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MHz bandwidth. The amplitude spectra of the steady-state outputs are shown in Figure 5.

5.

CONCLUSION

A simulation technique for an ACLR of a class-S PA with a


DSM, which is interlocked with a transient circuit simulation,
was proposed. This technique is based on three basic points that
overcome the problems caused by a limited total amount of
simulated time. The effect shown in each section is clear, and
therefore, the technique is considered reasonable and feasible.

posed antenna is designed, simulated, optimized, and fabricated. The


simulated and measured results show that the proposed antenna has a
wide impedance bandwidth, omnidirectional patterns, dual band-notch
characteristics, and reconfigurable function, making it suitable for UWB
C 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave
communication applications. V
Opt Technol Lett 56:465468, 2014; View this article online at wileyonlinelibrary.com. DOI 10.1002/mop.28087
Key words: UWB antenna; dual band-notch antenna; reconfigurable
antenna; switchable antenna; open-ended stub

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

1. INTRODUCTION

This work was supported by the IT R&D program of MKE/


KEIT [10035173, Research on the Class-S base-station power
amplifier technology for future mobile communications].

Recently, high data-rate and low-cost systems have attracted


increasing attention in wireless communications [1,2], and ultrawideband (UWB) communication technique is a good candidate
to meet the requirements of data-rate and cost. UWB antennas
are important components of UWB systems and they have been
extensively researched in recent years. A UWB antenna is
required to have a wide impedance bandwidth and its radiation
pattern should be close to omnidirectional. To meet these
requirements, considerable effort has been devoted in recent
years to designing UWB antennas that not only meet the impedance bandwidth and pattern requirements but compact as well.
However, it is typical to find that the operating frequencies of
some narrow-band systems, such as Worldwide Interoperability
for Microwave Access (WiMAX) and X-band, interfere with
UWB systems. Thus, it is desirable to design UWB antennas
with notch bands, which can minimize the potential interference
from the above narrow-band systems. This, in turn, has led to
the investigation of a number of band-notch UWB antennas
with either a single or dual notch bands [38]. However, as
most of the proposed band-notch UWB antennas can only be
used either as a band-notch UWB antenna or just as a UWB
antenna, it is desirable to improve the performance of these
antennas by developing a band-notch UWB antenna with reconfigurable characteristics. Although a number of such reconfigurable UWB antennas have been proposed, as well as investigated
[9,10]; however, the designs of these antennas are often complex to implement.
In this communication, we describe a CPW-fed UWB
antenna with dual band-notch characteristic as well as reconfigurability function, which has different switchable characteristics and simpler configurations as compared to those reported by
previous article [11]. The dual band-notch function is achieved
by inserting a pair of open-ended T-shaped stubs (OET-S) into a
radiating patch, which is a circular ring, and etching an
inverted-F stub-loaded rectangular resonator (IFSLRR) in the
CPW transmission line feed. In addition, the reconfigurable
function is realized by integrating two ideal switches into the
OET-S and IFSLRR, respectively. The simulated and measured
results show that the proposed antenna has a wide impedance
bandwidth; omnidirectional patterns; dual band-notch characteristics; and, it offers the reconfigurability function as well. These
attributes make the design suitable for UWB communication. In
this study, the presence of a metal bridge represents ON state
and the absence of a metal bridge represents OFF state for
designing the ideal switches [1113].

