1AngDbRepInt

1 - 300

Type

10

Cycl: Report interval (s), Db: In % of range,


Int Db: In %s

V2DbRepInt

1 - 300

Type

10

Cycl: Report interval (s), Db: In % of range,


Int Db: In %s

V2Min

0 - 2000000

Minimum value

V2Max

0 - 2000000

106000

Maximum value

V2RepTyp

Cyclic
Dead band
Int deadband

Dead band

Reporting type

V2LimHys

0.000 - 100.000

0.001

5.000

Hysteresis value in % of range and is


common for all limits

V2AngDbRepInt

1 - 300

Type

10

Cycl: Report interval (s), Db: In % of range,


Int Db: In %s

Table 301:
Name

VMSQI Non group settings (advanced)


Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

3V0ZeroDb

0 - 100000

m%

500

Zero point clamping

3V0HiHiLim

0 - 2000000

288000

High High limit (physical value)

3V0HiLim

0 - 2000000

258000

High limit (physical value)

3V0LowLim

0 - 2000000

213000

Low limit (physical value)

3V0LowLowLim

0 - 2000000

198000

Low Low limit (physical value)

V1ZeroDb

0 - 100000

m%

500

Zero point clamping

V1HiHiLim

0 - 2000000

96000

High High limit (physical value)

V1HiLim

0 - 2000000

86000

High limit (physical value)

V1LowLim

0 - 2000000

71000

Low limit (physical value)

V1LowLowLim

0 - 2000000

66000

Low Low limit (physical value)

Table continues on next page


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Monitoring

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Name

Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

V1LimHys

0.000 - 100.000

0.001

5.000

Hysteresis value in % of range and is


common for all limits

V2ZeroDb

0 - 100000

m%

500

Zero point clamping

V2HiHiLim

0 - 2000000

96000

High High limit (physical value)

V2HiLim

0 - 2000000

86000

High limit (physical value)

V2LowLim

0 - 2000000

71000

Low limit (physical value)

V2LowLowLim

0 - 2000000

66000

Low Low limit (physical value)

13.4.6.5

Monitored data
Table 302:

VMSQI Monitored data

Name

Type

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

3V0

REAL

kV

3U0 Amplitude

3V0ANGL

REAL

deg

3U0 Angle

V1

REAL

kV

U1 Amplitude

V1ANGL

REAL

deg

U1 Angle

V2

REAL

kV

U2 Amplitude

V2ANGL

REAL

deg

U2 Angle

13.4.7

Phase-neutral voltage measurement VNMMXU

13.4.7.1

Identification
Function description
Phase-neutral voltage measurement

IEC 61850
identification

IEC 60617
identification

VNMMXU

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
-

U
SYMBOL-UU V1 EN

13.4.7.2

Function block
The available function blocks of an IED are depending on the actual hardware (TRM)
and the logic configuration made in PCM600.

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Section 13
Monitoring

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

VNMMXU
V3P*

V_A
VA_RANGE
VA_ANGL
V_B
VB_RANGE
VB_ANGL
V_C
VC_RANGE
VC_ANGL
ANSI08000226-1-en.vsd

ANSI08000226 V1 EN

Figure 188:

13.4.7.3

VNMMXU function block

Signals
Table 303:
Name
V3P

Table 304:
Name

VNMMXU Input signals


Type
GROUP
SIGNAL

Default
-

Description
Three phase group signal for voltage inputs

VNMMXU Output signals


Type

Description

V_A

REAL

V_A Amplitude, magnitude of reported value

VA_RANGE

INTEGER

V_A Amplitude range

VA_ANGL

REAL

V_A Angle, magnitude of reported value

V_B

REAL

V_B Amplitude, magnitude of reported value

VB_RANGE

INTEGER

V_B Amplitude range

VB_ANGL

REAL

V_B Angle, magnitude of reported value

V_C

REAL

V_C Amplitude, magnitude of reported value

VC_RANGE

INTEGER

V_C Amplitude range

VC_ANGL

REAL

VC Angle, magnitude of reported value

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1MRK 502 034-UUS -

13.4.7.4
Table 305:
Name

Settings
VNMMXU Non group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Disbled/Enabled operation

GlobalBaseSel

1-6

Selection of one of the Global Base Value


groups

VDbRepInt

1 - 300

Type

10

Cycl: Report interval (s), Db: In % of range,


Int Db: In %s

VMax

0 - 2000000

106000

Maximum value

VRepTyp

Cyclic
Dead band
Int deadband

Dead band

Reporting type

VLimHys

0.000 - 100.000

0.001

5.000

Hysteresis value in % of range and is


common for all limits

VAngDbRepInt

1 - 300

Type

10

Cycl: Report interval (s), Db: In % of range,


Int Db: In %s

Table 306:
Name

VNMMXU Non group settings (advanced)


Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

VZeroDb

0 - 100000

m%

500

Zero point clamping in 0.001% of range

VHiHiLim

0 - 2000000

96000

High High limit (physical value)

VHiLim

0 - 2000000

86000

High limit (physical value)

VLowLim

0 - 2000000

71000

Low limit (physical value)

VLowLowLim

0 - 2000000

66000

Low Low limit (physical value)

VMin

0 - 2000000

Minimum value

13.4.7.5

Monitored data
Table 307:
Name

VNMMXU Monitored data


Type

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

V_A

REAL

kV

V_A Amplitude, magnitude of


reported value

VA_ANGL

REAL

deg

V_A Angle, magnitude of


reported value

V_B

REAL

kV

V_B Amplitude, magnitude of


reported value

Table continues on next page

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Monitoring

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Name

Type

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

VB_ANGL

REAL

deg

V_B Angle, magnitude of


reported value

V_C

REAL

kV

V_C Amplitude, magnitude of


reported value

VC_ANGL

REAL

deg

VC Angle, magnitude of
reported value

13.4.8

Operation principle

13.4.8.1

Measurement supervision
The protection, control, and monitoring IEDs have functionality to measure and further
process information for currents and voltages obtained from the pre-processing blocks.
The number of processed alternate measuring quantities depends on the type of IED
and built-in options.
The information on measured quantities is available for the user at different locations:

Locally by means of the local HMI


Remotely using the monitoring tool within PCM600 or over the station bus
Internally by connecting the analog output signals to the Disturbance Report function

Phase angle reference

All phase angles are presented in relation to a defined reference channel. The General
setting parameter PhaseAngleRef defines the reference. The PhaseAngleRef is set in
local HMI under: Configuration/Analog modules/Reference channel service values.

Zero point clamping

Measured value below zero point clamping limit is forced to zero. This allows the
noise in the input signal to be ignored. The zero point clamping limit is a general
setting (XZeroDb where X equals S, P, Q, PF, V, I, F, IA, IB, IC, VA, VB, VC, VAB,
VBC, VCA, I1, I2, 3I0, V1, V2 or 3V0). Observe that this measurement supervision
zero point clamping might be overridden by the zero point clamping used for the
measurement values within CVMMXN.

Continuous monitoring of the measured quantity

Users can continuously monitor the measured quantity available in each function block
by means of four defined operating thresholds, see figure 189. The monitoring has two
different modes of operating:

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Monitoring

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Overfunction, when the measured current exceeds the High limit (XHiLim) or Highhigh limit (XHiHiLim) pre-set values
Underfunction, when the measured current decreases under the Low limit
(XLowLim) or Low-low limit (XLowLowLim) pre-set values.

X_RANGE is illustrated in figure 189.


Y
X_RANGE = 3

High-high limit

X_RANGE= 1

Hysteresis

High limit
X_RANGE=0

X_RANGE=0
Low limit
X_RANGE=2
Low-low limit
X_RANGE=4

en05000657.vsd
IEC05000657 V1 EN

Figure 189:

Presentation of operating limits

Each analog output has one corresponding supervision level output (X_RANGE). The
output signal is an integer in the interval 0-4 (0: Normal, 1: High limit exceeded, 3: Highhigh limit exceeded, 2: below Low limit and 4: below Low-low limit). The output may
be connected to a measurement expander block (XP (RANGE_XP)) to get
measurement supervision as binary signals.
The logical value of the functional output signals changes according to figure 189.
The user can set the hysteresis (XLimHyst), which determines the difference between
the operating and reset value at each operating point, in wide range for each measuring
channel separately. The hysteresis is common for all operating values within one channel.

Actual value of the measured quantity

The actual value of the measured quantity is available locally and remotely. The
measurement is continuous for each measured quantity separately, but the reporting of
the value to the higher levels depends on the selected reporting mode. The following
basic reporting modes are available:

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Section 13
Monitoring

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Cyclic reporting (Cyclic)


Magnitude dead-band supervision (Dead band)
Integral dead-band supervision (Int deadband)

Cyclic reporting

The cyclic reporting of measured value is performed according to chosen setting


(XRepTyp). The measuring channel reports the value independent of magnitude or
integral dead-band reporting.
In addition to the normal cyclic reporting the IED also report spontaneously when
measured value passes any of the defined threshold limits.
Y
Value Reported
(1st)

Value Reported

Value Reported

Value Reported

Value Reported

Y3
Y2

Y4

Y1

Y5

(*)Set value for t: XDbRepInt

t (*)

Value 5

Value 4

t (*)

Value 3

t (*)

Value 2

Value 1

t (*)

en05000500.vsd

IEC05000500 V1 EN

Figure 190:

Periodic reporting

Magnitude dead-band supervision

If a measuring value is changed, compared to the last reported value, and the change is
larger than the Y pre-defined limits that are set by user (XZeroDb), then the
measuring channel reports the new value to a higher level, if this is detected by a new
measured value. This limits the information flow to a minimum necessary. Figure 191
shows an example with the magnitude dead-band supervision. The picture is

402
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Section 13
Monitoring

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

simplified: the process is not continuous but the values are evaluated with a time
interval of one execution cycle from each other.
Value Reported

Y
Value Reported
(1st)

Value Reported
Y3
Y2

Y1

Value Reported
DY
DY

DY
DY

DY
DY

t
99000529.vsd

IEC99000529 V1 EN

Figure 191:

Magnitude dead-band supervision reporting

After the new value is reported, the Y limits for dead-band are automatically set
around it. The new value is reported only if the measured quantity changes more than
defined by the Y set limits. Even if amplitude dead-band reporting is selected, there
will be a 30 s "back-ground" cyclic reporting as well.

Integral dead-band reporting

The measured value is reported if the time integral of all changes exceeds the pre-set
limit (XZeroDb), figure 192, where an example of reporting with integral dead-band
supervision is shown. The picture is simplified: the process is not continuous but the
values are evaluated with a time interval of one execution cycle from each other.
The last value reported, Y1 in figure 192 serves as a basic value for further
measurement. A difference is calculated between the last reported and the newly
measured value and is multiplied by the time increment (discrete integral). The
absolute values of these integral values are added until the pre-set value is exceeded.
This occurs with the value Y2 that is reported and set as a new base for the following
measurements (as well as for the values Y3, Y4 and Y5).

