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PHILOSOPHY 2: ETHICS

Submitted by: ROSETE, MINERVA B.


Year level and course: 2nd Yr/ AB-Economics
Schedule: MW 5:30-7:00 PM
Submitted to: Prof. Georgina de Chavez
Date of Submission: April 6, 2015
Etymology and Definition of Ethics
The word ethics is derived from the Greek ethos which means characteristic way o acting, habit, or,
custom. The general definition of ethics: the science of the morality of human acts.
Science: systematic study or a system of scientific conclusions clearly demonstrated, derived from clearly
established principles. Here, we are referring to a philosophical (normative) science, not experimental science. And
as a normative philosophy, it answers questions like: What are good or bad (right or wrong) actions? Hence, ethics is
If anyone can show me, and prove me, that I am wrong in thought or deed, I will gladly change. I
seek the truth, which never yet hurt anybody. It is only persistence in self-delusion and ignorance
which does harm. - Marcus Aurelius

a science because it systematically establishes standards or norms of human conduct. It qualifies human conduct as
either good or bad, or right or wrong. Put simply, it requires man to act properly as man.
Morality: the quality of good or bad and right or wrong in human acts
Human Acts: Acts done with knowledge or consent
With this, we come up with a more specific definition: Ethics is a normative philosophical science which
deals with the goodness or badness, the rightness or wrongness of human acts.
Ethics as distinguished from Morality
If we are to speak about etymology, there is no difference between the two at all. Ethos means custom;
and mos or mores (Latin words from which we derive the word morality) also means custom.
The difference lies in theory and practice. Ethics is a theoretical science of good or bad , and right or wrong
actions. Meaning, it only provides the principles or knowledge of human acts. Ethics only prescribes or guides man
on how to be moral; it does not guarantee that man will be moral. Morality, on the other hand, is the praxis or
application of the theory of ethics. Hence, it is called Applied Ethics. Thus, you only become moral when you apply
ethics. You must practice what you preach.
We also call ethics as moral philosophy.
The Three Postulates in Ethics

The existence of God


The existence of intellect and free will
The spirituality and the immortality of Ethics

WESTERN ETHICS
Chronology:
1. Ancient Greece: The moral life was developed when a Greek performed his duties as a citizen. A man who
does his duties is a good man.
2. Medieval Period: The moral life was dominated by the Church. A good life is a holy life and the standards
were geared towards salvation.
3. Modern Period: It is a period of revolt against the Church and is more concerned with free individuals.
I.
GREEK ETHICS
The Greek triumvirate philosophers Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle started the systematic morality. Their
philosophy is centered on self-realization where the personhood of every individual is emphasized.
a. Ethical Teaching of Socrates
i. Knowledge and truth provoke the will to act for the good so that the agent can live right or
good moral life.
ii. A person can act correctly and well if he knows what is a good life. Action is an extension of
knowledge.
If anyone can show me, and prove me, that I am wrong in thought or deed, I will gladly change. I
seek the truth, which never yet hurt anybody. It is only persistence in self-delusion and ignorance
which does harm. - Marcus Aurelius

