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Tema 1: Am/is/are> afirmacion y

negacion interrogativa
I

am Im

am not

He

hes

He

She is
She

shes

She

It

its

It

We

were

we

You are youre


You
They
They

Im not

He isnt
is

not

She inst
It isnt

He
Is
It

We arent

you are not

theyre

Am

You arent

they

We
Are

They arent

Am/is/are son formas del presente del verbo be -> ser estar.
Es necesario usar los pronombres personales -> I/He/She/It.
Thats

theres

heres

*Thats very kind of you -> es muy amable


*Heres my keys
Otras formas interrogativas comunes:
Where..? What..? How? Why?
*where is your mother?
*how much are these postcards?
*whats the time
*whos that man?
En ingls se usa con frecuencia las respuestas breves
*Are you angry? -> Yes, I am
Algunas expresiones con Be corresponden a formas del espaol
con tener
Tengo fro/calor
*Im hot. Can I open the window? -> Tengo calor, puedo abrir la ventana?
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*Are yo cold? No Im OK -> tienes fro? No, estoy bien


Tengo hambre/sed
*Im not hungry -> No tengo hambre
*the children are thirsty -> Los nios tienen sed
Tengo razn
*You are always right -> Siempre tienes razn
Tengo miedo
*Why is John afraid of dogs? -> Por qu John tiene miedo de los perros?
Tengo prisa
*Are you in a hurry? -> Tienes prisa?
Para decir la edad
*Im 23 years old -> tengo 23 aos
*How old are you? -> cuntos aos tienes?
Hay otras formas diferentes del ingls al espaol
Me interesa
*Im interested in politics -> me interesa la poltica.
*Jenny isnt very interested in music -> A Jenny no le interesa la msica.
Llegar tarde
*sorry Im late -> lo siento, llego tarde
*Why are you late? -> Por qu llegas tarde?
Duerme/ est dormido
*Joe is in bed. Hes asleep -> duerme/ est durmiendo
Hace calor/fro/sol/buen da
*Its sunny but it isnt very hot -> hace sol, pero no hace calor
*Is it cold? -> Hace calor?

Tema 2: PRESENT
CONTINUOus
2

Am/is/are + verbo-ing: es un hecho o una accin en curso,


tambin para planes de futuro muy seguros.
I

am (not)

-ing

am

He
She

He
is

(not)

-ing

Is

She

It

It

We

We

You

are (not)

-ing

are

They

-ing
You

they
Who/where/why + Am/is /are +

verbo-ing?
*Im working

-> estoy trabajando

*Is it rainning? -> est lloviendo?


*Were having dinner now -> nosotros estamos cenando
Del ingls al espaol hay casos diferentes:
*They are sitting -> estn sentados
*Shes standing -> ella est de pie
*Brians lying in the sun -> Brian est tumbado al sol
Hay ciertos verbos que al aadir ing cambian su forma:
*Para los verbos que terminan con la letra e, se cambia la ltima
letra por el gerundio "ing"
Drive -< driving

come -< coming

Write -< writing

move -< moving

Live

dance -< dancing

-< living

*Para los verbos que tienen solo una vocal y terminan en


consonante, se debe repetir o duplicar la ltima consonante,
seguido despus de un "ing"
Dig -< digging
Swim -< swimming
Win -< winning

Plan -< planning


Sit

-< sitting

Cut -< cutting


3

*La duplicacin de consonantes tambin depende de la slaba


tnica (Slaba que se pronuncia con mayor intensidad). Por lo
tanto podemos duplicar el ltimo consonante de un verbo
siempre y cuando la slaba tnica del verbo (monoslabo o no) se
encuentre al final.
prefer < preferring

happen -< happening

begin < beginning

listen -< listening

forget -< forgetting


*Los verbos que terminan en ie, son cambiados por "y" seguido
por "ing"
Die -< dying
Lie -< lying
*Para los verbos que terminan en una vocal seguida de una doble
consonante o una doble vocal seguida de una consonante,
aadimos "ing"
Cook -< cooking