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Section 13
Monitoring

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

The integral dead-band supervision is particularly suitable for monitoring signals with
small variations that can last for relatively long periods. Even if integral dead-band
reporting is selected, there will be a 30 s "back-ground" cyclic reporting as well.
A1 >=
pre-set value

Y
A >=
pre-set value

A2 >=
pre-set value
Y3

Y2
Value Reported
(1st)

A1

Value
Reported

A2
Value
Reported

Y1

Y4
Value
Reported

A3 + A4 + A5 + A6 + A7 >=
pre-set value
A4
A3

A5

A6

A7

Y5
Value
Reported
t
99000530.vsd

IEC99000530 V1 EN

Figure 192:

13.4.8.2

Reporting with integral dead-band supervision

Measurements CVMMXN
Mode of operation

The measurement function must be connected to three-phase current and three-phase


voltage input in the configuration tool (group signals), but it is capable to measure and
calculate above mentioned quantities in nine different ways depending on the available
VT inputs connected to the IED. The end user can freely select by a parameter setting,
which one of the nine available measuring modes shall be used within the function.
Available options are summarized in the following table:

404
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Section 13
Monitoring

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Set value for Formula used for complex, threeparameter


phase power calculation
Mode
1

A, B, C

S = VA I A* + VB I B* + VC I C*
EQUATION1561 V1 EN

Formula used for voltage and


current magnitude calculation

(
I =( I

V = VA + VB + VC
+ IB + IC

)/
)/3

Comment

Used when three


phase-to-ground
voltages are
available

EQUATION1562 V1 EN

Arone

S = VAB I A - VBC I C
*

(Equation 80)

EQUATION1563 V1 EN

(
I =( I

V = VAB + VBC / 2
A

EQUATION1564 V1 EN

PosSeq

V =

(Equation 82)

I = I PosSeq

S = 3 VPosSeq I PosSeq
EQUATION1565 V1 EN

AB

S = VAB I A - I B
*

(Equation 84)

EQUATION1567 V1 EN

BC

S = VBC I B - I C
*

(Equation 86)

EQUATION1569 V1 EN

I = IA + IB / 2

CA

S = VCA I C - I A
*

(Equation 88)

EQUATION1571 V1 EN

I = I B + IC / 2

I = IC + I A / 2

V =

S = 3 VA I A
*

EQUATION1573 V1 EN

(Equation 90)

Used when only


VCA phase-tophase voltage is
available

(Equation 89)

3 VA

I = IA
EQUATION1574 V1 EN

Used when only


VBC phase-tophase voltage is
available

(Equation 87)

V = VCA

EQUATION1572 V1 EN

Used when only


VAB phase-tophase voltage is
available

(Equation 85)

V = VBC

EQUATION1570 V1 EN

Used when only


symmetrical three
phase power shall
be measured

(Equation 83)

V = VAB

EQUATION1568 V1 EN

(Equation 81)

3 VPosSeq

EQUATION1566 V1 EN

+ IC / 2

Used when three


two phase-tophase voltages
are available

Used when only


VA phase-toground voltage is
available

(Equation 91)

Table continues on next page

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Monitoring

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Set value for Formula used for complex, threeparameter


phase power calculation
Mode
8

V =

S = 3 VB I B
*

(Equation 92)

EQUATION1575 V1 EN

Formula used for voltage and


current magnitude calculation

3 VB

I = IB
EQUATION1576 V1 EN

V =

S = 3 VC I C
*

EQUATION1577 V1 EN

(Equation 94)

Used when only


VB phase-toground voltage is
available

(Equation 93)

3 VC

I = IC
EQUATION1578 V1 EN

Comment

Used when only


VC phase-toground voltage is
available

(Equation 95)

* means complex conjugated value

It shall be noted that only in the first two operating modes that is, 1 & 2 the
measurement function calculates exact three-phase power. In other operating modes
that is, from 3 to 9 it calculates the three-phase power under assumption that the power
system is fully symmetrical. Once the complex apparent power is calculated then the P,
Q, S, & PF are calculated in accordance with the following formulas:
P = Re( S )
(Equation 96)

EQUATION1403 V1 EN

Q = Im( S )
(Equation 97)

EQUATION1404 V1 EN

S = S =

P +Q
2

EQUATION1405 V1 EN

(Equation 98)

PF = cosj = P
S
EQUATION1406 V1 EN

(Equation 99)

Additionally to the power factor value the two binary output signals from the function
are provided which indicates the angular relationship between current and voltage
phasors. Binary output signal ILAG is set to one when current phasor is lagging behind
voltage phasor. Binary output signal ILEAD is set to one when current phasor is
leading the voltage phasor.
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Each analog output has a corresponding supervision level output (X_RANGE). The
output signal is an integer in the interval 0-4, see section "Measurement supervision".

Calibration of analog inputs

Measured currents and voltages used in the CVMMXN function can be calibrated to
get class 0.5 measuring accuracy. This is achieved by magnitude and angle
compensation at 5, 30 and 100% of rated current and voltage. The compensation below
5% and above 100% is constant and linear in between, see example in figure 193.
% of In

Magnitude
compensation

+10
IMagComp5

Measured
current

IMagComp30
IMagComp100

30

% of In

0-5%:
Constant
5-30-100%: Linear
>100%:
Constant

-10

Degrees

100

Angle
compensation

+10
Measured
current

IAngComp30
IAngComp5
IAngComp100

30

100

% of In

-10

ANSI05000652_3_en.vsd
ANSI05000652 V3 EN

Figure 193:

Calibration curves

The first current and voltage phase in the group signals will be used as reference and
the magnitude and angle compensation will be used for related input signals.

Low pass filtering

In order to minimize the influence of the noise signal on the measurement it is possible
to introduce the recursive, low pass filtering of the measured values for P, Q, S, V, I
and power factor. This will make slower measurement response to the step changes in

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the measured quantity. Filtering is performed in accordance with the following


recursive formula:
X = k X Old + (1 - k ) X Calculated
(Equation 100)

EQUATION1407 V1 EN

where:
X

is a new measured value (that is P, Q, S, V, I or PF) to be given out from the function

XOld

is the measured value given from the measurement function in previous execution cycle

XCalculated is the new calculated value in the present execution cycle


k

is settable parameter by the end user which influence the filter properties

Default value for parameter k is 0.00. With this value the new calculated value is
immediately given out without any filtering (that is, without any additional delay).
When k is set to value bigger than 0, the filtering is enabled. Appropriate value of k
shall be determined separately for every application. Some typical value for k =0.14.

Zero point clamping

In order to avoid erroneous measurements when either current or voltage signal is not
present, the magnitude level for current and voltage measurement is forced to zero.
When either current or voltage measurement is forced to zero automatically the
measured values for power (P, Q & S) and power factor are forced to zero as well.
Since the measurement supervision functionality, included in the CVMMXN function,
is using these values the zero clamping will influence the subsequent supervision
(observe the possibility to do zero point clamping within measurement supervision, see
section "Measurement supervision").

Compensation facility

In order to compensate for small magnitude and angular errors in the complete
measurement chain (CT error, VT error, IED input transformer errors and so on.) it is
possible to perform on site calibration of the power measurement. This is achieved by
setting the complex constant which is then internally used within the function to
multiply the calculated complex apparent power S. This constant is set as magnitude
(setting parameter PowMagFact, default value 1.000) and angle (setting parameter
PowAngComp, default value 0.0 degrees). Default values for these two parameters are
done in such way that they do not influence internally calculated value (complex
constant has default value 1). In this way calibration, for specific operating range (for
example, around rated power) can be done at site. However, to perform this calibration
it is necessary to have an external power meter with high accuracy class available.

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Directionality

CTStartPoint defines if the CTs grounding point is located towards or from the
protected object under observation. If everything is properly set power is always
measured towards protection object.

Busbar

52

IED
Q

Protected
Object
ANSI05000373_2_en.vsd
ANSI05000373 V2 EN

Figure 194:

Internal IED directionality convention for P & Q measurements

Practically, it means that active and reactive power will have positive values when they
flow from the busbar towards the protected object and they will have negative values
when they flow from the protected object towards the busbar.
In some application, for example, when power is measured on the secondary side of the
power transformer it might be desirable, from the end client point of view, to have
actually opposite directional convention for active and reactive power measurements.
This can be easily achieved by setting parameter PowAngComp to value of 180.0
degrees. With such setting the active and reactive power will have positive values
when they flow from the protected object towards the busbar.

Frequency

Frequency is actually not calculated within measurement block. It is simply obtained


from the pre-processing block and then just given out from the measurement block as
an output.

13.4.8.3

Phase current measurement CMMXU


The Phase current measurement (CMMXU) function must be connected to three-phase
current input in the configuration tool to be operable. Currents handled in the function
can be calibrated to get better then class 0.5 measuring accuracy for internal use, on the
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outputs and IEC 61850. This is achieved by magnitude and angle compensation at 5,
30 and 100% of rated current. The compensation below 5% and above 100% is
constant and linear in between, see figure 193.
Phase currents (magnitude and angle) are available on the outputs and each magnitude
output has a corresponding supervision level output (Ix_RANGE). The supervision
output signal is an integer in the interval 0-4, see section "Measurement supervision".

13.4.8.4

Phase-phase and phase-neutral voltage measurements VMMXU,


VNMMXU
The voltage function must be connected to three-phase voltage input in the
configuration tool to be operable. Voltages are handled in the same way as currents
when it comes to class 0.5 calibrations, see above.
The voltages (phase or phase-phase voltage, magnitude and angle) are available on the
outputs and each magnitude output has a corresponding supervision level output
(Vxy_RANG). The supervision output signal is an integer in the interval 0-4, see
section "Measurement supervision".

13.4.8.5

Voltage and current sequence measurements VMSQI, CMSQI


The measurement functions must be connected to three-phase current (CMSQI) or
voltage (VMSQI) input in the configuration tool to be operable. No outputs, but
XRANG, are calculated within the measuring block and it is not possible to calibrate
the signals. Input signals are obtained from the pre-processing block and transferred to
corresponding output.
Positive, negative and three times zero sequence quantities are available on the outputs
(voltage and current, magnitude and angle). Each magnitude output has a
corresponding supervision level output (X_RANGE). The output signal is an integer in
the interval 0-4, see section "Measurement supervision".

13.4.9

Technical data
Table 308:

CVMMXN technical data

Function

Range or value

Voltage

(0.1-1.5) Vn

0.5% of Vn at VVn
0.5% of V at V > Vn

Connected current

(0.2-4.0) In

0.5% of In at I In
0.5% of I at I > In

Active power, P

0.1 x Vn< V < 1.5 x Vn


0.2 x In < I < 4.0 x In

1.0% of Sn at S Sn
1.0% of S at S > Sn

Accuracy

1)

Table continues on next page

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Function

Range or value

Accuracy

Reactive power, Q

0.1 x Vn< V < 1.5 x Vn


0.2 x In < I < 4.0 x In

1.0% of Sn at S Sn
1.0% of S at S > Sn

Apparent power, S

0.1 x Vn < V < 1.5 x Vn


0.2 x In< I < 4.0 x In

1.0% of Sn at S Sn
1.0% of S at S > Sn

Apparent power, S Three phase


settings

cos phi = 1

0.5% of S at S > Sn
0.5% of Sn at S Sn

Power factor, cos ()

0.1 x Vn < V < 1.5 x Vn


0.2 x In< I < 4.0 x In

< 0.02 2)

1)
2)

1)

Accuracy valid for 50 Hz. At 60 Hz both accuracies are 2.0%


Accuracy valid for 50 Hz. At 60 Hz the accuracy is <0.04.

13.5

Event Counter CNTGGIO

13.5.1

Identification
Function description
Event counter

IEC 61850
identification

IEC 60617
identification

CNTGGIO

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
-

S00946 V1 EN

13.5.2

Functionality
Event counter (CNTGGIO) has six counters which are used for storing the number of
times each counter input has been activated.