iii. Knowledge and virtue are not distinct from each other.
iv. The wise man is good; and the good man is wise.
v. Knowing what is right means doing what is right and having control over ones self. A person
does evil out of ignorance.
vi. True happiness is measured not in material possession, but in being moral.
Analysis: In todays era,Man, by nature always opts for what is good or right.
b. Ethical Teaching of Plato
i. Happiness lies in reason. If one wants to be happy, one should be a harmonious man: a man of
virtue.
ii. There are two domains of reality: the ideal and phenomenal worlds.
iii. Man is a metaphysical dichotomy between body and soul. Man is a soul using a body.
iv. There are three parts of a soul: spiritual, appetitive, and rational.
v. Self realization can be attained by nurturing reason properly.
c. Ethical Teaching of Aristotle
i. Ethics is a matter of planning, purpose, and decision; a matter of character.
ii. It is not natural for man to be moral; to be moral is something demanded by nature.
iii. Contemplation enables man to attain the highest form of happiness and the teleology for why
man acts.
iv. Morality has to be developed by man.
v. Man must act according to the Golden Mean.
vi. The end of an ethical life is the cultivation of reason
II. CHRISTIAN ETHICS
a. Ethical Teaching of Jesus Christ
i. Shows more preference to the poor and oppressed
ii. It is an ethics of love, peace, and reconciliation.
iii. It demands sacrifice and suffering
b. Ethical Teaching of Saint Augustine
i. Evil exists because God gave us free will.
ii. Man authors evil, not God.
iii. Love is the foundation of all virtues.
c. Ethical Teaching of Saint Thomas Aquinas
i. Every agent acts for Good.
III. ETHICAL TEACHING OF IMMANUEL KANT
a. To live a moral life is to live in accordance with the laws of reason, which is to live in accordance
with the laws of nature.
b. Reason is capable of influencing the will.
c. Will is the determining factor of the righteousness of human action.
d. Some things can give us happiness; but without good will, all these will lead to a bad and mischievous
life.
e. Motive determines moral quality.
f. Man should act morally, because it is his duty.
IV. UTILITARIAN ETHICS
a. Human happiness is the measure of goodness. A right action is an action that yields the greatest and
the most widely distributed happiness.
b. Act Utilitarianism: Man should act so as to produce the greatest happiness to the greatest number of
people.
i. Ethical Teaching of Jeremy Bentham
If anyone can show me, and prove me, that I am wrong in thought or deed, I will gladly change. I
seek the truth, which never yet hurt anybody. It is only persistence in self-delusion and ignorance
which does harm. - Marcus Aurelius

1. Nature demands man to be moral. It has placed us under two masters: pleasure and
pain.
2. Psychological Hedonism: Man by nature is capable of doing only those actions which
give him pleasure and that he avoids those actions which give him pain.
3. Egoistic Hedonism: Man is primarily obligated to seek his own pleasure even if it
means deprivation of others.
4. Sanctions:
a. Physical sanction: keeps physical sensual pleasure within limits for man to
reduce his overindulgence through painful experience.
b. Political sanction: There should be due punishment or penalty for violators of
the law
c. Moral sanction: Makes man conscious of public opinion
d. Religious sanction: Since man believes in the afterlife and God, man practices
moderation because God imposed it.
5. Quantity of pleasure can be measured using the Hedonic Calculus.
a. Intensity: Man is morally bound to opt for that pleasure which constitutes the
higher degree
b. Duration: Choose pleasure which has a longer effect
c. Certainty: Man should only perform those actions which certainly give him and
the others pleasure.
d. Propinquity: Timely pleasure should be preferred rather than those which are to
come.
e. Fecundity: Man should opt for pleasures which are not ends in themselves, but
are pleasure-producing
f. Purity: Man should desire for the pleasures not tainted by pain.
ii. Ethical Teaching of John Stuart Mill
1. Some pleasures are more valuable or desirable than others.
2. It does not matter how much pleasure you get from an act; what matters is the quality
of the pleasure.
3. Happiness is greater than pleasure.
c. Rule Utilitarianism: Man should act so that the rule governing his actions will produce the greatest
happiness for the most number of people.
V. EXISTENTIAL ETHICS
a. There are no absolute and objective norms or standards of morality.
b. Man possesses no fixed nature.
c. Existence precedes essence. Human existence is incomplete, so, he has to make his own existence.
Sartre: Man is nothing else but what he makes of himself.
d. Man does not choose between good and evil; but from authentic and inauthentic existence.
e. Mans decision is mans burden.
f. What matters is how and what one does with his life at this moment and not what will happen to him
after death.
g. Kierkegaard: Because man is superbly rational, he has forgotten to live life.
VI. DIALECTICAL ETHICS
a. Mans will is mans supreme faculty.
b. Hegel: The State only subordinates man; the State does not create man.
c. Marx: Man is not an individual, but social and communal.

