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ABSTRAK

Jamur tiram putih (Pleurotus ostreatus) merupakan sumber antioksidan.


Perbedaan proses pengolahan dapat berpengaruh terhadap aktivitas antioksidan,
total fenolik dan kadar proksimat jamur tiram putih serta aktivitas antioksidan di
dalam tubuh. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk menentukan pengaruh pengolahan
(perebusan, pemanggangan dan penggorengan) terhadap sifat kimia, organoleptik
jamur tiram putih dan aktivitas antioksidan pada tikus Sprague Dawley
hiperkolesterolemia.
Penelitian dilakukan dalam 2 tahap. Tahap pertama jamur tiram putih dicuci
dan dikecilkan ukurannya, kemudian diblanching selama 20 menit. Selanjutnya
jamur tiram putih direbus, dipanggang dan digoreng dengan variasi waktu 5, 10
dan 15 menit. Jamur tiram putih olahan dianalisa kimia dan uji organoleptik.
Sampel terpilih pada uji organoleptik diaplikasikan untuk uji bioassay. Tahap
kedua uji bioassay menggunakan tikus Sprague Dawley. Tikus dibuat
hiperkolesterolemia dengan pemberian pakan standar ditambah kolesterol murni
0,1% dan asam kolat 0,025%. Tikus hiperkolesterolemia dibagi menjadi 5
kelompok masing-masing 6 ekor. Kelompok I diberi pakan standar AIN-93M;
kelompok II diberi pakan standar dan jamur tiram putih mentah; kelompok III
diberi pakan standar dan jamur tiram putih rebus; kelompok IV diberi pakan
standar dan jamur tiram putih panggang; kelompok V diberi pakan standar dan
jamur tiram putih goreng. Kadar MDA plasma dan trigliserida serum tikus
dianalisa setiap minggu selama 4 minggu.
Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perebusan dan pemanggangan tidak
berpengaruh nyata terhadap perubahan kadar lemak, protein, abu dan karbohidrat
jamur tiram putih. Penggorengan mengakibatkan peningkatan kadar lemak dan
penurunan kadar protein, abu dan karbohidrat jamur tiram putih. Perbedaan proses
pengolahan mengakibatkan perubahan total fenolik dan aktivitas antioksidan yang
tidak stabil. Panelis paling menyukai jamur tiram putih hasil penggorengan
selama 10 dan 15 menit. Uji bioassay menggunakan jamur tiram putih rebus,
panggang dan goreng selama 10 menit. Pemberian pakan jamur tiram putih
mentah, jamur tiram putih rebus, jamur tiram putih panggang dan jamur tiram
putih goreng dapat menurunkan kadar MDA plasma masing-masing sebesar
66,92%, 57,21%, 63,59% dan 36,81%, serta dapat menurunkan kadar trigliserida
serum masing-masing sebesar 36,51%, 26,87%, 33,17% dan 23,63%.
Kata kunci:
Jamur tiram putih, antioksidan, total fenolik, MDA plasma, trigliserida serum

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ABSTRACT
White oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) is a source of antioxidants.
Processing differences may affect the antioxidant activity, total phenolic and
proximate levels of white oyster mushroom and effect on antioxidant activity in
the body. The purposes of this study were to determine the effect of processing
(boiling, baking and frying) on the chemical and organoleptic properties of white
oyster mushroom and antioxidant activity in hypercholesterolemic mice.
The study was divided into 2 steps. The first step was to process of white
oyster mushroom. White oyster mushrooms washed and reduced in size. Then
blanched for 20 minutes . Furthermore white oyster mushroom processed through
boiling, baking and frying. Each period was divided into 3 levels, 5, 10 and 15
minutes. Furthermore, chemical content and organoleptic were analyzed. The best
treatment was applied to the results of organoleptic rat feed. The second step of
the bioassay test using Sprague Dawley rats. Hypercholesterolemic rats treated
with high cholesterol feeding (pure cholesterol 0,1% and cholic acid 0,025%) for
7 days. Rats were divided into 5 groups, each group was given a different feed .
The first group was fed standard diet AIN-93M; second group was fed standard
diet and raw white oyster mushroom; third group was fed standard diet and boiled
white oyster mushroom; fourth group was fed standard diet and baked white
oyster mushroom; fifth group was fed standard diet and fried white oyster
mushrooms. Plasma MDA levels and serum triglycerides were analyzed every
week for 4 weeks .
The result showed that boiling and baking were not significant difference in
levels of fat, protein, ash and carbohydrate of white oyster mushroom. Frying
increased of fat content and decreased of protein, ash and carbohydrates content.
Processing differences caused changing of total phenolics and antioxidant activity
that not stabile. Total phenolics of white oyster mushroom contribute as an
antioxidant. Based on sensory analysis, it can be seen that the fried oyster
mushroom in 10 and 15 minutes most panelists favored. Bioassay test used boiled,
baked and fried white oyster mushroom in 10 minutes. Raw white oyster
mushroom, boiled white oyster mushroom, baked white oyster mushroom and
fried white oyster mushroom reduced plasma MDA levels 66,92%, 57,21%,
63,59% and 36,81% respectively, and serum triglyceride levels 36,51%, 26,87%,
33,17% and 23,63% respectively.
Keywords:
White oyster mushroom, antioxidant, total phenolics, plasma MDA, serum
triglyceride

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