13.5.3

Function block
CNTGGIO
BLOCK
COUNTER1
COUNTER2
COUNTER3
COUNTER4
COUNTER5
COUNTER6
RESET

VALUE1
VALUE2
VALUE3
VALUE4
VALUE5
VALUE6

IEC09000090_1_en.vsd
IEC09000090 V1 EN

Figure 195:

CNTGGIO function block

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1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Signals
Table 309:

CNTGGIO Input signals

Name

Type
BOOLEAN

Block of function

COUNTER1

BOOLEAN

Input for counter 1

COUNTER2

BOOLEAN

Input for counter 2

COUNTER3

BOOLEAN

Input for counter 3

COUNTER4

BOOLEAN

Input for counter 4

COUNTER5

BOOLEAN

Input for counter 5

COUNTER6

BOOLEAN

Input for counter 6

RESET

BOOLEAN

Reset of function

CNTGGIO Output signals

Name

Table 311:
Name
Operation

13.5.6

Description

BLOCK

Table 310:

13.5.5

Default

Type

Description

VALUE1

INTEGER

Output of counter 1

VALUE2

INTEGER

Output of counter 2

VALUE3

INTEGER

Output of counter 3

VALUE4

INTEGER

Output of counter 4

VALUE5

INTEGER

Output of counter 5

VALUE6

INTEGER

Output of counter 6

Settings
CNTGGIO Group settings (basic)
Values (Range)
Disabled
Enabled

Unit

Step

Default
Disabled

Description
Disable/Enable Operation

Monitored data
Table 312:
Name

CNTGGIO Monitored data


Type

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

VALUE1

INTEGER

Output of counter 1

VALUE2

INTEGER

Output of counter 2

VALUE3

INTEGER

Output of counter 3

Table continues on next page

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Name

13.5.7

Type

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

VALUE4

INTEGER

Output of counter 4

VALUE5

INTEGER

Output of counter 5

VALUE6

INTEGER

Output of counter 6

Operation principle
Event counter (CNTGGIO) has six counter inputs. CNTGGIO stores how many times
each of the inputs has been activated. The counter memory for each of the six inputs is
updated, giving the total number of times the input has been activated, as soon as an
input is activated. The maximum count up speed is 10 pulses per second. The
maximum counter value is 10 000. For counts above 10 000 the counter will stop at 10
000 and no restart will take place.
To not risk that the flash memory is worn out due to too many writings, a mechanism
for limiting the number of writings per time period is included in the product. This
however gives as a result that it can take long time, up to several minutes, before a new
value is stored in the flash memory. And if a new CNTGGIO value is not stored before
auxiliary power interruption, it will be lost. CNTGGIO stored values in flash memory
will however not be lost at an auxiliary power interruption.
The function block also has an input BLOCK. At activation of this input all six
counters are blocked. The input can for example, be used for blocking the counters at
testing.The function block has an input RESET. At activation of this input all six
counters are set to 0.
All inputs are configured via PCM600.

13.5.7.1

Reporting
The content of the counters can be read in the local HMI.
Reset of counters can be performed in the local HMI and a binary input.
Reading of content can also be performed remotely, for example from a IEC 61850
client. The value can also be presented as a measuring value on the local HMI
graphical display.

13.5.8

Technical data
Table 313:

CNTGGIO technical data

Function

Range or value

Accuracy

Counter value

0-10000

Max. count up speed

10 pulses/s

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13.6

Disturbance report

13.6.1

Functionality
Complete and reliable information about disturbances in the primary and/or in the
secondary system together with continuous event-logging is accomplished by the
disturbance report functionality.
Disturbance report DRPRDRE, always included in the IED, acquires sampled data of
all selected analog input and binary signals connected to the function block with a,
maximum of 40 analog and 96 binary signals.
The Disturbance report functionality is a common name for several functions:

Sequential of events
Indications
Event recorder
Trip value recorder
Disturbance recorder

The Disturbance report function is characterized by great flexibility regarding


configuration, initiating conditions, recording times, and large storage capacity.
A disturbance is defined as an activation of an input to the AxRADR or BxRBDR
function blocks, which are set to trigger the disturbance recorder. All signals from start
of pre-fault time to the end of post-fault time will be included in the recording.
Every disturbance report recording is saved in the IED in the standard Comtrade
format. The same applies to all events, which are continuously saved in a FIFO-buffer.
The local HMI is used to get information about the recordings. The disturbance report
files may be uploaded to PCM600 for further analysis using the disturbance handling
tool.

13.6.2

Disturbance report DRPRDRE

13.6.2.1

Identification
Function description

IEC 61850
identification

Disturbance report

DRPRDRE

IEC 60617
identification
-

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
-

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13.6.2.2

Function block
DRPRDRE
DRPOFF
RECSTART
RECMADE
CLEARED
MEMUSED
IEC09000346-1-en.vsd
IEC09000346 V1 EN

Figure 196:

13.6.2.3

DRPRDRE function block

Signals
Table 314:

DRPRDRE Output signals

Name

13.6.2.4
Table 315:
Name

Type

Description

DRPOFF

BOOLEAN

Disturbance report function turned off

RECSTART

BOOLEAN

Disturbance recording started

RECMADE

BOOLEAN

Disturbance recording made

CLEARED

BOOLEAN

All disturbances in the disturbance report cleared

MEMUSED

BOOLEAN

More than 80% of memory used

Settings
DRPRDRE Non group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Operation Enable/Disable

PreFaultRecT

0.05 - 3.00

0.01

0.10

Pre-fault recording time

PostFaultRecT

0.1 - 10.0

0.1

0.5

Post-fault recording time

TimeLimit

0.5 - 8.0

0.1

1.0

Fault recording time limit

PostRetrig

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Post-fault retrig enabled (On) or not (Off)

MaxNoStoreRec

10 - 100

100

Maximum number of stored disturbances

ZeroAngleRef

1 - 30

Ch

Trip value recorder, phasor reference channel

OpModeTest

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Operation mode during test mode

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1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Monitored data
Table 316:
Name

DRPRDRE Monitored data


Type

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

MemoryUsed

INTEGER

Memory usage (0-100%)

