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WATER AND POWER DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY

DISTRIBUTION REHABILITATION
GUIDELINES

GENERAL MANAGER (OPERATION) WAPDA


SEPTEMBER 2003

TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE

PAGE

FOREWORD..........................................................................................................

1. INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................
1.1 Significance of Reduction of Losses and Voltage Drop in
Distribution System .......................................................................................
1.2 Objectives of Distribution Rehabilitation .......................................................
1.3 Procedure for Distribution Rehabilitation .......................................................
1.4 Factors Affecting Energy Losses & Voltage Drop .........................................
1.5 Planning Tools (Hierarchy) .............................................................................
1.5.1 Reducing the Units Receipt ................................................................
1.5.2 Increasing the Units Sold ....................................................................
1.6 Different Computer Softwares Used for Load Flow Studies ..........................

2. DISTRIBUTION REHABILITATION MEASURES ........................................


2.1 11 kV Distribution Network ..........................................................................
2.1.1 Area Planning without Addition of New Feeders ...............................
2.1.2 Installation of Shunt Capacitors ..........................................................
2.1.3 Reconductoring of 11 kV Feeders ......................................................
2.1.4 Bifurcation of 11 kV Feeders ..............................................................
2.1.5 Area Planning with Addition of New Feeders ....................................
2.1.6 Installation of 11 kV Sectionalizers ....................................................
2.1.7 Replacement of Deteriorated 11 kV Cables........................................
2.2 LT Distribution Network ................................................................................
2.1.1 Load Balancing of Distribution Transformers ....................................
2.1.2 Relocation of Distribution Transformers ............................................
2.1.3 Installation of LT Shunt Capacitors ....................................................
2.1.4 Reconductoring of LT Lines ...............................................................
2.1.5 Replacement of Deteriorated PVC Cables ..........................................
2.1.6 Replacement of Non-standard Fuses ..................................................
2.1.7 Augmentation of Overloaded Transformers .......................................
2.1.8 Addition of New Transformers ...........................................................

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TITLE

2.3

PAGE

2.1.9 Addition of New LT Lines ..................................................................


2.1.10 Use of Connectors ...............................................................................
2.1.11 Replacement of Earthings ...................................................................
2.1.12 Elimination of Loose Joints ................................................................
Replacement of Defective/Sluggish Metering Equipment .............................

7
7
7
8
8

3. CAPCITOR APPLICATIONS .............................................................................


3.1 Power Factor ...................................................................................................
3.2 Power Triangle ................................................................................................
3.3 Disadvantages of Low Power Factor ..............................................................
3.4 Power Factor Improvement.............................................................................
3.5 Power Factor Improvement with Capacitors ..................................................
3.6 Benefits of Shunt Capacitors on Distribution System ....................................
3.7 Vector Representation of Power Factor Improvement ...................................
3.8 Effect of Shunt Capacitor on Feeder Voltage Profile .....................................
3.9 Effect of Series Capacitors on Feeder Voltage Profile ...................................
3.10 Effect of Voltage Regulator on Feeder Voltage Profile..................................
3.11 Common Methods of Connecting Capacitors .................................................
3.12 How Many Capacitors to Install? ...................................................................
3.13 How to Select the Location of Capacitor? ......................................................
3.14 Capacitor Applications in LT Circuits ............................................................

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24

4. PLANNING PROCEDURE ..................................................................................


4.1 Rehabilitation/Renovation/Augmentation of
11 kV Distribution Network ...........................................................................
4.1.1 Selection Criteria / Guidelines for 11 kV Network to be
rehabilitated.........................................................................................
4.1.2 Development of HT Proposal (Phase-I) ..............................................

28

4.1.3
4.1.4
4.1.5

28
28
30

Data/Information Collection ............................................................

30

Technical Analysis ...........................................................................

31

Cost Estimation ................................................................................

32

Benefit/Cost Analysis ......................................................................


Approval of the Proposal (Phase-II) ...................................................
Execution of Proposal (Phase-III) .......................................................
Completion Report (Phase-IV) ...........................................................

33
34
35
35

iii

TITLE
4.1.6

PAGE

Inspection/Completion Certificate (Phase-V) .....................................

35

INFORMATION/DATA (SAMPLE FORMATS


OF DATA SHEETS/SKETCHES FOR HT PROPOSALS) ..............................
36
o

HT Format-I: Single Line Diagram (90 ) of Existing and Proposed Network 37

HT Format-II: Single Line Diagram of Existing & Proposed Network


(A&B)

marked on S.O.P Maps or on Geographical Maps............... 38-39

HT Format-III: Pole-to-Pole Geographical Sketch of Existing Situation ....

40

HT Format-IV: Input Data Form of existing & Proposed Situation ...........

41

HT Format-V: Month-wise Max/Min Load of Grid Station Power T/F


Involved in the Proposal ...................................................

42

HT Format-VI: Month-Wise technical Data of 11 kV Feeder Involved


in the Proposal ...................................................................

43

HT Format-VII: Data Authenticity Certificate .............................................

44

HT Format-VIII: Summary of Technical Analysis Report (Existing Position


(A&B)

HT Format-IX: Summary of Technical Analysis Report (Proposed Position


(A&B)

-- with & without Growth) ................................................ 45-46

-- with & without Growth) ................................................ 47-58

HT Format-X:

Benefits to be Achieved with & without Growth

(A&B)

.......................................................................................... 59-60

HT Format-XI: Geographical Sketch (Pole to Pole) Showing the Complete


Scope of Work .................................................................

61

HT Format-XII: HT Distribution Work Order ............................................. 62-72

HT Format-XIII: Benefit/Cost Calculation ..................................................

HT Format-XIV: Completion Report ........................................................... 74-78

HT Format-XV: Inspection Certificate ........................................................ 79-80


4.2 Rehabilitation/Renovation/Augmentation of LT Distribution
Network...........................................................................................................
4.2.1 Selection Criteria / Guidelines for LT Network to be
Rehabilitated .......................................................................................

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TITLE
4.2.2

PAGE

Development of LT Proposal (Phase-I) ..............................................

82

Data/Information Collection ............................................................

82

Technical Analysis ...........................................................................


Cost Estimation ................................................................................

83
84

Benefit/Cost Analysis ......................................................................


Approval of Proposal (Phase-II) .........................................................
Execution of Proposal (Phase-III) .......................................................
Completion Report (Phase-IV) ...........................................................
Inspection/Completion Certificate (Phase-V) .....................................

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INFORMATION/DATA (SAMPLE FORMATS


OF DATA SHEETS/SKETCHES FOR LT PROPOSALS) ..............................
LT Format-I: Pole-to-Pole Geographical Sketch of Existing LT Network .

88
89

4.2.3
4.2.4
4.2.5
4.2.6

LT Format-II: Pole-to-Pole Geographical Sketch of Proposed LT Network


Showing the Complete Scope of Work ..................................
LT Format-III: Input Data Form of existing & Proposed Situation ................

LT Format-IV: Month-Wise Loading Data of 11/0.4 kV Distribution

90
91

Transformer Involved in the Proposal ...................................

92

LT Format-V: Data Authenticity Certificate .................................................

93

LT Format-VI: Summary of Technical Analysis Report (Existing Position-(A&B)

LT Format-VII: Summary of Technical Analysis Report (Proposed Position-(A&B)

with & without Growth) ......................................................... 94-95

with & without Growth) ....................................................... 96-97

LT Format-VIII:Benefits to be Achieved (with& without Growth)


(A&B)

............................................................................................. 98-99

LT Format-XI: LT Distribution Work Order................................................. 100-104

LT Format-X: Benefit/Cost Calculation .......................................................

LT Format-XI: Completion Report ............................................................... 106-110

LT Format-XII:Inspection Certificate ........................................................... 111-112

4.3

Selection Criteria / Guidelines for Distribution Network to be


Rehabilitated Under DOP .................................................................................

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TITLE

PAGE

5. PLANNING CRITERIA .......................................................................................


5.1 Power Factor .....................................................................................................
5.2 Recommended Feeder Loading ......................................................................

Maximum Permissible VD & Losses-Table 5 ...............................................

114
115
115
116

Economic Conductor Sizes for New HT Line-Table 6 ..................................

117

Economic Conductor Sizes for Replacement in HT-Table 7 .........................

118

Economic Conductor Sizes for New LT Line-Table 8 ..................................

119

Economic Conductor Sizes for Replacement in LT-Table 9 .........................

120

Procedure for Determination of Economic Transformer Size ...................... 121-126

11 kV Transformer Loading ...........................................................................

123

Max Allowable Service Length at Different Loads-Table 10 ......................

127

Max Span Length for New HT, Composite, & LT Lines-Table 11 ............. 129-130

Construction of 11 kV Multiple Circuits ........................................................

131

11 kV Capacitor Judgement Factors-Table 12 ...............................................

132

ANNEXURES .........................................................................................................

133

ANNEXURE-I: Some Important Definitions .............................................. 134-137

ANNEXURE-II: Some Important Formulas ............................................... 138-143

ANNEXURE-III: Sample Calculation of Demand Factor, Power Factor,


& Load Factor For HT Feeder .......................................

144

ANNEXURE-IV: Characteristics of Conductors Aluminum and ACSR......

145

ANNEXURE-V: Copper Conductor Characteristic, and Current


Carrying Capacity ..............................................................

146

ANNEXURE-VI: HT Cables Current Carrying Capacity .............................

147

ANNEXURE-VII: LT Cables Current Carrying Capacity ............................

148

ANNEXURE-VIII: Secondary Loading-Number of Spans (60 m Each) .....

149

ANNEXURE-IX: Typical Core and Winding Losses in Distribution


Transformers ...................................................................

150

ANNEXURE-X: Fuse Ratings For Distribution Transformers and


11 kV Capacitors................................................................

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151

TITLE

PAGE

ANNEXURE-XI: Fuse Ratings for LT Capacitors .......................................

ANNEXURE-XII: Typical Power Factors of Different Equipment

152

/ Installations ................................................................. 153-154

ANNEXURE-XIII: Typical Load Factors of Different Equipment


/ Installations .................................................................

ANNEXURE-XIV: Typical Coincidence Factors Between Different


Elements of Power System ...........................................

155

156

ANNEXURE-XV: Volume of Mixture For:

LT (31 Feet) Steel Structure Foundation .......................

157

HT (36 Feet) Steel Structure Foundation .......................

157

HT (40 Feet) Steel Structure Foundation .......................

158

HT (45 Feet) Steel Structure Foundation .......................

158

ANNEXURE-XVI: Growth Factors ..............................................................

159

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TITLE

PAGE

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: How Many Capacitors to Install ...................................................... 21-22

Table 2: Capacitor Application in LT Circuits ..............................................

27

Table 3: Proposal Prioritization for HT .........................................................

29

Table 4: Proposal Prioritization for LT .........................................................

81

Table 5: Maximum Permissible VD & Losses ..............................................

116

Table 6: Economic Conductor Sizes for New HT Line .................................

117

Table 7: Economic Conductor Sizes for Replacement in HT ........................

118

Table 8: Economic Conductor Sizes for New LT Line .................................

119

Table 9: Economic Conductor Sizes for Replacement in LT ........................

120

Table 10: Max Allowable Service Length at Different Loads .....................

127

Table 11: Max Span Length for New HT, Composite, & LT Lines ............ 129-130

Table 12: 11 kV Capacitor Judgement Factors ..............................................

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TITLE

PAGE

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1: Vector Representation of PF Improvement....................................

15

Figure 2: Voltage Profile of a Feeder with and without Shunt Capacitor .....

16

Figure 3: Voltage Profile of a Feeder with and without Series Capacitor .....

17

Figure 4: Voltage Profile of a Feeder with and without Voltage Regulator ..

18

Figure 5: Common Methods for Connecting Capacitors ...............................

19

Figure 6: Capacitor Application in LT Circuits .............................................

26

Figure 7: 4% Impedance of 3-Phase Dist.T/F (25 to 100 kVA) ....................

124

Figure 8: 4% Impedance of 3-Phase Dist.T/F(100 to 630 kVA) ...................

125

Figure 9: Estimation of Dist. T/F at 9 % Growth Rate ..................................

126

Figure 10: Max Allowable Service Length at Different Loads .....................

128

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FOREWORD
Standards and criteria are revised, amendments are issued, but unfortunately, do not reach
the proper personnel, and if it does, is misplaced/missed and thus remains un-followed
/unimplemented. This is an effort to compile the information scattered, lying in the
personal files / drawers, or in the minds, undocumented and unorganized, related with
rehabilitation of distribution system to make a guideline.
This guideline describes the significance of power distribution system
rehabilitation. Its purpose is to provide planning procedures (with all the necessary
sample formats of data sheets, maps, and sketches), the revised criteria, necessary
definitions, formulas, as well as tabulated information that are needed while developing
the HT and LT proposals.
This will serve as a practical guide for the distribution system planner. It is dared
not to say that all the necessary / important information, in this regard, has been
compiled; but it can serve as a basis to be updated and improved regularly to become a
complete handbook in this regard. The guidelines and criteria described in this guideline
are strictly related with the distribution system rehabilitation / renovation (and is not
meant for dealing with new connections, extension of load, reduction of load, and new
housing schemes, etc.)

On blank side of the pages of this guideline you can write down relevant notes,
cut and paste amendments issued in the subsequent years, and important tables, etc. with
references. Kindly send additional information, suggestions, improvements, and
corrections if any, to the o/o C.E. (D.E.) WAPDA, 17/C-1, IEEEP Building, Faisal Town,
Lahore. Any such information, with references, and solutions of problems in this regard
will be welcomed. This will help updating and making the guideline more useful and self
sufficient.

xi

1. INTRODUCTION
1.1

Significance of Reduction in Energy Losses and Voltage Drop in Distribution


Network
The distribution network is planned for a limited period of time (5 years) and when the
network is extended, its old (existing) part must also be augmented accordingly.
However, to meet with the increasing demand of power, distribution network has been
extended without augmenting the existing network accordingly, as a result energy losses
and voltage drop have been increased beyond permissible limits. The engineering
economics and finance both indicate toward their reduction in the existing as well as
future extensions. For the reduction in energy losses and voltage drops some means are
adopted to augment and rehabilitate the existing distribution system.

1.2

Objectives of Distribution Rehabilitation


The main objectives are:

1.3

Reduction of power losses

Improvement of voltage conditions

Improvement of power factor

Accommodation of future load growth

Shifting of the load from overloaded grid station to lightly loaded grid station

Improvement of quality of energy supply and reliability

Improvement of system stability and continuity of supply

Improvement in safety
Improvement of customer service

Reduction in cost of operation and maintenance

Improvement of equipment life


Procedure of Distribution Rehabilitation
A distribution network is selected for rehabilitation on the basis of certain planning
criteria such as voltage drop, power loss, equipment loading, Benefit/Cost ratio, etc. For
each selected network, a planning proposal for Energy Loss Reduction (ELR) is prepared
to achieve the desired benefits.

1.4

Factors Affecting Energy Losses & Voltage Drop in Distribution Network


Impedance of line conductor
Loading of line conductor
Power factor
Poor maintenance
Defective/Sluggish meters
Theft of electricity

1.5

Methods/Tools of Distribution Rehabilitation (Hierarchy)


1.5.1 By Reducing the Units Receipt
A.
Rehabilitation/Augmentation of HT Distribution Network
Area Planning without addition of new feeder i.e. shifting of load from heavily
loaded feeders to the adjoining lightly loaded Feeders in the vicinity.
Installation of HT shunt capacitors:
i. Fixed
ii. Switched
Reconductoring i.e. replacement of existing conductor with higher capacity
conductor
Bifurcation of feeder i.e. addition of new feeder, to shift some of the load of
existing feeder
Area Planning with addition of new feeders
Sometimes, Area Planning at grid station level is also required to provide relief to
the over loaded grid stations by shifting its load to nearby under loaded or newly
constructed grid stations. Area Planning may or may not involve new feeders.
B.

Rehabilitation/Augmentation of LT Distribution Network


Load balancing of distribution transformers
Relocation of distribution transformer i.e. shifting of transformer to load center
Installation of LT shunt capacitors on tube wells and industrial loads
Reconductoring of LT line
Augmentation of existing transformer (its replacement with higher capacity one)
Addition of new transformers
New LT lines

The above techniques reduce the unit receipt; and hence, reduce the energy losses
and voltage drops.
1.5.2 Increasing the Units Sold

Shifting of meters outside the customer premises

Proper vigilance by the officers/officials to avoid theft of electricity

Detection of units through checking/surveillance by officers


Combing of feeders

Installation of check meters

Replacement of old and defective/sluggish meters


It is pertinent to note that reduction in theft of electricity and its measures are not
in the scope of this guideline.

1.6

Different Software Used For Load Flow Studies of Distribution Network


Feeder Analysis program (FDRANA)
Power System Simulator for Advanced Distribution Engineering Productivity
Tool (PSS/Adept)
The above programs are used for:
Simulation of existing distribution network for load flow studies
Simulation of proposed distribution network for load flow studies on the basis of
existing analysis results for future planning
Simulation of optimal capacitor placement

2. DISTRIBUTION REHABILITION MEASURES


Different distribution system rehabilitation measures are briefly discussed in the
following sub sections.
2.1

11 kV Distribution Network
2.1.1 Area Planning of 11 kV Network Without Addition of New Feeders
In this case, heavily loaded feeders are selected and their load can be shifted to nearby
lightly loaded feeders to balance the load amongst them.
In some cases, due to overloading of grid stations, area planning of feeders is
exercised for shifting of load from one grid station to another grid station by making
links between the grids. This will not only provide relief to the grid station equipment
but also will accommodate the future expected load growth. Area Planning may or
may not involve new feeders.
2.1.2

Installation of Shunt Capacitors


Installation of capacitors on HT lines results in primary loss reduction in HT lines and
improvement in the voltage drop conditions. Losses in distribution transformers, LT
lines, and service cables are also reduced marginally.

2.1.3 Reconductoring of 11 kV Feeders


In this case, only those feeders are selected, where
1. Percentage loading of conductor exceeds economic loading
2. Reconductoring due to replacement of deteriorated/off size conductor
Studies of different conductor sizes have indicated that in many cases, it is more
economical to use conductors of higher cross sectional area. Replacement of existing
line conductors by bigger sized conductors will result in reduction of technical losses
in direct proportion to the ratio between the resistance of the new and existing

conductor. The cost of reconductoring must be compared with the savings due to
reduction in losses, increase in revenues, and release of distribution system capacity.
Evaluation of reconductoring must also take into account the improvement of
power factor, voltage regulation, and increase in demand over the life of the
conductor.
2.1.4 Bifurcation of 11 kV Feeders
In this case, overloaded or lengthy feeders are selected. Only one feeder is selected
for bifurcation and a new feeder is essentially involved in this case.
In many urban and rural areas, the existing HT lines/feeders are extremely
overloaded and lengthy. Replacement of these lines with new 11 kV lines can result
in considerable loss reduction.
In addition to above the introduction of new HT line/feeders can result in
improvement of quality of supply and reduction in losses.
2.1.5 Area Planning of 11 kV Network with Addition of New Feeders
This case is almost similar to above mentioned Area Planning (in article 2.1.1) except
that in this case one or more new feeders are proposed to share some of the load of
the over loaded feeders.
2.1.6 Installation of 11 kV Sectionalizers
In order to isolate the faulty portions of feeders under fault conditions proper
sectionalization of 11 kV network should be carried out to minimize the number of
customers affected.
2.1.7 Replacement of Deteriorated 11 kV Cables (500MCM/240 mm2)
For new 11 kV feeders, it is suggested to use 500 MCM cable at grid end and to
replace the under-sized / deteriorated cable, where required.

2.2

LT Distribution Network
2.2.1 Load Balancing of Distribution Transformers
A large number of transformers are damaged due to un-balancing of load amongst
phases. Therefore, with proper attention to load balancing of distribution transformer,
not only transformer damage rate can be reduced but also the technical losses and the
voltage drops are reduced.
2.2.2 Relocation of Distribution Transformers
In a large number of areas, particularly in villages, relocation (i.e. shifting and
placement of transformers to the load center of the area) can reduce the losses in LT
lines and cables.
2.2.3 Installation of LT Shunt Capacitors
Installation of LT capacitors can result in PF improvement of loads. It also results in
voltage improvement and reduction in energy losses. It, thus, releases the LT lines
capacity; and its effect will be on the source as well as remote end side.
2.2.4 Reconductoring of LT Lines
In certain cases, replacement of existing overloaded LT conductor with bigger
conductor size is another option. Evaluation of LT line reconductoring should be
compared with the other possible measures such as installation of larger number of
transformers (including shifting of load to another one) and upgrading LT lines to HT
lines.
2.2.5 Replacement of Deteriorated PVC Cables
Overloaded, aged, and deteriorated service cables are another major cause of
technical losses. Existing overloaded service cables need to be replaced to reduce
their losses.

2.2.6 Replacement of Non-standard Fuses


Protection of distribution transformers is improved with the replacement of nonstandard fuses with standard dropout fuses. It also results in reduction of distribution
transformer failures.
2.2.7 Augmentation of Overloaded Distribution Transformers
Transformers are damaged due to overloading. Consequently, the voltage level
decreases and technical losses rise. This condition can be improved by replacing of
overloaded transformers with higher capacity ones.
2.2.8 Addition of New Power Transformers
Losses in overloaded and overextended LT circuits can also be reduced by bifurcating
them and by installing a new power transformer (at the grid station).
2.2.9 Addition of New LT Lines
Conversion of existing overloaded, extended, and deteriorated LT cables into single
phase and three phase LT lines can also result in substantial reduction of losses and
improvement of system reliability. New LT lines may be required even in the case of
bifurcation of existing LT circuits through installing new transformers. In many
residential areas, particularly in villages, vast networks of LT cables and service cable
chains (service to service connections) should be rehabilitated.
2.2.10 Use of Connectors
While replacing of overloaded service cables, proper connectors must be used for all
joints. Connectors not only reduce losses in loose jumpers but also improve the
system reliability.
2.2.11 Replacement of Earthings
A large number of fatal and non-fatal accidents of DISCO employees, public, and
animals is partly a consequence of deteriorated earthing (which may be due to
chemical changes in the earth and poor workmanship.) By replacing faulty earthings

or by installing new ones (where it does not exist), the number of accidents can be
reduced.
2.2.12 Elimination of Loose Joints
Considerable energy losses can be reduced in power distribution by introducing
aluminum connectors, especially of compression and bolted types. Infra red sensors
should be used to detect hot spots.
2.3

Replacement of Defective/Sluggish Metering Equipment


At present, a large number of single as well as three phase meters are defective in the
distribution system. Replacement of meters helps reducing the technical losses, and
increase revenues. At the same time, more accurate energy consumption data becomes
available for planning purposes.