If anyone can show me, and prove me, that I am wrong in thought or deed, I will gladly change. I
seek the truth, which never yet hurt anybody. It is only persistence in self-delusion and ignorance
which does harm. - Marcus Aurelius

d. Hegel: Moral obligation lies in the universal will which is present in every man and is embodied in
the customs, traditions, and laws. The moral norms come from the State and since man makes the law,
man, then, is the maker of the moral law.
VII. ANALYTIC ETHICS
a. It is nothing else but a semantics or the linguistic analysis of ethical statements or words so that when
these are properly studied, ethics as a discipline would become more understandable and meaningful.
VIII. EVOLUTIONISTIC ETHICS
a. Process leading to a higher sense of morality
b. Fulfillment of mans hopes and desires
c. Spencer: nature per se provokes mutual aid and cooperation for the progress of mans moral history.
d. Huxley and Hartmann: Nature and morality are in contradiction. Nature encourages the strong;
morality helps the underdog and the unfortunate.
IX. SITUATION ETHICS
a. There is no intrinsic morality.
b. It depends!
c. Situation is the ultimate criterion of judging an act to be moral or immoral.
d. Fletcher: Morality is relative since there are no absolute laws. Actions can only become good or evil
depending upon the concomitant circumstances in which the act is situated.

ORIENTAL OR EASTERN ETHICS


I. HINDUISM
a. The Upanishads teach that the individual soul (Atman) on earth is in a state of suffering, because of its
attachment to the senses or to the pleasure of the flesh.
b. Man should have authentic knowledge of ones self. He is not to be bound to the finite and limited
realities, but to the spiritual and absolute Brahman.
II. BUDDHISM
a. The therapy to human suffering must be a spiritual recourse, which is ones acceptance of the real life.
Life cannot be freed from suffering
b. The Four Noble Truths
i. Life is permeated by suffering (dukkha)
ii. The origin of suffering is craving (tanha)
iii. Suffering can be eliminated through the elimination of craving
iv. The elimination of suffering is possible through the Eightfold Path.
1. Right Understanding (Samma-ditthi): Man must see life as it is. Life is impermanent
(anicca), subject to suffering (dukkha), and no soul (anatta). To understand the reality
of lifem one must not take another persons understanding of it.
2. Right Thought (Samma sankappa): The mind must be free from impurities like ill-will
(Vyapada)m cruelty (cihimsa), and lust (raga).
3. Right Speech (Samma-vaca): Man should be vigilant with his words.
4. Right Action (Samma-kammanta): Avoidance of killing, stealing, indulgence in sexual
misconduct, false speech, and intoxication in drugs and alcohol
5. Right Livelihood (Samma-ajiva): Observance of right occupation (not harmful and
gives justice to others
6. Right Effort (Samma-vayama): To achieve self-perfection, one must elude incoming
evil, dispel an existing evil, bring about good which is yet to come, and nourish the
existing good.
If anyone can show me, and prove me, that I am wrong in thought or deed, I will gladly change. I
seek the truth, which never yet hurt anybody. It is only persistence in self-delusion and ignorance
which does harm. - Marcus Aurelius

III.

IV.

V.

VI.

7. Right Mindfulness (Samma-sati): Awareness of his body, feelings, mind, and ideas.
8. Right Concentration (Samma-samadhi): minds single objectiveness
c. Once man has conquered suffering, man will never be conquered by suffering again
d. Whenever there is morality, there is wisdom; and whenever there is wisdom, there is morality.
Buddhism is ethics.
e. Once has eliminated all sufferings, he has reached Nirvana, the perfect or absolute indifference to the
world.
CONFUCIANISM
a. It emphasizes individual moral life in relation to others; hence, it is others-oriented.
b. Man should harmonize himself with nature which should be expressed actively through translating the
innate laws into action.
c. These innate laws, when actualized, eventually become virtues.
i. Ren (human heartedness): love, benevolence, charity; loving others and controlling ones
egoistic craving for the rule of propriety
ii. Yi (righteousness): One should do what is right for the sake of nothing. What matters most is
the motive of the act, not its consequences.
iii. Zhong (conscientiousness) put together with Shu (altruism): practice of the Ren. Golden
Mean; Do not do unto others what you do not want others to do unto you.
iv. Li (Propriety): doing things the right way. It is a principle that orders.
v. Xiao (filial piety): respect, reverence, and honor of ones parents, blood relatives, or the family
relatives. It is ones obligation to fulfill ones parents unfulfilled dreams after they die. All
moral teachings should be first taught in the family.
d. It is mans moral obligation to be the superior man who is also the virtuous man who has regulated his
behavior according to the tenets of the Golden Mean.
TAOSIM
a. As the way of the ultimate reality
i. No human mind can understand the Tao, which is the source of everything in existence. Those
enlightened minds who know it dont talk about it.
ii. He who knows does not talk; he who talks does not know.
b. As the way of the universe
i. Everything that happens in nature is beyond human control; it ha its own motion, course, and
laws.
c. As the way of human existence
i. Mans harmony with nature lies in mans practice of wu-wie, meaning to do nothing. It is
the non-interference with the natural course of events.
ii. Overdoing means destruction, not construction.
ZEN-BUDDHISM (Chinese Buddhism)
a. It is a marriage or synthesis of Taoism and Buddhism (Indian).
b. Man should live life in the spirit of naturalness, practicality, and simplicity.
c. Man should extinguish his greed, craving, and lust.
d. Man can only live authentically if man sees things as they are; which can be done not through reason,
but through intuition.
e. Reason is an inadequate standard of morality; it paralyzes mans natural drive (intuition) to
comprehend reality
f. It does not matter whether we have less or more: what matters is our contentment in what we have.
ISLAM
a. Minor oughts: abstention from alcohol, pork, and gambling. These were prohibited by Mohammed
because these caused the downfall of Mecca.