UnTrigStatCh1

BOOLEAN

Under level trig for analog


channel 1 activated

OvTrigStatCh1

BOOLEAN

Over level trig for analog


channel 1 activated

UnTrigStatCh2

BOOLEAN

Under level trig for analog


channel 2 activated

OvTrigStatCh2

BOOLEAN

Over level trig for analog


channel 2 activated

UnTrigStatCh3

BOOLEAN

Under level trig for analog


channel 3 activated

OvTrigStatCh3

BOOLEAN

Over level trig for analog


channel 3 activated

UnTrigStatCh4

BOOLEAN

Under level trig for analog


channel 4 activated

OvTrigStatCh4

BOOLEAN

Over level trig for analog


channel 4 activated

UnTrigStatCh5

BOOLEAN

Under level trig for analog


channel 5 activated

OvTrigStatCh5

BOOLEAN

Over level trig for analog


channel 5 activated

UnTrigStatCh6

BOOLEAN

Under level trig for analog


channel 6 activated

OvTrigStatCh6

BOOLEAN

Over level trig for analog


channel 6 activated

UnTrigStatCh7

BOOLEAN

Under level trig for analog


channel 7 activated

OvTrigStatCh7

BOOLEAN

Over level trig for analog


channel 7 activated

UnTrigStatCh8

BOOLEAN

Under level trig for analog


channel 8 activated

OvTrigStatCh8

BOOLEAN

Over level trig for analog


channel 8 activated

UnTrigStatCh9

BOOLEAN

Under level trig for analog


channel 9 activated

OvTrigStatCh9

BOOLEAN

Over level trig for analog


channel 9 activated

UnTrigStatCh10

BOOLEAN

Under level trig for analog


channel 10 activated

OvTrigStatCh10

BOOLEAN

Over level trig for analog


channel 10 activated

Table continues on next page

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Name

Type

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

UnTrigStatCh11

BOOLEAN

Under level trig for analog


channel 11 activated

OvTrigStatCh11

BOOLEAN

Over level trig for analog


channel 11 activated

UnTrigStatCh12

BOOLEAN

Under level trig for analog


channel 12 activated

OvTrigStatCh12

BOOLEAN

Over level trig for analog


channel 12 activated

UnTrigStatCh13

BOOLEAN

Under level trig for analog


channel 13 activated

OvTrigStatCh13

BOOLEAN

Over level trig for analog


channel 13 activated

UnTrigStatCh14

BOOLEAN

Under level trig for analog


channel 14 activated

OvTrigStatCh14

BOOLEAN

Over level trig for analog


channel 14 activated

UnTrigStatCh15

BOOLEAN

Under level trig for analog


channel 15 activated

OvTrigStatCh15

BOOLEAN

Over level trig for analog


channel 15 activated

UnTrigStatCh16

BOOLEAN

Under level trig for analog


channel 16 activated

OvTrigStatCh16

BOOLEAN

Over level trig for analog


channel 16 activated

UnTrigStatCh17

BOOLEAN

Under level trig for analog


channel 17 activated

OvTrigStatCh17

BOOLEAN

Over level trig for analog


channel 17 activated

UnTrigStatCh18

BOOLEAN

Under level trig for analog


channel 18 activated

OvTrigStatCh18

BOOLEAN

Over level trig for analog


channel 18 activated

UnTrigStatCh19

BOOLEAN

Under level trig for analog


channel 19 activated

OvTrigStatCh19

BOOLEAN

Over level trig for analog


channel 19 activated

UnTrigStatCh20

BOOLEAN

Under level trig for analog


channel 20 activated

OvTrigStatCh20

BOOLEAN

Over level trig for analog


channel 20 activated

UnTrigStatCh21

BOOLEAN

Under level trig for analog


channel 21 activated

OvTrigStatCh21

BOOLEAN

Over level trig for analog


channel 21 activated

Table continues on next page

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Name

Type

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

UnTrigStatCh22

BOOLEAN

Under level trig for analog


channel 22 activated

OvTrigStatCh22

BOOLEAN

Over level trig for analog


channel 22 activated

UnTrigStatCh23

BOOLEAN

Under level trig for analog


channel 23 activated

OvTrigStatCh23

BOOLEAN

Over level trig for analog


channel 23 activated

UnTrigStatCh24

BOOLEAN

Under level trig for analog


channel 24 activated

OvTrigStatCh24

BOOLEAN

Over level trig for analog


channel 24 activated

UnTrigStatCh25

BOOLEAN

Under level trig for analog


channel 25 activated

OvTrigStatCh25

BOOLEAN

Over level trig for analog


channel 25 activated

UnTrigStatCh26

BOOLEAN

Under level trig for analog


channel 26 activated

OvTrigStatCh26

BOOLEAN

Over level trig for analog


channel 26 activated

UnTrigStatCh27

BOOLEAN

Under level trig for analog


channel 27 activated

OvTrigStatCh27

BOOLEAN

Over level trig for analog


channel 27 activated

UnTrigStatCh28

BOOLEAN

Under level trig for analog


channel 28 activated

OvTrigStatCh28

BOOLEAN

Over level trig for analog


channel 28 activated

UnTrigStatCh29

BOOLEAN

Under level trig for analog


channel 29 activated

OvTrigStatCh29

BOOLEAN

Over level trig for analog


channel 29 activated

UnTrigStatCh30

BOOLEAN

Under level trig for analog


channel 30 activated

OvTrigStatCh30

BOOLEAN

Over level trig for analog


channel 30 activated

UnTrigStatCh31

BOOLEAN

Under level trig for analog


channel 31 activated

OvTrigStatCh31

BOOLEAN

Over level trig for analog


channel 31 activated

UnTrigStatCh32

BOOLEAN

Under level trig for analog


channel 32 activated

OvTrigStatCh32

BOOLEAN

Over level trig for analog


channel 32 activated

Table continues on next page

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Name

13.6.2.6

Type

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

UnTrigStatCh33

BOOLEAN

Under level trig for analog


channel 33 activated

OvTrigStatCh33

BOOLEAN

Over level trig for analog


channel 33 activated

UnTrigStatCh34

BOOLEAN

Under level trig for analog


channel 34 activated

OvTrigStatCh34

BOOLEAN

Over level trig for analog


channel 34 activated

UnTrigStatCh35

BOOLEAN

Under level trig for analog


channel 35 activated

OvTrigStatCh35

BOOLEAN

Over level trig for analog


channel 35 activated

UnTrigStatCh36

BOOLEAN

Under level trig for analog


channel 36 activated

OvTrigStatCh36

BOOLEAN

Over level trig for analog


channel 36 activated

UnTrigStatCh37

BOOLEAN

Under level trig for analog


channel 37 activated

OvTrigStatCh37

BOOLEAN

Over level trig for analog


channel 37 activated

UnTrigStatCh38

BOOLEAN

Under level trig for analog


channel 38 activated

OvTrigStatCh38

BOOLEAN

Over level trig for analog


channel 38 activated

UnTrigStatCh39

BOOLEAN

Under level trig for analog


channel 39 activated

OvTrigStatCh39

BOOLEAN

Over level trig for analog


channel 39 activated

UnTrigStatCh40

BOOLEAN

Under level trig for analog


channel 40 activated

OvTrigStatCh40

BOOLEAN

Over level trig for analog


channel 40 activated

FaultNumber

INTEGER

Disturbance fault number

Measured values
Table 317:
Name

DRPRDRE Measured values


Type

Default

Description

ManTrig

BOOLEAN

Manual trig of disturbance report

ClearDist

BOOLEAN

Clear all disturbances

ClearProcessEv

BOOLEAN

Clear all process events

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13.6.3

Analog input signals AxRADR

13.6.3.1

Identification
Function description

13.6.3.2

IEC 61850
identification

IEC 60617
identification

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number

Analog input signals

A1RADR

Analog input signals

A2RADR

Analog input signals

A3RADR

Function block
A1RADR
^GRPINPUT1
^GRPINPUT2
^GRPINPUT3
^GRPINPUT4
^GRPINPUT5
^GRPINPUT6
^GRPINPUT7
^GRPINPUT8
^GRPINPUT9
^GRPINPUT10
IEC09000348-1-en.vsd
IEC09000348 V1 EN

Figure 197:

13.6.3.3

A1RADR function block, analog inputs, example for A1RADR,


A2RADR and A3RADR

Signals
A1RADR - A3RADR Input signals

Tables for input signals for A1RADR, A2RADR and A3RADR are similar except for
GRPINPUT number.

A1RADR, GRPINPUT1 - GRPINPUT10


A2RADR, GRPINPUT11 - GRPINPUT20
A3RADR, GRPINPUT21 - GRPINPUT30

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Table 318:

A1RADR Input signals

Name

13.6.3.4

Type

Default

Description

GRPINPUT1

GROUP
SIGNAL

Group signal for input 1

GRPINPUT2

GROUP
SIGNAL

Group signal for input 2

GRPINPUT3

GROUP
SIGNAL

Group signal for input 3

GRPINPUT4

GROUP
SIGNAL

Group signal for input 4

GRPINPUT5

GROUP
SIGNAL

Group signal for input 5

GRPINPUT6

GROUP
SIGNAL

Group signal for input 6

GRPINPUT7

GROUP
SIGNAL

Group signal for input 7

GRPINPUT8

GROUP
SIGNAL

Group signal for input 8

GRPINPUT9

GROUP
SIGNAL

Group signal for input 9

GRPINPUT10

GROUP
SIGNAL

Group signal for input 10

Settings
A1RADR - A3RADR Settings

Setting tables for A1RADR, A2RADR and A3RADR are similar except for channel
numbers.

Table 319:
Name

A1RADR, channel01 - channel10


A2RADR, channel11 - channel20
A3RADR, channel21 - channel30

A1RADR Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation01

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Operation On/Off

Operation02

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Operation On/Off

Operation03

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Operation On/Off

Operation04

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Operation On/Off

Table continues on next page

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Name

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation05

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Operation On/Off

Operation06

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Operation On/Off

Operation07

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Operation On/Off

Operation08

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Operation On/Off

Operation09

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Operation On/Off

Operation10

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Operation On/Off

FunType1

0 - 255

Function type for analog channel 1


(IEC-60870-5-103)

InfNo1

0 - 255

Information number for analog channel 1


(IEC-60870-5-103)

FunType2

0 - 255

Function type for analog channel 2


(IEC-60870-5-103)

InfNo2

0 - 255

Information number for analog channel 2


(IEC-60870-5-103)

FunType3

0 - 255

Function type for analog channel 3


(IEC-60870-5-103)

InfNo3

0 - 255

Information number for analog channel 3


(IEC-60870-5-103)

FunType4

0 - 255

Function type for analog channel 4


(IEC-60870-5-103)

InfNo4

0 - 255

Information number for analog channel 4


(IEC-60870-5-103)

FunType5

0 - 255

Function type for analog channel 5


(IEC-60870-5-103)

InfNo5

0 - 255

Information number for analog channel 5


(IEC-60870-5-103)

FunType6

0 - 255

Function type for analog channel 6


(IEC-60870-5-103)

InfNo6

0 - 255

Information number for analog channel 6


(IEC-60870-5-103)

FunType7

0 - 255

Function type for analog channel 7


(IEC-60870-5-103)

InfNo7

0 - 255

Information number for analog channel 7


(IEC-60870-5-103)

FunType8

0 - 255

Function type for analog channel 8


(IEC-60870-5-103)

InfNo8

0 - 255

Information number for analog channel 8


(IEC-60870-5-103)

Table continues on next page

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Monitoring

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Name

Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

FunType9

0 - 255

Function type for analog channel 9


(IEC-60870-5-103)

InfNo9

0 - 255

Information number for analog channel 9


(IEC-60870-5-103)

FunType10

0 - 255

Function type for analog channel 10


(IEC-60870-5-103)

InfNo10

0 - 255

Information number for analog channel10


(IEC-60870-5-103)

Table 320:
Name

A1RADR Non group settings (advanced)


Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

NomValue01

0.0 - 999999.9

0.1

0.0

Nominal value for analog channel 1

UnderTrigOp01

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Use under level trigger for analog channel 1


(on) or not (off)

UnderTrigLe01

0 - 200

50

Under trigger level for analog channel 1 in %


of signal

OverTrigOp01

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Use over level trigger for analog channel 1


(on) or not (off)

OverTrigLe01

0 - 5000

200

Over trigger level for analog channel 1 in % of


signal

NomValue02

0.0 - 999999.9

0.1

0.0

Nominal value for analog channel 2

UnderTrigOp02

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Use under level trigger for analog channel 2


(on) or not (off)

UnderTrigLe02

0 - 200

50

Under trigger level for analog channel 2 in %


of signal

OverTrigOp02

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Use over level trigger for analog channel 2


(on) or not (off)

OverTrigLe02

0 - 5000

200

Over trigger level for analog channel 2 in % of


signal

NomValue03

0.0 - 999999.9

0.1

0.0

Nominal value for analog channel 3

UnderTrigOp03

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Use under level trigger for analog channel 3


(on) or not (off)

UnderTrigLe03

0 - 200

50

Under trigger level for analog channel 3 in %


of signal

OverTrigOp03

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Use over level trigger for analog channel 3


(on) or not (off)

OverTrigLe03

0 - 5000

200

Overtrigger level for analog channel 3 in % of


signal

NomValue04

0.0 - 999999.9

0.1

0.0

Nominal value for analog channel 4

UnderTrigOp04

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Use under level trigger for analog channel 4


(on) or not (off)

UnderTrigLe04

0 - 200

50

Under trigger level for analog channel 4 in %


of signal

Table continues on next page


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Name

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

OverTrigOp04

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Use over level trigger for analog channel 4


(on) or not (off)

OverTrigLe04

0 - 5000

200

Over trigger level for analog channel 4 in % of


signal

NomValue05

0.0 - 999999.9

0.1

0.0

Nominal value for analog channel 5

UnderTrigOp05

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Use under level trigger for analog channel 5


(on) or not (off)

UnderTrigLe05

0 - 200

50

Under trigger level for analog channel 5 in %


of signal

OverTrigOp05

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Use over level trigger for analog channel 5


(on) or not (off)

OverTrigLe05

0 - 5000

200

Over trigger level for analog channel 5 in % of


signal

NomValue06

0.0 - 999999.9

0.1

0.0

Nominal value for analog channel 6

UnderTrigOp06

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Use under level trigger for analog channel 6


(on) or not (off)

UnderTrigLe06

0 - 200

50

Under trigger level for analog channel 6 in %


of signal

OverTrigOp06

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Use over level trigger for analog channel 6


(on) or not (off)

OverTrigLe06

0 - 5000

200

Over trigger level for analog channel 6 in % of


signal

NomValue07

0.0 - 999999.9

0.1

0.0

Nominal value for analog channel 7

UnderTrigOp07

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Use under level trigger for analog channel 7


(on) or not (off)

UnderTrigLe07

0 - 200

50

Under trigger level for analog channel 7 in %


of signal

OverTrigOp07

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Use over level trigger for analog channel 7


(on) or not (off)

OverTrigLe07

0 - 5000

200

Over trigger level for analog channel 7 in % of


signal

NomValue08

0.0 - 999999.9

0.1

0.0

Nominal value for analog channel 8

UnderTrigOp08

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Use under level trigger for analog channel 8


(on) or not (off)

UnderTrigLe08

0 - 200

50

Under trigger level for analog channel 8 in %


of signal

OverTrigOp08

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Use over level trigger for analog channel 8


(on) or not (off)

OverTrigLe08

0 - 5000

200

Over trigger level for analog channel 8 in % of


signal

NomValue09

0.0 - 999999.9

0.1

0.0

Nominal value for analog channel 9

UnderTrigOp09

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Use under level trigger for analog channel 9


(on) or not (off)

Table continues on next page

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1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Name

Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

UnderTrigLe09

0 - 200

50

Under trigger level for analog channel 9 in %


of signal

OverTrigOp09

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Use over level trigger for analog channel 9


(on) or not (off)

OverTrigLe09

0 - 5000

200

Over trigger level for analog channel 9 in % of


signal

NomValue10

0.0 - 999999.9

0.1

0.0

Nominal value for analog channel 10

UnderTrigOp10

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Use under level trigger for analog channel 10


(on) or not (off)

UnderTrigLe10

0 - 200

50

Under trigger level for analog channel 10 in %


of signal

OverTrigOp10

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Use over level trigger for analog channel 10


(on) or not (off)

OverTrigLe10

0 - 5000

200

Over trigger level for analog channel 10 in %


of signal

13.6.4

Analog input signals A4RADR

13.6.4.1

Identification
Function description
Analog input signals

13.6.4.2

IEC 61850
identification
A4RADR

IEC 60617
identification
-

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
-

Function block
A4RADR
^INPUT31
^INPUT32
^INPUT33
^INPUT34
^INPUT35
^INPUT36
^INPUT37
^INPUT38
^INPUT39
^INPUT40
IEC09000350-1-en.vsd
IEC09000350 V1 EN

Figure 198:

A4RADR function block, derived analog inputs

Channels 31-40 are not shown in LHMI. They are used for internally
calculated analog signals.