3. CAPACITOR APPLICATION
Power factor improvement is an important distribution rehabilitation measure, which
gives a high rate of return on investments. The losses in a distribution system are reduced
with respect to the power factor as follows:
1
Reduction in losses

(Cos 2)

)
2

(Cos 1)

Where, stands for directly proportional to,


Cos 2 is the PF after installing the capacitor, and
Cos 1 is the PF before installing the capacitor.
For example, if the power factor is improved from 0.7 (power factor square =
0.49) to 0.95 (power factor square =0.90), the new losses will be about 54% of the
original losses and the savings will be about 46%.
Benefits from capacitor applications are substantial if the capacitor is installed
close to the load. For instance, installation of capacitors on individual motors will result
in off setting the low motor power factor and efficiency, as well as in reduction of losses
in service cables, LT Lines, transformers and HT lines.
Installation of capacitors can be categorized into fixed and switched (which can
be disconnected during off-peak periods) capacitors to avoid voltage increase during
periods of low demand, especially at night. Furthermore, capacitor installation in
transmission network and grid station must also be taken into account while estimating
the maximum capacity of distribution capacitors that can be installed without resulting in
leading power factor in the power generators.
3.1

Power Factor
Irrespective of the nature of voltage and current, the power factor may be defined as:
i. Cosine of angle of lead or lag
9

ii. The ratio

R
Z

iii. The ratio

Resistance
Impedance

True Power _
Apparent Power

If the voltage and current are both sinusoidal then


Power Factor =

kW =
kVA

kVA Cos
kVA

= Cos

Where, is phase (angle) difference between voltage and current.

3.2

For an ideal power distribution system, the power factor should be close to (less than
but not greater than) unity. If power factor is low i.e. less than unity, it means total
power is not being consumed.

Usually, the power factor of distribution system is lagging which is due to inductive
behavior of the load.

Leading power factor also increases energy loss of the system. Therefore, the PF
should be maintained close to unity.

Power Triangle
For three phase system:
Active or True Power

P =

3 VI Cos

Reactive Power

Q =

3 VI Sin

Apparent Power

S =

3 VI

These three powers are shown in power triangle as below:


Where, S = (P + Q)
P

Q
S

10

Example:

Effect of PF on release of active power

S
PF
P
Q

Generator

Generator

= 100 kVA
= 0.8
= 80 kW
= 60 kVAR

S
PF
P
Q

= 100 kVA
= 1.0
= 100 kW
= 0 kVAR

The above example clearly indicates that a generator of total power 100 kVA will supply
maximum of 80 kW of active power to load with PF = 0.8 and the same generator will
supply maximum of 100 kW of active power to a load with PF = 1.
3.3

Disadvantages of Low Power Factor


As we know
PF = Cos

= kW
kVA

or

In case of three phase system kVA =

therefore,

kVA ,
3 V

kVA

kVA
3 VI,

= kW
Cos
or

From above, it reveals that kVA is directly proportional to current. The major
disadvantage of low PF is that current required for a given useful (kW) power will be
high.
Suppose a three phase balanced system is supplying a load W at voltage V and PF
Cos , then the current flowing through the conductor is
I

W
3 V Cos

11

A low PF obviously means a higher current and this fact leads to the following
undesirable results.

Increase in line losses


Line losses are proportional to I, which means proportional to 1/(Cos ). Thus losses at
Cos = 0.8 are 1/(0.8) = 1.57 times those at unity power factor.

Large kVA Supply Required for a Given Amount of kW Load


Rating of generators and transformers are proportional to current I, and
hence, to 1/Cos .
Thus kVA at Cos = 0.8 is 1/0.8 = 1.25 times that at unity power factor.
Therefore, large generators and transformers are required for the same amount of
active power at low PF

Poor Voltage Regulation


Low lagging power factor causes a large voltage drop.
VD

= (R x W) + (XL x VAR)

V
Low PF means more VAR in the system; hence, increase in voltage drop. Therefore,
additional equipment for regulation is required to keep the voltage drop within the
prescribed limits.
The disadvantages of low power factor are summarized below:
In transmission/distribution lines only the active component of the current is useful.
When PF is low, the phase (active) component is small but the reactive component is
large. Hence, large supply (of apparent) current is required for the same amount of active
(load) current. Large reactive component means, large voltage drop, and hence, greater
copper losses requiring voltage regulation equipment, and decreasing the power
equipment efficiency.

12

Electricity utilities usually are bound to maintain the voltage at customers terminals
within prescribed limits. They have to incur additional capital cost of tap changing gear
on transformers. So, the electricity authorities penalize the industrial customers for their
low PF by charging increased tariff for maximum kVA demand in addition to the kW
charges. Obviously, it is advantageous for the customer to improve his own (i.e. load) PF.
3.4

Power Factor Improvement


Power factor can be improved by supplying kVAR to the inductive load. The techniques
to improve the PF are:

With synchronous motors


With capacitors

Synchronous motors are not commonly used in distribution network for PF


improvement because they require regular maintenance and also are expensive. This
method can be used to raise PF of system having large induction motor loads.
In distribution system, capacitors are the most common method for power factor
improvement being the least expensive and almost maintenance free.
3.5

Power Factor Improvement with Capacitors


Capacitor is a static source of reactive power (i.e. leading reactive current). It
compensates the lagging current of load. There are two types of capacitors according to
their mode of installation:
i.
ii.

Series Capacitors
Shunt Capacitors

Series Capacitors have some drawbacks. First, all load current has to flow through
capacitors, so, when the load increases, larger capacitors are needed. Second, it boosts
the voltage up at the point of installation.

Shunt Capacitors are more suitable for installation on the distribution feeder as it
produces a uniform voltage boost per unit of length of line, out of its point of
application toward the remote end. Therefore, it should be installed as far out on the
distribution system as possible, close to the load requiring the kVAR. Shunt
13

capacitors have two advantages: Adding capacitors releases circuit capacity to


accommodate more load; and it relieves over loaded circuits.
There are two types of shunt capacitors:
i. Switched capacitors
ii. Fixed capacitors
Switched Capacitor

Switched capacitor banks are programmable capacitors and can be switched


on/off during load cycles by different program settings. Time clocks, temperature,
voltage, current, and reactive power controls are common actuators for capacitor
switching.

Switched capacitors are usually applied (if economical) to improve the power
factor to make it equal to 0.97 at peak load.

Fixed Capacitors

3.6

Fixed capacitor banks are usually applied (if economical) to improve the power
factor close to (or less than but not greater than) unity at light load and are
permanently connected to the system through fuses.

Proposed permanently connected capacitor application should be checked to make


sure that the voltage to some customers should not rise too high during light load
periods.

Fixed capacitors are quite cheap as compared to switched capacitors. Therefore,


more often these are used (in distribution network) rather than the switched
capacitors.

Benefits of Shunt Capacitors on Distribution System

Reactive power compensation i.e. reduction of kVA loading on the source; therefore,
more kW load can be added without augmenting the existing line conductors.

Power factor improvement

14

3.7

Reduction in line current i.e. reduction in lagging component of circuit current

Reduction in power system losses i.e. in both I R (the active power loss) and I X (the
reactive power loss)

Reduction in voltage drop i.e. increase in voltage level at the load end

Reduction in investment in system facilities per kW of load supplied

Advantage No.1 is a direct consequence of installing a shunt capacitor because the


same supplies the reactive demand to the load (kVAR), relieving the system from
extra burden of reactive power. Thus, with reactive power compensation, all other
advantages are automatically achieved.

Vector Representation of Power Factor Improvement


After improving PF from 1 to 2, kVAR is reduced from Q1 to Q2. The difference in
kVAR is due to the capacitor that supplies leading kVAR (Qc) to partially neutralize the
lagging kVAR of the system.
Qc = Q1 Q2

Leading kVAR supplied by capacitor is

Qc = P (tan 1 tan 2)

2
1
Q2 (kVAR)

S2 (kVA)

Q1
S1 (kVA)
Qc (kVAR)

Fig 1: Vector Representation of PF Improvement

15

Before Capacitor Installation

After Capacitor Installation

1= Phase angle before Improvement

2= Phase angle after improvement

P1 = Active power (kW) at 1

P2 = Active power (kW) at 2

S1 = Apparent power (kVA) at 1

S2 = Apparent power (kVA) at 2

Q1= Reactive power (kVAR) at 1

Q2= Reactive power (kVAR) at 2

3.8

Effect of Shunt Capacitors on Feeder Voltage Profile


The effect of shunt capacitor application on voltage profile of feeder with uniformly
distributed load is illustrated in the figure below:

Sub Station

Uniformly distributed Load

Capacitor
Rise produced
by Capacitor
Volts

Reference

Feeder Profile
with Capacitor
Feeder Profile
without Capacitor

Sub Station

Distance

Fig 2: Voltage Profile of Feeder With & Without Shunt Capacitor

Capacitors produce a voltage rise because of it supplies leading current that


compensates the inductive reactance of the feeder.

As is seen in the above figure, this voltage rise increases linearly from zero at sub
station to its maximum value at the capacitor location.

Between the capacitor location and the remote end (i.e. load end) of the feeder, the
voltage rise due to capacitor is at its maximum value.

16

3.9

When the capacitor voltage-rise profile is combined with the original feeder voltage
profile, the resulting net voltage profile is obtained.

The capacitor increases the voltage level all along the feeder, resulting also in
improved voltage spread.

Proposed permanently connected capacitor application should be checked to make


sure that voltage to some customers near the capacitor location should not exceed the
permissible limits during light load periods.

Switched capacitor application should be checked to minimize the voltage flicker


caused by the switching of the capacitor bank.

Effect of Series Capacitor on Feeder Voltage Profile


The effect of series capacitor application on voltage profile of a feeder with uniformly
distributed load is illustrated in the figure below:

Sub Station

Uniformly distributed Load

Series Capacitor
Rise produced by
Series Cap

Volts

Sub Station

Reference

Distance

Fig 3: Voltage Profile of Feeder With & Without Series Capacitor

17

Feeder Profile
with series Cap

Feeder Profile
without series
Capacitor

The series capacitor produces no voltage effect between the supply source and the
capacitor location and its entire boost effect is between the capacitor location and the
remote end of the feeder.
3.10

Effect of Voltage Regulator on Feeder Voltage Profile


The effect of feeder voltage regulator on voltage profile of a feeder with uniformly
distributed load is shown in the figure below:

Sub Station

Uniformly distributed

Load

Voltage Regulator

Rise produced
by regulator
Volts

Sub Station

Reference

Distance

Feeder Profile
with regulator
Feeder Profile
without regulator

Fig 4: Voltage Profile of Feeder With & Without Regulator


Like series capacitor, voltage regulator also produces no voltage effect between
the supply source and the regulator location and its entire boost effect is between the
regulator location and the remote end of the feeder.
3.11

Common Methods of Connecting Capacitors


Most common methods of connecting capacitors are as under:

3-Phase Grounded Wye


3-Phase Ungrounded Wye
3-Phase Delta
Single Phase

18

HT

LT

Fuse

Gnd

Grounded wye

Delta

Ungrounded wye

S/P Ground
to Neutral

Fig 5: Common Methods for Connecting Capacitors

Grounded wye and ungrounded wye connections are usually made on high voltage
(HT) circuits; whereas delta, and single-phase connections are usually made on low
voltage (LT) circuits.

Majority of capacitor equipment installed on distribution feeders is connected in


grounded wye.

Advantages of Grounded Wye Connection over Ungrounded Wye Connection

With grounded wye connection, capacitor tanks/frames are at ground potential. This
provides increased personnel safety.

Grounded wye connections provides faster operation of the series fuse in case of a
capacitor failure.

Grounded capacitors can bypass some line surges to the ground and, thus, to some
degree provide a self-protection from transient voltages and lightning surges.

Grounded wye connection also provides a low impedance path for harmonic currents.

19

3.12

If capacitors are electrically connected in ungrounded wye configuration, the


maximum fault current would be limited to three times line current. In case of large
fault current, generally 5000 A, current limiting fuses must be employed.

How Many Capacitors to Install?


The number of capacitors to install to raise the power factor from one value to another
can be computed by using Table-1.

20

TABLE -1

How Many Capacitors to Install


Capacitors are rated in kilovars. The number of capacitor kilovars to be installed can be computed simply from the
following table, For example, with a load of 200 kW at 77% power factor, how many capacitor kilovars are needed to
improve a power factor to 95%?
From the following table select the factor 0.500 that corresponds to the present 77% reading to the right and the
improve power factor 95% reading downward. Then 200 kW x0.500 = 100 kVAR required.
Corrected power factor percentage
Present
power factor
percentage

80

81

82

50

0.982

1.008

51

0.937

0.962

52

0.893

53

21

83

84

85

86

87

88

89

90

91

92

93

94

95

96

97

98

99

10.03

1.06

1.086

1.112

1.139

1.165

1.192

1.220

1.248

1.276

1.306

1.337

1.369

1.403

1.442

1.481

1.529

1.590

0.989

1.015

1.041

1.067

1.094

1.120

1.147

1.175

1.203

1.231

1.261

1.292

1.324

1.358

1.395

1.436

1.484

1.544

0.919

0.945

0.097

0.1

1.023

1.050

1.076

1.103

1.131

1.159

1.187

1.217

1.248

1.280

1.314

1.351

1.392

1.440

1.500

0.850

0.876

0.902

0.928

0.095

0.980

1.007

1.033

1.060

1.088

1.116

1.144

1.174

1.205

1.237

1.271

1.308

1.349

1.397

1.457

54

0.809

0.835

0.861

0.887

0.913

0.939

0.966

0.992

1.019

0.105

1.075

1.103

1.133

1.164

1.196

1.23

1.267

1.308

1.356

1.416

55

0.769

0.795

0.821

0.847

0.873

0.899

0.926

0.952

0.979

1.007

0.104

1.063

1.090

1.124

1.156

1.19

1.228

1.268

1.316

1.377

56

0.730

0.756

0.782

0.808

0.834

0.860

0.887

0.913

0.940

0.968

0.996

1.024

1.051

1.085

1.117

1.151

1.189

1.229

1.277

1.338

57

0.692

0.718

0.744

0.770

0.796

0.822

0.849

0.875

0.902

0.930

0.958

0.986

1.013

1.047

1.079

1.113

1.151

1.191

1.239

1.300

58

0.655

0.681

0.707

0.733

0.759

0.785

0.812

0.838

0.865

0.893

0.921

0.949

0.098

1.010

1.042

1.076

1.114

1.154

1.202

1.263

59

0.618

0.644

0.670

0.696

0.722

0.748

0.775

0.801

0.828

0.856

0.884

0.912

0.939

0.973

1.005

1.039

1.077

1.117

1.165

1.226

60

0.584

0.610

0.636

0.662

0.688

0.740

0.741

0.767

0.794

0.822

0.850

0.878

0.905

0.939

0.971

1.005

1.043

1.083

1.131

1.192

61

0.549

0.575

0.601

0.627

0.653

0.679

0.706

0.732

0.759

0.787

0.815

0.843

0.870

0.904

0.936

0.97

1.008

1.048

1.096

1.157

62

0.515

0.541

0.567

0.593

0.619

0.645

0.672

0.698

0.725

0.753

0.781

0.809

0.836

0.870

0.902

0.936

0.974

1.014

1.062

1.123

63

0.483

0.509

0.535

0.561

0.587

0.613

0.640

0.666

0.693

0.721

0.749

0.777

0.804

0.838

0.870

0.904

0.942

0.982

1.030

1.091

64

0.450

0.476

0.502

0.528

0.554

0.580

0.607

0.633

0.660

0.688

0.716

0.744

0.771

0.805

0.837

0.871

0.909

0.949

0.997

1.058

65

0.419

0.445

0.471

0.497

0.523

0.549

0.576

0.602

0.629

0.657

..685

0.713

0.740

0.774

0.806

0.84

0.878

0.918

0.966

1.027

66

0.388

0.414

0.44

0.466

0.492

0.518

0.545

0.571

0.598

0.626

0.554

0.682

0.709

0.743

0.775

0.809

0.847

0.887

0.935

0.996

67

0.358

0.384

0.410

0.436

0.462

0.488

0.515

0.541

0.568

0.596

0.624

0.652

0.679

0.713

0.745

0.779

0.817

0.857

0.905

0.966

68

0.329

0.355

0.381

0.407

0.433

0.459

0.486

0.512

0.539

0.567

0.595

0.623

0.650

0.684

0.716

0.75

0.788

0.828

0.876

0.937

69

0.299

0.325

0.351

0.377

0.403

0.429

0.456

0.482

0.509

0.537

0.565

0.593

0.620

0.654

0.686

0.72

0.758

0.798

0.84

0.907

70

0.270

0.296

0.322

0.348

0.374

0.400

0.427

0.453

0.480

0.508

0.536

0.564

0.591

0.625

0.657

0.691

0.729

0.769

0.811

0.878

71

0.242

0.268

0.294

0.320

0.346

0.372

0.399

0.425

0.452

0.480

0.508

0.536

0.563

0.597

0.629

0.663

0.701

0.740

0.783

0.850

72

0.213

0.239

0.265

0.291

0.317

0.343

0.370

0.396

0.423

0.451

0.479

0.507

0.534

0.568

0.600

0.634

0.672

0.712

0.754

0.821

73

0.186

0.212

0.238

0.264

0.290

0.316

0.343

0.369

0.396

0.424

0.452

0.48

0.507

0.541

0.573

0.607

0.645

0.685

0.727

0.794

74

0.159

0.185

0.211

0.237

0.263

0.289

0.316

0.342

0.369

0.397

0.425

0.453

0.480

0.514

0.546

0.58

0.618

0.658

0.700

0.767

75

0.132

0.158

0.184

0.210

0.236

0.262

0.289

0.315

0.342

0.370

0.398

0.426

0.453

0.487

0.519

0.553

0.591

0.631

0.673

0.740

TABLE -1

How Many Capacitors to Install


Capacitors are rated in kilovars. The number of capacitor kilovars to be installed can be computed simply from
the
following table, For example, with a load of 200 kW at 77% power factor, how many capacitor kilovars are needed to
improve a power factor to 95%?
From the following table select the factor 0.500 that corresponds to the present 77% reading to the right and the
improve power factor 95% reading downward. Then 200 kW x0.500 = 100 kVAR required.
Corrected power factor percentage
Present
power factor
percentage

80

81

82

83

84

85

86

87

88

89

90

91

92

93

94

95

96

97

98

99

76

0.105

0.131

0.157

0.183

0.209

0.235

0.262

0.288

0.315

0.343

0.371

0.399

0.426

0.460

0.492

0.526

0.564

0.604

0.652

0.713

77

0.079

0.105

0.131

0.157

0.182

0.209

0.236

0.262

0.289

0.317

0.345

0.373

0.400

0.434

0.466

0.5

0.538

0.578

0.620

0.687

78

0.053

0.079

0.105

0.131

0.156

0.182

0.210

0.236

0.263

0.291

0.319

0.347

0.374

0.408

0.440

0.474

0.512

0.552

0.594

0.661

79

0.026

0.520

0.078

0.104

0.130

0.156

0.183

0.209

0.236

0.264

0.292

0.320

0.347

0.381

0.413

0.447

0.485

0.525

0.567

0.634

80

0.000

0.026

0.052

0.078

0.104

0.130

0.157

0.183

0.210

0.238

0.266

0.294

0.321

0.355

0.387

0.421

0.459

0.499

0.541

0.608

0.000

0.026

0.052

0.078

0.104

0.131

0.157

0.184

0.212

0.240

0.268

0.295

0.329

0.361

0.395

0.433

0.473

0.515

0.582

0.000

0.026

0.052

0.078

0.105

0.131

0.158

0.186

0.214

0.242

0.269

0.303

0.335

0.369

0.407

0.447

0.489

0.556

0.000

0.026

0.052

0.079

0.105

0.132

0.160

0.188

0.216

0.243

0.277

0.309

0.343

0.381

0.421

0.463

0.530

0.000

0.026

0.053

0.079

0.106

0.134

0.162

0.190

0.217

0.251

0.283

0.317

0.355

0.395

0.437

0.504

0.000

0.027

0.053

0.080

0.108

0.136

0.164

0.191

0.225

0.257

0.291

0.290

0.369

0.417

0.478

0.026

0.053

0.081

0.109

0.137

0.167

0.198

0.230

0.265

0.301

0.343

0.390

0.451

0.027

0.055

0.082

0.111

0.141

0.172

0.204

0.238

0.275

0.317

0.364

0.425

0.280

0.560

0.084

0.114

0.145

0.177

0.211

0.248

0.290

0.337

0.398

0.028

0.056

0.086

0.117

0.149

0.183

0.220

0.262

0.309

0.370

0.028

0.058

0.089

0.121

0.155

0.192

0.234

0.281

0.342

0.030

0.061

0.093

0.127

0.164

0.206

0.253

0.314

0.310

0.063

0.097

0.134

0.176

0.223

0.284

0.032

0.066

0.103

0.145

0.192

0.253

0.034

0.071

0.113

0.160

0.221

0.037

0.079

0.126

0.187

0.042

0.089

0.150

0.047

0.108

81
82
83
84
85

22

86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98

0.061

3.13

How to Select a Location of a Capacitor?

The application of shunt capacitor to a distribution feeder produces a uniform voltage


boost per unit length of line, out of its point of application toward the remote end.
Therefore, it should be installed as far out on distribution system as possible, close to
load requiring the kVAR.

Many factors influence the location of capacitor such as the number of circuits, the
length of the circuits, variation in load, load factor, type of motors, distribution of
loads, and the load distribution (uniform or other wise).

Maximum loss reduction on a feeder with distributed load is obtained by installing


capacitor banks on the feeder where the capacitor kilovars is equal to twice the
load kilovars. This rule holds whether one or more than one capacitor bank is applied
to a feeder.

Thumb rule for locating a single capacitor bank on a feeder with uniformly
distributed load is that the maximum loss reduction can be obtained when capacitor
kilovars of the bank is equal to two thirds of kilovars load on the feeder. This
bank should be located at two third of the distance out toward the distributed loaded
portion.

To and fro shifting of the capacitor bank location, by as much as 10% of the total
feeder length, from the point of maximum loss reduction, does not appreciably affect
the losses.

Therefore, in order to make the most out of the capacitors loss reduction and voltage
benefits, it is a practice in view of future growth, to apply the capacitor bank just
beyond the optimum loss reduction location.

Computer softwares (mentioned in the chapter Introduction) are used to perform


capacitor placement optimization, to indicate the location where maximum reduction
in losses and voltage drops is achieved.

23

3.14

Capacitor Applications In LT Circuits


Use of shunt capacitors to raise the power factor and subsequently lowering the kVA
demand in LT circuits too, is also recommended.

Procedure for Capacitor Selection


The procedure to select shunt capacitors for LT circuits is explained through an example:
Example
GIVEN:

Existing LT circuit is shown in the Figure-6. Four customers, with


varying off peak loading and power factors, are situated at locations 5,
6, 7, and 8.

DESIRED:

Calculate the optimum number and sizes of fixed capacitors to raise


the power factor to 0.95. Find also the capacity released in kVA
demand.

SOLUTION

Refer the Fig-6 and the table 2.

STEP 1:

Measure sectional off peak kVA demand (or consider it as 40% of the
peak value.)

STEP 2:

Calculate off peak kW, power factor, and kVAR for each section
(table 2).