If anyone can show me, and prove me, that I am wrong in thought or deed, I will gladly change. I
seek the truth, which never yet hurt anybody. It is only persistence in self-delusion and ignorance
which does harm. - Marcus Aurelius

b. Major oughts: Five obligations imposed in the Koran


i. The obligation to profess faith: Shahadah, profession of faith, is the first pillar of Islam.
Muslims bear witness to the oneness of God by reciting the creed "There is no God but God
and Muhammad is the Messenger of God."
ii. This simple yet profound statement expresses a Muslim's complete acceptance of and total
commitment to Islam.
iii. The obligation to pray: Salah, prayer, is the second pillar. The Islamic faith is based on the
belief that individuals have a direct relationship with God. The world's Muslims turn
individually and collectively to Makkah, Islam's holiest city, to offer five daily prayers at
dawn, noon, mid-afternoon, sunset and evening. In addition, Friday congregational service is
also required. Although salah can he performed alone, it is meritorious to perform it with
another or with a group. It is permissible to pray at home, at work, or even outdoors; however
it is recommended that Muslims perform salah in a mosque.
iv. The obligation to give alms: Zakat, almsgiving, is the third pillar. Social responsibility is
considered part of one's service to God; the obligatory act of zakat enshrines this duty. Zakat
prescribes payment of fixed proportions of a Muslim's possessions for the welfare of the entire
community and in particular for its neediest members. It is equal to 2.5 percent of an
individual's total net worth, excluding obligations and family expenses.
v. The obligation to fast: Sawm, fasting during the holy month of Ramadan, is the fourth pillar of
Islam. Ordained in the Holy Qur'an, the fast is an act of deep personal worship in which
Muslims seek a richer perception of God. Fasting is also an exercise in self-control whereby
one's sensitivity is heightened to the sufferings of the poor. Ramadan, the month during which
the Holy Qur'an was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad, begins with the sighting of the new
moon, after which abstention from eating, drinking and other sensual pleasures is obligatory
from dawn to sunset. Ramadanis also a joyful month. Muslims break their fast at sunset with a
special meal, iftar, perform additional nocturnal worship, tarawih, after evening prayer; and
throng the streets in moods that are festive and communal. The end of Ramadan is observed by
three days of celebration called Eid Al-Fitr, the feast of the breaking of the fast. Customarily, it
is a time for family reunion and the favored holiday for children who receive new clothing and
gifts.
vi. The obligation to do pilgrimage to Mecca: Hajj, the pilgrimage to Makkah, is the fifth pillar
and the most significant manifestation of Islamic faith and unity in the world. For those
Muslims who are physically and financially able to make the journey to Makkah, the Hajj is a
once in a lifetime duty that is the peak of their religious life. The Hajj is a remarkable spiritual
gathering of over two million Muslims from all over the world to the holy city. In performing
the Hajj, a pilgrim follows the order of ritual that the Prophet Muhammad performed during
his last pilgrimage. [Source: saudiembassy.net]
VALUES
I. Meaning
a. Axiology: the branch of philosophy that studies value
b. Definition:
i. Values are the object of human desire and striving; it also refers to beliefs which we hold true,
thus, affecting our thoughts, decisions, and actions.
If anyone can show me, and prove me, that I am wrong in thought or deed, I will gladly change. I
seek the truth, which never yet hurt anybody. It is only persistence in self-delusion and ignorance
which does harm. - Marcus Aurelius

II.