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13.6.4.3

Signals
Table 321:

A4RADR Input signals

Name

13.6.4.4
Table 322:
Name

Type

Default

Description

INPUT31

REAL

Analog channel 31

INPUT32

REAL

Analog channel 32

INPUT33

REAL

Analog channel 33

INPUT34

REAL

Analog channel 34

INPUT35

REAL

Analog channel 35

INPUT36

REAL

Analog channel 36

INPUT37

REAL

Analog channel 37

INPUT38

REAL

Analog channel 38

INPUT39

REAL

Analog channel 39

INPUT40

REAL

Analog channel 40

Settings
A4RADR Non group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation31

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Operation On/off

Operation32

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Operation On/off

Operation33

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Operation On/off

Operation34

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Operation On/off

Operation35

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Operation On/off

Operation36

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Operation On/off

Operation37

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Operation On/off

Operation38

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Operation On/off

Operation39

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Operation On/off

Operation40

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Operation On/off

FunType31

0 - 255

Function type for analog channel 31


(IEC-60870-5-103)

Table continues on next page

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Monitoring

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Name

Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

InfNo31

0 - 255

Information number for analog channel 31


(IEC-60870-5-103)

FunType32

0 - 255

Function type for analog channel 32


(IEC-60870-5-103)

InfNo32

0 - 255

Information number for analog channel 32


(IEC-60870-5-103)

FunType33

0 - 255

Function type for analog channel 33


(IEC-60870-5-103)

InfNo33

0 - 255

Information number for analog channel 33


(IEC-60870-5-103)

FunType34

0 - 255

Function type for analog channel 34


(IEC-60870-5-103)

InfNo34

0 - 255

Information number for analog channel 34


(IEC-60870-5-103)

FunType35

0 - 255

Function type for analog channel 35


(IEC-60870-5-103)

InfNo35

0 - 255

Information number for analog channel 35


(IEC-60870-5-103)

FunType36

0 - 255

Function type for analog channel 36


(IEC-60870-5-103)

InfNo36

0 - 255

Information number for analog channel 36


(IEC-60870-5-103)

FunType37

0 - 255

Function type for analog channel 37


(IEC-60870-5-103)

InfNo37

0 - 255

Information number for analog channel 37


(IEC-60870-5-103)

FunType38

0 - 255

Function type for analog channel 38


(IEC-60870-5-103)

InfNo38

0 - 255

Information number for analog channel 38


(IEC-60870-5-103)

FunType39

0 - 255

Function type for analog channel 39


(IEC-60870-5-103)

InfNo39

0 - 255

Information number for analog channel 39


(IEC-60870-5-103)

FunType40

0 - 255

Function type for analog channel 40


(IEC-60870-5-103)

InfNo40

0 - 255

Information number for analog channel40


(IEC-60870-5-103)

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Table 323:
Name

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

A4RADR Non group settings (advanced)


Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

NomValue31

0.0 - 999999.9

0.1

0.0

Nominal value for analog channel 31

UnderTrigOp31

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Use under level trigger for analog channel 31


(on) or not (off)

UnderTrigLe31

0 - 200

50

Under trigger level for analog channel 31 in %


of signal

OverTrigOp31

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Use over level trigger for analog channel 31


(on) or not (off)

OverTrigLe31

0 - 5000

200

Over trigger level for analog channel 31 in %


of signal

NomValue32

0.0 - 999999.9

0.1

0.0

Nominal value for analog channel 32

UnderTrigOp32

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Use under level trigger for analog channel 32


(on) or not (off)

UnderTrigLe32

0 - 200

50

Under trigger level for analog channel 32 in %


of signal

OverTrigOp32

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Use over level trigger for analog channel 32


(on) or not (off)

OverTrigLe32

0 - 5000

200

Over trigger level for analog channel 32 in %


of signal

NomValue33

0.0 - 999999.9

0.1

0.0

Nominal value for analog channel 33

UnderTrigOp33

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Use under level trigger for analog channel 33


(on) or not (off)

UnderTrigLe33

0 - 200

50

Under trigger level for analog channel 33 in %


of signal

OverTrigOp33

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Use over level trigger for analog channel 33


(on) or not (off)

OverTrigLe33

0 - 5000

200

Overtrigger level for analog channel 33 in %


of signal

NomValue34

0.0 - 999999.9

0.1

0.0

Nominal value for analog channel 34

UnderTrigOp34

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Use under level trigger for analog channel 34


(on) or not (off)

UnderTrigLe34

0 - 200

50

Under trigger level for analog channel 34 in %


of signal

OverTrigOp34

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Use over level trigger for analog channel 34


(on) or not (off)

OverTrigLe34

0 - 5000

200

Over trigger level for analog channel 34 in %


of signal

NomValue35

0.0 - 999999.9

0.1

0.0

Nominal value for analog channel 35

UnderTrigOp35

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Use under level trigger for analog channel 35


(on) or not (off)

UnderTrigLe35

0 - 200

50

Under trigger level for analog channel 35 in %


of signal

Table continues on next page

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1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Name

Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

OverTrigOp35

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Use over level trigger for analog channel 35


(on) or not (off)

OverTrigLe35

0 - 5000

200

Over trigger level for analog channel 35 in %


of signal

NomValue36

0.0 - 999999.9

0.1

0.0

Nominal value for analog channel 36

UnderTrigOp36

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Use under level trigger for analog channel 36


(on) or not (off)

UnderTrigLe36

0 - 200

50

Under trigger level for analog channel 36 in %


of signal

OverTrigOp36

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Use over level trigger for analog channel 36


(on) or not (off)

OverTrigLe36

0 - 5000

200

Over trigger level for analog channel 36 in %


of signal

NomValue37

0.0 - 999999.9

0.1

0.0

Nominal value for analog channel 37

UnderTrigOp37

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Use under level trigger for analog channel 37


(on) or not (off)

UnderTrigLe37

0 - 200

50

Under trigger level for analog channel 37 in %


of signal

OverTrigOp37

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Use over level trigger for analog channel 37


(on) or not (off)

OverTrigLe37

0 - 5000

200

Over trigger level for analog channel 37 in %


of signal

NomValue38

0.0 - 999999.9

0.1

0.0

Nominal value for analog channel 38

UnderTrigOp38

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Use under level trigger for analog channel 38


(on) or not (off)

UnderTrigLe38

0 - 200

50

Under trigger level for analog channel 38 in %


of signal

OverTrigOp38

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Use over level trigger for analog channel 38


(on) or not (off)

OverTrigLe38

0 - 5000

200

Over trigger level for analog channel 38 in %


of signal

NomValue39

0.0 - 999999.9

0.1

0.0

Nominal value for analog channel 39

UnderTrigOp39

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Use under level trigger for analog channel 39


(on) or not (off)

UnderTrigLe39

0 - 200

50

Under trigger level for analog channel 39 in %


of signal

OverTrigOp39

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Use over level trigger for analog channel 39


(on) or not (off)

OverTrigLe39

0 - 5000

200

Over trigger level for analog channel 39 in %


of signal

NomValue40

0.0 - 999999.9

0.1

0.0

Nominal value for analog channel 40

UnderTrigOp40

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Use under level trigger for analog channel 40


(on) or not (off)

Table continues on next page

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Monitoring
Name

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

UnderTrigLe40

0 - 200

50

Under trigger level for analog channel 40 in %


of signal

OverTrigOp40

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Use over level trigger for analog channel 40


(on) or not (off)

OverTrigLe40

0 - 5000

200

Over trigger level for analog channel 40 in %


of signal

13.6.5

Binary input signals BxRBDR

13.6.5.1

Identification
Function description

13.6.5.2

IEC 61850
identification

IEC 60617
identification

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number

Binary input signals

B1RBDR

Binary input signals

B2RBDR

Binary input signals

B3RBDR

Binary input signals

B4RBDR

Binary input signals

B5RBDR

Binary input signals

B6RBDR

Function block
B1RBDR
^INPUT1
^INPUT2
^INPUT3
^INPUT4
^INPUT5
^INPUT6
^INPUT7
^INPUT8
^INPUT9
^INPUT10
^INPUT11
^INPUT12
^INPUT13
^INPUT14
^INPUT15
^INPUT16
IEC09000352-1-en.vsd
IEC09000352 V1 EN

Figure 199:

B1RBDR function block, binary inputs, example for B1RBDR - B6RBDR

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1MRK 502 034-UUS -

13.6.5.3

Signals
B1RBDR - B6RBDR Input signals

Tables for input signals for B1RBDR - B6RBDR are all similar except for INPUT and
description number.

B1RBDR, INPUT1 - INPUT16


B2RBDR, INPUT17 - INPUT32
B3RBDR, INPUT33 - INPUT48
B4RBDR, INPUT49 - INPUT64
B5RBDR, INPUT65 - INPUT80
B6RBDR, INPUT81 - INPUT96

Table 324:
Name

13.6.5.4

B1RBDR Input signals


Type

Default

Description

INPUT1

BOOLEAN

Binary channel 1

INPUT2

BOOLEAN

Binary channel 2

INPUT3

BOOLEAN

Binary channel 3

INPUT4

BOOLEAN

Binary channel 4

INPUT5

BOOLEAN

Binary channel 5

INPUT6

BOOLEAN

Binary channel 6

INPUT7

BOOLEAN

Binary channel 7

INPUT8

BOOLEAN

Binary channel 8

INPUT9

BOOLEAN

Binary channel 9

INPUT10

BOOLEAN

Binary channel 10

INPUT11

BOOLEAN

Binary channel 11

INPUT12

BOOLEAN

Binary channel 12

INPUT13

BOOLEAN

Binary channel 13

INPUT14

BOOLEAN

Binary channel 14

INPUT15

BOOLEAN

Binary channel 15

INPUT16

BOOLEAN

Binary channel 16

Settings
B1RBDR - B6RBDR Settings

Setting tables for B1RBDR - B6RBDR are all similar except for binary channel and
description numbers.

B1RBDR, channel1 - channel16


B2RBDR, channel17 - channel32
B3RBDR, channel33 - channel48
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1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Table 325:
Name

B4RBDR, channel49 - channel64


B5RBDR, channel65 - channel80
B6RBDR, channel81 - channel96

B1RBDR Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

TrigDR01

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Trigger operation On/Off

SetLED01

Disabled
Start
Trip
Pick up and trip

Disabled

Set LED on HMI for binary channel 1

TrigDR02

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Trigger operation On/Off

SetLED02

Disabled
Start
Trip
Pick up and trip

Disabled

Set LED on HMI for binary channel 2

TrigDR03

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Trigger operation On/Off

SetLED03

Disabled
Start
Trip
Pick up and trip

Disabled

Set LED on HMI for binary channel 3

TrigDR04

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Trigger operation On/Off

SetLED04

Disabled
Start
Trip
Pick up and trip

Disabled

Set LED on HMI for binary channel 4

TrigDR05

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Trigger operation On/Off

SetLED05

Disabled
Start
Trip
Pick up and trip

Disabled

Set LED on HMI for binary channel 5

TrigDR06

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Trigger operation On/Off

SetLED06

Disabled
Start
Trip
Pick up and trip

Disabled

Set LED on HMI for binary channel 6

TrigDR07

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Trigger operation On/Off

SetLED07

Disabled
Start
Trip
Pick up and trip

Disabled

Set LED on HMI for binary channel 7

Table continues on next page

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1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Name

Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

TrigDR08

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Trigger operation On/Off

SetLED08

Disabled
Start
Trip
Pick up and trip

Disabled

Set LED on HMI for binary channel 8

TrigDR09

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Trigger operation On/Off

SetLED09

Disabled
Start
Trip
Pick up and trip

Disabled

Set LED on HMI for binary channel 9

TrigDR10

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Trigger operation On/Off

SetLED10

Disabled
Start
Trip
Pick up and trip

Disabled

Set LED on HMI for binary channel 10

TrigDR11

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Trigger operation On/Off

SetLED11

Disabled
Start
Trip
Pick up and trip

Disabled

Set LED on HMI for binary channel 11

TrigDR12

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Trigger operation On/Off

SetLED12

Disabled
Start
Trip
Pick up and trip

Disabled

Set LED on HMI for binary channel 12

TrigDR13

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Trigger operation On/Off

SetLED13

Disabled
Start
Trip
Pick up and trip

Disabled

Set LED on HMI for binary channel 13

TrigDR14

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Trigger operation On/Off

SetLED14

Disabled
Start
Trip
Pick up and trip

Disabled

Set LED on HMI for binary channel 14

TrigDR15

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Trigger operation On/Off

SetLED15

Disabled
Start
Trip
Pick up and trip

Disabled

Set LED on HMI for binary channel 15

Table continues on next page

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Monitoring
Name

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

TrigDR16

Disabled
Enabled

Disabled

Trigger operation On/Off

SetLED16

Disabled
Start
Trip
Pick up and trip

Disabled

Set LED on HMI for binary channel 16

FunType1

0 - 255

Function type for binary channel 1 (IEC


-60870-5-103)

InfNo1

0 - 255

Information number for binary channel 1 (IEC


-60870-5-103)

FunType2

0 - 255

Function type for binary channel 2 (IEC


-60870-5-103)

InfNo2

0 - 255

Information number for binary channel 2 (IEC


-60870-5-103)

FunType3

0 - 255

Function type for binary channel 3 (IEC


-60870-5-103)

InfNo3

0 - 255

Information number for binary channel 3 (IEC


-60870-5-103)

FunType4

0 - 255

Function type for binary channel 4 (IEC


-60870-5-103)

InfNo4

0 - 255

Information number for binary channel 4 (IEC


-60870-5-103)

FunType5

0 - 255

Function type for binary channel 5 (IEC


-60870-5-103)

InfNo5

0 - 255

Information number for binary channel 5 (IEC


-60870-5-103)

FunType6

0 - 255

Function type for binary channel 6 (IEC


-60870-5-103)

InfNo6

0 - 255

Information number for binary channel 6 (IEC


-60870-5-103)

FunType7

0 - 255

Function type for binary channel 7 (IEC


-60870-5-103)

InfNo7

0 - 255

Information number for binary channel 7 (IEC


-60870-5-103)

FunType8

0 - 255

Function type for binary channel 8 (IEC


-60870-5-103)

InfNo8

0 - 255

Information number for binary channel 8 (IEC


-60870-5-103)

FunType9

0 - 255

Function type for binary channel 9 (IEC


-60870-5-103)

InfNo9

0 - 255

Information number for binary channel 9 (IEC


-60870-5-103)

FunType10

0 - 255

Function type for binary channel 10 (IEC


-60870-5-103)

InfNo10

0 - 255

Information number for binary channel 10


(IEC -60870-5-103)

Table continues on next page


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Name

Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

FunType11

0 - 255

Function type for binary channel 11 (IEC


-60870-5-103)

InfNo11

0 - 255

Information number for binary channel 11


(IEC -60870-5-103)

FunType12

0 - 255

Function type for binary channel 12 (IEC


-60870-5-103)

InfNo12

0 - 255

Information number for binary channel 12


(IEC -60870-5-103)

FunType13

0 - 255

Function type for binary channel 13 (IEC


-60870-5-103)

InfNo13

0 - 255

Information number for binary channel 13


(IEC -60870-5-103)

FunType14

0 - 255

Function type for binary channel 14 (IEC


-60870-5-103)

InfNo14

0 - 255

Information number for binary channel 14


(IEC -60870-5-103)

FunType15

0 - 255

Function type for binary channel 15 (IEC


-60870-5-103)

InfNo15

0 - 255

Information number for binary channel 15


(IEC -60870-5-103)

FunType16

0 - 255

Function type for binary channel 16 (IEC


-60870-5-103)

InfNo16

0 - 255

Information number for binary channel 16


(IEC -60870-5-103)

Table 326:
Name

B1RBDR Non group settings (advanced)


Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

TrigLevel01

Trig on 0
Trig on 1

Trig on 1

Trigger on positive (1) or negative (0) slope


for binary input 1

IndicationMa01

Hide
Show

Hide

Indication mask for binary channel 1

TrigLevel02

Trig on 0
Trig on 1

Trig on 1

Trigger on positive (1) or negative (0) slope


for binary input 2

IndicationMa02

Hide
Show

Hide

Indication mask for binary channel 2

TrigLevel03

Trig on 0
Trig on 1

Trig on 1

Trigger on positive (1) or negative (0) slope


for binary input 3

IndicationMa03

Hide
Show

Hide

Indication mask for binary channel 3

TrigLevel04

Trig on 0
Trig on 1

Trig on 1

Trigger on positive (1) or negative (0) slope


for binary input 4

IndicationMa04

Hide
Show

Hide

Indication mask for binary channel 4

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Name

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Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

TrigLevel05

Trig on 0
Trig on 1

Trig on 1

Trigger on positive (1) or negative (0) slope


for binary input 5

IndicationMa05

Hide
Show

Hide

Indication mask for binary channel 5

TrigLevel06

Trig on 0
Trig on 1

Trig on 1

Trigger on positive (1) or negative (0) slope


for binary input 6

IndicationMa06

Hide
Show

Hide

Indication mask for binary channel 6

TrigLevel07

Trig on 0
Trig on 1

Trig on 1

Trigger on positive (1) or negative (0) slope


for binary input 7

IndicationMa07

Hide
Show

Hide

Indication mask for binary channel 7

TrigLevel08

Trig on 0
Trig on 1

Trig on 1

Trigger on positive (1) or negative (0) slope


for binary input 8

IndicationMa08

Hide
Show

Hide

Indication mask for binary channel 8

TrigLevel09

Trig on 0
Trig on 1

Trig on 1

Trigger on positive (1) or negative (0) slope


for binary input 9

IndicationMa09

Hide
Show

Hide

Indication mask for binary channel 9

TrigLevel10

Trig on 0
Trig on 1

Trig on 1

Trigger on positive (1) or negative (0) slope


for binary input 10

IndicationMa10

Hide
Show

Hide

Indication mask for binary channel 10

TrigLevel11

Trig on 0
Trig on 1

Trig on 1

Trigger on positive (1) or negative (0) slope


for binary input 11

IndicationMa11

Hide
Show

Hide

Indication mask for binary channel 11

TrigLevel12

Trig on 0
Trig on 1

Trig on 1

Trigger on positive (1) or negative (0) slope


for binary input 12

IndicationMa12

Hide
Show

Hide

Indication mask for binary channel 12

TrigLevel13

Trig on 0
Trig on 1

Trig on 1

Trigger on positive (1) or negative (0) slope


for binary input 13

IndicationMa13

Hide
Show

Hide

Indication mask for binary channel 13

TrigLevel14

Trig on 0
Trig on 1

Trig on 1

Trigger on positive (1) or negative (0) slope


for binary input 14

IndicationMa14

Hide
Show

Hide

Indication mask for binary channel 14

TrigLevel15

Trig on 0
Trig on 1

Trig on 1

Trigger on positive (1) or negative (0) slope


for binary input 15

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Name

Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

IndicationMa15

Hide
Show

Hide

Indication mask for binary channel 15

TrigLevel16

Trig on 0
Trig on 1

Trig on 1

Trigger on positive (1) or negative (0) slope


for binary input 16

IndicationMa16

Hide
Show

Hide

Indication mask for binary channel 16

13.6.6

Operation principle
Disturbance report DRPRDRE is a common name for several functions to supply the
operator, analysis engineer, and so on, with sufficient information about events in the
system.
The functions included in the disturbance report are:

Sequential of events
Indications
Event recorder
Trip value recorder
Disturbance recorder

Figure 200 shows the relations between Disturbance Report, included functions and
function blocks. Sequential of events , Event recorder and Indications uses information
from the binary input function blocks (BxRBDR). Trip value recorder uses analog
information from the analog input function blocks (AxRADR). Disturbance recorder
DRPRDRE acquires information from both AxRADR and BxRBDR.

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A1-4RADR

A4RADR

Disturbance Report

DRPRDRE

Analog signals
Trip value rec

B1-6RBDR

Binary signals

Disturbance
recorder

B6RBDR
Sequential of
events
Event recorder
Indications

ANSI09000337-1-en.vsd
ANSI09000337 V1 EN

Figure 200:

Disturbance report functions and related function blocks

The whole disturbance report can contain information for a number of recordings, each
with the data coming from all the parts mentioned above. The sequential of events
function is working continuously, independent of disturbance triggering, recording
time, and so on. All information in the disturbance report is stored in non-volatile flash
memories. This implies that no information is lost in case of loss of auxiliary power.
Each report will get an identification number in the interval from 0-999.
Up to 100 disturbance reports can be stored. If a new disturbance is to be recorded
when the memory is full, the oldest disturbance report is overwritten by the new one.
The total recording capacity for the disturbance recorder is depending of sampling
frequency, number of analog and binary channels and recording time. In a 60 Hz
system it is possible to record 80 where the maximum recording time is 3.4 seconds.
The memory limit does not affect the rest of the disturbance report (Sequential of
events, Event recorder, Indications and Trip value recorder).
The maximum number of recordings depend on each recordings total
recording time. Long recording time will reduce the number of
recordings to less than 100.

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The IED flash disk should NOT be used to store any user files. This
might cause disturbance recordings to be deleted due to lack of disk space.

13.6.6.1

Disturbance information
Date and time of the disturbance, the indications, events, fault location and the trip
values are available on the local HMI. To acquire a complete disturbance report the
user must use a PC and - either the PCM600 Disturbance handling tool - or a FTP or
MMS (over 61850) client. The PC can be connected to the IED front, rear or remotely
via the station bus (Ethernet ports).

13.6.6.2

Indications
Indications is a list of signals that were activated during the total recording time of the
disturbance (not time-tagged), see Indication section for detailed information.

13.6.6.3

Event recorder
The event recorder may contain a list of up to 150 time-tagged events, which have
occurred during the disturbance. The information is available via the local HMI or
PCM600, see Event recorder section for detailed information.

13.6.6.4

Sequential of events
The sequetial of events may contain a list of totally 1000 time-tagged events. The list
information is continuously updated when selected binary signals change state. The
oldest data is overwritten. The logged signals may be presented via local HMI or
PCM600, see Sequential of events section for detailed information.

13.6.6.5

Trip value recorder


The recorded trip values include phasors of selected analog signals before the fault and
during the fault, see Trip value recorder section for detailed information.

13.6.6.6

Disturbance recorder
Disturbance recorder records analog and binary signal data before, during and after the
fault, see Disturbance recorder section for detailed information.

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Time tagging
The IED has a built-in real-time calendar and clock. This function is used for all time
tagging within the disturbance report

13.6.6.8

Recording times
Disturbance report DRPRDRE records information about a disturbance during a
settable time frame. The recording times are valid for the whole disturbance report.
Disturbance recorder, event recorder and indication function register disturbance data
and events during tRecording, the total recording time.
The total recording time, tRecording, of a recorded disturbance is:
PreFaultrecT + tFault + PostFaultrecT or PreFaultrecT + TimeLimit, depending on
which criterion stops the current disturbance recording

tRecording =

Trig point
TimeLimit
PreFaultRecT

PostFaultRecT

3
en05000487.vsd

IEC05000487 V1 EN

Figure 201:

The recording times definition

PreFaultRecT, 1

Pre-fault or pre-trigger recording time. The time before the fault including the operate
time of the trigger. Use the setting PreFaultRecT to set this time.

tFault, 2

Fault time of the recording. The fault time cannot be set. It continues as long as any
valid trigger condition, binary or analog, persists (unless limited by TimeLimit the limit
time).