Think -< thinking

Wait -< waiting

Sleep -< sleeping

Work -< working

Count -< counting

Eat

-< eating

Tema 3: present simple


Se usa para expresar acciones o cosas que son verdades, o bien
que ocurren con cierta frecuencia.
I/We/you/they + verbo
4

He/She/It + verbo-s

* My brother Works in a bank

Para el verbo have -> He/She/It -> has


Ortografa s en los verbos
=< destrs de s/-ch/-sh: pass-> passes finish-> finishes
watch-> watches
-es

=< destrs de Y: study-> studies carry-< carries


=< detrs de o: do-> does

go-> goes

El presente simple se usa con always/ never / often / sometimes /


usually
*I usually go to work by car but I sometimes walk
*julia never eats breakfast
Negacin:
I
We
You

* I dont drink tea


dont

verbo inf

*she doesnt know many people

They
He/she/it

doesnt

Interrogacin:

Where
How often
what
How much

do/does

do

sujeto

I/we/you/th
ey

does

verbo infinitivo?

Verbo
infinitivo

???

She/He/It

Posicin de always/usually/often:
What

Do
Does
Do

you
Chris
you

always
often
usually

have
play
do

breakfast
?
tennis?
?

COMPARANDO: PRESENT CONTINUOus Y PRESENT SIMPLE


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Presente continuo: expresa algo que est ocurriendo ahora


pasado

Ahora

Futuro

presente simple: expresa algo que corre habitualmente o con


cierta frecuencia
pasado

Ahora

Futuro

No uses los siguientes verbos en presente continuo:


Like
Love
Want
Remember
Depend
Prefer
Hate
Need
Forget

Know

Understand

Mean

Believe

Tema 4: I have / Ive got


=tengo
I

I
6

Ive got

We
Weve got

have

We

You
got

You

They
Theyve got
He/She/It
Hes got

have got
Youve

They

->

has

He/She/It ->

has got

*Ive got blue eyes I have blue eyes -> tengo los ojos azules
I
We

I?
Havent

You
got

have
got

You?

They
He/She/It
He/She/It?

We?

They?
->

hasnt

has

*What kind of car has she got? -> Qu tipo de coche tiene?
*Its a nice house but it hasnt got garden
Tambin puede ser: I dont have/ do you have?
Tanto has como is se contraen en s
*Its a small flat but its got a nice view

->

Tema 5: was/were
Am/is (presente) -> was (pasado)
-> Were (pasado)
I
He/She/It
He/She/It?

I?

was

We
You

Are (presente)

He/She/It

wasnt

Was

We
were

They

You

We?
werent

Were

They

You?
They?

*My sister was in Paris las weekend


*Why were you angry?
En algunas expresiones was/were puede corresponder a
tena/tenamos hizo:
*When I was a child, I was afraid of dogs
*Last year she was 22
*Was the weather good?

Tema 6: past
simple,worked/got/went
Al verbo (regular) se le aade ed
Work-> worked

clean -> cleaned

start -> started

Stay -> stayed

arrive -> arrived

dance -> danced

Try -> tried

study -> studied

Stop -> stopped

copy -> copied

plan -> planned

Slo pronunciamos la E- despus de una t d


I/we/you/they

Verbo-ed

He/she/it

Negacin

Interrogacin

We

did not

You
verbo (inf)?

didnt

we
+

verbo (inf)

They

did

you

they

He/she/it

he/she/it

-I didnt watch television yesterday -> Yo no vi la television ayer


-Did she go away last week? -> se fu ella de viaje la semana pasada?
-Did you do the shopping? -> hicistes las compras?