STEP 3:

Determine the kVAR demand of the sections exhibiting low power


factors.
(Sections 2-6, and 4-8 exhibit low power factor. The kVAR demand in
these sections is 6 kVAR and 28 kVAR respectively.)

STEP 4:

Select fixed capacitor banks of the appropriate size to compensate the


kVAR demand in the troubled sections.

24

(A 6 kVAR fixed capacitor bank is selected for section 2 - 6 and,


20 kVAR capacitor bank for section 4 - 8.)
STEP 5:

Calculate the new power factor in the affected sections and compare it
with the actual measurements.
(Power factor are improved from 0.80 to 1.0 in the section 2-6 and
from 0.70 to 0.95 in the section 4-8.)

STEP 6:

Calculate the new kVA demand in section 2-6 and 4-8 based on
improved power factors.
(This is 6 kVA and 29.5 kVA respectively.)

STEP 7:

Calculate the value of released kVA by subtracting new kVA demand


from the existing kVA demand.
(Existing kVA demand

= 60.0 kVA

New kVA demand

= 47.28 kVA

Net capacity released

= 12.72 kVA )

25

CAPACITOR APPLICATIONS IN LT CIRCUITS


FOR OFF PEAK CONDITIONS
SKETCH

10 kVA
at 0.80 PF
5 kVA
at 0.95 PF

6 kVAR
capacitor

5
50 m
0

100 m

26

150 m

150 m
1

150 m

75 m

150 m

50 m

200 kVA
sub station

40 kVA
at 0.70 PF
5 kVA
at 0.95 PF
7

Fig 6:
OFF PEAK TOTAL LOAD = 60 KVA

CONDUCTOR USED = ANT

20 kVAR
capacitor 8

TABLE-2
CAPACITOR APPLICATIONS IN LT CIRCUITS
Refer to Figure-6
ORIGINAL CONDITIONS

IMPROVED CONDITIONS

(OFF PEAK)
SECTION

SECTION

SECTION

OFF PEAK

P.F.

KVA

SECTION

FIXED

(OFF PEAK)

SECTION

CAPACITORS

NEW

NEW

KW

KVAR

APPLIED

SECTIONAL

SECTIONAL

SECTION

= KVA*PF

= KVA*SIN

(KVAR)

KVAR

P.F. *

KVA

1-5

0.95

4.75

1.56

0.00

1.56

0.95

5.00

2-6

10

0.80

8.00

6.00

6.00

0.00

1.00

8.00

3-7

0.95

4.75

1.56

0.00

1.56

0.95

5.00

4-8

40

0.70

28.00

28.57

20.00

8.57

0.96

29.28

Total:

60

47.28

Cos = Cos(tan-1(kVAR/kW))

27

4. PLANNING PROCEDURE
4.1

Rehabilitation/Renovation/Augmentation of HT Distribution Network


4.1.1 Selection Criteria / Guidelines for HT Network to be rehabilitated
i) The annual losses of a feeder include both technical as well as administrative losses,
and thus, do not give the true picture of losses to be reduced by technical measures. It
is possible that a feeder has more administrative loss but less technical loss and
similarly, there might be a feeder with less administrative loss but more technical
loss. Therefore, while bifurcating, reconductoring, or installing capacitor this should
be kept in view and selection must be based on technical loss of the feeder.
ii) The feeders selected for rehabilitation/renovation should be based on their peak load,
length, technical/geographical aspects and keeping in view the particular problems of
the area to achieve the maximum benefits not only in term of reducing losses and
improving in voltage drop but also to provide stable/uninterrupted power supply to
the customer.
It means that higher priority should be given to those 11 kV feeders, which are
heavily loaded and contribute high technical losses to the system and high voltage
drop at the customers end.
iii) No doubt, the load and the loss on a particular feeder are the main criteria for
bifurcation of a feeder but in some cases a lightly loaded but lengthy feeder also
requires bifurcation to reduce the line losses, improve the voltage drop and reliability
of supply.
iv) In some cases bifurcation of a feeder is required, where technical parameters i.e.
%AEL and % VD are almost within limits but the feeder is running over loaded (e.g.
near 400 A.) Here, bifurcation of the feeder is necessary in order to avoid unnecessary
trippings due to overloading.
v) Bifurcation of a feeder in some cases is also required at the time of creation of a new
sub division to avoid sharing of load between sub divisions or for inter-adjustment of
feeders of different divisions/sub divisions.

28

vi) Each and every feeder involved in the particular proposal should be evaluated
technically on the basis of latest data collected from field formation, and only those
feeders should be selected which contribute high energy loss and voltage drop. Thus
as per existing condition of the network, only those proposals should be executed
which give maximum technical as well as financial benefits.
The required Benefit/Cost ratio for HT proposals for the year 2003-04 is as under:
For Reconductoring, Bifurcation & Area Planning Proposals

> = 2.0

For the subsequent years the Benefit/Cost ratio for HT proposals may be taken as
under or as its amendment issued later on:
a) For Reconductoring Proposals
b) For Bifurcation & Area Planning Proposals

> = 1.5
> = 2.0

The main criteria for proposal selection is the B/C ratio, however, following
method may be adapted where needed, for prioritization of proposals:

TABLE 3: PRIORITIZATION OF HT PROPOSALS


% AEL
Share: 50 %
Value
Weight
34
1
45
2
56
3
67
4
78
5
89
6
9 10
7
> 10
10

% VD
Share: 30 %
Value
Weight
5 10
1
10 15
2
15 20
3
20 25
4
25 30
5
30 35
6
35 40
7
> 40
10

B/C Ratio
Share: 20 %
Value
Weight
12
1
23
2
34
3
45
4
56
5
67
6
78
7
>8
10

Over all weight of HT proposal = 50%(weight of % AEL)+ 30%( weight of % VD)


+ 20% (weight of B/C Ratio)
Thus, the proposals getting larger overall weight should be given higher priority.
In this way a list of proposals may be sorted out and prioritized.
vii) In certain cases where a feeder needs to be rehabilitated/renovated due to some
particular problems but it does not fulfill the above criteria of selection, then
29

proposal may be developed subject to the condition that benefit cost ratio as given
above is achieved, and in those cases where benefit cost ratio is not achieved, the
same may be carried out under DOP head, if at all considered essential /
inevitable requirement of the field. (See details on page 109.)
4.1.2 Development of HT Proposal (Phase-I)

i.

Operation formation will develop the HT proposal and submit to P&D directorate
along with following information/documents for further scrutiny/approval.
Data/Information Collection
(a) Purpose to generate the proposal
(b) Single line diagram (90) of existing and proposed network as per Format-I,
indicating conductor size, transformer rating, node to node distance, capacitor size
and disconnecting switch, etc.
(c) Survey of Pakistan (SOP) or geographical maps marked with single line diagram
indicating existing and proposed situations on separate sheets as per Format-II
(d) Pole-to-pole geographical map of existing and proposed situations of feeders as per
Format-III
(e) Input data sheet (stacking sheet) of existing and proposed feeders as per Format-IV
(f) Month-wise max/min load of grid station power transformers involved in the proposal
for last three years as per Format-V
(g) Month-wise technical data of 11 kV feeders involved in the proposal for last three
years as per Format-VI
(h) Indicate the category of 11kV feeder according to the following:
Urban / Rural / Industrial / Dedicated
(i) Availability of 11kV out going panels at the grid stations and identification of right of
way problems

30

(j) Certificate regarding the authenticity of data, indicating the verification of site from
Assistant/Dy manager concerned and countersigned by Dy manager (Technical) of
the Circle as per sample given under Format-VII
(k) Single geographical maps marked with all the feeders, one map each for existing and
proposed situations, in case of Area Planning proposal (where more than one feeders
are involved)
ii.

Technical Analysis and Other Important Parameters Kept in View for Technical
Analysis

(a) Load flow studies of existing and proposed situation of feeders (with and without
capacitor) should be carried at peak load (without growth) by using FDRANA or
PSS-Adept soft wares (already available in each DISCO.)
(b) The results of existing and proposed conditions (with and without growth) at zero
year study should be compiled as per Formats-VIII (A&B) & IX (A&B)
respectively.
(c) Net benefits/savings in losses that would be achieved (with & without growth) should
be calculated as per Formats-X (A&B).
(d) The average power factor of 11kV feeder may be calculated by taking the reading of
kWh and kVARh meters installed at grid stations or power factor meter, if available.
If power factor reading is not available, then assume the power factor as under:
0.80
0.85
0.95

for Rural feeder


for Urban feeder
for Under Ground System

(e) The average load factor may be calculated by using the formula as given below:
Units Sent
Average Load Factor

, or
8760 x PF x Peak kVA
Average Load

=
Maximum Load

31

If the actual load factor is not available, then it should be assumed as under:
i)
ii)
iii)

for Urban feeder


for Urban/Rural
for Rural

60%
50%
40%

For more than one feeders, having different load factors, overall weighted average
load factor should be calculated as below:

LF1 x PL1+LF2 x PL2+LF3 x PL3+


Weighted Load Factor =
PL1+PL2+PL3+
Where, LF stands for Load Factor,
and
PL stands for Peak Load and is taken in Amp.
In case actual load factor is not found to be close to the above-mentioned values,
the case shall be discussed with Director (Distribution Planning). For industrial
feeders and continuous process industries, especially where independent feeders are
proposed, the actual load factors shall be computed.
iii.

Cost Estimation

(a) Geographical (pole to pole) showing the complete scope of work involved in the
proposals as per Format-XI
(b) BOQ /Cost Estimate of proposed work in co-ordination with Construction formation
as per Work Order Format-XII
(c) Cost estimation is to be carried out according to the prevailing store issue rates of
each DISCO (i.e. 12% in built rates). Installation charges will be taken @ 8%.
(d) Dismantlement charges should be taken @ 5% and reinstallation of dismantled
material should be taken as 10%. All dismantled but not reusable material will be
taken as per respective DISCOs disposal rates. For all dismantled transformers
carrying no name plates, the cost will be taken as 50% of the current prices.
Transformers with name plates will have depreciated value, but not less than 50% of
the current price.

32

iv.

Benefit/Cost Analysis
Benefit /Cost calculation shall be carried out (as per Format-XIII) as follows:
Annual Benefits (Rs) 0.04 (NFC) (0.60 x 0.143) (RFC)
with Growth
B/C Ratio =
0.143 (NFC)
Where,
NFC

stands for New Facility Cost (Rs)

RFC

stands for Replaced Facility Cost (Rs)

0.04

O&M charges (4% per annum)

0.60

Depreciation Factor for Replaced Facility

0.143

Capital Recovery Factor (CRF) is the calculated @ 14% opportunity cost


of capital for equipment life of 30 years
(1 - i)n x i

CRF =
(1 + i)n i
n

is the period of study (here 30 years)

is the interest rate (here 14 %)

Benefit with Growth (Rs) = Valuation Factor x Benefit with Growth (kW)
Valuation Factor should be calculated as:
Valuation Factor = Loss Factor x 8760 x Unit Purchase Rate
Where,
Unit Purchase Rate is in Rs/kWh of the respective DISCO, and
8760 are number of hours in a year,

33

Loss Factor = 0.3 (Load Factor) + 0.7 (Load Factor) 2


Load Factor should be calculated as discussed above under item ii (d).
Benefit at growth should be calculated as:
Benefit with Growth (kW) = [((1/Loss Factor) x Savings with Fixed capacitor at off
peak load) + Savings with Switched capacitor at peak
load + (Growth Factor x Savings with Reconductoring
& Bifurcation at peak load )] ------(A)
Where Growth Factor

= 1.196 at 5% load growth for 5-year study period *

* Refer to Annexure-XVI for the Growth factors.


It is suggested that the load flow studies of existing and proposed systems
should be carried out at 5% load growth for 5 years study, and the savings / benefits
should be added directly (in formula A) without multiplying by the growth factor.
Benefit with Growth (Rs.) = Benefit with Growth (kW) x Valuation Factor
Note: As per prevailing practice, in case of reconductoring and bifurcation, load
flow studies of existing and proposed systems are carried out without growth,
and savings / benefits are calculated with growth by multiplying with the
growth factor (1.196) as mentioned above in formula (A).
4.1.3 Approval of Proposal (Phase-II)
a) The proposal supplied by operation staff will be scrutinized/checked by P&D section,
and within 14 days of receipt of proposal, P&D will be bound to submit the
proposal/B.O.Q to Manager Project Construction for any right of way or other
problems.
b) Manager Project construction will return the proposal in next one week.
c) After making necessary corrections pointed out by the Manager Project Construction
in the estimate, Sr Manager P&D will get approval of CE or CEO in next one week
and convey the formal approval along with the Work Order to Manager Project

34

Construction, Manager Operation Circle, Manager Material Management and Finance


Director of the company.
4.1.4 Execution of Proposal (Phase-III)
Manager Project Construction will be bound to complete the whole work within 60
days of issue of Work Order and to intimate to all the concerned.
4.1.5 Completion Report (Phase-IV)
After completion of the work, Manager Project Construction will energize/shift the
load as per approved plan in coordination with GSO/Operation formation within 10
days and hand over the work to Operation formation. After energizing/shifting the
load, Manager Project Construction will submit the completion report to P& D
Directorate for inspection as per Format-XIV.
4.1.6 Inspection/Completion Certificate (Phase-V)
All completed works will be finally checked/inspected 100% for all technical
parameters quality and quantity of ELR and DOP by Director (P&E).
He will check/inspect completed work within 30 days of receipt of completion
report from Manager Project Construction and issue completion certificate as per
Format-XV, if the work has been executed according to the approved plan and as per
WAPDA SDI. The check should not ignore even a single missing bolt.
Representatives of Chief Engineer (ELR), WAPDA & Director (Distribution
Planning), WAPDA may also check/inspect any work.
Total time will be restricted to 130 working days (i.e. from approval of proposal
to inspection/completion certificate); the officer mentioned above, will share any
delay beyond this.

35

INFORMATION/DATA
(SAMPLE FORMATS
OF DATA SHEETS/SKETCHES
FOR HT PROPOSALS)

38

39

40

HT FORMAT-IV

INPUT DATA FORM


OF EXISTING & PROPOSED SITUATIONS
Operation Circle_____________

Division__________________ Sub Division______________

Grid Station_________________

Power T/F Capacity ________

Power T/F # ________________

Feeder Type (R, U,D)_________

Feeder Name_____________

Feeder Code_______________

Peak Load________ Month____________ Off Peak Load___________


Node
From
To

Node
Distance Conductor Transformer CAPS/
(kVA)
(km)
Size
Switches From
To

Month_______________

Distance Conductor Transformer CAPS/


(km)
Size
(kVA)
Switches

Note: For PSS/Adept Software, columns for X & Y Coordinates should be incorporated in the format.

41

HT FORMAT-V

Month-Wise Maximum & Minimum Load of Grid Station Power T/Fs Involved in the Proposal
Name of Grid Station_____________________
Power T/F# (
MVA)
Power T/F# (
MVA)
Power T/F# (
MVA)
Off Peak Load (Amps) Peak Load (Amps) Off Peak Load (Amps) Peak Load (Amps) Off Peak Load (Amps)
Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3
Peak Load (Amps)

Month
January
February
March
April

42

May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
Note:

Any Unusual/abnormal maximum/minimum loading of Power T/Fs should also be explained with reasons behind.

HT FORMAT-VI

Month-Wise Technical Data of 11 KV Feeder Involved in the Proposal


Name of Grid Station_____________________
Name of 11 kV Feeder______________ Feeder Code_____________ Feeder Connected kVA____________
off Peak Load (Amps)

Peak Load (Amps)

Month
Year-1

Year-2

Year-3

Year-1

Year-2

Max Hour KWH Units Sent Units Sold


Reading in Year-3 in Year-3 in Year-3
Year-3
(kWH)
(kWH)
(kWH)

Losses

kWH

%age

*
Demand
Factor
(%age)

January
February
March
April
May

43

June
July
August
September
October
November
December

Average
Total
Note:

Any Unusual/abnormal maximum/minimum loading of 11 KV Feeder should also be explained with reasons behind.
*

Demand Factor = (1.732 x Imax x 11kV) / Circuit's connected kVA

**

Power Factor = Max Hour kWh reading / (1.732 x Imax x 11 kV)

***

Load Factor (monthly) = kWh Units sent per month / (24 x 30 x Max Hour kWh reading)

Note:

Refer to Annexure-III, for calculation of Demand, Power, and Load Factors

**
Power
Factor
(%age)

***
Load
Factor
(%age)

HT FORMAT-VII

DATA AUTHENTICITY CERTIFICATE

Name of HT Proposal _________________________________________________________


____________________________________________________________

Certified that I have personally checked the site and found that the Node to Node Length,
Conductor size & Capacity of Transformers shown on the site sketch and all other data related to
proposal are correct. The proposal has been checked at site and found as per actual requirement
of the area. It has not been prepared to benefit to any individual, especially industrial consumer
and is in the interest of maximum Nos. of consumers of the area. After execution it will
definitely reduce energy loss. The proposal has not been prepared in any Private Housing
Scheme/Colonies where the sponsors are required to deposit full amount for its electrification.

Assistant Manager Operation Sub Division

Deputy Manager Operation Division

_____________________

_________________

Deputy Director (Technical) Circle


__________________

44

HT FORMAT-VIII (A)

Name of HT Proposal:__________________________________________________
Summary of Technical Analysis Report
(Existing Position Without Growth)
Sr.

Feeder

Grid
Station

No.

Feeder-1

Feeder-2

Feeder-3

Total

off
Nodes Where %VD is not
Annual
Nodes Where
Max
kW
%
%
Length Connected Peak
Peak Total %VD is Within
Within Permissible Limit
Kwh
Power Load
of Line
Factor Factor
Load Load Nodes Permissible
KW
A.E.
(km)
kVA
5-10%10-15%
15-20%
20-25% >25% % VD
Loss
Loss
Limit
(A)
(A)
Loss
Loss

45

HT FORMAT-VIII (B)

Name of HT Proposal:__________________________________________________
Summary of Technical Analysis Report
(Existing Position With Growth @ 5% for 5 Years)
Sr.

Feeder

Grid
Station

No.

Feeder-1

Feeder-2

Feeder-3

Total

off
Nodes Where %VD is not
Annual
Nodes Where
Max
kW
%
%
Length Connected Peak
Peak Total %VD is Within
Within Permissible Limit
Kwh
Power Load
of Line
Factor Factor
Load Load Nodes Permissible
KW
A.E.
(km)
kVA
5-10%10-15%
15-20%
20-25% >25% % VD
Loss
Loss
Limit
(A)
(A)
Loss
Loss

46

HT FORMAT-IX (A)

Name of HT Proposal:__________________________________________________
Summary of Technical Analysis Report
(Proposed Position Without Growth)
1. After Proposed Bifurcation/Shifting of load/Rerouting etc. (Results at Peak Load)
Sr.

Feeder

No.

Grid Line /Load/Connected KVA Shifted From Total


Nodes
Nodes Where %VD is not
Max Power Load kW
% Annual %
Station
Nodes Where %VD
within prescribed Limit
Factor Factor
kWh
is within 5-10% 10- 15- 20- >25% % VD
Feeder Length Connected Peak Off
Loss KW Loss A.E.
prescribed
of Line
kVA
Load Peak
15% 20% 25%
Loss
Loss
Limit
(km)
(A) Load
(A)
Feeder-1

Feeder-1
(EM)

Feeder-2
Feeder-3
New Line
Sub Total
Feeder-1

47

Feeder-2
(EM)

Feeder-2
Feeder-3
New Line
Sub Total
Feeder-1

Feeder-3
(EM)

Feeder-2
Feeder-3
New Line
Sub Total
Feeder-1

Feeder-4
(P)

Feeder-2
Feeder-3
New Line
Sub Total

Total

HT FORMAT-IX (A)

Name of HT Proposal:__________________________________________________
Summary of Technical Analysis Report
(Proposed Position Without Growth)
2. After Proposed Bifurcation/Shifting of load/Rerouting etc. (Results at off Peak Load)
Sr.

Feeder

No.

Grid Line /Load/Connected KVA Shifted From Total


Nodes
Nodes Where %VD is not
Max Power Load kW
% Annual %
Station
Nodes Where %VD
within prescribed Limit
Factor Factor
kWh
is within 5-10% 10- 15- 20- >25% % VD
Feeder Length Connected Peak Off
Loss KW Loss A.E.
prescribed
of Line
kVA
Load Peak
15% 20% 25%
Loss
Loss
Limit
(km)
(A) Load
(A)
Feeder-1

Feeder-1
(EM)

Feeder-2
Feeder-3
New Line
Sub Total
Feeder-1

48

Feeder-2
(EM)

Feeder-2
Feeder-3
New Line
Sub Total
Feeder-1

Feeder-3
(EM)

Feeder-2
Feeder-3
New Line
Sub Total
Feeder-1

Feeder-4
(P)

Feeder-2
Feeder-3
New Line
Sub Total

Total

HT FORMAT-IX (A)

Name of HT Proposal:__________________________________________________
Summary of Technical Analysis Report
(Proposed Position Without Growth)
3. After Proposed Bifurcation/Shifting of load/Rerouting, Relocation of Ext & Newly Proposed Fixed Cap at off peak load
Sr.

Feeder

No.

Grid Line /Load/Connected KVA Shifted From Total


Nodes
Nodes Where %VD is not
Max Power Load kW
% Annual %
Station
Nodes Where %VD
within prescribed Limit
Factor Factor
kWh
is within 5-10% 10- 15- 20- >25% % VD
Feeder Length Connected Peak Off
Loss KW Loss A.E.
prescribed
of Line
kVA
Load Peak
15% 20% 25%
Loss
Loss
Limit
(km)
(A) Load
(A)
Feeder-1

Feeder-1
(EM)

Feeder-2
Feeder-3
New Line
Sub Total
Feeder-1

49

Feeder-2
(EM)

Feeder-2
Feeder-3
New Line
Sub Total
Feeder-1

Feeder-3
(EM)

Feeder-2
Feeder-3
New Line
Sub Total
Feeder-1

Feeder-4
(P)

Feeder-2
Feeder-3
New Line
Sub Total

Total

HT FORMAT-IX (A)

Name of HT Proposal:__________________________________________________
Summary of Technical Analysis Report
(Proposed Position Without Growth)
4. After Proposed Bifurcation/Shifting of load/Rerouting, Relocation of Ext & Newly Proposed Fixed Cap at peak load
Sr.

Feeder

No.

Grid Line /Load/Connected KVA Shifted From Total


Nodes
Nodes Where %VD is not
Max Power Load kW
% Annual %
Station
Nodes Where %VD
within prescribed Limit
Factor Factor
kWh
is within 5-10% 10- 15- 20- >25% % VD
Feeder Length Connected Peak Off
Loss KW Loss A.E.
prescribed
of Line
kVA
Load Peak
15% 20% 25%
Loss
Loss
Limit
(km)
(A) Load
(A)
Feeder-1

Feeder-1
(EM)

Feeder-2
Feeder-3
New Line
Sub Total
Feeder-1

50

Feeder-2
(EM)

Feeder-2
Feeder-3
New Line
Sub Total
Feeder-1

Feeder-3
(EM)

Feeder-2
Feeder-3
New Line
Sub Total
Feeder-1

Feeder-4
(P)

Feeder-2
Feeder-3
New Line
Sub Total

Total

HT FORMAT-IX (A)

Name of HT Proposal:__________________________________________________
Summary of Technical Analysis Report
(Proposed Position Without Growth)
5. After Proposed Bifurcation/Shifting of load/Rerouting, Relocation of Ext & Newly Proposed Fixed + Switched Cap at peak load
Sr.