PostFaultRecT, 3 Post fault recording time. The time the disturbance recording continues after all
activated triggers are reset. Use the setting PostFaultRecT to set this time.
TimeLimit

Limit time. The maximum allowed recording time after the disturbance recording was
triggered. The limit time is used to eliminate the consequences of a trigger that does
not reset within a reasonable time interval. It limits the maximum recording time of a
recording and prevents subsequent overwriting of already stored disturbances. Use the
setting TimeLimit to set this time.

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13.6.6.9

Analog signals
Up to 40 analog signals can be selected for recording by the Disturbance recorder and
triggering of the Disturbance report function. Out of these 40, 30 are reserved for
external analog signals from analog input modules via preprocessing function blocks
(SMAI) and summation block (3PHSUM). The last 10 channels may be connected to
internally calculated analog signals available as function block output signals (phase
differential currents, bias currents and so on).
A1RADR

SMAI

External analog
signals

GRPNAME
AI1NAME

AI3P
AI1

A2RADR
GRPINPUT1

AI2NAME
AI3NAME

AI2
AI3

GRPINPUT2

AI4NAME

AI4
AIN

GRPINPUT4

A3RADR

GRPINPUT3
GRPINPUT5
GRPINPUT6
...
A4RADR
INPUT31
INPUT32

Internal analog signals

INPUT33
INPUT34
INPUT35
INPUT36
...
INPUT40
en05000653-2.vsd

IEC05000653 V2 EN

Figure 202:

Analog input function blocks

The external input signals will be acquired, filtered and skewed and (after
configuration) available as an input signal on the AxRADR function block via the
SMAI function block. The information is saved at the Disturbance report base
sampling rate (1000 or 1200 Hz). Internally calculated signals are updated according to
the cycle time of the specific function. If a function is running at lower speed than the
base sampling rate, Disturbance recorder will use the latest updated sample until a new
updated sample is available.
Application configuration tool (ACT) is used for analog configuration of the
Disturbance report.

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The preprocessor function block (SMAI) calculates the residual quantities in cases
where only the three phases are connected (AI4-input not used).SMAI makes the
information available as a group signal output, phase outputs and calculated residual
output (AIN-output). In situations where AI4-input is used as an input signal the
corresponding information is available on the non-calculated output (AI4) on the
SMAI function block. Connect the signals to the AxRADR accordingly.
For each of the analog signals, Operation = Enabled means that it is recorded by the
disturbance recorder. The trigger is independent of the setting of Operation, and
triggers even if operation is set to Disabled. Both undervoltage and overvoltage can be
used as trigger conditions. The same applies for the current signals.
If Operation = Disabled, no waveform (samples) will be recorded and reported in
graph. However, Trip value, pre-fault and fault value will be recorded and reported.
The input channel can still be used to trig the disturbance recorder.
If Operation = Enabled, waveform (samples) will also be recorded and reported in graph.
The analog signals are presented only in the disturbance recording, but they affect the
entire disturbance report when being used as triggers.

13.6.6.10

Binary signals
Up to 96 binary signals can be selected to be handled by disturbance report. The
signals can be selected from internal logical and binary input signals. A binary signal is
selected to be recorded when:

the corresponding function block is included in the configuration


the signal is connected to the input of the function block

Each of the 96 signals can be selected as a trigger of the disturbance report (Operation
= Operation>TrigDR =Disabled). A binary signal can be selected to activate the
yellow (PICKUP) and red (TRIP) LED on the local HMI (SetLED = Disabled/Pickup/
Trip/Pickup and Trip).
The selected signals are presented in the event recorder, sequential of events and the
disturbance recording. But they affect the whole disturbance report when they are used
as triggers. The indications are also selected from these 96 signals with local HMI
IndicationMask=Show/Hide.

13.6.6.11

Trigger signals
The trigger conditions affect the entire disturbance report, except the sequential of
events, which runs continuously. As soon as at least one trigger condition is fulfilled, a
complete disturbance report is recorded. On the other hand, if no trigger condition is

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fulfilled, there is no disturbance report, no indications, and so on. This implies the
importance of choosing the right signals as trigger conditions.
A trigger can be of type:

Manual trigger
Binary-signal trigger
Analog-signal trigger (over/under function)

Manual trigger

A disturbance report can be manually triggered from the local HMI, PCM600 or via
station bus (IEC 61850). When the trigger is activated, the manual trigger signal is
generated. This feature is especially useful for testing.

Binary-signal trigger

Any binary signal state (logic one or a logic zero) can be selected to generate a trigger
(Triglevel = Trig on 0/Trig on 1). When a binary signal is selected to generate a trigger
from a logic zero, the selected signal will not be listed in the indications list of the
disturbance report.

Analog-signal trigger

All analog signals are available for trigger purposes, no matter if they are recorded in
the disturbance recorder or not. The settings are OverTrigOp, UnderTrigOp,
OverTrigLe and UnderTrigLe.
The check of the trigger condition is based on peak-to-peak values. When this is found,
the absolute average value of these two peak values is calculated. If the average value
is above the threshold level for an overvoltage or overcurrent trigger, this trigger is
indicated with a greater than (>) sign with the user-defined name.
If the average value is below the set threshold level for an undervoltage or undercurrent
trigger, this trigger is indicated with a less than (<) sign with its name. The procedure
is separately performed for each channel.
This method of checking the analog trigger conditions gives a function which is
insensitive to DC offset in the signal. The operate time for this initiation is typically in
the range of one cycle, 16 2/3 ms for a 60 Hz network.
All under/over trig signal information is available on the local HMI and PCM600.

13.6.6.12

Post Retrigger
Disturbance report function does not respond to any new trig condition, during a
recording. Under certain circumstances the fault condition may reoccur during the postfault recording, for instance by automatic reclosing to a still faulty power line.

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In order to capture the new disturbance it is possible to allow retriggering (PostRetrig


= Enabled) during the post-fault time. In this case a new, complete recording will start
and, during a period, run in parallel with the initial recording.
When the retrig parameter is disabled (PostRetrig = Disabled), a new recording will
not start until the post-fault (PostFaultrecT or TimeLimit) period is terminated. If a
new trig occurs during the post-fault period and lasts longer than the proceeding
recording a new complete recording will be fetched.
Disturbance report function can handle maximum 3 simultaneous disturbance recordings.

13.6.7

Technical data
Table 327:

DRPRDRE technical data

Function

Range or value

Accuracy

Current recording

1,0% of Ir at I Ir
1,0% of I at I > Ir

Voltage recording

1,0% of Vn at V Vn
1,0% of Vat V> Vn

Pre-fault time

(0.053.00) s

Post-fault time

(0.110.0) s

Limit time

(0.58.0) s

Maximum number of recordings

100, first in - first out

Time tagging resolution

1 ms

See time synchronization


technical data

Maximum number of analog inputs

30 + 10 (external + internally
derived)

Maximum number of binary inputs

96

Maximum number of phasors in the Trip


Value recorder per recording

30

Maximum number of indications in a


disturbance report

96

Maximum number of events in the Event


recording per recording

150

Maximum number of events in the


Sequential of events

1000, first in - first out

Maximum total recording time (3.4 s


recording time and maximum number of
channels, typical value)

340 seconds (100 recordings)


at 50 Hz, 280 seconds (80
recordings) at 60 Hz

Sampling rate

1 kHz at 50 Hz
1.2 kHz at 60 Hz

Recording bandwidth

(5-300) Hz

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13.7

Indications

13.7.1

Functionality
To get fast, condensed and reliable information about disturbances in the primary and/
or in the secondary system it is important to know, for example binary signals that
have changed status during a disturbance. This information is used in the short
perspective to get information via the local HMI in a straightforward way.
There are three LEDs on the local HMI (green, yellow and red), which will display
status information about the IED and the Disturbance report function (trigged).
The Indication list function shows all selected binary input signals connected to the
Disturbance report function that have changed status during a disturbance.

13.7.2

Function block
The Indications function has no function block of its own.

13.7.3

Signals

13.7.3.1

Input signals
The Indications function may log the same binary input signals as the Disturbance
report function.

13.7.4

Operation principle
The LED indications display this information:
Green LED:
Steady light

In Service

Flashing light

Internal fail

Dark

No power supply

Yellow LED:
Function controlled by SetLEDn setting in Disturbance report function.
Red LED:

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Function controlled by SetLEDn setting in Disturbance report function.


Indication list:
The possible indicated signals are the same as the ones chosen for the disturbance
report function and disturbance recorder.
The indication function tracks 0 to 1 changes of binary signals during the recording
period of the collection window. This means that constant logic zero, constant logic
one or state changes from logic one to logic zero will not be visible in the list of
indications. Signals are not time tagged. In order to be recorded in the list of
indications the:

the signal must be connected to binary input BxRBDR function block


the DRPRDRE parameter Operation must be set Enabled
the DRPRDRE must be trigged (binary or analog)
the input signal must change state from logical 0 to 1 during the recording time.

Indications are selected with the indication mask (IndicationMask) when configuring
the binary inputs.
The name of the binary input signal that appears in the Indication function is the userdefined name assigned at configuration of the IED. The same name is used in
disturbance recorder function , indications and event recorder function .

13.7.5

Technical data
Table 328:

DRPRDRE technical data

Function
Buffer capacity

13.8

Event recorder

13.8.1

Functionality

Value
Maximum number of indications presented
for single disturbance

96

Maximum number of recorded disturbances

100

Quick, complete and reliable information about disturbances in the primary and/or in
the secondary system is vital, for example, time-tagged events logged during
disturbances. This information is used for different purposes in the short term (for
example corrective actions) and in the long term (for example functional analysis).

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The event recorder logs all selected binary input signals connected to the Disturbance
report function. Each recording can contain up to 150 time-tagged events.
The event recorder information is available for the disturbances locally in the IED.
The event recording information is an integrated part of the disturbance record
(Comtrade file).

13.8.2

Function block
The Event recorder has no function block of its own.

13.8.3

Signals

13.8.3.1

Input signals
The Event recorder function logs the same binary input signals as the Disturbance
report function.

13.8.4

Operation principle
When one of the trig conditions for the disturbance report is activated, the event
recorder logs every status change in the 96 selected binary signals. The events can be
generated by both internal logical signals and binary input channels. The internal
signals are time-tagged in the main processor module, while the binary input channels
are time-tagged directly in each I/O module. The events are collected during the total
recording time (pre-, post-fault and limit time), and are stored in the disturbance report
flash memory at the end of each recording.
In case of overlapping recordings, due to PostRetrig = Enabled and a new trig signal
appears during post-fault time, events will be saved in both recording files.
The name of the binary input signal that appears in the event recording is the userdefined name assigned when configuring the IED. The same name is used in the
disturbance recorder function , indications and event recorder function.
The event record is stored as a part of the disturbance report information and managed
via the local HMI or PCM600.
Events can not be read from the IED if more than one user is accessing
the IED simultaneously.

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1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Technical data
Table 329:

DRPRDRE technical data

Function
Buffer capacity

Value
Maximum number of events in disturbance report

150

Maximum number of disturbance reports

100

Resolution

1 ms

Accuracy

Depending on time
synchronizing

13.9

Sequential of events

13.9.1

Functionality
Continuous event-logging is useful for monitoring the system from an overview
perspective and is a complement to specific disturbance recorder functions.
The sequential of events logs all binary input signals connected to the Disturbance
report function. The list may contain up to 1000 time-tagged events stored in a FIFObuffer.