REFERENCES
1. Y. Yang, An improved kahn transmitter architecture based on deltasigma modulation, In: Proceedings of IEEE International Microwave
Symposium, Philadelphia, PA, June 2003, pp. 13271330.
2. T. Johnson and S. Stapleton, RF class-D amplification with bandpass
sigma-delta modulator drive signals, IEEE Trans Circuits Syst I
Regul Pap 53 (2006), 25072520.
3. M. Nielsen and T. Larsen, A transmitter architecture based on deltasigma modulation and switch-mode power amplification, IEEE Trans
Circuits Syst II Express Briefs 54 (2007), 735739.
4. M. Nielsen and T. Larsen, A 2-GHz GaAs HBT RF pulsewidth modulator, IEEE Trans Microwave Theory Tech 56 (2008), 300304.
5. S.J. Lee, Y.H. Kim, J.H. Kim, and J.H. Jung, Novel simulation
method and possibility of class-S power amplifier for LTE base station, In: Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference,
Sydney, Australia, December 2011, pp. 135138.
6. 3rd Generation Partnership Project, TS 36.104 V9.2.0 (2009-12),
Available at: http://www.3gpp. org.
7. G.E. Carlson, Signal and linear system analysis, Houghton Mifflin
Company, 1992.
8. S. Stapleton, High efficiency RF power amplifiers using bandpass
delta-sigma modulators, Agilent Tech, Palo Alto, CA, 2003.
9. R. Schreier and G.C. Temes, Understanding Delta-Sigma Data converters, IEEE Press, New York, NY, 2005.
C 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
V

A COMPACT CPW-FED CIRCULAR SLOT


ANTENNA WITH RECONFIGURABLE
DUAL BAND-NOTCH CHARACTERISTICS
FOR UWB COMMUNICATION
APPLICATIONS
Yingsong Li,1 Wenxing Li,1 and Raj Mittra2
1
College of Information and Communications Engineering, Harbin
Engineering University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150001, China;
Corresponding author: liyingsong@hrbeu.edu.cn
2
Electromagnetic Communication Laboratory, Pennsylvania State
University, University Park, PA 16802
Received 27 May 2013
ABSTRACT: A CPW-fed ultrawideband (UWB) antenna with dual
band-notch characteristic and reconfigurable function is proposed and
its performance is verified experimentally. The dual band-notch function
is realized by using a pair of open-ended T-shaped stubs (OET-S),
inserted into the circular ring radiating patch, and by using an invertedF stub-loaded rectangular resonator (IFSLRR) etching on the CPW-fed
transmission line. The reconfigurable characteristic is realized by integrating two switches into the proposed OET-S and the IFSLRR. The pro-

DOI 10.1002/mop

2. ANTENNA DESIGN

The configuration of the proposed UWB antenna with reconfigurable dual band-notch functions is shown in Figure 1. The
antenna is printed on a substrate with a relative permittivity of
2.65, loss tangent of 0.002, and substrate thickness of 1.6 mm.

MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY LETTERS / Vol. 56, No. 2, February 2014

465

Figure 1 Geometry of the proposed reconfigurable dual band-notch


UWB antenna. (a) Antenna-1 and (b) antenna-2. [Color figure can be
viewed in the online issue, which is available at wileyonlinelibrary.com]

The proposed dual band-notch antenna, shown in Figure 1(a), is


denoted here as antenna-1. It is comprised of a wide slot of circular shape in the CPW ground plane, a circular ring type of
radiating patch, a pair of OET-S in the circular ring, an IFSLRR
etched in the CPW-fed transmission line, and a CPW ground
plane together with a 50 X CPW feed structure. The feed structure consists of a CPW-fed transmission line with a width of
W5 5 3.6 mm, and the gap g between the CPW-fed transmission
line and the CPW ground plane is 0.2 mm. Two ideal switches,
namely, switch-1 (SW1) and switch-2 (SW2), are used and integrated into the OET-S and IFSLRR, respectively, to realize the
reconfigurable characteristic. This reconfigurable antenna design
is denoted here as antenna-2, and is shown in Figure 1(b). In
this design, the dual band-notch characteristic is achieved by
using an OET-S inserted into the circular ring type of radiating
patch, and the IFSLRR etching in the CPW-fed transmission
line, whereas the reconfigurability function is achieved by integrating two ideal switches into the OET-S and the IFSLRR. Furthermore, the notch bands can be tuned by adjusting the
dimensions of the OET-S and the IFSLRR.
To evaluate the performance of the proposed reconfigurable,
dual band-notch band type of UWB antenna, a commercial electromagnetic solver, High-Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS),
is used to create the antenna. The optimized parameters of the
designed antenna are as follows: L 5 32 mm, W 5 24 mm,
R 5 11.6 mm, r1 5 6.6 mm, r2 5 5.1 mm, L1 5 4.1 mm,
W1 5 6.5 mm, L2 5 4.1 mm, W2 5 0.7 mm, L3 5 5 mm,
W3 5 2.7 mm, L4 5 3.6 mm, L5 5 1.9 mm, W4 5 1.55 mm,
W5 5 3.6 mm, g 5 0.2 mm, and g1 5 0.6 mm.
3.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