Feeder

No.

Grid Line /Load/Connected KVA Shifted From Total


Nodes
Nodes Where %VD is not
Max Power Load kW
% Annual %
Station
Nodes Where %VD
within prescribed Limit
Factor Factor
kWh
is within 5-10% 10- 15- 20- >25% % VD
Feeder Length Connected Peak Off
Loss KW Loss A.E.
prescribed
of Line
kVA
Load Peak
15% 20% 25%
Loss
Loss
Limit
(km)
(A) Load
(A)
Feeder-1

Feeder-1
(EM)

Feeder-2
Feeder-3
New Line
Sub Total
Feeder-1

51

Feeder-2
(EM)

Feeder-2
Feeder-3
New Line
Sub Total
Feeder-1

Feeder-3
(EM)

Feeder-2
Feeder-3
New Line
Sub Total
Feeder-1

Feeder-4
(P)

Feeder-2
Feeder-3
New Line
Sub Total

Total

HT FORMAT-IX (A)

Name of HT Proposal:__________________________________________________
Summary of Technical Analysis Report
(Proposed Position Without Growth)
6. After Proposed Bifurcation/Shifting of load/Rerouting, Relocation of Ext & Newly Proposed Fixed + Switched Cap And Reconductoring at peak load
Sr.

Feeder

No.

Grid Line /Load/Connected KVA Shifted From Total


Nodes
Nodes Where %VD is not
Max Power Load kW
% Annual %
Station
Nodes Where %VD
within prescribed Limit
Factor Factor
kWh
is within 5-10% 10- 15- 20- >25% % VD
Feeder Length Connected Peak Off
Loss KW Loss A.E.
prescribed
of Line
kVA
Load Peak
15% 20% 25%
Loss
Loss
Limit
(km)
(A) Load
(A)
Feeder-1

Feeder-1
(EM)

Feeder-2
Feeder-3
New Line
Sub Total
Feeder-1

52

Feeder-2
(EM)

Feeder-2
Feeder-3
New Line
Sub Total
Feeder-1

Feeder-3
(EM)

Feeder-2
Feeder-3
New Line
Sub Total
Feeder-1

Feeder-4
(P)

Feeder-2
Feeder-3
New Line
Sub Total

Total

HT FORMAT-IX (B)

Name of HT Proposal:__________________________________________________
Summary of Technical Analysis Report
(Proposed Position With Growth at @ 5% for 5 Years)
1. After Proposed Bifurcation/Shifting of load/Rerouting etc (Results at Peak Load)
Sr.

Feeder

No.

Grid Line /Load/Connected KVA Shifted From Total


Nodes
Nodes Where %VD is not
Max Power Load kW
% Annual %
Station
Nodes Where %VD
within prescribed Limit
Factor Factor
kWh
is within 5-10% 10- 15- 20- >25% % VD
Feeder Length Connected Peak Off
Loss KW Loss A.E.
prescribed
of Line
kVA
Load Peak
15% 20% 25%
Loss
Loss
Limit
(km)
(A) Load
(A)
Feeder-1

Feeder-1
(EM)

Feeder-2
Feeder-3
New Line
Sub Total
Feeder-1

53

Feeder-2
(EM)

Feeder-2
Feeder-3
New Line
Sub Total
Feeder-1

Feeder-3
(EM)

Feeder-2
Feeder-3
New Line
Sub Total
Feeder-1

Feeder-4
(P)

Feeder-2
Feeder-3
New Line
Sub Total

Total

HT FORMAT-IX (B)

Name of HT Proposal:__________________________________________________
Summary of Technical Analysis Report
(Proposed Position With Growth at @ 5% for 5 Years)
2. After Proposed Bifurcation/Shifting of load/Rerouting etc. (Results at off Peak Load)
Sr.

Feeder

No.

Grid Line /Load/Connected KVA Shifted From Total


Nodes
Nodes Where %VD is not
Max Power Load kW
% Annual %
Station
Nodes Where %VD
within prescribed Limit
Factor Factor
kWh
is within 5-10% 10- 15- 20- >25% % VD
Feeder Length Connected Peak Off
Loss KW Loss A.E.
prescribed
of Line
kVA
Load Peak
15% 20% 25%
Loss
Loss
Limit
(km)
(A) Load
(A)
Feeder-1

Feeder-1
(EM)

Feeder-2
Feeder-3
New Line
Sub Total
Feeder-1

54

Feeder-2
(EM)

Feeder-2
Feeder-3
New Line
Sub Total
Feeder-1

Feeder-3
(EM)

Feeder-2
Feeder-3
New Line
Sub Total
Feeder-1

Feeder-4
(P)

Feeder-2
Feeder-3
New Line
Sub Total

Total

HT FORMAT-IX (B)

Name of HT Proposal:__________________________________________________
Summary of Technical Analysis Report
(Proposed Position With Growth at @ 5% for 5 Years)
3. After Proposed Bifurcation/Shifting of load/Rerouting, Relocation of Ext & Newly Proposed Fixed Cap at off peak load
Sr.

Feeder

No.

Grid Line /Load/Connected KVA Shifted From Total


Nodes
Nodes Where %VD is not
Max Power Load kW
% Annual %
Station
Nodes Where %VD
within prescribed Limit
Factor Factor
kWh
is within 5-10% 10- 15- 20- >25% % VD
Feeder Length Connected Peak Off
Loss KW Loss A.E.
prescribed
of Line
kVA
Load Peak
15% 20% 25%
Loss
Loss
Limit
(km)
(A) Load
(A)
Feeder-1

Feeder-1
(EM)

Feeder-2
Feeder-3
New Line
Sub Total
Feeder-1

55

Feeder-2
(EM)

Feeder-2
Feeder-3
New Line
Sub Total
Feeder-1

Feeder-3
(EM)

Feeder-2
Feeder-3
New Line
Sub Total
Feeder-1

Feeder-4
(P)

Feeder-2
Feeder-3
New Line
Sub Total

Total

HT FORMAT-IX (B)

Name of HT Proposal:__________________________________________________
Summary of Technical Analysis Report
(Proposed Position With Growth at @ 5% for 5 Years)
4. After Proposed Bifurcation/Shifting of load/Rerouting, Relocation of Ext & Newly Proposed Fixed Cap at peak load
Sr.

Feeder

No.

Grid Line /Load/Connected KVA Shifted From Total


Nodes
Nodes Where %VD is not
Max Power Load kW
% Annual %
Station
Nodes Where %VD
within prescribed Limit
Factor Factor
kWh
is within 5-10% 10- 15- 20- >25% % VD
Feeder Length Connected Peak Off
Loss KW Loss A.E.
prescribed
of Line
kVA
Load Peak
15% 20% 25%
Loss
Loss
Limit
(km)
(A) Load
(A)
Feeder-1

Feeder-1
(EM)

Feeder-2
Feeder-3
New Line
Sub Total
Feeder-1

56

Feeder-2
(EM)

Feeder-2
Feeder-3
New Line
Sub Total
Feeder-1

Feeder-3
(EM)

Feeder-2
Feeder-3
New Line
Sub Total
Feeder-1

Feeder-4
(P)

Feeder-2
Feeder-3
New Line
Sub Total

Total

HT FORMAT-IX (B)

Name of HT Proposal:__________________________________________________
Summary of Technical Analysis Report
(Proposed Position With Growth at @ 5% for 5 Years)
5. After Proposed Bifurcation/Shifting of load/Rerouting, Relocation of Ext & Newly Proposed Fixed + Switched Cap at peak load
Sr.

Feeder

No.

Grid Line /Load/Connected KVA Shifted From Total


Nodes
Nodes Where %VD is not
Max Power Load kW
% Annual %
Station
Nodes Where %VD
within prescribed Limit
Factor Factor
kWh
is within 5-10% 10- 15- 20- >25% % VD
Feeder Length Connected Peak Off
Loss KW Loss A.E.
prescribed
of Line
kVA
Load Peak
15% 20% 25%
Loss
Loss
Limit
(km)
(A) Load
(A)
Feeder-1

Feeder-1
(EM)

Feeder-2
Feeder-3
New Line
Sub Total
Feeder-1

57

Feeder-2
(EM)

Feeder-2
Feeder-3
New Line
Sub Total
Feeder-1

Feeder-3
(EM)

Feeder-2
Feeder-3
New Line
Sub Total
Feeder-1

Feeder-4
(P)

Feeder-2
Feeder-3
New Line
Sub Total

Total

HT FORMAT-IX (B)

Name of HT Proposal:__________________________________________________
Summary of Technical Analysis Report
(Proposed Position With Growth at @ 5% for 5 Years)
6. After Proposed Bifurcation/Shifting of load/Rerouting, Relocation of Ext & Newly Proposed Fixed + Switched Cap And Reconductoring at peak load
Sr.

Feeder

No.

Grid Line /Load/Connected KVA Shifted From Total


Nodes
Nodes Where %VD is not
Max Power Load kW
% Annual %
Station
Nodes Where %VD
within prescribed Limit
Factor Factor
kWh
is within 5-10% 10- 15- 20- >25% % VD
Feeder Length Connected Peak Off
Loss KW Loss A.E.
prescribed
of Line
kVA
Load Peak
15% 20% 25%
Loss
Loss
Limit
(km)
(A) Load
(A)
Feeder-1

Feeder-1
(EM)

Feeder-2
Feeder-3
New Line
Sub Total
Feeder-1

58

Feeder-2
(EM)

Feeder-2
Feeder-3
New Line
Sub Total
Feeder-1

Feeder-3
(EM)

Feeder-2
Feeder-3
New Line
Sub Total
Feeder-1

Feeder-4
(P)

Feeder-2
Feeder-3
New Line
Sub Total

Total

HT FORMAT-X (A)

Name of HT Proposal:_____________________________________
Benefits to be Achieved
(Without Growth)
Sr.
No.

Description
a

Existing System (Results at Peak Load)

Proposed System After Bifurcation/Shifting of load/Rerouting etc. (Results at


Peak Load)

Saving in Losses = S1 = 1(a) - 1(b)

a
2

b
c
a

59

c
a
4

b
c

Proposed System after Bifurcation/Shifting of load/Rerouting etc. (Results at off


Peak Load)
Proposed System after Bifurcation/Shifting of load/Rerouting Relocation of Ext
& Newly Proposed Fixed Cap (Results at off Peak Load)
Saving in Losses = S2 = [2(a) - 2(b)] x (1 / Loss Factor)
Proposed System after Bifurcation/Shifting of load/Rerouting Relocation of Ext
& Newly Proposed Fixed Cap (Results at Peak Load)
Proposed System after Bifurcation/Shifting of load/Rerouting Relocation of Ext
& Newly Proposed Fixed + Switched Cap (Results at Peak Load)
Saving in Losses = S3 = 3(a) - 3(b)
Proposed System after Bifurcation/Shifting of load/Rerouting Relocation of Ext
& Newly Proposed Fixed + Switched Cap (Results at Peak Load)
Proposed System after Bifurcation/Shifting of load/Rerouting Relocation of Ext
& Newly Proposed Fixed + Switched Cap and Rconductoring (Results at Peak
Load)
Saving in Losses = S4 = 4(a) - 4(b)
Overall Technical Losses of Existing System 1(a)

Overall Technical Losses of Proposed System, 4(b)


A- Overall Savings in Losses due to Relocation of Ext & Newly Proposed Fixed
Capacitors = S2 = [2(c) x 1/Loss Factor]
B- Overall Savings in Losses due to Bifurcation/Shifting of load/Rerouting,
Switched Cap and Rconductoring
1(c) + 3(c) + 4(c)

Total Savings (A + B)

Power Loss
%age
Annual Energy Loss
%Age
(kW)
Power Loss
(kWh)
Annual Energy Loss Remarks

HT FORMAT-X (B)

Name of HT Proposal:_____________________________________
Benefits to be Achieved
(With Growth @ 5% for 5 Years)
Sr.
No.

Description
a

Existing System (Results at Peak Load)

Proposed System After Bifurcation/Shifting of load/Rerouting etc. (Results at


Peak Load)

Saving in Losses = S1 = 1(a) - 1(b)

a
2

b
c
a

60

c
a
4

b
c

Proposed System after Bifurcation/Shifting of load/Rerouting etc. (Results at off


Peak Load)
Proposed System after Bifurcation/Shifting of load/Rerouting Relocation of Ext
& Newly Proposed Fixed Cap (Results at off Peak Load)
Saving in Losses = S2 = [2(a) - 2(b)] x (1 / Loss Factor)
Proposed System after Bifurcation/Shifting of load/Rerouting Relocation of Ext
& Newly Proposed Fixed Cap (Results at Peak Load)
Proposed System after Bifurcation/Shifting of load/Rerouting Relocation of Ext
& Newly Proposed Fixed + Switched Cap (Results at Peak Load)
Saving in Losses = S3 = 3(a) - 3(b)
Proposed System after Bifurcation/Shifting of load/Rerouting Relocation of Ext
& Newly Proposed Fixed + Switched Cap (Results at Peak Load)
Proposed System after Bifurcation/Shifting of load/Rerouting Relocation of Ext
& Newly Proposed Fixed + Switched Cap and Rconductoring (Results at Peak
Load)
Saving in Losses = S4 = 4(a) - 4(b)
Overall Technical Losses of Existing System 1(a)

Overall Technical Losses of Proposed System, 4(b)


A- Overall Savings in Losses due to Relocation of Ext & Newly Proposed Fixed
Capacitors = S2 = [2(c) x 1/Loss Factor]
B- Overall Savings in Losses due to Bifurcation/Shifting of load/Rerouting,
Switched Cap and Rconductoring
1(c) + 3(c) + 4(c)

Total Savings (A + B)

Power Loss
%age
Annual Energy Loss
%Age
(kW)
Power Loss
(kWh)
Annual Energy Loss Remarks

61

HT FORMAT-XII

HT DISTRIBUTION WORK ORDER


COMPANY:_______________________________FUNDING AGENCY: __________________
Work Order No.

- -

Date ___ / ____ /_____

Work Order Title:


OPERATION CIRCLE/DIVISION/SUB DIVSION

CONSTRUCTION DIVISION/SUB DIVSION

______________ /_____________/______________

_______________ /_______________

Proposed Facilities:

450 KVAR
No.

Fixed Capacitors (Relocation of


Existing Cap)

Fixed Capacitors (New)

Conductor
New Line
Reconductoring

UG5
PAN
RAB to DOG
-----to-----

Node Nos.

900 KVAR
No.

Node Nos.

From ____
From ____
____
____
to_____
to_____
____
____
____
____
Line
Line
Line
Line
Length Conductor Length Conductor Length Conductor Length
(KM)
(KM)
(KM)
(KM)
LNX
DOG
RAB
-----to--------to----

-----to--------to----

Work Order Prepared By:

----to--------to-----

Work Order Checked By:

Assistant Manager (Planning)

Deputy Manager (Planning)

AMOUNT TO BE AUTHORIZED BY THIS WORK ORDER


Subject to the availability of Funds:

Rs. ________________

1. Before taking work in hand, it must be ensured that the approved work order does not in any Govt./Private Housing Scheme.
2. This Work Order is not for new Electrification of the area.

Work Order Recommended By:

Work Order Approved By:

Sr. Manager (P&D)


Name:_____________________

Chief Executive/Tech: Dir.


Name:__________________________

Attachments:
Planning Proposals
Cost Benefit Analysis
Others:

Estimate Summary/BOQ
Single Line Diagrams
Sketch Showing Scope of Work

62

HT FORMAT-XII

SUMMARY OF SCOPE OF WORK


NAME OF HT PROPOSAL_______________________________________
New Line/Re-Routing
H.T
Structures/
Sr. Feeder PC Poles
No. Name

Reconductoring / Mid Spanning


H.T
Structures/
PC Poles

Existing
New 450
L.T
L.T
450
KVAR
Line Length (KM)
Line Length (KM)
KVAr
Str/
Str/
Capacitor
Capacitor
P.C
P.C Dog- Dog- Rab- CU5 - GFR- RAB- GFR- CU5- GFR- GSL- Relocated
36' 40' 45' Poles UG5 UG4 LNX DOG RAB 36' 40' 45' Poles
Osp LNX LNX LNX LNX DOG DOG DOG RAB RAB
(31')
(31')

63
Total

HT FORMAT-XII

CONSOLIDATED B.O.Q.
Name of HT Proposal:______________________________________
A- Cost of New Material
Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52

Description of Material

Unit

Quantity

Steel Structure 45'


EA
Steel Structure 40'
EA
H.T STR 36'
EA
H.T P.C.C Poles 40'
EA
H.T P.C.C Poles 36'
EA
L.T STR 31'
EA
L.T P.C Pole 31'
EA
Danger Plate
EA
Anti Climbing Device
EA
X - Arms 11 kV Wood
EA
X - Arms 11 kV Steel
EA
Knee Braces
EA
Step Braces
EA
Pin Insulators
EA
Disc Insulators
EA
Spool Insulator
EA
Insulator Pins
EA
D-Strap
EA
Dead End Clamp for Osp, Pan, Lynx
EA
Dead End Clamp for Dog, Rab
EA
Loop Dead End Clamp
EA
Eye Nut
EA
Double Arming Bolt
EA
Anchor Shackles
EA
P.G Connectors for Osp, Pan, Lynx
EA
P.G Connectors for Dog, Rab
EA
P.G Connector for Wasp
EA
P.G Connector for Ant
EA
Nut & Bolts 3 / 8 x 6"
EA
Nut & Bolts 5 / 8 x 2"
EA
Nut & Bolts 5 / 8 x 10"
EA
Nut & Bolts 5 / 8 x 14"
EA
Round Warshers
EA
Square Warshers
EA
Stay Assembly
EA
STAY Wire
KG
MS Clamps
EA
Tie Wire
KG
Earthing Unit Complete
EA
ACSR Osprey
MR
ACSR Lynx
MR
ACSR Dog
MR
ACSR Rabbit
MR
AAC Wasp
MR
AAC Ant
MR
S/C 500 MCM Cable
MR
3/Core 4-AWG Cable
MR
4/C 37/.083 Cable
MR
4/C 19/.083 Cable
MR
Drop Out Cut Out
Set
Plateform Double Structure
EA
Fixed Capacitor (450 KVAR)
Set
Total Cost of New Material
Installation Charges @ 8% Excluding the Cost of HT/LT PC Poles
Total Cost of New Material (A)

64

Unit Price
(Rs.)

Total Price
(Rs.)

HT FORMAT-XII

CONSOLIDATED B.O.Q.
Name of HT Proposal:______________________________________
B- MATERIAL TO BE DISMENTLED & RETURNED TO STORE
Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53

Description of Material

Unit

Steel Structure 45'


Steel Structure 40'
H.T STR 36'
H.T P.C.C Poles 40'
H.T P.C.C Poles 36'
L.T STR 31'
L.T P.C Pole 31'
Danger Plate
Anti Climbing Device
X - Arms 11 kV Wood
X - Arms 11 kV Steel
Knee Braces
Step Braces
Pin Insulators
Disc Insulators
Spool Insulator
Insulator Pins
D-Strap
Dead End Clamp for Osp, Pan, Lynx
Dead End Clamp for Dog, Rab
Loop Dead End Clamp
Eye Nut
Double Arming Bolt
Anchor Shackles
P.G Connectors for Osp, Pan, Lynx
P.G Connectors for Dog, Rab
P.G Connector for Wasp
P.G Connector for Ant
Nut & Bolts 3 / 8 x 6"
Nut & Bolts 5 / 8 x 2"
Nut & Bolts 5 / 8 x 10"
Nut & Bolts 5 / 8 x 14"
Round Warshers
Square Warshers
Stay Assembly
STAY Wire
MS Clamps
Tie Wire
Earthing Unit Complete
ACSR Osprey
ACSR Lynx
ACSR Dog
ACSR Rabbit
AAC Wasp
AAC Ant
S/C 500 MCM Cable
3/Core 4-AWG Cable
4/C 37/.083 Cable
4/C 19/.083 Cable
Drop Out Cut Out
Plateform Double Structure
Drop Out Cut Out
Plateform Single Structure

Quantity

EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
KG
EA
KG
EA
MR
MR
MR
MR
MR
MR
MR
MR
MR
MR
Set
EA
Set
EA

Dismantlement Charges @ 5%
Total Cost of Dismantled Material Returned to Store (B)

65

Unit Price
(Rs.)

Total Price
(Rs.)

HT FORMAT-XII

CONSOLIDATED B.O.Q.
Name of HT Proposal:______________________________________

C- MATERIAL TO BE DISMENTALLED & REUSED


Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43

Description of Material

Unit

Steel Structure 45'


Steel Structure 40'
H.T STR 36'
H.T P.C.C Poles 40'
H.T P.C.C Poles 36'
L.T STR 31'
L.T P.C Pole 31'
Danger Plate
Anti Climbing Device
X - Arms 11 kV Wood
X - Arms 11 kV Steel
Knee Braces
Step Braces
Pin Insulators
Disc Insulators
Spool Insulator
Insulator Pins
D-Strap
Dead End Clamp for Osp, Pan, Lynx
Dead End Clamp for Dog, Rab
Loop Dead End Clamp
Eye Nut
Double Arming Bolt
Anchor Shackles
P.G Connectors for Osp, Pan, Lynx
P.G Connectors for Dog, Rab
P.G Connector for Wasp
P.G Connector for Ant
MS Clamps
ACSR Osprey
ACSR Lynx
ACSR Dog
ACSR Rabbit
AAC Wasp
AAC Ant
S/C 500 MCM Cable
3/Core 4-AWG Cable
4/C 37/.083 Cable
4/C 19/.083 Cable
Shifting of --------KVA Transformer
Plateform Double Structure
Drop Out Cut Out
Fixed Capacitor (450 KVAR)

Quantity

EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
MR
MR
MR
MR
MR
MR
MR
MR
MR
MR
EA
EA
Set
Set

Cost of Material to be Dismantled & Reused


Reinstallation Charges of Dismantled Material @ 15%
Total Cost of Dismantled Material to be Reused (C)

66

Unit Price
(Rs.)

Total Price
(Rs.)

HT FORMAT-XII

CONSOLIDATED B.O.Q.
Name of HT Proposal:______________________________________

D- Cost of Material at Grid End


Sr.
No.

1
2
3

4
5
6
7

Description of Material

Unit

CABLE S/Core 500 MCM Cable


I/D Termination Kit
O/D Termination Kit
Cost of Material

Quantity

Unit Price
(Rs.)

Total Price
(Rs.)

Quantity

Unit Price
(Rs.)

Total Price
(Rs.)