be

Was/were

been

Ser estar

arise

arose

arisen

surgir

awake

awoke

awoken

despertar(se
)

bear

bore

borne

soportar

beat

beat

beaten

golpear

become

became

become

convertirse
en

begin

began

begun

empezar

bend

bent

bent

doblar(se)

bet

bet

bet

apostar

bid

bid

bid

pujar

bind

bound

bound

encuadernar

bite

bit

bitten

morder

bleed

bled

bled

sangrar

blow

blew

blown

soplar

break

broke

broken

romper

breed

bred

bred

criar

bring

brought

brought

traer

build

built

built

construir

burn

burnt

burnt

quemar(se)

burst

burst

burst

estallar

buy

bought

bought

comprar

can

could

could

poder

cast

cast

cast

tirar

catch

caught

caught

coger

choose

chose

chosen

elegir

cling

clung

clung

aferrarse

come

came

come

venir

cost

cost

cost

costar

creep

crept

crept

arrastrar

cut

cut

cut

cortar

10

deal

dealt

dealt

tratar

dig

dug

dug

cavar

do

did

done

hacer

draw

drew

drawn

dibujar

dream

dreamt

dreamt

soar

drink

drank

drunk

beber

drive

drove

driven

conducir

eat

ate

eaten

comer

fall

fell

fallen

caer(se)

feed

fed

fed

alimentar

feel

felt

felt

sentirse

fight

fought

fought

pelearse

find

found

found

encontrar

flee

fled

fled

huir

fly

flew

flown

volar

forbid

forbade

forbidden

prohibir

forget

forgot

forgotten

olvidar(se)

forgive

forgave

forgiven

perdonar

freeze

froze

frozen

helar(se)

get

got

got

conseguir

give

gave

given

dar

go

went

gone

irse

grind

ground

ground

moler

grow

grew

grown

crecer

hang

hung

hung

colgar

have

had

had

haber, tener

hear

heard

heard

escuchar

hide

hid

hidden

esconder(se
)

hit

hit

hit

golpear

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hold

held

held

agarrar(se)

hurt

hurt

hurt

hacer dao

keep

kept

kept

guardar

kneel

knelt

knelt

arrodillarse

know

knew

known

saber,
conocer

lay

laid

laid

poner

lead

led

led

llevar

lean

leant

leant

apoyarse

leap

leapt

leapt

brincar

learn

learnt

learnt

aprender

leave

left

left

dejar

lend

lent

lent

prestar

let

let

let

permitir

lie

lay

lain

echarse

light

lit

lit

encender(se
)

lose

lost

lost

perder

make

made

made

hacer

mean

meant

meant

significar

meet

met

met

encontrar(se
)

must

Had to

Had to

deber

overcome

overcame

overcome

vencer

pay

paid

paid

pagar

put

put

put

poner

read

read

read

leer

ride

rode

ridden

montar

ring

rang

rung

sonar

rise

rose

risen

levantarse

run

ran

run

correr

saw

sawed

sawn

serrar

12

say

said

said

decir

see

saw

seen

ver

seek

sought

sought

buscar

sell

sold

sold

vender(se)

send

sent

sent

enviar

set

set

set

poner

sew

sewed

sewn

coser

shake

shook

shaken

agitar

shear

sheared

shorn

esquilar

shine

shone

shone

brillar

shoot

shot

shot

disparar

show

showed

shown

mostrar

shrink

shrank

shrunk

encoger(se)

shut

shut

shut

cerrar(se)

sing

sang

sung

cantar

sink

sank

sunk

hundir(se)

sit

sat

sat

sentar(se)

sleep

slept

slept

dormir

slide

slid

slid

resbalar

smell

smelt

smelt

oler

sow

sowed

sown

sembrar

speak

spoke

spoken

hablar

speed

sped

sped

acelerar

spell

spelt

spelt

deletrear

spend

spent

spent

pasar,
gastar

spill

spilt

spilt

derramar

spit

spat

spat

escupir

split

split

split

hender

spoil

spoilt

spoilt

estropear(se
)

spread

spread

spread

extender(se)