To study the performance of the proposed reconfigurable, dual


band-notch UWB antenna, the band-notch characteristic and the
reconfigurable function are investigated and analyzed by using
HFSS. Figure 2(a) shows the band-notch characteristic of the
proposed antenna-1. It is found that in the absence of OET-S
and the IFSLRR, the proposed antenna is an UWB antenna,
with an impedance bandwidth of 9.3 GHz ranging from 2.7 to
12 GHz; hence, it covers the entire UWB band from 3.1 to 10.6
GHz as designated by the FCC. The proposed antenna-1, with
just the OET-S, is an UWB antenna with a single notch band
located at the 3.5 GHz WiMAX band. The center frequency of
the notch band can be tuned by adjusting the dimensions of the

466

OET-S. Conversely, the proposed antenna-1, with only the


IFSLRR etching in the CPW-fed transmission line, is a bandnotch UWB antenna whose notch is near 8 GHz, which can prevent the potential interference from the X-band. Finally, the proposed antenna-1, containing both the OET-S and the IFSLRR, is
a dual band-notch UWB antenna. The two notch bands are
located at 3.5 GHz WiMAX band and the 8 GHz X-band,
respectively, which can be used for mitigating the interference
from these narrow-band systems. Thus, we can conclude that
the notch band at 3.5 GHz WiMAX is generated by using the
OET-S, whereas the X-band notch is achieved by the IFSLRR.
The reconfigurable characteristics of the proposed antenna-2 are
shown in Figure 2(b). In this simulation, the presence of a metal
bridge represents the ON state while its absence represents OFF
state [1113]. To implement the ON state of SW1, a line strip
with length of 0.8 mm and width of 0.6 mm is used to replace
the SW1, while for SW2 a strip line with 0.3 3 0.5 mm2 is
used for designing the ON state. It is found that the antenna-2
with both switches OFF is a band-notch UWB antenna with the
notch located at 3.5 GHz WiMAX. When the SW1 is ON and
the SW2 is OFF, the antenna-2 is a UWB antenna covering the
bandwidth from 2.7 to12 GHz. With both the switches ON, the

Figure 2 Performance of the proposed reconfigurable dual band-notch


UWB antenna. (a) Band-notch characteristics and (b) reconfigurable
characteristics. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is
available at wileyonlinelibrary.com]

MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY LETTERS / Vol. 56, No. 2, February 2014

DOI 10.1002/mop

Figure 3 Prototype of the fabricated antennas. (a) Antenna-2 with


SW1 OFF and SW2 ON and (b) antenna-2 with SW1 ON and SW2
OFF. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available
at wileyonlinelibrary.com]

antenna-2 is a UWB antenna with a single notch band at Xband that enhances the immunity of the UWB antenna. The
antenna-2 with SW1 OFF and SW2 ON is a UWB antenna with
two stop bands at 3.5 GHz WiMAX and 8 GHz X-band, respectively. By controlling the switches states ON and OFF, the proposed antenna can be used either as a dual or a single bandnotch UWB antenna, even as a conventional UWB antenna. It
can also be used as a multiband antenna with both switches ON
and OFF, or with SW1 OFF and SW2 ON.

Figure 4 Comparison of the simulated and measured VSWR characteristics of the fabricated antennas. [Color figure can be viewed in the
online issue, which is available at wileyonlinelibrary.com]

To validate the designs of the proposed reconfigurable dual


band-notch UWB antenna, proposed antenna-2 with the case of
SW1 OFF and SW2 ON, as well as the case of SW1 ON and
SW2 OFF, have been fabricated and tested. Note that the proposed antenna-2 with SW1 OFF and SW2 ON is antenna-1.

