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LECTURE 13/MODULE 2/COMMUNICATIVE ENGLISH GRAMMAR

LECTURE 13
TYPES OF SENTENCES, QUESTION, STATEMENTS AND RESPONSES
This lecture will help to understand different type sentences, questions and responses in various
communication purposes.
Introduction
A Sentence is a group of words arranged in a manner which makes complete sense.
Statements are typically sentences which give information.
13.1. Types of Sentences
Declarative - A declarative sentence makes a statement. A declarative sentence ends with a
period.
Example: The house will be built on a hill.
Interrogative - An interrogative sentence asks a question. An interrogative sentence ends with
a question mark.
Example: How did you find the card?
Exclamatory - An exclamatory sentence shows strong feeling. An exclamatory sentence ends
with an exclamation mark.
Example: The monster is attacking!
Imperative - An imperative sentence gives a command, order and request.
Example: Cheryl, try the other door.
Would you please help me in solving this sum?
Pleas bring for me a glass of water.
Sometimes the subject of an imperative sentence (you) is understood.
Example: Look in the closet. (You, look in the closet.)

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Types of Questions

Questions are typically sentences by which someone asks the hearer to give information. In this
we discuss the ways in which information is given and received and we also consider peoples
attitudes to information and the reality to deal with.
Yes-no Questions
Yesno questions can be answered with a yes or no, hence the name is given yes-no . They
are limited in nature. They may be positive or negative.
Example:
Is the dinner nearly ready?
Yes, its already cooked. (Positive answer)
Alternative Questions
Alternative questions (choice questions) present two or more alternatives, as in "Do you want
fish or lamb? They cannot be answered with a yes or no. They are unlimited in nature.
Example
Shall we go train or by bus?
Would you like coffee, tea or cocoa?
Wh-questions
Wh-questions use interrogative words to request information. They are namely what, who,
where, whom, when and which In some languages, Wh-movements may be involved. They too
cannot be answered with a yes or no.
Examples:
Who is your Business Communication teacher?
What are you doing during your leisure period?

Tag Question

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Tag questions are a grammatical structure in which a declarative statement or an imperative is
turned into a question by adding an interrogative fragment (the "tag"), such as "right"for
example, "You remembered the eggs, right?" Tag questions can be answered with a yes or
no.As a general rule negative tag is given for positive statements and positive tag is given for
negative statements.
Examples:
Sara is happy, isnt she?
Sara is not happy, is she?
Exercise [Set-1]
Complete the sentences with the correct question tags.
1. Mr. McGuinness is from Ireland_________?
2. The car isn't in the garage_______?
3. You are John, ________?
4. She went to the library yesterday, __________?
5. He didn't recognize me, _________?
6. Cars pollute the environment, _________?
7. Mr. Pritchard has been to Scotland recently__________?
8. The trip is very expensive________?
9. He won't tell her_______?
10. Hugh had a red car_______?
Exercise [Set-2
1. You have got to arrive before half past eight,..........?
2. That's the shop where you used to work,.......?
3. That's the guy who was on TV the other night,.......?
4. She won't be here for another hour,........?
5. That's the guy that won the pools, ........?
6. That's the shop where you used to work,.......?
7. They should be here soon, ......?
8. She's had too much to do lately,.......?
9. There's a cinema near the station, .......?
10. he bank lent him the money, ......?
Exercise [Set-3]
Identify and label each sentence as declarative, interrogative, imperative, or exclamatory.

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1. Where is my shovel?
2. This is the most beautiful lawn I have ever seen.
3. Please pass the lemonade.
4. My arms ache from digging the flower beds!
5. It takes hard work to plant all of these flowers.
6. Could you please give me the hose?
7. I am going to climb that tree.
8. The view from the top of this tree is amazing.
9. I can't get down!
10. Please help me to climb down this tree.
Exercise [Set-4]
Form affirmative or negative statements using the given words/phrases.
Click on the underlined words/phrases.
Example:
reading / the children / not / books / are
______________________
Answer:
The children are not reading books.
1. A/ he /new /singing /now /song is
2. Like/do /I /Mondays/ not
3. do /cat /usually/not/sleep/at/night
4. seldom/to/she/computer/the/afternoon/on/goes/lab/Tuesday
5. late/stay/up/on/weekdays/not/do/mum/and/dad
6. reporter/the/to/the/car/is/running
7. not/my/does/play/tennis/friend
8. Grandmother/goes/skating/his/never
9. Cannot /two hamsters/see/I
10. Breakfast/always/jack/the/kitchen/in/has

Reference
A communicative grammar of English by Geoffrey Leech and Jan Svartvik