III.

IV.

V.

ii. Values refer to things, persons, ideas, or goals which are of importance to us; they enable us to
understand, evaluate, and direct our lives.
iii. According to Max Scheller: these are valuable essences or properties; they are objective and
transcend from the sentimental perception that makes them appealing; they are hierarchal and
bipolar.
iv. According to Harmin, Raths and Simon:
1. Values are chose freely.
2. Values are chosen from alternatives.
3. Values are chosen reflectively.
4. Values are those which we prize.
5. Values are publicly affirmed by their beholders.
6. Values are acted upon.
7. Values are continually cherished.
Properties of Value
a. Values are Subjective: The existence and the validity of values are dependent on the feelings of the
subject. These feelings act as evaluators of a certain value. We must know first what we must value in
order for us to value what to value. We only perform actions which are of value to us.
b. Values are Objective: The existence and nature of values are independent of a subject. Values exist
first before they are apprehended, desired, or craved.
c. Values are relative: Values have intrinsic limitation and imperfection. Not all values can satisfy all
subjects. Some actions thatare of value to uscannot bear a blanket good for all. Some of our principles
or actions are only good to us.
d. Values are bipolar: Values do not exist alone; they always exist with their countervalues. Thus,
values are either positive or negative.
e. Values are hierarchal. Values can be ranked; we can establish order of the importance among them.
No two values are similar in degree.
Classification
a. Intrinsic and Instrumental Values: The former are considered values in themselves; while the latter
are those construed as desired good because of their worth to us and to others.
b. Accidental and Natural Values: The former is subject to variability, temporality, and impermanence;
while the latter pertains to those which are essential in life.
c. Primary and Secondary Values: The former pertains to those which are chosen, acted upon,
cherished, and are necessary for human development; while the latter pertains to those which are
obligatory in nature.
d. Religious Values are those that enable us to encounter God.
e. Cultural Values are those that embrace poetry, painting, architecture, music, literature, societys way
of living, etc.
f. Social Values are perfect, attributed to an object or attitude form the standpoint of relationship
between means and ends in society.
Moral Values are those values that go with either morally good or morally evil acts. They refer to those
qualities of an act performed by man freely and knowingly. Moral values are anchored in human nature. It
follows that moral values are objective, good, permanent, and universal inasmuch as human nature possesses
the same intrinsic attributes.
Filipino Values/Traits
a. Bahala na Concept: Filipino fatalism on failure or success
b. Manana Habit: Procrastination
c. Filipino imprecise or diffusive consciousness of time

If anyone can show me, and prove me, that I am wrong in thought or deed, I will gladly change. I
seek the truth, which never yet hurt anybody. It is only persistence in self-delusion and ignorance
which does harm. - Marcus Aurelius