13

stand

stood

stood

estar de pie

steal

stole

stolen

robar

stick

stuck

stuck

pegar(se)

sting

stung

stung

picar

stink

stank

stunk

apestar

strike

struck

struck

golpear

strive

strove

striven

esforzarse

swear

swore

sworn

jurar

swell

swelled

Swollen/ed

Hinchar(se)

sweep

swept

swept

barrer

swim

swam

swum

nadar

swing

swung

swung

balancear(s
e)

take

took

taken

tomar(se)

teach

taught

taught

ensear

tear

tore

torn

romper(se)

tell

told

told

contar, decir

think

thought

thought

pensar

throw

threw

thrown

lanzar

tread

trod

trodden

pisar

undergo

underwent

undergone

sufrir

understand

understood

understood

entender

upset

upset

upset

afligir

wake

woke

woken

despertar(se
)

wear

wore

worn

llevar
(puesto)

weave

wove

woven

tejer

weep

wept

wept

llorar

win

won

won

ganar

wind

wound

wound

enrollar

14

withdraw

withdrew

withdrawn

retirar(se)

wring

wrung

wrung

torcer

write

wrote

written

escribir

TEMA 7: past continuous


Was/Were + verbo-ing: para expresar lo que ocurra o estaba
ocurriendo en el pasado.
Afirmacin
Interrogacin

Negacin

She/he/it
She/he/it
We
V-ing
Were

was

I
She/he/it

V-ing
We
were

Were
You

They
They

wasnt

You

V-ing
werent

Was
We

They

*what were you doing at 11.30 yesterday?


*what did he say? , I dont know, I wasnt listening.
We use the P.C to indicate that a longer action in the past was interrupted
-I

was
P.C

studying

when

Conexin

she
P.S
While

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called

Tema8: present perfect: I have


done
Have + participio pasado
We use the P.P to say that an action happened or an unspecified time
before now the exact time is not important.
We dont use specific time expressions yesterday, one year ago, last
week
We can use the P.P with unspecific time expressions: ever, many, never,
times, already
I
We

Have (ve)

You

havent

They
He/She/It
-

Verbo
+

Participio
Pasado

has (s) hasnt

I have seen that films twenty times


There have been many earthquake in California
I havent eaten snails before
Have you ever been to Australia?

Changes over time


- You daughter has grown a lot since last year, now she is taller than
me
Accomplishments (logros)
- Humans have walked on the moon

Have you ever?


Ever (anytime in your life until now)
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- Have you ever been to London?


- No, Ive (have) never been to London.

Diferencia entre: I have been/ I have gone


Been -> has ido y has vuelto
Gone -> an no has vuelto.
Just already still yet
Ive just -> pasado inmediato -> acabar de
- They have just arrived
- He has just gone

Already -> Si,ya (antes de lo esperado), para decir que algo ya ha


ocurrido. Se coloca entre el auxiliar y el verbo.
- John, this is Mary
- Yes, I know. We have already met

Yet ->

En frases negaticas => notyet: an, todava, se coloca al


final de la frase
- They havent arrived yet
->
En frases interrogativas => yet? ya?
- Have Diane and Paul arrived yet?

Still -> Para decir que algo todava no ha ocurrido, se coloca antes del
auxiliar
- I still havent visited London
- I am still studying at school
Still not, es ms sobre el pasado y Not yet sbre el futuro.

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Tema 9: for since ago


Usamos for y since -> para decir cunto tiempo

For => Seala cunto tiempo dura una accin. Introduce un perodo de
tiempo (three days / two years/ weeks/ an hour/ a long time)
- Weve been waiting for two hours

Since => Introduce el comienzo de la accin, equivale a desde.


(Monday/ 1987/ 24 july/ Winter)
- Richard has been in Canada since January

Ago => Corresponde a hace en espaol


- Three days ago hace 3 das
- An hour ago hace una hora
En ejercicios de Presente perfecto pasado simple:
- Cuando una frase empieza por when o what time se usa el pasado
simple.
- Cuando un periodo ya ha terminado (last week, yestarday) se usa
el pasado simple.

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