Figure 5 Radiation patterns of the fabricated antennas. (a) E-plane radiation patterns of antenna-2 with SW1 OFF and SW2 ON, (b) H-plane radiation
patterns of antenna-2 with SW1 OFF and SW2 ON, (c) E-plane radiation patterns of antenna-2 with SW1 ON and SW2 OFF, and (d) H-plane radiation
patterns of antenna-2 with SW1 ON and SW2 OFF. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at wileyonlinelibrary.com]

DOI 10.1002/mop

MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY LETTERS / Vol. 56, No. 2, February 2014

467

fied experimentally. The two notch bands have been realized by


using the OET-S and the IFSLRR. The results show that the
antenna can be used either as a dual band-notch UWB antenna
with two notch bands at 3.5 GHz WiMAX band and X-band or
as a single notch-band UWB antenna with the notch located
either at 3.5 GHz WiMAX band or at X-band. Additionally, it
can be used as a conventional UWB antenna, if desired. The
band-notch characteristics can be controlled by turning approximate switches ON and OFF. The proposed antenna, which has a
wide bandwidth, dual notch-band functions and reconfigurable
characteristics, is suitable for UWB applications, where interference suppression at one or two specified frequencies is desired.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Figure 6 Gain of the fabricated antennas. [Color figure can be viewed


in the online issue, which is available at wileyonlinelibrary.com]

Consistent with the simulation [1113], the presence of a metal


bridge in the fabricated antenna corresponds to the ON state
while its absence represents the OFF state. The fabricated antennas are shown in Figure 3, and comparisons of the measured
VSWRs with the simulation results are presented in Figure 4,
which clearly shows that the proposed antenna-2 performs as a
dual band-notch UWB antenna when SW1 is OFF and SW2 is
ON. The two notch bands are at the 3.5 and 8 GHz with the
first one for suppressing the signals in the WiMAX (3.43.69
GHz) band while the second one reduces the interference from
the X-band (7.78.5GHz), which is used for satellite and military communication. With SW1 ON and SW2 OFF, the proposed antenna functions as a UWB antenna, whose impedance
bandwidth is 9.3 GHz, ranging from 2.7 to 12 GHz or even
higher. Thus it can cover the entire UWB band, namely 3.1
10.6 GHz, as designated by the FCC. Hence, the proposed
reconfigurable dual band-notch UWB antenna can be realized
by controlling the states of the appropriate switches.
The measured results, shown in Figure 4, agree well with the
simulated ones, although there are minor differences. These discrepancies between the measured and simulated results may be
attributed to the tolerance errors in the fabrication. The radiation
patterns of the fabricated reconfigurable dual band-notch UWB
antenna at 3.2, 6, and 9 GHz have been measured and shown in Figure 5. It can be seen that the proposed reconfigurable dual bandnotch UWB antenna has omnidirectional radiation characteristics in
the H-plane and monopole-type radiation characteristic in the Eplane. The radiation patterns deteriorate slightly at the high frequencies, and this can be attributed to the radiation of IFSLRR
etching in the CPW-fed transmission line. The gain of the proposed
antenna is derived by comparing it to a horn antenna. We can see
that the gain of proposed antenna is stable over the operation band,
with the exception of the 3.5 GHz WiMAX notch band and the 8
GHz notch band when the SW1 is OFF and SW2 is ON. The gain
decreases by approximately 24.3 dBi in the WiMAX band, and by
22.1 dBi in the X-band. Also, the antenna has a stable gain in the
UWB operation band, when the SW1 is ON and SW2 is OFF. The
gain of the fabricated antennas is shown in Figure 6.

4.

CONCLUSION

In this communication, a reconfigurable dual band-notch UWB


antenna has been designed, and its performance has been veri-

468

This work was partially supported by a grant from the National


Defense 973 Basic Research Development Program of China
(No. 6131380101). This article is also supported by the National
Nature Science Fund of China (No. 60902014 and 51209055),
Nature Science Fund of Heilongjiang (QC2009C66 and
ZD201115). The authors are also thankful to Hebei VSTE Science and Technology. for providing the measuring facility.
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C 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
V

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DOI 10.1002/mop