d. Ningas-kugon: fervor and exaggerated enthusiasm at the start of a project leading to loss of interest
and eventually accomplishing nothing at all.
e. Non-interference: dont-intrude-attitude
f. Inferiority complex: low self of independence, self-confidence, and self-worth
g. Over-emphasis on amor propio: Over-sensitiveness
h. Poor sportsmanship: exaggeration of wins and aversion of losses
i. Crab mentality: bringing down via ridicule or gossip those who rise above in terms of achievement
j. Extravagance
k. Colonial Mentality: preference for imported goods and ideas over those which are locally-made
l. Compadre System: expansion of kinship via religious rituals
m. Walang bigayan
n. Lamangan mentality or competitiveness
o. Lakad system: fixing things for someone
p. Tayo-tayo system: we-approach in problem solving
q. Low level of drive: needing someone who would give the right amount of motivation to make him
productive
r. Siesta Habit: taking a nap in between work
s. Submissiveness to parents and superiors
t. Inauthenticity of saying yes although he mans no
VI. Filipino hierarchy of needs:
a. Familism: It refers to Filipinos need for emotional stability and familial security.
b. Reciprocity: It refers to the favor-gratitude attitude of the Filipinos and is associated with the utang
na loob concept
c. Social Acceptance: need to be accepted as a person, as subject, and not as an object
d. Social Mobility: desire for progress and development
e. Self-esteem: desire or need to be respected or esteemed when one has achieved something
HUMAN ACTS
I. Definition: Human acts are those actions which proceed from the deliberate free will of man, which makes
man responsible for his actions. On the other hand, acts of man refer to those actions which man shares
with the brutes, those which do not need freedom and will. The acts of man do not make man responsible
for his actions. Man is only responsible for his action if he acts out of knowledge, freedom and
voluntariness.
II.Three elements of Human Acts
a. Knowledge: Doing an act with knowledge makes the act deliberate. An agent is aware of the means
to employ his action and the end to achieve in his action.
b. Freedom: An agent does an act under the control of his will. He is not forced to do or not to do an
action.
c. Voluntariness: It requires the presence of the two other elements; because, for the agent to will, he
must have knowledge of what the act is and must also have the freedom to do or not to do the action.
III. Classification of Human Acts
a. Human acts in relation to the Will: actions which are started, performed, and completed by the will
either by the will alone or through other faculties which are under the control of the will.
i. Elicited acts are those started by the will, performed by the will, and are completed by the will
as the sole agent. Commanded acts are those which are begun in the will, performed by the
will, but are completed through another medium which is under the control of the will.
7 elements involved in the completion of elicited acts:
If anyone can show me, and prove me, that I am wrong in thought or deed, I will gladly change. I
seek the truth, which never yet hurt anybody. It is only persistence in self-delusion and ignorance
which does harm. - Marcus Aurelius

Wish: primordial desire, ike, or inclination of the will to a thing conceived by the will
as good and is known by the intellect.
Intention: purposive tendency of the will towards a thing regarded as realizable,
whether the thing is actually done or not.
Counsel: series of thoughts and judgments concerning the most suitable means towards
the attainment of the desired good or end.
Consent: definite decision as to what means should be used.
ChoiceL active commitment of the agent to follow what means the intellect has finally
opted as the right pick, so much that the will shows acceptance of the choice of the
intellect in order to achieve the desired good.
Command: active interplay between the intellect and will.
Fruition: actual attainment of the desired good.

3 kinds of commanded acts:

Internal acts: done by man by way of his internal mental powers under the command of
the will
External acts: affected by bodily powers of man under the command of the will
Mixed acts: include the use of mental and bodily powers
b. Human acts in relation to Reason: actions done either in agreement or disagreement with reason.
i. Good acts: actions done in harmony with the dictates of reason
ii. Evil acts: actions done in contradiction with the dictates of reason
iii. Indifferent acts: neither good nor evil; exist only in theory but not in actual situation
IV. Voluntariness of Human Acts
a. A voluntary act is the act which proceeds from an intrinsic principle with knowledge of the end. It
proceeds from the will and depends upon its performance.
b. Kinds or degrees of voluntariness.
i. Perfect voluntariness: act performed with complete knowledge and full consent of the agent.
ii. Imperfect voluntariness: present when there is some defect in the agents knowledge,
intention, or both.
iii. Simple voluntariness: present in an act performed, whether agents likes or dislikes doing it.
iv. Conditional voluntariness: present in the agents wish to do something other than that which
he is actually doing, but doing with repugnance or dislike
v. Actual voluntariness: present here and now before the mind while performing it.
vi. Virtual voluntariness: made at some former time and still in fluencies the act which is now
being performed.
vii. Habitual voluntariness: intention in the unconscious mind of an intention made at some
former time and which , although actually forgotten, has never been retracted.
viii. Interpretative voluntariness: result of interpreting the intention of one who is not present or
of one who does not have the power of judgment to make a decision for himself.
ix. Explicit voluntariness: happens when the consent to an action is externally manifested by
words or signs
x. Direct voluntariness: willed as an end in itself
xi. Indirect voluntariness: desired not as an end in itself but as a foreseen effect of ant act
xii. Positive voluntariness: present in a human act or omitting or refraining from doing
xiii. Negative voluntariness: present in a human act of omitting or refraining from doing.
V. Modifiers of Human Acts: factors that affect the essential elements of human acts
a. Ignorance
If anyone can show me, and prove me, that I am wrong in thought or deed, I will gladly change. I
seek the truth, which never yet hurt anybody. It is only persistence in self-delusion and ignorance
which does harm. - Marcus Aurelius

b. Concupiscence
c. Fear
d. Violence
e. Habit
VI. Norms of Human Acts
a. Law
i. Meaning: As defined by Saint Thomas Aquinas, law is an ordinance of reason promulgated
for the common good by one who is in charge of the community or society.
Law is an ordinance: It is not a mere advice or suggestion, but a mandate imposing
the legislators will on the citizens and binding them on moral necessity.
Law is an ordinance of reason: It is an intelligent direction by a superiors will, but
planned and formulated by right reason. Qualities of a reasonable law: just, honest, possible,
useful, relatively permanent, promulgated, and imposes due sanction for disobedience.
Law is promulgated: For it to be useful and obeyed, it must be made known to those
who are subject to it.
Law is promulgated for common good: It is for the welfare of the community as a
whole.
Law must come from one who has charge or care for community or society: The
one mentioned above pertains to legislator(s) and law-giver exercising proper jurisdiction.

AN ANALYSIS OF THE WESTERN AND EASTERN ETHICS


Having read all the theories by the worlds best and renowned philosophers of all time, I could conclude there
is two sources of all evils in this world: that of excess and deficiency. I only came u with this conclusion which is
also the ruling principle at home. Masama ang sobra, masama rin ang kulang. Just like when one cooks rice, put
too much water, it would appear malata. And put too little, you would feel as if you were eating small bits of rocks.
Yes, this principle was not explicitly stated in all theories, which makes me think: this maybe the world which binds
all men together. Every day in the news, we hear of radicals murdering other people who are innocent, not in the
same belief system or religion as they are. How ironic that all philosophies wanted all people (from different
countries, races, etc.) to be united as one because we all live in the same earth; yet, these are the very causes of the
division and greatest sufferings of mankind; maybe not all physical, because many other people do suffer too
because of ridicule. About the radicals, the ISIS, the MILF, or BIFF, they claim to be worshippers of Allah. But I am
If anyone can show me, and prove me, that I am wrong in thought or deed, I will gladly change. I
seek the truth, which never yet hurt anybody. It is only persistence in self-delusion and ignorance
which does harm. - Marcus Aurelius