MR
SET
SET

Installation Charges @ 8%
Cost of approval of drawing of Panel &
EA
inspection charges by Design T & G Department
Civil Work at Grid End
Installation/Testing/Labour Charges
11 KV Grid End Panel

EA
EA
EA

Total Cost Of Material at Grid End (D)

E- CONTRACT WORK COST


Sr.
No

1
2
3
4
5
6

Description of Material

Unit

Foundation of 45' Steel Strs


Foundation of 40' Steel Strs
Foundation of 36' Steel Strs
Erection of H.T PCC Poles (36')
Erection of H.T PCC Poles (40')
Erection of L.T PCC Poles

EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA

Total Cost of Contract Work (E)

COST SUMMARY
A

Cost of New Material (Rs.)

Cost of Dismantled Material Returned to Store (Rs.)

Reinstallation Charges of Dismantled Material (Rs.)


Cost of Material at Grid End (Rs.)

Cost of Contract Work (Rs.)

Total Cost of Work Order (Rs.)

67

HT FORMAT-XII

Name of Proposal:_____________________________________________________________
Detail of Material Required for New Line with ________Conductor
(Section-Wise)
Sr.
No

Feeder
Name

Section*

1
2
3
4
5
Sub Total
1
2
3
4
5
20
Sub Total

68

1
2
3
4
5
Sub Total
1
2
3
4
5
Sub Total
1
2
3
4
5
Sub Total

Total

Poles (Nos.)
Structures Nos.) Conductor/
Section
Length (km) 55' 45' 40' 36' 45' 40' 36'
Cable

1-L

Assemblies For P.C Poles (Nos.)


2-L 7-L 10-L 23-L 15-L 16-L

1-L

Assemblies For Structures (Nos.)


2-L 7-L 10-L 23-L 15-L 16-L

HT FORMAT-XII

Name of Proposal:___________________________________
Detail of Material Required for Reconductoring / Mid Spanning from ____ to ____ Conductor
(Section-Wise)
Sr.
No

Feeder
Name

Section

1
2
3
4
5
Sub Total

69

1
2
3
4
5
Sub Total
1
2
3
4
5
Sub Total
1
2
3
4
5
Sub Total
1
2
3
4
5
Sub Total

Total

Poles
Section
Structures
(Nos.)
(Nos.)
Length
(km)
55' 45' 40' 36' 45' 40' 36'

Conductor/
Cable

Assemblies For P.C Poles


(Nos.)

Assemblies For Structures


(Nos.)

1-L 2-L 7-L 10-L 23-L 15-L 16-L 1-L 2-L 7-L 10-L 23-L 15-L 16-L

Additional
Material, if
any

70

Sr.
No.

1
2
3
4
5

1
2
3
4
5

1
2
3
4
5

1
2
3
4
5

1
2
3
4
5

Total

SUB TOTAL

SUB TOTAL

SUB TOTAL

SUB TOTAL

SUB TOTAL

Feeder Name

Section
UG4

UG2

OSP

PAN

LNX

DOG

Conductor Length (km)


RAB

GFR

GSL

36'

Str

P.C Pole
36'
40'

H.T

Detail of Material To Be Dismentalled


(Section-Wise)

Name of Proposal:_____________________________________

Str

L.T
P.C 1-L 2-L
Pole

Assemblies
7-L 10-L 15-L 23-L

Misc. Material

HT FORMAT-XII

71

TOTAL

Sub Total

16-L O,P, L

15-L O,P, L

23-LO, P, L

10-LO, P, L

7-LO, P, L

2-LO, P, L

1-LO, P, L

Sub Total

16-L D, R

15-L D,R

23-LD,R

10-LD,R

7-LD,R

2-LD,R

1-LD,R

Asmbly Unit

P.C Pole Structure

No of Asmb

X-Arm

Pin
Ins

Disc
Ins
Pin

Brace

D/E Eye Double Anch PG 3/8x6" 1/2x6" 2x1/2" 5/8x2" 5/8x10" 5/8x14" Rnd Sqr Stay Stay M.S Clamp
Bolt Wshr Wshr Rod Wire Assembly
Bolt
Clmp Nut Arm Blt Shckl Conn Bolt Bolt Bolt Bolt

CONSOLIDATED ASSEMBLIES FOR NEW LINE/RECONDUCTORING/MID SPANNINIG/REPLACEMENT/SHIFTING OF LINE

Name of Proposal __________________________________

HT FORMAT-XII

72

TOTAL

Sub Total

16-L O,P, L

15-L O,P, L

23-LO, P, L

10-LO, P, L

7-LO, P, L

2-LO, P, L

1-LO, P, L

Sub Total

16-L D, R

15-L D,R

23-LD,R

10-LD,R

7-LD,R

2-LD,R

1-LD,R

Asmbly Unit

P.C Pole Structure

No of Asmb

Pin
X-Arm
Ins

Disc
Ins
Pin

D/E Eye Double Anch PG 3/8x6" 1/2x6" 2x1/2" 5/8x2" 5/8x10" 5/8x14" Rnd Sqr Stay Stay M.S Clamp
Brace
Bolt Wshr Wshr Rod Wire Assembly
Bolt
Clmp Nut Arm Blt Shckl Conn Bolt Bolt Bolt Bolt

DISMENTLLED ASSEMBLIES

Name of Proposal __________________________________

HT FORMAT-XII

73

due to Bifurcation/Shifting of load/Rerouting etc.


due to Fixed Capacitor Banks
due to Switched Capacitor Banks
due to Reconductoring

BENEFIT COST RATIO =

0.143 (NFC)

The valuation Factor is to be revised regularly (say annually)

The proposal is technical & ecnomical Feasible

B/C Ratio =

Yes

___________

S7 0.04 (NFC) 0.0858 (RFC)

RFC

Replaced Facility Cost

Benefit Cost Ratio

= Rs.________

= _______ kW

No

= Rs.________

= Rs.________

= Valuation Factor = Loss Factor x 8760 x Electricity Purchase Rate * = Rs. _________ / kW / Annum

S7

NFC

VF

= VF x S6

S6

= _______ kW

S5

_______ kW
_______ kW
_______ kW
_______ kW
=
=
=
=

S1
S2
S3
S4

New Facility Cost

Where,

Value of Benefits with Growth

Total Saving in Losses with Growth [((S1+S4) x F) +(S2 + S3)]


F = Growth Factor = 1.196 @ 5% growth for 5 years
Where,

With Growth

Total Saving in Losses without Growth (S1 +S2 +S3 + S4)

Saving in Losses
Saving in Losses
Saving in Losses
Saving in Losses

Without Growth

Benefit / Cost Calculation

HT FORMAT-XIII

HT FORMAT-XIV

COMPLETION REPORT
Name of HT Proposal_______________________________
Work Order No. & Date________________
Operation Circle______________
Operation Division______________Operation S/Div_________
Construction Division______________
Construction S/Div_________
Date of Completion_______

Quantity
Sr.
No.

MATERIAL

UNIT

As per
W/O

Issued

Actual Variation From


Installed W/O
Issued
6
7=4-6
8=5-6

A. NEW WORK
1

5
6

PC/SPUN POLES
31 FEET
36 FEET
40 FEET
45 FEET
55 FEET
LATICE STEEL STRUCTURES
31 FEET
36 FEET
40 FEET
45 FEET
55 FEET
WOODEN/STEEL CROSS ARM
11 KV WOODEN
11 KV STEEL
INSULATORS
11 KV PIN TYPE
11 KV DISC TYPE
L.T. SPOOL TYPE
PINS
11 KV INSULATOR PINS
CROSS ARM BRACES
11 KV KNEE BRACE
11 KV STEP BRACE
NEW HT LINE
GOPHER
RABBIT
DOG
LYNX
PANTHER
OSPREY
RECONDUCTORING OF HT LINE WITH
GOPHER
RABBIT
DOG
LYNX
PANTHER
OSPREY
AAC CONDUCTOR
GNAT
ANT
WASP

NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
KM.
KM.
KM.
KM.
KM.
KM.
KM.
KM.
KM.
KM.
KM.
KM.
KM.
KM.
KM.
Sheet 1 of 5

74

HT FORMAT-XIV

COMPLETION REPORT
Name of HT Proposal_______________________________
Work Order No. & Date________________
Operation Circle______________
Operation Division______________Operation S/Div_________
Construction Division______________
Construction S/Div_________
Date of Completion_______

Quantity
Sr.
No.

MATERIAL

UNIT

As per
W/O

Issued

10

ALUMINIUM TIE WIRE

11

STAY RODS COMPLETE SET WITH


ANCHOR ASSEMBLY

12
13
14
15
16
17

18

19

20

STAY WIRE (10MM, 7/3,22)


EYE NUT
EARTHING SETS COMPLETE
DANGER PLATES
BARBED WIRE
BOLT AND NUTS
3/8 " X 2"
3/8 " X 6"
3/8 " X 14"
1/2 " X 2"
1/2 " X 6"
5/8 " X 1-1/2 "
5/8 X 2 "
5/8 X 8"
5/8 X 9 "
5/8 X 10"
5/8 X 6 "
5/8 X 12"
5/8 X 14 "
5/8 X 18 "
5/8 X 16 "
DOUBLE ARMING BOLTS
5/8 X 12"
5/8 X 14"
5/8 X 18"
5/8 X 20"
5/8 X 22"
5/8 X 16"
WASHERS
7/16 X 1 " (ROUND)
9/16 X 1 " (ROUND)
9/16 X 1-1/4 " (ROUND)
11/16 " X 2-1/4 " 2-1/4 (SQUARE)
PG CONNECTORS
T-116
T-117
T-150
S-157
T-155

Actual Variation From


Installed W/O
Issued
6
7=4-6
8=5-6

NO.
KG
NO.
NO.
NO.
KG
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.

NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
Sheet 2 of 5

75

HT FORMAT-XIV

COMPLETION REPORT
Name of HT Proposal_______________________________
Work Order No. & Date________________
Operation Circle______________
Operation Division______________Operation S/Div_________
Construction Division______________
Construction S/Div_________
Date of Completion_______

Quantity
Sr.
No.
1
21

22
23
24

25

26
27
28

29

30

MATERIAL

UNIT

As per
W/O

Issued

Actual Variation From


Installed W/O
Issued
6
7=4-6
8=5-6

CLAMPS
0.4 KV LOOP DEADEND FOR LT STR & PC
NO.
11 KV DEAD END
NO.
GROUNDING CONDUCTOR CLAMPS
NO.
SUSPENSION ANGLE CLAMPS
NO.
D-SHACKLE + COTTER PINS
NO.
ANCHOR SHACKLE
NO.
RELOCATION OF EXISTING T/F (11/0.415KV)
200 KVA
NO.
100 KVA
NO.
50 KVA
NO.
25 KVA
NO.
PLATFORMS FOR T/F
DOUBLE POLE
NO.
SINGLE POLE
NO.
DROPOUT CUTOUT (SET OF 3)
11 KV
NO.
11 KV ANGLE IRON BRACKETS
NO.
HT CAPACITOR (FIXED)
RELOCATION OF EXISTING CAP
NEW CAP
FOUNDATION OF LATTICE STEEL STRUCTURE
31 FEET
NO.
36 FEET
NO.
40 FEET
NO.
45 FEET
NO.
55 FEET
NO.
LIGHTENING ARRESTORES (SET OF 3)
11 KV
NO.

Sheet 3 of 5

76

HT FORMAT-XIV

COMPLETION REPORT
Name of HT Proposal_______________________________
Work Order No. & Date________________
Operation Circle______________
Operation Division______________Operation S/Div_________
Construction Division______________
Construction S/Div_________
Date of Completion_______

Sr.
No.

Description

Unit

B
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36

Material Quantity
As per
As per B.O.Q
MRN
4
5

Variations
6=4-5

MATERIAL DISMANTLED & RETURNED TO STORE


Steel Structure 45'
EA
Steel Structure 40'
EA
H.T STR 36'
EA
H.T P.C.C Poles 40'
EA
H.T P.C.C Poles 36'
EA
L.T STR 31'
EA
L.T P.C Pole 31'
EA
Danger Plate
EA
Anti Climbing Device
EA
X - Arms 11 kV Wood
EA
X - Arms 11 kV Steel
EA
Knee Braces
EA
Step Braces
EA
Pin Insulators
EA
Disc Insulators
EA
Spool Insulator
EA
Insulator Pins
EA
D-Strap
EA
Dead End Clamp for Osp, Pan, Lynx
EA
Dead End Clamp for Dog, Rab
EA
Loop Dead End Clamp
EA
Eye Nut
EA
Double Arming Bolt
EA
Anchor Shackles
EA
P.G Connectors for Osp, Pan, Lynx
EA
P.G Connectors for Dog, Rab
EA
P.G Connector for Wasp
EA
P.G Connector for Ant
EA
Nut & Bolts 3 / 8 x 6"
EA
Nut & Bolts 5 / 8 x 2"
EA
Nut & Bolts 5 / 8 x 10"
EA
Nut & Bolts 5 / 8 x 14"
EA
Round Warshers
EA
Square Warshers
EA
Stay Assembly
EA
STAY Wire
KG

Sheet 4 of 5

77

HT FORMAT-XIV

COMPLETION REPORT
Name of HT Proposal_______________________________
Work Order No. & Date________________
Operation Circle______________
Operation Division______________Operation S/Div_________
Construction Division______________
Construction S/Div_________
Date of Completion_______

Sr.
No.
1
37
38
39
40
41
42
43

Description

Unit

3
EA
KG
EA
MR
MR
MR
MR

MS Clamps
Tie Wire
Earthing Unit
ACSR Osprey
ACSR Lynx
ACSR Dog

ACSR Rabbit

Material Quantity
As per
As per B.O.Q
MRN
4
5

Variations
6=4-5

Material Quantity
Sr.
No.
1
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
50
52
C

Description

Unit

AAC Wasp
AAC Ant
S/C 500 MCM Cable
3/Core 4-AWG Cable
4/C 37/.083 Cable
4/C 19/.083 Cable
Drop Out Cut Out
Plateform Double Structure
Drop Out Cut Out
Plateform Double Structure
S.Rs Nos. & Date
a)
d)
MRNs Nos. & Date
a)
d)

As per B.O.Q

As per
MRN

Variations

6=4-5

MR
MR
MR
MR
MR
MR
Set
EA
Set
EA

b)
e)

c)
f)

b)
e)

c)
f)

Estimated Cost of the Proposal

Rs.__________________

Actual Expenditure

Rs.___________________

Attachments:
Copies of S.Rs

Copies of M.R.Ns

Handing/Taking Over Papers

A-90

As Built Drawing/Sketch
Sheet 5 of 5

78

HT FORMAT-XV

Inspection Certificate
Operation
Circle:-

Operation
Division

_____________

Construction
Division:_____________

Construction
S/Division:-

Name of H.T Proposal:-

Operation
S/Division:-

______________

__________

________________

__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________

Work Order No. & Date:-

__________________________________________________________
Material Quantity

Sr.
No.

Description

Unit

36'

No.

40'

No.

45'

No.

As per B.O.Q
4

As per
C/ Report
Submitted by
M.P Const:
5

Actual at Site
(Checked by
Committee)
6

Variations
From B.O.Q
7=4-6

From C/Report
8=5-6

NEW WORK
1 -H.T Structures

2 -H.T P.C/Spun Poles


36'

No.

40'

No.

3 New H.T Line


ACSR Osprey Conductor

Meter

ACSR Panther Conductor

Meter

ACSR Dog Conductor

Meter

ACSR Rabbit Conductor

Meter

ASCR Gopher Conductor

Meter

4 Reconductoring of H.T Line


ACSR Osprey Conductor

Meter

ACSR Panther Conductor

Meter

ACSR Dog Conductor

Meter

ACSR Rabbit Conductor

Meter

ASCR Gopher Conductor

Meter

5 H.T Capacitors (Fixed)


- Relocation of Existing Cap

No.

- Installation of New Cap

No.

6 Cross Arms

No.

7 Disc Insulators

No.

8 Pin Insulators

No.

9 Dead End Clamp

No.

10 P.G Connectors

No.

11 Earthing of H.T Structures

No.

12 Foundation of H.T Structures

No.

13

Sheet 1 of 2

79

HT FORMAT-XV

Inspection
Certificate
Operation

Operation
Circle:-

_____________

Division

Construction
Division:_____________

Construction
S/Division:-

Name of H.T Proposal:-

Operation
S/Division:-

______________

__________

________________

__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________

Work Order No. & Date:-

__________________________________________________________
Material Quantity

Sr.
No.

Description

Unit

As per B.O.Q

As per
MRN Provided by M.P Const:

Variations

6=4-5

MATERIAL DISMANTLED & RETURNED TO STORE


1 -H.T Structures
36'

No.

40'

No.

45'

No.

2 L.T Structures (31')

No.

3 H.T Conductor
ACSR Osprey Conductor

Meter

ACSR Panther Conductor

Meter

ACSR Dog Conductor

Meter

ACSR Rabbit Conductor

Meter

ASCR Gopher Conductor

Meter

Copper Conductor

Meter

4 Cross Arms

No.

5 Disc Insulators

No.

6 Pin Insulators

No.

S.Rs Nos. & Date


a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

f)

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

f)

MRNs Nos. & Date

Observations/Recommendations
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________

Attachments:
Copies of S.Rs

Copies of M.R.Ns

Handing/Taking Over Papers

A-90

Conclusion:

Cleared

Conditionally
Accepted

Rejected

Sheet 2 of 2

80

4.2

Rehabilitation/Renovation/Augmentation of LT Distribution Network


4.2.1 Selection Criteria / Guidelines for LT Network to be Rehabilitated
Higher priority is given to those areas where
i.

Distribution transformers are running beyond 80% loading.

ii.

LT line is lengthy, service to service connections exist, and consequently, the


technical parameters (i.e. % VD and % AEL) go beyond permissible limits.

iii.

Such LT proposals should be executed, which give maximum technical as well as


financial benefits.

The required Benefit/Cost ratio for LT proposals is as under:


Benefit/Cost Ratio

>=1

The main criteria for proposal selection is the B/C ratio, however, following method may
be adapted where needed, for prioritization of proposals:

TABLE 4: PROPOSAL PRIORITIZATION FOR LT


% AEL

% VD

Share: 25 %
Value
Weight
34
1
45
2
56
3
67
4
78
5
89
6
9 10
7
> 10
10

Share: 15 %
Value
Weight
5 10
1
10 15
2
15 20
3
20 25
4
25 30
5
30 35
6
35 40
7
> 40
10

%age Loading of
T/F
Share: 40 %
Value
Weight
80 85
1
85 90
2
90 95
3
95 100
4
100105
5
105110
6
110115
7
> 115
10

81

B/C Ratio
Share: 20 %
Value
Weight
12
1
23
2
34
3
45
4
56
5
67
6
78
7
>8
10

Over all weight of LT proposal = 25%(weight of % AEL)+ 15%( weight of % VD)


+ 40%( weight of % Loading of T/F) + 20% (weight of B/C ratio)
Thus, the proposals getting larger overall weight should be given higher priority.
In this way a list of proposals may be sorted out and prioritized.
iv. In certain cases where a feeder needs to be rehabilitated/renovated due to some
particular problems but it does not fulfill the above criteria of selection, then
proposal may be developed subject to the condition that benefit cost ratio as given
above is achieved, and in those cases where benefit cost ratio is not achieved, the
same may be carried out under DOP head, if at all considered essential /
inevitable requirement of the field. (See details on page 109.)
4.2.2 Development of LT Proposal (Phase-I)
1. Operation Sub Division of each DISCO shall identify, and intimate to Operation
Circle, the high-loss LT network that requires rehabilitation or bifurcation.
2. Operation Division will develop the LT proposal and submit to P & D Directorate
along with the following information/documents for further scrutiny/approval.
i. Data/Information Collection
(a) Purpose to generate the proposal
(b) Pole-to-pole geographical of existing and proposed network as per Formats-I & II
respectively, indicating conductor size, transformer rating, node to node distance,
capacitor size, and disconnecting switch, number of single phase and three phase
connections on each pole.
(c) Name of grid station and 11 kV feeder should be mentioned on the sketch.
(d) Input data sheet (Stacking Sheet) of existing and proposed LT network as per
Format-III.
(e) Month wise peak loading data of distribution transformer as per Format-IV.
(f) Certificate regarding the authenticity of data, indicating the verification of site from
Assistant/Dy Manager concerned and countersigned by Dy Manager (Technical) of
the Circle as per Format-V.

82

ii. Technical Analysis and Other Important Parameters to be Kept in View for
Technical Analysis
(a) Load flow studies of existing and proposed situations of LT network should be
carried at peak load of transformer (with & without growth) by using FDRANA
software (already available in each DISCO.)
(b) Average load per single-phase customer has also been revised as under:
i. Urban Areas
Single Phase customers falling in urban areas have been divided into following
categories:

Posh Localities: Load per S/Phase customers is considered as 4 kVA.

Localities other than posh areas: Load per S/Phase customers is considered
as 2 kVA.

Three-phase load should be taken as per sanctioned load.


ii. Rural Areas
For rural areas, load per single-phase customers is considered as 1 kVA.
Three-phase load should be taken as per sanctioned load.
A committee of Dy Manager Operation Division & Dy Manager (Technical)
Operation Circle concerned can recommend to revise/enhance the loads. If needed, in
particular areas, where the load as mentioned above are not applicable, it can be
revised with the approval of Chief Engineer/Technical Director.
(b) Annual load growth should be taken as 5% for 5-years study period. The results of
existing and proposed conditions at zero year study and five years study should be
compiled as per Formats-VI(A&B) & VII(A&B) respectively.
(c) Net benefits/savings in losses that would be achieved, should be indicated as per
Format-VIII(A&B).
(d) Assume the power factor as under for load flow studies:
0.80
0.85
0.95

for Rural feeder


for Urban feeder
for Under Ground system

83

(e) Load factor should be assumed as under:


i)
ii)
iii)

iii.

for Urban feeder


for Urban/Rural
for Rural

60%
50%
40%

Cost Estimation

(a) Geographical (pole to pole) showing the complete scope of work involved in the
proposals-Format-II
(b) BOQ /Cost Estimate of proposed work in coordination with Construction staff as per
Work Order Format-IX
(c) Cost estimation is to be carried out according to the prevailing store issue rates of
each DISCO (i.e. 12% in built rates). Installation charges will be taken @ 8%.
(d) Dismantlement charges should be taken @ 5% and reinstallation of dismantled
material should be taken as 10%. All dismantled but not reusable material will be
taken as per respective DISCOs disposal rates. For all dismantled transformers
carrying no name plates, the cost will be taken as 50% of the current prices.
Transformers with name plates will have depreciated value, but not less than 50% of
the current price.
(a) Transformer removed if is in OK condition, should be returned to store @ 5% less
than present value.

84

iv.

Benefit/Cost Analysis
Benefit Cost Ratio may be calculated (as per Format-X) by using the following
sheet:

I.

