Anda di halaman 1dari 11

# PROJECT REPORT

ELECTROMAGNETICS
Magnetic Levitation Wind Turbine for Energy Harvester in
Indonesia

CREATED BY:

(13/348462/TK/40927)

Dita Anggraini

(13/348512/TK/40949)

## ENGINEERING PHYSICS DEPARTMENT

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
2014

PREFACE

First at all, give thanks for Gods love and grace for us. Thanks to God for helping us and
give us chance to finish this assignment timely. And I would like to say thank you to Mr.
Ahmad Agus Setiawan, ST., MSc., PhD. as the lecturer that always teaches us and guide
us so that we finally have done our project. This assignment is the one electromagnetics
class task that composed of Practical Electromagnetic Usage in our daily life. We realized
that this assignment is not perfect. But we hope it can be useful for the people who are
interested in learning electromagnetic. Critics and suggestion is needed here to make this
assignment be better. Hopefully we as students in Engineering Physics Department UGM
can create another wonderful project for a better future. Thank you.

ii

COVER ............................................................................................................. i
PREFACE ......................................................................................................... ii
LIST of CONTENT .......................................................................................... iii
ABSTRACT ..................................................................................................... iv
1.INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................... 1
2.LITERATURE REVIEW .............................................................................. 2
2.1.Wind Turbine ........................................................................................ 2
2.2.Vertical Axis Wind Turbine ................................................................. 2
2.3.Magnetic Levitation .............................................................................. 3
3.RESULT AND DISCUSSION ...................................................................... 4
3.1.Results of Simulations and Prototype ................................................... 4
3.2.Discussion of Results ........................................................................... 5
4.CONCLUSION .............................................................................................. 6
REFERENCES ................................................................................................. 6

iii

1. INTRODUCTION
The earth existed since time immemorial, as time goes by humans need food in
order to make them survive, they take advantage of all sorts that exist on this earth to
process food that should be consumed. Actually, what they get from a food? Satiety? Yes,
with this glut then we get an "energy" that will be used for the activity of our body. This
energy is like the core that requires a human to survive, of course, not only humans, but all
life on earth need energy for their survival.
Consumptive nature does not only apply to food, but also to all the tools and
objects used to satisfy human needs. Suppose that we need electricity for lighting, vehicles
that we use for the move, and no less importantly computer technology to learn, and so
forth. All we need is need energy to keep working, can not ~ sure. But the point is how do
we harness this energy in order to function and performance be as effective and as efficient
as possible, and how do I get it? Oh that's easy, we use natural gas available under the
earth plate to be processed "if available forever". Gas is a finite amount of fossil energy,
we have to create a renewable energy source that exist in nature such as wind, solar,
geothermal, micro-hydro, and others; with as efficiently as possible. In this occasion we
like a scientist and engineer looking for new innovations to manipulate the utilization of
energy sources.
One of the renewable energy that can be utilized is the wind. The movement of air
molecules (N2 and O2) has great potential to be a good source of energy and the tools used
to store wind energy is the wind turbine. Rotational work as turbulence or laminar flow of
air through it, but not fully efficient because of the friction shaft. To overcome this, we
create a model of the existing mill but the concept of new methods, namely turbines
VAWT (Vertical Axis Wind Turbine) with the installation of a magnet on the bottom to
reduce friction, so that these magnets can levitating reduce the loss on a turbine wheel.

iv

2. LITERATURE REVIEW
Our project is based on the view aspects of effectivity and efficiency of existing
technologies, namely VAWT (Vertical Axis Wind Turbine), what its difference with
ordinary wind turbine?
2.a. Wind turbine
So how do wind turbines make electricity? Simply stated, a wind turbine works the
opposite of a fan. Instead of using electricity to make wind, like a fan, wind turbines use
wind to make electricity. The wind turns the blades, which spin a shaft, which connects to
a generator and makes electricity
Wind is a form of solar energy and is a result of the uneven heating of the atmosphere by
the sun, the irregularities of the earth's surface, and the rotation of the earth. Wind flow
patterns and speeds vary greatly across the United States and are modified by bodies of
water, vegetation, and differences in terrain. Humans use this wind flow, or motion energy,
for many purposes: sailing, flying a kite, and even generating electricity.
The terms wind energy or wind power describe the process by which the wind is used to
generate mechanical power or electricity. Wind turbines convert the kinetic energy in the
wind into mechanical power. This mechanical power can be used for specific tasks (such
as grinding grain or pumping water) or a generator can convert this mechanical power into
electricity.
Modern wind turbines fall into two basic groups: the horizontal-axis variety, as shown in
the photo to the far right, and the vertical-axis design, like the eggbeater-style Darrieus
model pictured to the immediate right, named after its French inventor. Horizontal-axis
wind turbines typically either have two or three blades. These three-bladed wind turbines
are operated "upwind," with the blades facing into the wind.
Here is the comparasion between horizontal axis and vertical axis wind turbine:

## 2.b. Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT)

VAWTs are wind turbines that rotate about a vertically-oriented axis that is perpendicular
to the wind direction (sometimes termed a cross-flow turbine). In typical, modern
designs, the center axis is a vertical shaft (tower) that is connected to a speed-increasing
transmission (gearbox). The transmissions output shaft, in turn, drives a motor/generator
that converts the mechanical torque of the rotor to electrical power. Typical designs
include the full-Darrieus (or eggbeater), the H, the V (or Y or sunflower), the
Delta, the Diamond and the Gyromill configurations, all of which may be seen in
Figure 1. Many additional configurations have been proposed, even some that turn the
turbine on its side (a squirrel cage configuration).
Vertical Axis Wind Turbines are not as efficient as the more common Horizontal Axis
Wind Turbines, but they do offer benefits in low wind situations. They also tend to be
safer, easier to build, can be mounted close to the ground, and handles turbulence much
better. The commonest VAWT is a Savonius VAWT which is an extended version of an

vi

anemometer (wind speed measuring tool). VAWTs can offer up to 30% efficiency and
they work equally well no matter which direction the wind is coming from.
Here a various scheme design of VAWT:

## 2.c. Magnetic Levitation

Magnetic fields are actively excluded from superconductors (Meissner effect). If a small
magnet is brought near a superconductor, it will be repelled becaused induced
supercurrents will produce mirror images of each pole. If a small permanent magnet is
placed above a superconductor, it can be levitated by this repulsive force. The black
ceramic material in the illustrations is a sample of the yttrium based superconductor.
By tapping with a sharp instrument, the suspended magnet can be caused to oscillate or
rotate. This motion is found to be damped, and will come to rest in a few seconds.

vii

## 3.1. Results of Simulation and Prototype

Results of simulations carried out by software Ansoft Maxwell v11 that

## Figure 1. magnetic field strength

of the results of this simulation, in comparison with the results that have been obtained in
studies conducted by previous researchers. the results of previous research

## Figure 2. magnetic field simulation results of other researchers

From the prototype has been made showed that of the prototype showed approximately 2
cm levitation using numbered 8 in the stator magnets and 8 on the rotor with neodymium
magnet specification coin diameter of 15 mm and a thickness of 3 mm. The result that 0.4
to 0.6 mV voltage using a coil as much as about 50 rounds.

viii

## Figure 6. Prototype View 2

3.2.Discussions
From the simulation results can be observed on the magnet has a magnetic field is
shown in green world. magnetic field around approximately 2643 T. on the edge of the
magnetic intensity of the magnetic field begins to decline shown by the alternation of color
to cyan. but the intensity is still higher than the intensity of the distant part of the magnet. in
the area which is quite far from the magnet, the intensity decreased dramatically shown in
blue. magnets mounted two layers and each layer has characteristics similar. part of the area
that intersects the magnet close between the two layers has a magnetic field intensity higher
than the part that does not intersect with both. the intensity of the magnetic field centered on
the magnet just not too spread out, making the repulsive force between the magnets is
greater. position magnets arranged in polar magnetic repulsion makes absolutely centered.
that will produce the expected effect of levitation. with this levitation effect of friction on
the bearing only depends on the magnetic intensity, friction will be lower than the
conventional friction on wind turbine.
the results of the simulation are obtained when compared with the similar simulation was
done other researchers do not differ much. simulations were performed using the software
Ansoft Maxwell same. the results obtained from other researchers, can be observed with
high-intensity magnetic field are at the end of the magnet. on the plate cross-section can be
observed also a high intensity magnetic field is shown in green. This is because the plate
that is used is different from the mild-steel plate with a plate that is used in this paper
simulation. most low magnetic intensity are at the top after the magnet. the effect of the
magnetic field decreases as it has come into contact with the air passage as a whole. at the

ix

center of the magnet, the magnetic field tends to be weaker compared with the end of the
magnet. the overall magnetic field is not uniform in all parts of the appliance.
of the results generated by the prototype levitation height of about 2 cm. is considered
pretty good results because the results of this round can be lighter wind turbine spinning
since friction is reduced drastically. in terms of energy production is done by providing a
coil on the sidelines during the magnetic part. when the rotor rotates, the magnetic field
present in the rotor will change with time. according to the four Maxwell equations would
be associated with an electric current so there will be voltage. but in testing the prototype
used only with 50 coil windings, so that the voltage generated is still small. for further
optimization of the coil pattern can be designed better and more so as to produce a higher
voltage. however, there are still weaknesses in the use of this prototype is still a fixed shaft
in the middle. This is because the lack of a magnet that can be used so that if not given the
position of the rotor shaft will not be stable. in this application can be tricked by increasing
the number of magnets to create a larger polar again. and make a heavy concentration in the
middle of the rotor so that the rotor can float perfectly
for further applications, this type of wind turbine can be mounted to the housing area as
a secondary generator from home. because this type of wind turbine is suitable for low wind
speeds for larger sweep of the area. wind direction which tends to fluctuate as well suited to
this type of windmill. because this type of windmill can receive wind energy from all
directions. addition of levitation bearing components make this mill can be more efficient in
power generation.

4. CONCLUSION
From the results of simulation and prototype, savonius magnetic levitation wind
turbine can produce finer round as a significant reduction in friction factor. in the model,
the distribution of the magnetic field generated in the rotor and stator magnets can produce
levitation effect. This levitation effect is produced because the repulsive force between the
magnet is strong. with reduced friction on the wind turbine savonius type is expected in the
future can be produced more energy efficient by utilizing wind energy.

REFERENCES
Direktorat Jenderal Energi BaruTerbarukan dan Konservasi Energi KESDM, Workshop
Integration

of

Science,

Technology

and

Art

Towards

Sustainable

## Development,Green Lifestyle and Green Technology. Yogyakarta. 2 Februari

2014
Schubel, Peter J and Richard J. Crossley. Wind Turbine Blade Design. Energies 2012, 5,
3425-3449.
Jin J. The finite element method in electromagnetics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2002
Hull JR. Levitation applications of high-temperature superconductors. High temperature
superconductivity 2: engineering applications. Springer; 2004.
http://www.allsmallwindturbines.com/search_result_turbines_type.php?turbine_type=VA
WT%20Savonius
Kumbernuss, jan etc. A novel magnetic levitated bearing system for Vertical Axis Wind
Turbines (VAWT). Applied Energy 90 (2012) 148153
http://www.windturbinestar.com/horizontal-axis-wind-turbine-2.html
http://ugmmagatrika.wordpress.com/2014/04/25/vertical-axis-turbine-segabai-alternatif