one with the people who say that they are not practicing Islam, theyre using it as a mask to attain power and glory.
Just this morning, I read a caption on a picture, it says: We were all humans until: race disconnected us, religion
separated us, politics divided us, and wealth classified us.
Now, where did this evil originate? Still, philosophers are divided; most say, humans; some say Satan. And
some, just to piss off others, would say, it came from God Himself. What would be their argument? According to
Saint Augustine, God blessed humans most for He gave us free will. And due to misuse and abuse of this free will,
evil exists. So, their contention is this, there is evil because there is free will; and there is free will, because God said
so. So, Who really authored evil? Moving forward, is there really an evil person? Nero, Hitler, ISIS, Saddam
Hussein, any others, are they really evil? I am one with Socrates in the idea that a persons ignorance of what is right
and wrong is the source of evil. Now, this is controversial. A person knows that it is wrong to kill, yet he did. Hes
not mentally impaired. So, that this prove my claim wrong? I think not. A person never knows everything, everyone,
not even himself. Since I believe in the Bible, the truth it carries, Ill use it as a support. I cannot say what really
ignorance is in this context. What I amk trying to say is man is weak, fallible, etc. Every Good Friday of the Holy
Week, we Christians, reflect on Jesus seven last words. The first: Father, forgive them for they do not know what
they are doing. These words simply portray Gods unfailing love for His creation. No matter how many times you
fall, how hard you fall, how often you drive Him away from your life, His love will never cease. That is a God. So,
instead of condemning people because of what they speak and do, why not just pray for them? You do not lift up a
person who fell down by stepping on them. Isnt that a command of the Lord? Stop the exclusivity principle that is
ruling the world today? I cant believe that people are practicing selfishness, even in Gods blessing. I do not
understand people who do not believe in God: they read Bible passages which they could use against God or His
people, they say they do not care about theists yet waste their time and effort arguing with believers. Now,
Situationists believe in love as the absolute moral principle. Always do the loving thing, they say. This also is the
most powerful message of Christianity. I will stand firm on this belief: We should not bother criticizing other
peoples personal beliefs. Do what you think is good, so that someday, when your time comes, before you breathe
your last, you can happily say: Mission accomplished, I have left the world a better place.
Now, from the above, I am not promoting the disregard for certain values like justice, honesty. Every evil act,
according to the laws of a state, must receive its punishment. That will always be the case. Man has his own
principles, but he must remember that he does not own the world. Abide, or punish. Lawful punishment is very
different from condemnation to hell.
The Western ethics is a collection of theories of theists, pagans, agnostics, atheists, and some who just do not
care. While the Eastern, a collection of those who believe in gods or just one God. The Eastern ethics is all about
spirituality. I have mentioned that all theories emphasize mean.
I agree with the existentialists principle: Mans decision is mans burden. This burden or suffering is because
we go beyond the mean. The free will that we have authorizes our evil ways. I remember one time in our world
literature class, I unknowingly stated this principle. There was this man who has been dictated his entire life: what to
eat, what to wear, what to study, which god to pray to, everything! He cannot do things which really make him
happy. One day, he disobeyed his fathers orders to not participate in a play. As a result, his father of course was
angered and decided to enroll him in a military school. That plan reached nothing because the man took his own life.
He felt he has nothing more to do. Who was at fault? The father or the man? Everyone in the class believed it was the
father, for he pushed his son to his limits. But me, I strongly believe it was the mans own fault. For every decision
that we make, we must claim responsibility for it; especially he is capable of reason.
If anyone can show me, and prove me, that I am wrong in thought or deed, I will gladly change. I
seek the truth, which never yet hurt anybody. It is only persistence in self-delusion and ignorance
which does harm. - Marcus Aurelius

Just like the eastern ethics, we still are not able to extinguish suffering in this world. Unless we overcome the
temptations of evil, well never get there. So, the thing left is how you are going to deal with it. You just have to
change the way you view reality. You can never change it. The only thing you can change is yourself. That is life.
You cannot escape suffering; but, you are given a choice on how to face it. Dumadaan talaga ang mga problema sa
buhay. Padaanin mo lang. Ang problema kasi, tumatambay ka pa kaya nahihirapan ka. Mans decision is mans
burden.
The eastern ethics concerning nature, it simply tells us, before all those wonders of technology, our ancestors
have told us: Just leave nature as it is. Mans discontent led, leads, and will lead to mans downfall? Is it true or is it
true? Sometimes, the people we call insane during those times, they really are right all the time. Its not only about
environment; even in man himself, technology-obsessed people did things that disrupt the proper and natural flow of
things. The worst, as the Church as considered are gender transplant and the stem cell technology. Just to meet the
pleasure that lasts a blink of an eye, we changed things which are better unmoved. Now, we face a crisis.
I disagree with the evolutionists contention that morality is for the weak, the underdog. I believe it is for
everyone. I tried to imagine a world with no standards of morality, it is unimaginable.
My analysis would end with the question: Why do we need to be moral? I have to admit. Ive met different
kinds of people telling me that if I dont do good based on his concept of good, I would end up miserable. I would
end up (rather down?) in the fiery pits of hell. My idea is this: Are those people who claim to be imperfect and
sinners trying to play gods? Isnt it that people rely too much on the human minds of prophets, saints, and men who
believed in spirits? Arent they just like us? Humans? Now, according to Taoism, no one can really get the whole
picture of reality. It is true. If you get the whole picture, wow, the Word became flesh again? Now, I say this to you,
no one can really know what is beyond life on earth. I am not promoting egoistic hedonism by this statement. Live
life to the fullest without causing suffering to other people.

If anyone can show me, and prove me, that I am wrong in thought or deed, I will gladly change. I
seek the truth, which never yet hurt anybody. It is only persistence in self-delusion and ignorance
which does harm. - Marcus Aurelius