Annual Energy Loss after 5 years


a) Existing system

= _______________kWh

b) Proposed System

= _______________kWh

c) Annual Energy (A.E.) Saving

= _______________kWh

d) Annual Benefit (Rs)

= A. E. Saving (kWh) x EPR

Where EPR stands for Electricity Purchase Rate (Rs / kWh) of the DISCO.
II.

a.

b.

c.
d.

Loading of existing ____kVA


transformer at present

= __________% kVA

Loading of existing ____kVA


transformer after 5 years

= __________% kVA

Loading of above the rated capacity


of transformer after 5 years
= __________% kVA
Peak kW Saving (PkWS)
= Loading above the x PF
rated capacity (kVA)
= _____________ kW

e.

Annual kWh savings @ VF for


transformer

= PkWS x 8760 x VF x L.F.


= Rs _______________

Where 8760 are number of hours in a year,


VF stands for Valuation Factor for T/F, and
VF = (ESR EPR) ((ESR EPR) x (O&M charges))
((ESR EPR) x (% Annual Losses of the company))
ESR stands for average Electricity Sale Rate (Rs /kWh) of the DISCO
EPR stands for average Electricity Purchase Rate (Rs/kWh) of the DISCO.

85

III.

a. Benefit of I + II

= Rs _______________

b. Total Cost of proposal


= Rs _______________
c. Benefit / Cost
= (a/b) x 5 (years)

= _________________

4.2.3 Approval of Proposal (Phase-II)


The proposal supplied by operation staff will be scrutinized/checked by P&D section
and within 7 days of receipt of proposal, Sr. Manager P&D will get approval of CE or
CEO and convey formal approval along with the Work Order to Manager Project
Construction, Manager Operation Circle, Manager Material Management, and the
Finance Director of the company.
4.2.4 Execution of Proposal (Phase-III)
Manager Project Construction will be bound to complete the whole work within
30 days of issuance of Work Order, and to intimate to all the concerned.
4.2.5 Completion Report (Phase-VI)
After completion the work, Manager Project Construction will energize/shift the load
as per approved plan in coordination with operation formation within 10 days and
hand over the work to Operation formation. After energizing/shifting the load,
Manager Project Construction will submit the completion report to P& D Directorate
for inspection as per Format-XI.
4.2.6 Inspection/Completion Certificate (Phase-V)
All completed works will be finally checked/inspected 100% for all technical
parameters quality and quantity of ELR and DOP by Director (P&E).
He will check/inspect the completed work within 15 days of receipt of completion
report from Manager Project Construction and issue completion certificate as per
Format-XII, if the work has been executed according to the approved plan and as per
WAPDA SDI. The check should not ignore even a single missing bolt.

86

Representatives of Chief Engineer (ELR), WAPDA & Director (Distribution


Planning), WAPDA may also check/inspect any work.
Total time will be restricted to 62 working days (i.e. from approval of proposal to
inspection/completion certificate); the officer mentioned above, will share any delay
beyond this.

87

INFORMATION/DATA
(SAMPLE FORMATS
OF DATA SHEETS/SKETCHES
FOR LT PROPOSALS)

89

90

LT FORMAT-III

INPUT DATA FORM


OF EXISTING & PROPOSED SITUATIONS
Operation Circle______________

Division__________________

Sub Division________________

Grid Station__________________

Feeder Name_____________

Feeder Code_____________

T/F Location___________________________________________________________

T/F Capacity____________kVA

Area Type : Urban (Posh____ /Other___)/Rural____ (Tick one)

Avg. Load/SP Consumer______kVA

Peak Load (A): R____ Y____ B_____


Node
From

Note:

To

Distance Conductor
(m)
Size

Month____________
Off Peak Load (A): R____ Y____ B_____Month_______________
No. of Connections
3-P

Node

1-P

From

To

Distance Conductor
(km)
Size

For PSS/Adept Software, columns for X & Y Coordinates should be incorportaed in the format.

91

No. of Connections
3-P

1-P

92

December

November

October

September

August

July

June

May

April

March

February

January

Month

Year-1
B

Year-2
B

Off Peak Load (Amps)

Year-3
B

Year-1
B

Year-2
B

Peak Load (Amps)

Year-3

No. of Consumers (S/P)_______(3/P)________

Capacity of Transformer________________

Location of Transformer_______________________

Area Type : Urban (Posh____ /Other___)/Rural____ (Tick one)

Feeder Code_____________

Name of 11 KV Feeder_____________________

Name of Grid Station_____________________

Month-Wise Loading Data of 11/0.4 kV Distribution Transformer Involved in the Proposal

LT FORMAT-IV

LT FORMAT-V

DATA AUTHENTICITY CERTIFICATE

Name of LT Proposal _______________________________________________________


__________________________________________________________

Certified that I have personally checked the site and found that the Node to Node Length,
Conductor size & Capacity of Transformers shown on the site sketch and all other data related
to proposal are correct. The proposal has been checked at site and found as per actual
requirement of the area. It has not been prepared to benefit to any individual, especially
industrial consumer and is in the interest of maximum Nos. of consumers of the area. After
execution it will definitely reduce energy loss. The proposal has not been prepared in any
Private Housing Scheme/Colonies where the sponsors are required to deposit full amount for
its electrification.

Deputy Manager Operation Division

Assistant Manager Operation Sub


Division

_________________
_____________________

Deputy Director (Technical) Circle

__________________
93

94

T/F-A

T/F-B

T/F-C

Total

Transformer
Capacity

No.

Sr.

Feeder
Name

Total
Peak Load of off Peak Load of Average
Max
%
per
Load
Connected kVA Power Load
T/F (A)
T/F (A)
Grid
Loading
S/P
Station
Factor Factor
of T/F % VD
3/P
R Y B R Y B Consumer S/P
(kVA)

Summary of Technical Analysis Report


(Existing Position Without Growth)

Name/Location of LT Proposal:________________________________________

%
Loss kW Loss

kW

Loss

Annual kWh

A.E. Loss

LT Proposal No.___________

LT FORMAT-VI (A)

95

T/F-A

T/F-B

T/F-C

Total

Transformer
Capacity

No.

Sr.

Feeder
Name

Total
Peak Load of off Peak Load of Average
Max
%
per
Load
Connected kVA Power Load
T/F (A)
T/F (A)
Grid
loading
S/P
Station
Factor Factor
of T/F % VD
3/P
R Y B R Y B Consumer S/P
(kVA)

Summary of Technical Analysis Report


(Existing Position With Growth @ 5% for 5 Years)

Name/Location of LT Proposal:________________________________________

%
Loss kW Loss

kW

Loss

Annual kWh

A.E. Loss

LT Proposal No.____________

LT FORMAT-VI (B)

96

T/F-D (P)

Feeder
Name

Note:
E/A stands for Existing or Augmented
P stands for Proposed

3 T/F-C (E/A)

2 T/F-B (E/A)

Total

Transformer
Capacity

1 T/F-A (E/A)

No.

Sr.
Grid
Station

Total
Peak Load of off Peak Load of Average
Max
%
per
Load
Connected kVA Power Load
T/F (A)
T/F (A)
loading
S/P
Factor Factor
of T/F % VD
3/P
B Consumer S/P
R Y B R Y
(kVA)

Summary of Technical Analysis Report


(Proposed Position Without Growth)

Name/Location of LT Proposal:________________________________________

%
Loss kW Loss

kW

Loss

Annual kWh

A.E. Loss

LT Proposal No.__________

LT FORMAT-VII (A)

97

T/F-D (P)

Note:
E/A stands for Existing or Augmented
P stands for Proposed

3 T/F-C (E/A)

2 T/F-B (E/A)

Total

Feeder
Transformer Capacity
Name

1 T/F-A (E/A)

No.

Sr.
Grid
Station

Total
Peak Load of off Peak Load of Average
Max
%
Load per Connected kVA
T/F (A)
T/F (A)
Power Load
loading
S/P
Factor Factor
of T/F % VD
Consumer
3/P
S/P
B
Y
Y B R
R
(kVA)

Summary of Technical Analysis Report


(Proposed Position With Growth @ 5% for 5 Years)

Name/Location of L.T Proposal:________________________________________

%
Loss kW Loss

kW

Loss

Annual kWh

A.E. Loss

LT Proposal No.__________

LT FORMAT-VII (B)

98

% Annual Energy Loss

Annual Energy Loss (kWh)

% Power Loss

Power Loss (kW)

Description

Existing
System

Proposed
System

Benefits To Be Achieved
(Without Growth)

Name/Location of LT Proposal:________________________________________

Qty

Benefits
%

LT Proposal No.___________

LT FORMAT-VIII (A)

99

% Annual Energy Loss

Annual Energy Loss (kWh)

% Power Loss

Power Loss (kW)

Description

Existing
System

Proposed
System

Benefits To Be Achieved
(With Growth @ 5% for 5 Years)

Name/Location of LT Proposal:________________________________________

Qty

Benefits
%

LT Proposal No.___________

LT FORMAT-VIII (B)

LT FORMAT-IX

LT DISTRIBUTION WORK ORDER


COMPANY:________________________________________
FUNDING AGENCY: _____________________
Work Order No.

- -

Date ___ / ____ /_____

Work Order Title:


OPERATION CIRCLE/DIVISION/SUB DIVSION

CONSTRUCTION DIVISION/SUB DIVSION

____________ /____________ /_____________

_______________ /_______________

Proposed Facilities:
Relocation of Existing T/F
Augmentation of Existing T/F
New T/F

New Line
Reconductoring
(LT)

Capacity

Node Nos.

Capacity

Node Nos.

Capacity

Node Nos.

____

From ____
to_____

____

From ____
to_____

____

From ____
to_____

From ____
to_____

From ____
to_____

________

From ____
to_____

________

________

____

____

____

____

____

____

Conductor

Line
Length

Conductor

Line
Length

Conductor

Line
Length

HT

DOG

RAB

LT

WASP

ANT

GNAT to ANT

-----to-----

-----to-----

-----to-----

-----to-----

-----to-----

-----to-----

-----to-----

Work Order Prepared By:

Work Order Checked By:

Assistant Manager (Planning)

Deputy Manager (Planning)

AMOUNT TO BE AUTHORIZED BY THIS WORK ORDER


RS.
_____________
Subject to the availibility of Funds:
1. Before taking work in hand, it must be ensured that the approved work order does not in any Govt./Private Housing Scheme.
2. This Work Order is not for new Electrification of the area.

Work Order Recommended By:

Work Order Approved By:

Sr. Manager (P&D)


Name:_____________________

Attachments:
Planning Proposals
Cost Benefit Analysis
Others:

Chief Executive/Tech: Dir.


Name:____________________________

Estimate Summary/BOQ
Single Line Diagrams
Sketch Showing Scope of Work

100

LT FORMAT-IX

CONSOLIDATED B.O.Q
Name of LT Proposal:_________________________

LT Proposal No.________

A- Cost of New Material


Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

Description of Material

Unit

H.T STR 36'


H.T P.C.C Poles 36'
L.T STR 31'
L.T P.C Pole 31'
Danger Plate
Anti Climbing Device
X - Arms 11 kV Wood
X - Arms 11 kV Steel
Knee Braces
Step Braces
Pin Insulators
Disc Insulators
Spool Insulator
Insulator Pins
D-Strap
Dead End Clamp for Dog, Rab
Loop Dead End Clamp
Eye Nut
Double Arming Bolt
Anchor Shackles
P.G Connectors for Dog, Rab
P.G Connector for Wasp
P.G Connector for Ant
Nut & Bolts 3 / 8 x 6"
Nut & Bolts 5 / 8 x 2"
Nut & Bolts 5 / 8 x 10"
Nut & Bolts 5 / 8 x 14"
Round Warshers
Square Warshers
Stay Assembly
STAY Wire
MS Clamps
Tie Wire
Earthing Unit Complete

EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
KG
EA
KG
EA
MR
MR
MR
MR
MR
MR
MR
MR
MR
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
Set
NO.
EA
Set

ACSR Dog

Quantity

ACSR Rabbit
AAC Wasp
AAC Ant
Insulated Wasp
Insulated Ant
4/C 37/.083 Cable
4/C 19/.083 Cable
4/C 19/.052 Cable
T/F 200 kVA
T/F 100 kVA
T/F 50 kVA
T/F 25 kVA
Drop Out Cut Out
Fuse Link------Plateform Double Structure Complete
LT Fixed Capacitor (-----KVAR)
Total Cost of New Material
Installation Charges @ 8% Excluding the Cost of HT/LT PC Poles
Total Cost of New Material (A)

101

Unit Price
(Rs.)

Total Price
(Rs.)

LT FORMAT-IX

CONSOLIDATED B.O.Q
Name of LT Proposal:_________________________

LT Proposal No.________

B- MATERIAL TO BE DISMENTLED & RETURNED TO STORE


Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49

Discription of Material

Unit

Quantity

H.T STR 36'


EA
H.T P.C.C Poles 36'
EA
L.T STR 31'
EA
L.T P.C Pole 31'
EA
Danger Plate
EA
Anti Climbing Device
EA
X - Arms 11 kV Wood
EA
X - Arms 11 kV Steel
EA
Knee Braces
EA
Step Braces
EA
Pin Insulators
EA
Disc Insulators
EA
Spool Insulator
EA
Insulator Pins
EA
D-Strap
EA
Dead End Clamp for Dog, Rab
EA
Loop Dead End Clamp
EA
Eye Nut
EA
Double Arming Bolt
EA
Anchor Shackles
EA
P.G Connectors for Dog, Rab
EA
P.G Connector for Wasp
EA
P.G Connector for Ant
EA
Nut & Bolts 3 / 8 x 6"
EA
Nut & Bolts 5 / 8 x 2"
EA
Nut & Bolts 5 / 8 x 10"
EA
Nut & Bolts 5 / 8 x 14"
EA
Round Warshers
EA
Square Warshers
EA
Stay Assembly
EA
STAY Wire
KG
MS Clamps
EA
Tie Wire
KG
Earthing Unit Complete
EA
AAC Wasp
MR
AAC Ant
MR
S/C 7/.052 Cable
MR
4/Core 19/.052 Cable
MR
4/C 19/.083 Cable
MR
4/C 37/.083 Cable
MR
T/F 200 kVA
NO.
T/F 100 kVA
NO.
T/F 50 kVA
NO.
T/F 25 kVA
NO.
Drop Out Cut Out
Set
Plateform Double Structure
EA
Drop Out Cut Out
Set
Plateform Sigle Structure
EA
Plateform Double Structure
EA
Dismentalment Charges @ 5%
Total Cost of Dismentaled Material Returned to Store (B)

102

Unit Price
(Rs.)

Total Price
(Rs.)

LT FORMAT-IX

CONSOLIDATED B.O.Q
Name of LT Proposal:_________________________
C- MATERIAL TO BE DISMENTALLED & REUSED
Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44

Description of Material

Unit

H.T STR 36'


H.T P.C.C Poles 36'
L.T STR 31'
L.T P.C Pole 31'
Danger Plate
Anti Climbing Device
X - Arms 11 kV Wood
X - Arms 11 kV Steel
Knee Braces
Step Braces
Pin Insulators
Disc Insulators

EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA

Spool Insulator
Insulator Pins
D-Strap
Dead End Clamp for Dog, Rab
Loop Dead End Clamp
Eye Nut
Double Arming Bolt
Anchor Shackles
P.G Connectors for Dog, Rab
P.G Connector for Wasp

EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA

P.G Connector for Ant


MS Clamps

LT Proposal No.________

Quantity

EA
EA
ACSR Dog
MR
ACSR Rabbit
MR
AAC Wasp
MR
AAC Ant
MR
4/C 37/.083 Cable
MR
4/C 19/.083 Cable
MR
4/C 19/.052 Cable
MR
200 KVA Transformer
EA
100 KVA Transformer
EA
50 KVA Transformer
EA
25 KVA Transformer
EA
Plateform Double Structure
EA
Plateform Single Structure
EA
Drop Out Cut Out
Set
LT Capacitor (---- KVAR)
Set
Cost of Material to be Dismentled & Reused
Reinstallation Charges of Dismentalled Material @ 15%
Total Cost of Dismentaled Material to be Reused (C)

103

Unit Price
(Rs.)

Total Price
(Rs.)

LT FORMAT-IX

CONSOLIDATED B.O.Q
Name of LT Proposal:_________________________ LT Proposal No.________
D- CONTRACT WORK COST
Sr. No
1
2
3
4

Discription of Material

Unit

Quantity

Unit Price
(Rs.)

Total Price
(Rs.)

Foundation of HT Steel Strs (36')


EA
Foundation of LT Steel Strs (31')
EA
Erection of H.T PC Poles (36')
EA
Erection of L.T PC Poles (31')
EA
Total Cost of Contract Work (D)

COST SUMMARY
A Cost of New Material (Rs.)

B Cost of Dismentaled Material Returned to Store (Rs.)

C Reinstallation Charges of Dismentalled Material (Rs.)

D Cost of Contract Work (Rs.)

Total Cost of Work Order (Rs.)

104

LT FORMAT-X

Benefit/Cost Calculation
Name/Location of LT Proposal_____________________ LT Proposal No.___________
I.

Annual Energy Loss after 5 years


a) Existing system

= _______________kWh

b) Proposed System

= _______________kWh

c) Annual Energy (A.E.) Saving

= _______________kWh

d) Annual Benefit (Rs)

= A. E. Saving (kWh) x EPR

Where EPR stands for Electricity Purchase Rate (Rs / kWh) of the DISCO.
II.

a.
b.

Loading of existing ____kVA


transformer at present

= __________% kVA

Loading of existing ____kVA


transformer after 5 years

= __________% kVA

c.

Loading of above the rated capacity


of transformer after 5 years
= __________% kVA

d.

Peak kW Saving (PkWS)

= Loading above the x PF


rated capacity (kVA)
= _____________ kW

e.

Annual kWh savings @ VF for


transformer

= PkWS x 8760 x VF x L.F.


= Rs _______________

VF stands for Valuation Factor for T/F, and is calculated as under:


VF = (ESR EPR) ((ESR EPR) x (O&M charges))
((ESR EPR) x (% AEL of the company)) = Rs._________
ESR stands for average Electricity Sale Rate (Rs /kWh) of the DISCO
EPR stands for average Electricity Purchase Rate (Rs/kWh) of the DISCO.
III.

a. Benefit of I + II

= Rs _______________

b. Total Cost of proposed


rehabilitation

= Rs _______________

c. Benefit / Cost
= (a/b) x 5 (years)

= _________________

105

LT FORMAT-XI

COMPLETION REPORT
Name of LT Proposal__________________________

Work Order No. & Date_________

Operation Circle______________

Operation Division______________

Construction Division______________

Construction S/Div_________

Sr.
No.

UNIT

As per
W/O

Issued

MATERIAL

1
2
A. NEW WORK
1
PC/SPUN POLES
31 FEET
36 FEET
2
LATICE STEEL STRUCTURES
31 FEET
36 FEET
3
WOODEN/STEEL CROSS ARM
11 KV WOODEN
11 KV STEEL
4
INSULATORS
11 KV PIN TYPE
11 KV DISC TYPE
L.T. SPOOL TYPE
5
PINS
11 KV INSULATOR PINS
6
CROSS ARM BRACES
11 KV KNEE BRACE
11 KV STEP BRACE
7
NEW HT LINE
RABBIT
DOG
8
NEW LT LINE
AAC ANT
AAC WASP
INSULATED WASP
INSULATED ANT
9
RECONDUCTORING OF LT LINE
AAC ANT
AAC WASP
INSULATED WASP
INSULATED ANT
9
PVC CABLE
2-C 7/.052
4-C 19/.052
4-C 19/.083
4-C 37/.083
10 ALUMINIUM TIE WIRE
STAY RODS COMPLETE SET
11
WITH ANCHOR ASSEMBLY
12 STAY WIRE (10MM, 7/3,22)
13 EYE NUT
14 EARTHING SETS COMPLETE
15 DANGER PLATES

Operation S/Div_________

Date of Completion_______
Quantity
Variation From
Actual
Installed
W/O
Issued
6
7=4-6
8=5-6

NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
NO.
KG
NO.
NO.
NO.
Sheet 1 of 5

106

LT FORMAT-XI

COMPLETION REPORT
Name of LT Proposal_____________________

Work Order No. & Date_________

Operation Circle______________

Operation Division______________

Construction Division______________

Construction S/Div_____________

Sr.
No.
1
16
17

18

19

20

21

22
23

MATERIAL
2
BARBED WIRE
BOLT AND NUTS
3/8 " X 2"
3/8 " X 6"
3/8 " X 14"
1/2 " X 2"
1/2 " X 6"
5/8 " X 1-1/2 "
5/8 X 2 "
5/8 X 8"
5/8 X 9 "
5/8 X 10"
5/8 X 6 "
5/8 X 12"
5/8 X 14 "
5/8 X 18 "
5/8 X 16 "
DOUBLE ARMING BOLTS
5/8 X 12"
5/8 X 14"
5/8 X 18"
5/8 X 20"
5/8 X 22"
5/8 X 16"
WASHERS
7/16 X 1 " (ROUND)
9/16 X 1 " (ROUND)
9/16 X 1-1/4 " (ROUND)
11/16 " X 2-1/4 " 2-1/4 (SQUARE)
PG CONNECTORS
T-116
T-117
T-150
S-157
T-155
CLAMPS
0.4 KV LOOP DEADEND FOR LT STR & PC
11 KV DEAD END
GROUNDING CONDUCTOR CLAMPS
SUSPENSION ANGLE CLAMPS
D-SHACKLE + COTTER PINS
ANCHOR SHACKLE

UNIT

As per
W/O

Issued

3
KG

Operation S/Div_________
Date of Completion_______
Quantity
Variation From
Actual
Installed
W/O Issued
6
7=4-6
8=5-6

NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.

Sheet 2 of 5

107

LT FORMAT-XI

COMPLETION REPORT
Name of LT Proposal_______________ Work Order No. & Date________________
Operation Circle______________
Operation Division________ Operation S/Div_________
Construction Division_____________
Construction S/Div________ Date of Completion_______
Quantity
Sr.
No.
1
24

25

26

27
28
29
30

MATERIAL
2
NEW T/F (11/0.415KV)
200 KVA
100 KVA
50 KVA
25 KVA
T/F AUGMENTATION
25 to 50 KVA
50 to 100 KVA
100 to 200 KVA
PLATFORMS FOR T/F
DOUBLE POLE
SINGLE POLE
DROPOUT CUTOUT (SET OF 3)
11 KV
11 KV ANGLE IRON BRACKETS

FUSE LINK-------LT CAPACITOR (FIXED)

UNIT
3

As per
W/O

Issued

Actual
Installed

Variation From

W/O
7=4-6

Issued
8=5-6

NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.
NO.