13.9.2

Function block
The Sequential of events has no function block of its own.

13.9.3

Signals

13.9.3.1

Input signals
The Sequential of events logs the same binary input signals as configured for the
Disturbance report function.

13.9.4

Operation principle
When a binary signal, connected to the disturbance report function, changes status, the
sequential of events function stores input name, status and time in the sequential of
events in chronological order. The list can contain up to 1000 events from both internal
logic signals and binary input channels. If the list is full, the oldest event is overwritten
when a new event arrives.

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The list can be configured to show oldest or newest events first with a setting on the
local HMI.
The sequential of events function runs continuously, in contrast to the event recorder
function, which is only active during a disturbance.
The name of the binary input signal that appears in the event recording is the userdefined name assigned when the IED is configured. The same name is used in the
disturbance recorder function, indications and the event recorder function.
The sequential of events is stored and managed separate from the disturbance report
information.

13.9.5

Technical data
Table 330:

DRPRDRE technical data

Function
Buffer capacity

Value
Maximum number of events in the list

1000

Resolution

1 ms

Accuracy

Depending on time
synchronizing

13.10

Trip value recorder

13.10.1

Functionality
Information about the pre-fault and fault values for currents and voltages are vital for
the disturbance evaluation.
The Trip value recorder calculates the values of all selected analog input signals
connected to the Disturbance report function. The result is magnitude and phase angle
before and during the fault for each analog input signal.
The trip value recorder information is available for the disturbances locally in the IED.
The trip value recorder information is an integrated part of the disturbance record
(Comtrade file).

13.10.2

Function block
The Trip value recorder has no function block of its own.

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13.10.3

Signals

13.10.3.1

Input signals
The trip value recorder function uses analog input signals connected to A1RADR to
A3RADR (not A4RADR).

13.10.4

Operation principle
Trip value recorder calculates and presents both fault and pre-fault magnitudes as well
as the phase angles of all the selected analog input signals. The parameter
ZeroAngleRef points out which input signal is used as the angle reference.
When the disturbance report function is triggered the sample for the fault interception
is searched for, by checking the non-periodic changes in the analog input signals. The
channel search order is consecutive, starting with the analog input with the lowest number.
When a fault interception point is found, the Fourier estimation of the pre-fault values
of the complex values of the analog signals starts 1.5 cycle before the fault sample. The
estimation uses samples during one period. The post-fault values are calculated using
the Recursive Least Squares (RLS) method. The calculation starts a few samples after
the fault sample and uses samples during 1/2 - 2 cycles depending on the shape of the
signals.
If no starting point is found in the recording, the disturbance report trig sample is used
as the start sample for the Fourier estimation. The estimation uses samples during one
cycle before the trig sample. In this case the calculated values are used both as pre-fault
and fault values.
The name of the analog input signal that appears in the Trip value recorder function is
the user-defined name assigned when the IED is configured. The same name is used in
the Disturbance recorder function .
The trip value record is stored as a part of the disturbance report information and
managed in via the local HMI or PCM600.

13.10.5

Technical data
Table 331:

DRPRDRE technical data

Function
Buffer capacity

Value
Maximum number of analog inputs

30

Maximum number of disturbance reports

100

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13.11

Disturbance recorder

13.11.1

Functionality
The Disturbance recorder function supplies fast, complete and reliable information
about disturbances in the power system. It facilitates understanding system behavior
and related primary and secondary equipment during and after a disturbance. Recorded
information is used for different purposes in the short perspective (for example
corrective actions) and long perspective (for example functional analysis).
The Disturbance recorder acquires sampled data from selected analog- and binary
signals connected to the Disturbance report function (maximum 40 analog and 96
binary signals). The binary signals available are the same as for the event recorder
function.
The function is characterized by great flexibility and is not dependent on the operation
of protection functions. It can record disturbances not detected by protection functions.
Up to three seconds of data before the trigger instant can be saved in the disturbance file.
The disturbance recorder information for up to 100 disturbances are saved in the IED
and the local HMI is used to view the list of recordings.

13.11.2

Function block
The Disturbance recorder has no function block of its own.

13.11.3

Signals
See Disturbance report for input and output signals.

13.11.4

Settings
See Disturbance report for settings.

13.11.5

Operation principle
Disturbance recording is based on the acquisition of binary and analog signals. The
binary signals can be either true binary input signals or internal logical signals
generated by the functions in the IED. The analog signals to be recorded are input
channels from the Transformer Input Module (TRM) through the Signal Matrix Analog
Input (SMAI) and possible summation (Sum3Ph) function blocks and some internally
derived analog signals.

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Disturbance recorder collects analog values and binary signals continuously, in a cyclic
buffer. The pre-fault buffer operates according to the FIFO principle; old data will
continuously be overwritten as new data arrives when the buffer is full. The size of this
buffer is determined by the set pre-fault recording time.
Upon detection of a fault condition (triggering), the disturbance is time tagged and the
data storage continues in a post-fault buffer. The storage process continues as long as
the fault condition prevails - plus a certain additional time. This is called the post-fault
time and it can be set in the disturbance report.
The above mentioned two parts form a disturbance recording. The whole memory,
intended for disturbance recordings, acts as a cyclic buffer and when it is full, the
oldest recording is overwritten. The last 100 recordings are stored in the IED.
The time tagging refers to the activation of the trigger that starts the disturbance
recording. A recording can be trigged by, manual start, binary input and/or from analog
inputs (over-/underlevel trig).
A user-defined name for each of the signals can be set. These names are common for
all functions within the disturbance report functionality.

13.11.5.1

Memory and storage


The maximum number of recordings depend on each recordings total
recording time. Long recording time will reduce the number of
recordings to less than 100.

The IED flash disk should NOT be used to store any user files. This
might cause disturbance recordings to be deleted due to lack of disk space.
When a recording is completed, a post recording processing occurs.
This post-recording processing comprises:

Saving the data for analog channels with corresponding data for binary signals
Add relevant data to be used by the Disturbance handling tool (part of PCM 600)
Compression of the data, which is performed without losing any data accuracy
Storing the compressed data in a non-volatile memory (flash memory)

The recorded disturbance is now ready for retrieval and evaluation.


The recording files comply with the Comtrade standard IEC 60255-24 and are divided
into three files; a header file (HDR), a configuration file (CFG) and a data file (DAT).

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The header file (optional in the standard) contains basic information about the
disturbance, that is, information from the Disturbance report sub-functions . The
Disturbance handling tool use this information and present the recording in a userfriendly way.
General:

Station name, object name and unit name


Date and time for the trig of the disturbance
Record number
Sampling rate
Time synchronization source
Recording times
Activated trig signal
Active setting group

Analog:

Signal names for selected analog channels


Information e.g. trig on analog inputs
Primary and secondary instrument transformer rating
Over- or Undertrig: level and operation
Over- or Undertrig status at time of trig
CT direction

Binary:

Signal names
Status of binary input signals

The configuration file is a mandatory file containing information needed to interpret


the data file. For example sampling rate, number of channels, system frequency,
channel info etc.
The data file, which also is mandatory, containing values for each input channel for
each sample in the record (scaled value). The data file also contains a sequence number
and time stamp for each set of samples.

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13.11.6

1MRK 502 034-UUS -

Technical data
Table 332:

DRPRDRE technical data

Function
Buffer capacity

Value
Maximum number of analog inputs

40

Maximum number of binary inputs

96

Maximum number of disturbance reports

100

Maximum total recording time (3.4 s recording time and maximum number
of channels, typical value)

340 seconds (100


recordings) at 50 Hz
280 seconds (80
recordings) at 60 Hz

13.12

Measured value expander block MVEXP

13.12.1

Identification
Function description
Measured value expander block

13.12.2

IEC 61850
identification
MVEXP

IEC 60617
identification
-

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
-

Functionality
The current and voltage measurements functions (CVMMXN, CMMXU, VMMXU
and VNMMXU), current and voltage sequence measurement functions (CMSQI and
VMSQI) and IEC 61850 generic communication I/O functions (MVGGIO) are
provided with measurement supervision functionality. All measured values can be
supervised with four settable limits: low-low limit, low limit, high limit and high-high
limit. The measure value expander block has been introduced to enable translating the
integer output signal from the measuring functions to 5 binary signals: below low-low
limit, below low limit, normal, above high-high limit or above high limit. The output
signals can be used as conditions in the configurable logic or for alarming purpose.

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13.12.3

Function block
MVEXP
RANGE*

HIGHHIGH
HIGH
NORMAL
LOW
LOWLOW
IEC09000215-1-en.vsd

IEC09000215 V1 EN

Figure 203:

13.12.4

Signals
Table 333:
Name
RANGE

Table 334:
Name

13.12.5

MVEXP function block

MVEXP Input signals


Type
INTEGER

Default
0

Description
Measured value range

MVEXP Output signals


Type

Description

HIGHHIGH

BOOLEAN

Measured value is above high-high limit

HIGH

BOOLEAN

Measured value is between high and high-high limit

NORMAL

BOOLEAN

Measured value is between high and low limit

LOW

BOOLEAN

Measured value is between low and low-low limit

LOWLOW

BOOLEAN

Measured value is below low-low limit

Settings
The function does not have any parameters available in Local HMI or Protection and
Control IED Manager (PCM600).
Common base IED values for primary current (IBase), primary voltage (VBase) and
primary power (SBase) are set in a Global base values for settings function
GBASVAL. Setting GlobalBaseSel is used to select a GBASVAL function for
reference of base values.

13.12.6

Operation principle
The input signal must be connected to a range output of a measuring function block
(CVMMXN, CMMXU, VMMXU, VNMMXU, CMSQI, VMSQ or MVGGIO). The
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function block converts the input integer value to five binary output signals according
to table 335.
Table 335:

Input integer value converted to binary output signals

Measured supervised
value is:
Output:
LOWLOW

below low-low between low


limit
low and low
limit

between low
and high limit

between high- above high-high


high and high limit
limit

High

LOW

High

NORMAL

High

HIGH

High

HIGHHIGH

High

13.13

Station battery supervision SPVNZBAT

13.13.1

Identification
Function description
Station battery supervision function

13.13.2

IEC 61850
identification
SPVNZBAT

IEC 60617
identification
U<>

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
-

Function block

GUID-2D3C21EA-75E9-4E44-AA0F-4DEA7599182A V1 EN

Figure 204:

13.13.3

Function block

Functionality
The station battery supervision function SPVNZBAT is used for monitoring battery
terminal voltage.
SPVNZBAT activates the start and alarm outputs when the battery terminal voltage
exceeds the set upper limit or drops below the set lower limit. A time delay for the
overvoltage and undervoltage alarms can be set according to definite time characteristics.

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In the definite time (DT) mode, SPVNZBAT operates after a predefined operate time
and resets when the battery undervoltage or overvoltage condition disappears.

13.13.4

Signals
Table 336:

SPVNZBAT Input signals

Name

Type

0.00

Battery terminal voltage that has to be supervised

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Blocks all the output signals of the function

SPVNZBAT Output signals

Name

Table 338:
Name

Description

REAL

Table 337:

13.13.5

Default

V_BATT

Type

Description

AL_VLOW

BOOLEAN

Alarm when voltage has been below low limit for a set
time

AL_VHI

BOOLEAN

Alarm when voltage has exceeded high limit for a set


time

PU_VLOW

BOOLEAN

Pick up signal when battery voltage drops below lower


limit

PU_VHI

BOOLEAN

Pick up signal when battery voltage exceeds upper limit

Settings
SPVNZBAT Non group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default