NO.
NEW CAP
NO.
FOUNDATION OF LATTICE STEEL STRUCTURE
31 FEET
NO.
36 FEET
NO.
RELOCATION OF EXISTING CAP

31

Sheet 3 of 5

108

LT FORMAT-XI
COMPLETION REPORT
Name of LT Proposal_______________
Work Order No. & Date________________
Operation Circle______________
Operation Division________ Operation S/Div_________
Construction Division_____________
Construction S/Div________ Date of Completion_______
Sr.
No.
1
B
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37

Material Quantity
Description

Unit

As per B.O.Q

2
3
4
MATERIAL DISMANTLED & RETURNED TO STORE
H.T STR 36'
EA
H.T P.C.C Poles 36'
EA
L.T STR 31'
EA
L.T P.C Pole 31'
EA
Danger Plate
EA
Anti Climbing Device
EA
X - Arms 11 kV Wood
EA
X - Arms 11 kV Steel
EA
Knee Braces
EA
Step Braces
EA
Pin Insulators
EA
Disc Insulators
EA
Spool Insulator
EA
Insulator Pins
EA
D-Strap
EA
Dead End Clamp for Dog, Rab
EA
Loop Dead End Clamp
EA
Eye Nut
EA
Double Arming Bolt
EA
Anchor Shackles
EA
P.G Connectors for Dog, Rab
EA
P.G Connector for Wasp
EA
P.G Connector for Ant
EA
Nut & Bolts 3 / 8 x 6"
EA
Nut & Bolts 5 / 8 x 2"
EA
Nut & Bolts 5 / 8 x 10"
EA
Nut & Bolts 5 / 8 x 14"
EA
Round Washers
EA
Square Washers
EA
Stay Assembly
EA
STAY Wire
KG
MS Clamps
EA
Tie Wire
KG
Earthing Unit
EA
AAC Gnat
MR
AAC Wasp
MR
AAC Ant
MR

As per MRN

Variations

6=4-5

Sheet 4 of 5

109

LT FORMAT-XI
COMPLETION REPORT
Name of LT Proposal____________________Work Order No. & Date________________
Operation Circle_____________________ Operation Division________ Operation S/Div___________
Construction Division_________________ Construction S/Div________ Date of Completion_________
Material Quantity

Sr.
No.

Description

Unit

38
39
40
41
42
Sr.
No.
1
B
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
C

E
F
G

2-C PVC Cable 7/0.052


4-C PVC Cable 19/0.052
4-C PVC Cable 19/0.083
4-C PVC Cable 37/0.083
200 kVA T/F

As per B.O.Q

As per MRN

Variations

6=4-5

MR
MR
MR
MR
NO.
Material Quantity

Description

Unit

As per
B.O.Q
2
3
4
MATERIAL DISMANTLED & RETURNED TO STORE
100 kVA T/F
NO.
50 kVA T/F
NO.
25 kVA T/F
NO.
Drop Out Cut Out
Set
Plateform Double Structure
EA
Plateform Single Structure
EA
Drop Out Cut Out
Set
S.Rs Nos. & Date
a)
d)
MRNs Nos. & Date
a)
d)
Estimated Cost of the Proposal
Actual Expenditure
Attachments:
Copies of S.Rs

As per MRN

Variations

6=4-5

b)
e)

c)
f)

b)
e)

c)
f)

Rs.________________
Rs.________________
Copies of M.R.Ns

Handing/Taking Over Papers

A-90

As Built Drawing/Sketch
Sheet 5 of 5

110

LT FORMAT-XII

Inspection Certificate
Operation
Circle:-

Operation
Division ______________

_________

Construction
Division:_________

Construction
S/Division:-

Location of LT Proposal:-

Operation
S/Division:-

_______

________________

_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________

LT Proposal No.:- ____________

Work Order No. & Date:-

______________

Material Quantity
Sr.
No.

Description

NEW WORK
1
2
3
4
5

10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

-H.T Structures (36')


-H.T P.C Poles (36')
-L.T Structures (31')
-L.T P.C Poles (31')
New H.T Line
ACSR Dog Conductor
ACSR Rabbit Conductor
New L.T Line
AAC Wasp Conductor
AAC Ant Conductor

Unit

As per
As
Actual at Site
C/ Report
per
(Checked by
Submitted by
B.O.Q
Committee)
M.P Const:

Variations
From
B.O.Q

From C/Report

7=4-6

8=5-6

No.
No.
No.
No.
Meter
Meter
Meter
Meter

Reconductoring of L.T Line

AAC Wasp Conductor


Meter
AAC Ant Conductor
Meter
Addition of New Transformer
50 KVA
No.
100 KVA
No.
200 KVA
No.
Transformer Augmentation
25 - 50 KVA
No.
50 - 100 KVA
No.
100 - 200 KVA
No.
No.
Double Structure Plate Form
Drop Out Cut Out
No.
Cross Arms
No.
Disc Insulators
No.
Pin Insulators
No.
Dead End Clamp
No.
P.G Connectors
No.
Spool Insulators
No.
D-Shackle
No.
Earthing of Transformer
No.
No.
Earthing of H.T & L.T Structures
No.
Foundation of H.T & L.T Structures

Sheet 1 of 2

111

LT FORMAT-XII

Inspection Certificate
Location of L.T Proposal:-

_________________________________________________

L.T Proposal No.:- ____________

_________________________________________________
Work Order No. & Date:- _______________
Material Quantity

Sr.
No.

Description

Unit

5
6
7
8
9

Variations
6=4-5

MARERIAL DISMANTLED & RETURNED TO STORE


1
2
3

As per
As per
B.O.Q MRN Provided by M.P Const:
4
5

-L.T Structures (31')


-L.T P.C Poles (31')
L.T Conductor
AAC Wasp Conductor
AAC Ant Conductor
Transformer
50 KVA
100 KVA
200 KVA
Double Structure Plate Form
Drop Out Cut Out
Spool Insulators
D-Shackle

No.
No.
Meter
Meter
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

S.Rs Nos. & Date


a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

f)

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

f)

MRNs Nos. & Date

Observations/Recommendations
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________

Attachments:
Copies of S.Rs

Copies of M.R.Ns

Handing/Taking Over Papers

A-90

Conclusion:
Cleared

Conditionally
Accepted

Rejected

Sheet 2 of 2

112

4.3

Selection Criteria/Guidelines for Distribution Network to be Rehabilitated Under


DOP
For works as under, there is no need to calculate B/C ratio, as some of them are required
by special instructions of the Authority, and still other works are essential liability of the
DISCO. Hence, such rehabilitation works are done under Distribution of Power (DOP).

Construction of feeders due to addition of 132 kV new transformer, new 132 kV grid
station, Conversion from 66 kV to 132 kV, and Augmentation of power transformer to
relieve a nearby overloaded grid station.

Rehabilitation of feeder by replacement of conductor, pole, structure or introduction of new


ones by mid spanning (to reduce span length).

Deteriorated conductor ( with broken strands) or a conductor with more / unacceptable


number of joints may be replaced on top priority basis. This holds for conductors of any size.

Augmentation of distribution transformer (with higher capacity) due to addition of new


general connections / increase of load by individual customers.

Replacement of off-size conductor, etc. may be carried out under DOP.


Off size conductor (GSL, Gnat, Copper) may also be replaced on top priority basis.

The copper conductor will be removed in he presence of a standing committee


comprising the following officers:

i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

Dy Manager (CM&O) of the DISCO


Assistant Manager (Planning) of the DISCO
Assistant Manager (Construction) of the DISCO
Assistant Manager (Operation) of the Sub Divn

113

Convener
Member
Member
Member

5. PLANNING CRITERIA
Planning criteria are the principles and prescribed limits on the basis of which the system
is planned, designed, and operated. Fundamental or primary planning criteria applicable
to distribution network are Voltage, Power factor, Capacity, Reliability, and Technical
losses, etc. In effect they define what should or should not be considered a problem with
respect to system loading, voltage profile, and reliability. These are the parameters that
define the threshold (limits) of acceptable distribution performance. If the system is
planned and designed to operate within prescribed limits, normally the technical losses
remain within acceptable limits.
There are many types of limits of electrical equipment e.g. thermal capacity and
economic loading, etc. In distribution system planning the ultimate criteria is the
economic one. The system is planned and designed following those technical limits with
which minimum possible / unavoidable and technical / economic losses, and maximum
economic and financial benefits accrue from the system. That is why, usually, the system
equipment is not run on full rated capacity, but on economical one (which may be less
than that).
The planner of the distribution power system is guided by the following general
principles:

Under normal operating condition i.e. with no system component fault, all equipment will
operate within normal ratings; and the system voltages will be within permissible limits
when the system is operating anywhere from the minimum load to forecasted maximum
peak load.

Under system emergency condition i.e. with the system or the equipment at fault, the
power equipment may be operated with overloaded or/and under voltage for the limit and
for a specific period. Planning is based on normal and emergency power equipment
ratings. Emergency ratings are those, which the equipment can safely withstand for a
specified period.
Feeders exceeding these criteria should be considered for improvements to bring
them within permissible limits. Sound engineering judgement must be used in applying
these criteria.

114

5.1

Power Factor
Power factor shall be maintained close to 0.95 lagging. For the purpose of converting
Amperes to MW, use 0.85 power factor.

5.2

Recommended Feeder Loading


The capacity of a feeder is function of the feeder length and the distribution of the loads
along the feeder. The purpose of establishing current carrying capacity criteria for
planning is to initiate the planner to review a feeder that may be in violation based on
existing as well as forecasted load.
The recommended loadings of 11 kV feeder is adopted as follows:
11 kV

4.7 MVA

Thermal Capability
The demand carrying
thermal capability. Various
maximum loading they were
current carrying capabilities
loading conditions.

ability of all the elements of an electrical device is its


distribution items have nameplate ratings that denote
designed to handle. For example, conductors have given
that vary greatly over different ambient temperatures/

Economic and recommended loadings are substantially less than the thermal
rating.
Voltage Drop
During peak / off peak conditions, voltage at any point on the system is permitted
to drop within permissible limits before improvements can be justified.
Reliability
The objective of reliability criteria is to reduce the outage frequency.

115

Table-5
Maximum Permissible Voltage Drop & Losses

The maximum permissible voltage drop & AEL (technical part)


for distribution network are as under:

Urban / Rural
Distribution
Component

Voltage Drop
(+/-) %

Annual Energy
Loss (AEL)
%

HT Circuit

LT Circuit

Note:
The operating limits as recommended above should be maintained. However, where these
parameters are hard to be maintained, then the existing system should be compared with the
proposed facility and if substantial benefits in terms of reduction of energy loss and voltage drop
are achieved, the proposal may be carried out keeping in view the geographical configuration of
the feeder particularly in certain areas like Baluchistan, etc. The benefit /cost ratio should also be
kept in view.

116

Table-6
Economic Conductor Sizes For New HT Line
(Refer Technical Report T-2)
This table presents lower and upper economic loading limits for distribution conductor, in Amp and
should be used for planning new HT Feeders.

Conductor

Gopher

Notes:
1
2

Lower Limit
(Amps)

Upper Limit
(Amps)

Not to be used in future

Rabbit

41

Dog

42

103

Osprey

104

Above 104

Based on 5 year growth rate.


The ampere limits represents ' 0' year loadings.

117

Table-7
Economic Conductor Sizes For Replacement
(Refer Technical Report T-2)
This table presents the economic loadings in Amp for replaceing a conductor with the higher size. This
table should be used for all conductor replacement on existing HT feeders for energy loss reduction
and renovation. A conductor of higher than economic size may only be used if the voltage drops of the
feeder exceed the limits (5%) in case of rural feeder and (3%) in case of urban feeder.

1.
2.

3.

Existing Conductor

New Conductor

Loading Level Above


which New
Conductor is
Economical
(Amps)

Gopher

Rabbit

41

Gopher

Dog

42

Gopher

Osprey

77

Rabbit

Dog

74

Rabbit

Osprey

106

Dog

Osprey

168

Based on 5 year growth rate.


Off size (GSL, Copper, & Gopher),/ deteriorated conductor, condutor with broken
strands, with more / unacceptable number of joints may be replaced on top priority
basis. This holds for conductors of any size.
Copper conductor should be removed in the presence of a committee.

118

Table-8

Economic Conductor Sizes For New LT Line

Conductor

Lower Limit
(Amps)

Upper Limit
(Amps)

Ant

74

Wasp

74

Above 74

Notes:
1.
For 200 & 100 kVA Transformer, Bus Bar should be constructed with
Wasp Conductor.
2.
In Posh Urban area, Wasp conductor may be used for 200 & 100 kVA
transformers.
3.
For 50 & 25 KVA Transformers, Bus Bar should be constructed with Ant
Conductor.
4.

In LT proposals in narrow streets and areas, where bare conductor is


not feasible, insulated Ant and Wasp conductors, and PVC 19/0.083
and 37/0.083 may be used for public safety.
5.

In posh urban areas preferably AAC Wasp conductor be used for


100 & 200 kVA transformers.

119

Table-9

Economic Conductor Sizes For Replacement in LT

Existing
Conducto
r

New Conductor

Loading Level Above Which New Conductor


is Economical
(Amps)

Gnat

Ant

59

Ant

Wasp

85

NOTES:
1.

2.

LT conductor in narrow streets and areas, where use of bare conductor is


dangerous, insulated Ant and insulated Wasp conductors may be used.
Off size (GSL, Copper, & Gnat), / deteriorated conductor, conductor with
broken strands, with more / unacceptable number of joints may be replaced
on top priority basis. This holds for conductors of any size.

120

PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINATION OF ECONOMIC


TRANSFORMER SIZE
Step-I
Loading

Determine the customer summer peak loading (3 hours equivalent) or winter peak
loading (8 hours equivalent) in kVA. The following are the recommended values:

Load Type

Recommended Summer Peak


Loading Value per Customer
(kVA)

Domestic (Rural)

Domestic (Urban
Low Income)

Domestic (Urban
High Income)

Small commercial

Large commercial

Step-II
Groth Rate

Determine the annual load growth rate. The following are the
recommended values for per customer growth:

Load Type

Recommended Per Customer


Growth Rate of Demand of
Existing Customers (%)

Rural

Urban Low Income

Urban High Income

121

Step-III
The procedure for selecting an economic distribution transformer size is explained
through an example:
Example

Solution

Category wise number of customers in a high-income urban area:


i)
ii)

Domestic customers
Big shops

= 20
=7

a)

Peak loading on transformer due to different categories of customers is


calculated as under:

i)

Domestic customers

= 20 x 4= 80 kVA

ii)

Big shops

= 7 x 4 = 28 kVA

Total
b)

108 kVA

Projected growth rate

= 9% (being a high income area)

Consult transformers economic loading curves (Fig 7 and Fig 8) and locate the
point where the coordinate of 108 kVA peak loading would meet the coordinate of 9%
growth rate as shown in Fig 9. The most economic transformer in this case is a 200 kVA.
This transformer will remain in service for 7 years after which it should be replaced with
the next higher size of 400 kVA.
The No. of years for which this transformer will remain in service can be
calculated as below:
Transformer Installed (kVA) = (1 + r)n x Peak Loading of Transformer (kVA)
Where

r = Load Growth Rate


n = No. of Years

By putting the values in the above formula,

200

= (1 + .09)n x 108

(200/108)

= (1.09)n

122

ln (200/108)

= ln (1.09)n

ln (1.852)

= n x ln (1.09)

= ln (1.852)/ln(1.09) = 7.15 7 years

11 kV Transformer Loading
For Planning:

Loading of distribution transformer under normal

condition

should not exceed 80 % of its kVA rating, this limit is an indicator


to put up a plan for replacement.

For Operation:

Loading of distribution transformer under normal

condition

should not exceed 100 % of its kVA rating.

Loading of distribution transformer under emergency condition


should not exceed 110 % of its kVA rating for three (3) hours if
ambient temperature is less than 40C, and prior and post
emergency loading of transformer is 64 % or as recommended by
the transformer manufacturer.

123

124

125

126

Table-10
Max. Allowable Service Cable Length At Different Loads (1% Voltage Drop)
(Based Upon Voltage Drop Consideration)

The maximum allowable length of service cable is presented in the Table given below and Figure-10.

Max. V.D./Meter at
Rated Current

Max. Allowable Service Cable Length in Meters at 1% VD


for Load Demand of:

127

Size of Service
Cable

Rated
Current

Volts

Percentage

8 Amps

16 Amps

32 Amps

64
Amps

115
Amps

2/Core, 10 mm2
(7/0.052)

32 Amps

0.237

0.108

40

20

10

4/Core, 10 mm2
(7/0.052)

32 Amps

0.137

0.042

96

48

24

4/Core, 65 mm2
(19/0.083)

115 Amps

0.113

0.027

518

260

130

64

36

Note:

For mechanical constraints refer to WAPDA Technical Instructions C-19.

128

TABLE 11:

MAXIMUM SPAN-LENGTHS FOR NEW HT LINE,


COMPOSITE LINE, AND LT LINE

1. HT Line (11 kV)


Urban Area
SPAN LENGTH (FEET)

Conductor
Osprey
Panther
Dog
Rabbit

Single Circuit
36 Ft Lattice Steel
Structure, & PC
Pole

Double Circuit
40 Ft Lattice Steel
Structure, & PC
Pole

Tripple Circuit
45 Ft Lattice Steel
Structure, & PC
Pole

200 Ft

200 Ft

200 Ft

Rural Area
SPAN LENGTH (FEET)

Conductor
Osprey
Panther
Dog
Rabbit

Single Circuit
36 Ft Lattice Steel
Structure, & PC
Pole

Double Circuit
40 Ft Lattice Steel
Structure, & PC
Pole

Tipple Circuit
45 Ft Lattice Steel
Structure, & PC
Pole

300 Ft

300 Ft

300 Ft

400 Ft

400 Ft

400 Ft

129

2.

COMPOSITE LINE (11 kV / 0.4 kV)

Urban / Rural Area


SPAN LENGTH (FEET)
Single Circuit

Double Circuit

Tripple Circuit

Conductor

HT
Osprey
Panther
Dog
Rabbit

3.

LT

36 Ft Lattice Steel 40 Ft Lattice Steel 45 Ft Lattice Steel


Structure, & PC Structure, & PC Structure, & PC
Pole
Pole
Pole

Wasp
Ant

200 Ft

200 Ft

LT Line (0.4 kV)

Urban / Rural Area


SPAN LENGTH (FEET)

Conductor

31 Ft Lattice Steel Structure, &


PC Pole

Wasp
Ant

200 Ft

130

200 Ft

CONSTRUCTION OF 11 KV MULTIPLE CIRCUITS


1. The double circuit lines shall only be constructed using 40 feet steel structures. 36
feet steel structures / PC poles shall not be used for this purpose.
2. The construction of new double circuit 11 kV feeders, in congested areas, on 40 feet
steel structures, is recommended / preferred. However, in case of their nonavailability, double circuit may be strung on 36 feet steel structures / PC poles by
using 2nd LT hole from the top and not by extending the height. In this way
requisite clearances between the two 11 kV circuits and the ground will be attained.
This will only be applicable where composite lines are not to be run. For composite
lines, the only solution is the use of 40 feet steel structures for 11 kV double circuit
feeders.
3. Similarly, the triple circuit may be run preferably on 45 feet steel structures / PC
poles but in case of their non-availability, 40 feet steel structures / PC poles may be
used by omitting the LT circuit. The 2nd LT hole from the top may be used for the
third 11 kV circuit. It may, however, be pertinent to note that the purchasing
agencies may be requested for timely procurement of 40 feet and 45 feet steel
structures as per requirements to avoid the use of low height steel structures /
PC poles to become a regular practice.

131

TABLE 12:

11 KV CAPACITOR JUDGEMENT FACTORS


(Minimum kW Saving)

The following are the judgement factors in terms of kW saving accrued from the
application of capacitors which indicate their feasibility.

Capacitors
Fixed Capacitors

Rural

Urban

(Saving at off peak)

450 kVAR

1.2

1.2

900 kVAR

1.6

1.6

Switched Capacitors

(Saving at peak)

450 kVAR

8.7

4.9

900 kVAR

10.4 to 11

5.6 to 6.0

(Reference:

Inter office memorandum No. PTAT/WAPDA/P&E-3 dated


06.01.1986 regarding Economic Justification for ELR Improvements
under WAPDA-USAID POWER DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM)

Notes: 1. Size of the fixed capacitor, to be installed on a feeder, should be estimated at


off peak load.
If off peak load of the feeder is not available, then 1/3rd of the peak load may
be taken for calculation purposes.
2. Size of the switched capacitor, to be installed on a feeder, should be estimated
at peak load of the feeder.

132

ANNEXURES

ANNEXURE-I

SOME IMPORTANT DEFINITIONS


1. Demand
The demand of an installation or system is the load at receiving terminals averaged
over a specified interval of time.
2. Maximum Demand
The maximum demand of an installation or system is the largest of all the demands,
which have occurred during a specified period of time (most severe condition
imposed on system either in terms of thermal loading or voltage drop.)
This is the sum total of all the demands of all the circuits that occur
simultaneously during that period.
3. Diversified or Coincident Demand
It is the demand of a composite group of loads imposed on system over a specified
interval of time.
4. Coincident Factor
It is a ratio of maximum coincident demand of a composite group of customers
(occurring at the same time interval) to the sum of the maximum demands of
individual customers comprising the group (occurring at different time intervals). It is
reciprocal of diversity factor.
5. Non Coincident Demand
It is sum of the demands of a group of loads irrespective of the time interval to which
each demand is applicable. The maximum non coincident demand is indicative of
(sum total of) average individual maximum demands.

134

6. Demand Factor
This is the ratio of maximum demand to the connected load of the system.
It indicates the degree to which the total connected load is served simultaneously.
7. Utilization Factor
This is the ratio of maximum demand of the system to the rated capacity of the
system.
It indicates the degree to which a system is being loaded during peak load with
respect to its capacity.
8. Load Factor
It is the ratio of average load over a specified period of time to peak load occurring in
that period. In fact, load factor indicates the degree to which the peak load is
sustained during the period.
9. Load Diversity
It is the difference between the sum of peaks of two or more individual loads
(occurring at different time intervals) and the peak of the combined load (occurring at
the same time interval).
10. Diversity Factor
It is the ratio of the sum of the individual maximum demands of various sub divisions
of a system (occurring at any/ different time intervals) to the actual maximum
demand (occurring at the same time interval) of the whole system (it is greater
than 1). It is reciprocal of coincident demand.
OR
It is the ratio of the sum total of all the maximum demands of the various circuits
to the actual maximum demand of the system.
It is, generally, of the order of 1.25.

135

11. Loss Factor


It is the ratio of the average power loss to the peak power loss during a specified
period of time.
12. Power Factor
It is the ratio of the active power to the apparent power.
13. Voltage Drop
It is the difference between voltage at transmitting end and that at the receiving end of
a feeder.
14. Maximum Voltage
It is the largest five-minute average or mean voltage.
15. Minimum Voltage
It is the least five-minute average or mean voltage.
16. Voltage Limit
The permissible voltage values which define the extremities of a range, generally
expressed as plus and minus percentage variations from the nominal value.
17. Voltage Spread or Range
It is difference between maximum and minimum voltage.
18. Nominal Voltage
Nominal voltage of a circuit or system is the nominal value assigned for the purpose
of convenient designation. (Its value lies a little above the mid point of band of
voltage that falls within the same general class).

136

19. Rated Voltage


It is the voltage at which operating and performance characteristics of equipment are
referred (or the nameplate voltage).
20. Distribution System
It consists of all the electrical power equipment and facilities used to transfer
electrical energy from grid station to the customer.
21. Service Voltage
It is the voltage measured at the terminals of the service entrance equipment.
22. Utilization Voltage
It is the voltage measured at the terminals of the machine or device.
23. Base Voltage
It is the reference value, which is a common denominator to the nominal voltage
ratings of transmission and distribution lines, equipment, and utilizing equipment.
24. Voltage Regulation
It is percent of voltage drop of a line with reference to the receiving end voltage.
25. Consumer Interface
The point at which customers load is connected to the utilitys power system. This is
normally the point of metering installation.
26. Connected Load
This is the sum total of the entire name plate rated loads of electrical equipment
installed by a customer.

137

ANNEXURE-II

SOME IMPORTANT FORMULAS


Following are some useful formulae. Care must be taken for the system of units while
using the values for the parameters in these formulas.

1. Maximum load current


with growth

= I x (1+r)n

(amp)

where, I = max load current,


r = growth rate,
n = number of years
2. Total feeder demand
Without growth = 3 x I x V,
With growth = 3 x I x (1+r)n x V,
where, V = Bus voltage = 11 kV
Max (power eqpt) demand (kVA)
3. Demand Factor

=
Total connected load (kVA)

Where, power equipment means a dist. feeder, T/F, or G/S etc.


3 x I (Amp) x 11 (kV)
=
Total connected load (kVA)

Average load in a certain period (kVA)


4. Load Factor

=
Peak load in the same period (kVA)

Energy consumed during


a period (kWh)
Average load factor

=
Peak demand (kW) x No. of Hours
in the period

138

Units sold (kWh)


Average load factor (yearly) =
8760 x PF x peak load (kVA)

Energy consumed during


a period (units sent)
Monthly load factor at G/S level

=
Peak demand (kW) x No. of Hours
in the month

Monthly load factor at T/F level

= Load factor at G/S level x Coincidence


Factor between demand at G/S and demand at
distribution T/F level

Therefore, energy can be used as a means of checking peak load data. By using
historical monthly load factor, a comparison of demand and energy consumption will
indicate if any major metering discrepancy appears to exist.

(Demand
Factor ) x
5. Section current (amp)

(Cumulative
section kVA)

=
3 x 11 (kV)

6. Percentage loading of conductor


at each node
=

Section current
Rated current of the conductor
in a particular section

Section %age
Demand CumulLength x VD for x Factor x ative
1000 kVA
section
(mile) for 1 mile
kVA
7. Section percentage voltage drop =
1000

139

where, 1 km = 0.621371 mile

Resistance
Section
3 x I2 x per mile
x length
per phase
(mile)
8. Section line losses (kW)

=
1000

9. Total power losses (kW)

= line losses + transformation losses

10. Percentage power losses (%)

Total power losses (kW)


x 100
Total feeder demand (kW)
= a (load factor) + (1-a) (load factor )2

11. Loss factor

= 0.3 (load factor) + 0.7 (load factor )2


where, a = 0.3 for distribution system
Another empirical approximation is:
Loss factor

= (load factor )3

12. Annual energy loss (kWh)

= loss factor x total power loss x 8760

13. Total annual energy (kWh)

Total feeder
demand
x

Load
factor x 8760

Annual energy loss (kWh)


14. Percentage annual energy loss (%)=

x 100
Total Annual energy (kWh)

140

15. Coincidence factor between


demand at G/S and dist. T/F level =

Max demand of feeder at G/S


Sum of incident peak demands of
all distribution T/Fs on the Feeder

16. Coincidence factor between


demand at distribution T/F and
customer level

17. Voltage drop

Max demand of feeder at G/S


=
Sum of the peak demands of all the
customers of the selected feeder
= 2 I (r Cos +x Sin )
for single phase AC lines,
= 3 I (r Cos +x Sin )
for three phase AC lines,
(voltage drop between phases)
= I (r Cos +x Sin )
for three phase AC lines,
(voltage drop between phase & neutral)

Where, V = rms voltage drop = Max voltage / 2,


V = rms voltage drop, (volt per km of line),
Max voltage = system voltage = 11000 V in HT of Dist. T/F,
I = rms current in each conductor (amp), = Max current / 2,
r = resistance of each conductor, (ohm per km),
x = L =reactance of each conductor, (ohm per km),
cos = power factor at the receiving end.

I (r Cos +x Sin )
18. Percentage voltage drop (%)= _ V_ =
Es

141

x 100
Es

Where, I = current in each phase (amp),


r = resistance per phase,
x = reactance per phase,
Es = sending end voltage (volt),
If r and x are expressed in ohm per mile or per 1000 feet, the formula is:
I (r Cos +x Sin ) d
Percentage voltage drop (%) =

x 100
Es

Where, d = distance in miles or in thousands of feet.


In a balanced three phase system,
3 Es I
kVA

=
1000
1000 kVA

=
3 Es

the %VD expression can be re-written as:


1000 kVA (r Cos +x Sin ) d
Percentage voltage drop (%) =

x 100
3 Es2

where, Es = 11000 / 3 V,
= 11000 / 1.732 V is the line to neutral (or phase voltage where
as 11000 V is line to line voltage.

Measured demand T/F level (at 11kV)


19. Total Demand at customer level =
Coincidence factor

20. Ultimate Demand of


housing schemes

Total Demand x Development Factor


=
Diversity Factor

142

21. Losses of a Transformer


kVA Rating of T/F A
Losses of Transformer A=

x 0.75 x Losses of T/F B


kVA Rating of T/F B
whose losses are known

This formula is applicable for calculation of Iron as well as copper losses if losses
of a T/F of any capacity are known.

22. Valuation Factor


Valuation Factor = Loss Factor x 8760 x EPR
Where,
EPR stands for Electricity Purchase Rate is in Rs/kWh of the respective
DISCO, and
8760 are number of hours in a year,

143

ANNEXURE-III
CALCULATION OF DEMAND FACTOR, POWER FACTOR, & LOAD FACTOR
FOR HT FEEDERS

NAME HT FEEDER = ABC


INPUT SECTION +

CIRCUIT CONNECTED KVA = 5300


OUTPUT SECTION

MAX

LOSSES

MONTH

PEAK
CURRENT
(AMPS)

BUS
VOLT
AT
PEAK
(KV)

HOUR
KWH
READ
(KWH)

UNITS
SENT
(KWH)

UNITS
SOLD
(KWH)

(KWH)

Jul-86

250

11.0

2100

600000

Aug-86

210

11.0

1900

Sep-86

230

11.0

Oct-86

214

Nov-86

(%)

*
DEMAND
FACTOR
(%)

**
POWER
FACTOR
(%)

***
LOAD
FACTOR
(%)

10

11

354000

246000

41

90

44

40

700000

354000

346000

49

75

47

51

2100

450000

370000

80000

18

83

48

30

11.0

2200

650000

370000

280000

43

77

54

41

210

11.2

2000

440000

370000

70000

16

77

49

31

Dec-86

213

11.2

1800

770000

370000

400000

52

78

44

59

Jan-86

230

11.2

2100

440000

370000

70000

16

84

47

29

Feb-86

240

11.2

2000

650000

330000

320000

49

88

43

45

Mar-86

230

11.4

2100

430000

330000

100000

23

86

46

28

Apr-86

200

11.4

1600

800500

330000

470500

59

75

41

69

May-86

200

11.4

2100

430000

380000

50000

12

75

53

28

Jun-86

210

11.4

1900

430000

380000

50000

12

78

46

31

Average

220

11.2

1992

80

47

40

Total

6790500

4308000

2482500

37

Information to be collected from grid station feeder data and Revenue office.

Demand Factor = (1.732 x Imax x Bus bar kV) / Circuit's connected kVA

**

Power Factor = Max Hour kWh reading / (1.732 x Imax x Bus bar kV)

***

Load Factor (monthly) = kWh Units sent per month / (24 x 30 x Max Hour kWh reading)

144

ANNEXURE-IV
Characteristics of Conductors Aluminum And ACSR
This table presents the technical data for the standard distribution conductors. The data includes:
Conductor diameter; cross sectional area; resistance and the thermal rating.

Conductor
Type

Stranding &
Wire
Diameter
No./mm

Nominal
Aluminum

Area
(mm)2

Total
Sectional
Area of
Aluminum
(mm)2

Conductor
Diameter
(mm)

Approximate
Weight per
km
(Kg)

Calculat
ed
Breaking
Load
(kN)

Total
Sectional
Area
Al + St.
(mm)2

Resistance
Per km per
Phase
(Ohms/km)

Reactance
Per km Per
Phase GMD
1342/384 mm
(Ohms/km)

Capacity
(Thermal)
Amps

26.85
52.83
106
213.2

6.63
9.3
13.17
18.9

73
145
290
587

4.66
8.28
16
32.4

26.85
52.83
106
213.2

1.386
0.662
0.33
0.165

0.393/0.314
0.372/0.293
0.350/0.271
0.327/0.248

147
211
323
529

9.498

0.742

Aluminum Conductor
Gnat
Ant
Wasp
Chafer

7/2.21
7/3.10
7/4.39
19/3.78

25
50
100
200

ACSR Conductor

145

GSL
Gopher
Rabbit
Dog
Lynx
Panther
Pelican
Osprey
Note:

Al: 6/2.36
St: 1/2.36
Al: 6/3.35
St: 1/3.35
Al: 6/4.72
St: 7/1.57
Al: 30/2.79
St: 7/2.79
Al: 30/3.00
St: 7/3.00
Al: 18/4.135
St: 1/4.135
Al: 18/4.465
St: 1/4.465
1
2
3

25

26.24

7.09

106

9.61

30.62

1.43

0.446/0.367

169

50

52.88

10.05

214

18.35

61.7

0.729

0.441/0.332

202

100

105

14.15

394

32.7

118.5

0.391

0.381/0.302

307

175

183.4

19.63

842

79.8

226.2

0.193

0.325/0.246

486

200

212.1

21

974

92.25

261.5

0.167

0.321/0.241

520

225

241.7

20.68

771

52.46

225.13

0.144

0.322/0.243

592

275

281.9

22.23

898.8

60.99

297.56

0.123

0.317/0.238

660

Based on Conductor temperature of 75 degree C.


Based on 40 degree C ambient, 35 degree rise, air at 0.61 m/s (2FPS).
Conductor data complies with the following British Standards:
BS 215 : 1970
BS 3242 : 1970

ANNEXURE-V
Copper Conductor Characteristics And Current Carrying Capacity

Area
(MCM)

Approximate
Weight per
km
(Kg)

Resistance
Per km per
Phase
(Ohms/km)

Reactance
Per km
Per Phase
(Ohms/km)

Capacity
(Thermal)
Amps

0.02

25.6

115

1.647

0.429

60

0.212

0.035

44.9

202

0.938

0.410

90

3 SWG

0.25

0.05

63.5

296

0.665

0.398

120

3/0.104

0.224

0.025

32.5

146

1.317

0.416

75

3/0.147

0.317

0.05

64.8

302

0.665

0.391

125

7/0.116

0.348

0.075

94.2

358

0.460

0.385

160

7/0.136

0.408

0.1

129.4

492

0.329

0.373

200

7/0.166

0.498

0.15

192.9

733

0.224

0.360

270

7/0.193

0.579

0.2

260.7

990

0.162

0.348

340

Conductor
Diameter
(in)

Sectional
Area
Copper
(Sq. in.)

8 SWG

0.16

5 SWG

Conductor
Type

Note:

1
2

Based on Conductor temperature of 75 degree C.


Based on 40 degree C ambient, 35 degree rise, no air movement.

146

ANNEXURE-VI
HT Cables Current Carrying Capacity
Current Carrying Capacity (A)

147

Cable Size

Resistance Per
km per Phase
(Ohm/km)

Reactance Per
km Per Phase
(Ohm/km)

Single Circuit

Three Circuits

Six Circuits

Nine Circuits

2/0 AWG Al

0.887

0.271

181

141

121

112

4/0 AWG Al

0.293

0.247

345

260

221

204

500 MCM Al

0.14

0.232

540

394

333

307

1000 MCM Al

0.09

0.222

744

529

446

412

Note:
1

Based on WAPDA Specification P-29:81.

ANNEXURE-VII
LT Cables Current Carrying Capacity

Cable Size

Resistance Per
km per Phase
(Ohm/km)

Reactance Per km
Per Phase
(Ohm/km)

Current Carrying
Capacity
(A)

PVC 7/0.052 (10 mm)

2.795

0.4

32

1.031

0.41

77

0.452

0.23

115

0.232

0.24

175

PVC 19/0.052 (25


mm)
PVC 19/0.083 (70
mm)
PVC 37/0.083 (120
mm)

148

ANNEXURE-VIII
Secondary Loading- Number of Spans (60 Meter Each)
This table presents the number of LT spans possible for each conductor for different loadings. The
table is not intended to be a replacement for circuit analysis and is only to be used to determine the
LT circuits which require renovation. This table is not a replacement of voltage measurement at
different points on the system, to check losses. This table is only an indicator of areas requiring
renovation.

Transformer
Size

630 kVA

400 kVA

200 kVA

100 kVA

50 kVA

25 kVA

Gnat

10

20

Ant

19

40

Wasp

17

34

68

Conductor Size

149
Assumptions:

1. Transformer is fully loaded.


2. Secondary is uniformly loaded, a secondary span is taken to be 60 meter.
3. Allowable secondary voltage drop is taken as 3%.
4. System power factor is taken to be 0.8.
5. Thermal loading limits of conductor are not exceeded in any section for a uniformly distributed load.

ANNEXURE-IX

TYPICAL CORE AND WINDING LOSSES IN DISTRIBUTION


TRANSFORMERS

CORE LOSS*/IRON LOSSES


(KW)

WINDING LOSS**
COPPER LOSSES
(KW)

10

0.065

0.320

15

0.085

0.435

25

0.123

0.640

50

0.175

1.170

100

0.311

2.020

200

0.495

3.410

400

0.925

5.600

630

1.350

8.150

0.205

1.280

TRANSFORMER SIZE
(KVA)
Three Phase

Single Phase
63
*
**

Rated core loss = No Load Loss


Rated winding loss = Full Load Loss - No Load Loss

Formula:
Losses of a Transformer "A" = kVA rating of transformer "A"
x 0.75 x Losses of transformer "B"
kVA rating of transformer "B"
whose losses are known

150

ANNEXURE-X

FUSE RATINGS FOR DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS &


11 KV CAPACITORS

Fuse Rating

T/F Rating
kVA

11 kV Capacitor
Rating (kVAR)

Colour

1K

10 & 15

--

Black

3K

25 & 50

--

Green

6K

75

--

Brown

10K

100 & 150

--

Blue

15K

200 & 250

--

Orange

20K

300

300

Yellow

30K

400

--

White

40K

630

450

Grey

80K

--

900

Violet

151

ANNEXURE-XI

FUSE RATINGS FOR LT CAPACITORS

Fuse Rating

LT Capacitor
Rating (kVAR)

Fuse Type

5A

NH 00

10 A

NH 00

20 A

10

NH 00

40 A

20

NH 00

75 A

40

NH 00

150 A

80

NH 00

152

ANNEXURE-XII
TYPICAL POWER FACTORS OF DIFFERENT
EQUIPMENT/INSTALLATIONS
Euipment/ Installation

Typical Power Factor

Automatic Lathe

0.6

Chemicals Industry

0.72 to 0.87

Cold Storage

0.76 to 0.80

Confectionary

0.6

Cement Industry

0.80 to 0.85

Ceiling Fan Industry

0.50 to 0.70

Cinemas

0.78 to 0.80

Cigrette manufacturing

0.8

Clock manufacturing

0.9

Coffee Grinder

0.75

Cabin Fan

0.50 to 0.60

Electronic Equipment

0.40 to 0.95

Exhaust Fan

0.60 to 0.70

Freezer

0.7

Film Studios

0.65 to 0.74

Flour Mills

0.61

Foundries

0.59

Gas Works

0.87

Hair Dryers

0.70 to 0.80

Heavy Engineering Works

0.48 to 0.75

Heat Treatment Shops

0.65 to 0.80

Industrial Induction Motor:


- No Load

0.18

- 25% of Full Load

0.56

- 50% of Full Load

0.74

- 75% of Full Load

0.81

- 100% of Full Load

0.85

- 125% of Full Load

0.86

Irrigation Pumps

0.62 to 0.80

`Laundries

0.92

Liquidiser

0.8

Mixer

0.8

153

ANNEXURE-XII (Contd)
TYPICAL POWER FACTORS OF DIFFERENT
EQUIPMENT/INSTALLATIONS
Euipment/ Installation

Typical Power Factor

Mercury Vapour Lamp

0.40 to 0.60

Metal Pressing

0.57 to 0.72

Municipal Pumpming Stations

0.65 to 0.75

Neon Signs

0.50 to 0.55

Oil and Paint Manufacturing

0.51 to 0.69

Oil Mills

0.51 to 0.59

Oil Terminals

0.64 to 0.83

Office Buildings

0.80 to 0.85

Plastic Moulding

0.57 to 0.73

Pharnaceuticals

0.75 to 0.86

Potteries

0.61

Refrigerators

0.65

Radio Manufacturing

0.9

Rubber Extrusion and Moulding

0.48

Rolling Mills

0.60 to 0.72

Repair Shops

0.6

Shaver

0.6

Sewing Machine

0.70 to 0.80

Structural Engineering

0.53 to 0.68

Spinning Mills

0.6

Steel Works

0.65 to 0.80

Table Fan

0.50 to 0.60

Tube Light

0.50 to 0.90

Textile Industry

0.65 to 0.75

Vacuum Cleaner

0.7

Window Type A/C

0.62 to 0.85

Woolen Mills

0.7

Weaving Mills

0.6

Welding Shops

0.50 to 0.60

Workshops

0.6

Washing Machines

0.60 to 0.70

154

ANNEXURE-XIII
TYPICAL LOAD FACTORS OF DIFFERENT EQUIPMENTS/INSTALLATIONS
Euipment/ Installation

Typical
Load Factor

Chemicals Industry

0.5

Cold Storage

0.34

Confectionary

0.21

Cotton Ginning

0.25

Cement Industry

0.78

Ceramics Industry

0.24

Electric Furnace

0.35

Engineering Works

0.27

Fertilizer Industry

0.77

Flour Mills

0.4

Ghee and Oil Mills

0.44

Glass Manufacturing

0.4

Ice Factory

0.3

Jute Factory

0.39

Paper Industry

0.44

Rice Husking Mills

0.19

Rubber Industry

0.24

Shoe Mnufacturing

0.46

Steel Mills

0.31

Sugar Industry

0.31

Tobacco Industry

0.4

Tanneries

0.3

Textile Industry

0.66

Small Industry

0.2

Tube well (Private)

0.25

Tube well (Public)

0.64

Domestic Connection

0.20 to 0.40

Commmercial Connection

0.4

155

ANNEXURE-XIV

TYPICAL COINCIDENCE FACTORS BETWEEN DIFFERENT


ELEMENTS OF POWER SYSTEM

Elements of System
between which CF are
stated

Typical Values of Coincidence Factors


Residential
Lighting

Commercial
Lighting

General
Power

Large
Users

Between Individual Users

0.50

0.68

0.69

Between distribution
transfromers

0.77

0.77

0.74

0.95

Between feeders

0.87

0.87

0.87

0.95

Between substations

0.91

0.91

0.91

0.91

From user to distribution


transformer

0.50

0.68

0.69

From user to feeder

0.38

0.53

0.51

0.87

From user to substation

0.33

0.46

0.45

0.76

From user to generating


station

0.30

0.42

0.41

0.69

156

ANNEXURE-XV
VOLUME OF MIXTURE
FOR
LT (31 FEET) STEEL STRUCTURE FOUNDATION

Size of Foundation

= 1 8 x 1 8 x 6.0 = 16.73 cft

Wet mixture required

= 16.73 cft x 1.5 = 25.10 cft


CEMENT

Ratio of mixture:

SAND
:

CRUSH
:

=7

Quantity of Material Required


Cement

= 25.10 cft x 1/7 = 3.58 (cft) 1.25 (cft per bag) = 2.86 bags

Sand

= 25.10 cft x 2/7 = 7.17 cft

Crush

= 25.10 cft x 4/7 = 14.34 cft

VOLUME OF MIXTURE
FOR
HT (36 FEET) STEEL STRUCTURE FOUNDATION
Size of Foundation

= 2 x 2 x 6.5 = 26 cft

Wet mixture required

= 26 cft x 1.5 = 39 cft


CEMENT

Ratio of mixture:

SAND
:

CRUSH
:

=7

Quantity of Material Required


Cement

= 39 cft x 1/7 = 5.57 (cft) 1.25 (cft per bag) = 4.45 bags

Sand

= 39 cft x 2/7 = 11.14 cft

Crush

= 39 cft x 4/7 = 22.29 cft


Sheet 1 of 2

157

ANNEXURE-XV (Contd)
VOLUME OF MIXTURE
FOR
HT (40 FEET) STEEL STRUCTURE FOUNDATION
Size of Foundation

= 2 1/2 x 2 1/2 x 7 1/2 = 46.875 cft

Wet mixture required

= 46.875 cft x 1.5 = 70.31 cft


CEMENT

Ratio of mixture:

SAND
:

CRUSH
:

=7

Quantity of Material Required


Cement

= 70.31 cft x 1/7 = 10.04 (cft) 1.25 (cft per bag) = 8 bags

Sand

= 70.31 cft x 2/7 = 20.10 cft

Crush

= 70.31 cft x 4/7 = 40.17 cft

VOLUME OF MIXTURE
FOR
HT (45 FEET) STEEL STRUCTURE FOUNDATION
Size of Foundation

= 2 10 x 2 10 x 8 4 = 66.71 cft

Wet mixture required

= 66.71 cft x 1.5 = 100.65 cft


CEMENT

Ratio of mixture:

SAND
:

CRUSH
:

=7

Quantity of Material Required


Cement

= 100.65 cft x 1/7 = 14.38 (cft) 1.25 (cft per bag) = 11.50 bags

Sand

= 100.65 cft x 2/7 = 28.76 cft

Crush

= 100.65 cft x 4/7 = 57.51 cft


Sheet 2 of 2

158

ANNEXURE-XVI

GROWTH FACTORS
Factors by Which to Multiply Annual Benefis at no Growth
to Derive Annual Benefits at Growth

159

No. of Years

3
5
7
10
12
15
20
30

1.057
1.112
1.166
1.243
1.291
1.358
1.456
1.597

Reference:

Average Growth Per Annum (%)


5
7
1.097
1.196
1.298
1.453
1.558
1.713
1.964
2.412

1.138
1.289
1.450
1.715
1.904
2.208
2.760
4.002

10

1.182
1.390
1.626
2.040
2.358
2.907
4.035
7.288

1.205
1.444
1.724
2.231
2.636
3.360
4.946
10.151

Inter office memorandum No. PTAT/WAPDA/P&E-3 dated 06.01.1986


regarding Economic Justification for ELR Improvements under WAPDAUSAID POWER DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM