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The Explorer Islamabad: Journal of Social Sciences

ISSN (E): 2411-0132, ISSN (P): 2411-5487


Vol-1, Issue (7):232-236
www.theexplorerpak.org

ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY AND AGRICULTURE PRODUCTION: A STUDY OF ADOPTION


TECHNOLOGY
Samia Imtiaz, Mahwish Zeeshan, Sana Tahir
Department of Anthropology, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi
Corresponding Author:
Samia Imtiaz
PMAS-Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi
Samiya.emtiaz@gmail.com
Abstract: Pakistans agricultural sector has been contributing to the economy of the country at large. Hence the
sector has been considered as the back bone of to the country. This paper reviews technologys role in the
agriculture production in Murid, Chakwal. Since it is assumed that advanced technological use have replaced the
traditional agricultural techniques, the study is an attempt to have a qualitative analysis of the said hypothesis.
Non-probability stratified sampling technique has been used to conduct the research on a sample size of 200
farmers. Key informants helped establish rapport at the field; later interview guide was used to conduct in-depth
interviews. The qualitative data collected is discussed after cross tabulation analysis. The findings suggests that
early adopters prove to be more advantageous as compare to the followers and laggards since they have learnt the
efficient use of technology by evolving strategies based on the indigenous needs.

Key Words: Natural Calamities, Advance agricultural technology, Agricultural production, Effect on
Economy
INTRODUCTION
In the economy of Pakistan agriculture is the
major revenue source and provides opportunities
for employment. Past experiences demonstrated
that it contribute to national economy and helps
to concurred the poor execution of the national
economy (Ali 2000).
Development has dependably been the key
strength behind rural development specifically
through economic transformation. The capacity
to increase the value of agricultural production
via the application of scientific knowledge creates
innovative activities.
Technological methods are helpful for the
farmers to resolve their issues and adjust to the
natural environment for their needs. Technology
is the application of applied science in industries
to perform different task (Hornby 2000). The
literature suggested that agriculture production
technologies used by the farmers sort out their
problems (Atala 2002).
The economy of Pakistan wards on agrarian
division as it contributes around 20% to the Gross
domestic product. Wheat is the staple food for
the most of the population in Pakistan. It

contributes approximately 13% to the worth


included in agriculture and 2.8 % to the Gross
domestic product. The assessed creation of the
wheat harvest was 23.4 million tons which was
11.7% more than that of the most recent year
(Pakistan 2009).
Progressions in science have permitted
researchers to embed attributes of different
plants into nourishment crops (National Research
Council 2010). In addition to increased crop
productivity, biotechnology has the potential to
create more nutritious crops, leading to both
lower health care costs and higher economic
performance (Potrykus 2003). It could be agreed
with because at the research field, it was
witnessed that technology has doubled
agricultural production and the total production
has almost doubled. It was also observed that
quality of seed was also enhanced.
The problem for most nations is not lack of
innovation but instead the administration of a
wealth of investigation and mechanical learning.
Also, innovation evaluations should now consider
social effects, a process that requests more

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noteworthy utilization of the different controls


(Russell, et al. 2010).
Higher utilization and better mixture of inputs
oblige stores at the transfer of agriculturists.
These stores could either originate from reserve
funds or through borrowings, since the sparing of
the ranchers is either very small or negative so
they need to get for their gainful exercises.
Greater part of the ranchers, especially little
ones, are not in a position to secure key inputs
(manure, enhanced seed, propelled innovation,
plant insurance, and so forth from their own
sources because of absence of stores.
Consequently to meet the obliged speculation to
achieve the increment in the creation, rural credit
is a crucial component (Iqbal, et al. 2003).
The imperative variables that may add to a higher
farming development incorporate extension in
developed region, upgraded utilization of water
and other rural inputs, increment in trimming
force, innovative change, and specialized
proficiency. Different studies demonstrate a
positive development altogether consider profit
for agriculture in Pakistan. Notwithstanding, the
assessments contrast generally and range from
0.37 (Kemal, et al. 2002).
An aggregate variable gainfulness development
of 0.48 for harvest sub-part over the period 19501995; the development in totaled inputs
represented around 80 percent of the aggregate
increment in product yield development and the
rest was contributed by change in farming
innovation (Chaudhry, et al. 1996). It is generally
kept up that the potential for assigning more land
and water assets to horticultural creation and/or
extent of further increment in editing power is
restricted in Pakistan. In addition, utilization of
inputs like manures and pesticides can't be
expanded past specific cutoff points furthermore
due to national wellbeing and ecological
concerns. Consequently, the nation would need
to depend all the more intensely on innovative
change and change of specialized productivity for
the craved fast rural development.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The research was centered around the effect of
technology on agricultural production in nearby
agrarian community of Murid village in Chakwal
where-in the respondents were distinguished and
inspected by the assistance of key-informant; in
the end a substantial number of house-holds

were brought into contact and interviewed. To


target the populace for research both qualitative
and quantitative research techniques were
applied. Two hundred families were interviewed
selected through stratified random sampling
technique. Strata were based on agriculture land
holding on the size of agricultural land holding.
Open ended questions were asked in order to
collect qualitative data and interview guide was
used as primary research tool. Results are
interpreted through cross tabulation.
RESULTS AND DISSCUSSION
Table. 1: Size of Agriculture Land Holding
Land in
canals
Upper
Middle
17-40
0
0
41-100
0
89
101-225
29
0
226-300
8
0

Lower
74
0
0
0

According to the research findings, 37 percent of


the respondents owned17 to 40 canal of land
which is kept under the strata of lower class.44.5
percent of the respondents 41 to 100 canals of
land who belong to the middle class strata where
as 18.5 percent of the respondent who owned
101 canals agriculture area belong to the upper
class of the local.
Table. 2: Wheat Production
Per acre
production of
wheat
Upper
17-30
0
0%
31-48
2
5.40%
49-60
20
54.04%
61-72
15
40.54%

Middle
19
21.34%
66
74.15%
4
4.49%
0
0%

Lower
56
75.67%
14
18.91%
4
5.40%
0
0%

In upper class majority cases I have seen that


5.40% of upper class produce 31 to 48 munn,
54.04% of respondents produce per acre of
wheat (49-60) and 40.54% of respondents
produce per acre of wheat (61-72) of the total
production. In middle class 21.34% of
respondents produce per acre of wheat (1730)munn of the total production, 74.15% of
respondents (31-48)munnper acre of the total
production and 4.49% of respondents produce
per acre of wheat (49-60) of the total production.

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The results stays consistent in lower class where


75.67% of the respondents produce 17 t0 30
munn, 18.91% in lower class produce 31 to 48
munn and 5.40% of respondents produce per
acre of wheat (49-60) of the total production.
The result indicates that advance technology has
increased production. Education of the
respondent increases the probability of a farmer
to increase production of per acre. Education of
the famers are directly effects their production
because education helps them to get information
regarding the techniques which are helpful to
increase production (Haq, et al. 2015).
Table. 3: Types of Irrigation System
Types
irrigation
system
Upper
Middle
Turbine
16
3
43.24%
3.37%
Peter in
Jun
3
5
8.10%
5.61%
Mesial
motor
10
41
27.02%
46.06%
Tubal
5
6
13.51
6.74%
none
4
34
10.81%
38.20%

Lower
0
0%
6
8.10%
22
29.72%
4
5.40%
41
55.40%

Results of this tubal shows that in upper class


43.24%, in middle class 3.37% and in lower class
0% turbines are used. In upper class 8.10%, in
middle class 5.61% and in lower class 8.10% peter
injuns are used. In upper class 27.02%, in middle
class 46.06% and in lower class 29.72% mesial
motors are used. In upper class 13.51%, in middle
class 6.74% and in lower class 5.40% tubules are
used. In upper class 10.81%, in middle class
38.20% and in lower class 55.40% are the nonuser of above mentioned irrigation system.
Table no 3 presents the percentage of different
irrigation systems in and major of 53.5%
responses show no use of irrigation system which
proves this area is rain fed agricultural area.
Besides this area being arid, but farmers use
irrigation technology for a maximum of 4 kannals
to produce fodder for their livestock.
More educated farmers adopt new technologies
for cultivation efficiently as compared to less
educated farmer. Land water saving technologies
are adopted by farmers to face the unfavorable
environmental conditions (Haq, et al. 2015).

Table. 4: Accessibility of Electricity to the Local


Farmer
Availability
of
electricity
in local
Upper
Middle
Lower
yes
35
80
58
94.5%
89.88%
78.37%
no
2
9
16
5.40%
10.11%
21.62%

According to the respondents in upper class


94.5%, in middle class 89.88% and in lower class
78.37% electricity is available in the local area.
According to the respondents in upper class
5.40%, in middle class 10.11% and in lower class
21.62% electricity is not available in the local
area.
Table no 4 elaborates that majority of 180 out of
200 people (88.7%) responded that electricity is
available at their farms whereas few people
(9.9%) showed non accessibility of electricity.
Table. 5: Types of Chemicals used on Locale
Type of
chemicals
use in local
Upper
Middle
Lower
pesticide
2
6
2
5.40%
6.74%
2.70%
herbicide
2
19
12
5.40%
21.34%
16.21%
both
33
49
10
89.18%
55.05
13.51%
none

0
0%

15
16.85%

50
67.56%

5.40% in upper class, 6.74% in middle class and


2.70% in lower class of the respondents/farmers
pesticides are used for their crops. 5.40% in
upper class, 21.34% in middle class and 16.21% in
lower class of the respondents/farmers
herbicides are used for their crops. In upper class
89.18%, in middle class 55.05% and in lower class
13.51% of the respondents/farmers both
pesticides and herbicides are used for their crops.
In upper class 0%, in middle class 16.85% and in
lower class 67.57 of the respondents/farmers
does not use any type of chemicals for their
crops. Chemicals and fertilizers are used by the
farmers to increase their production (Khan, et al.
2002)
Table no 5 is based on the use of advanced
chemical technology and in the given the use of
such chemicals in majority i.e. 52.5% confirms the
use of such technology. The result has a highly

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significant positive effect on fertilizer and other


herbicide adoption and manure application. This
implies that farmers are driven by profit/output
maximization and would be motivated to apply
yield increasing methodologies whenever they
are guaranteed of higher returns.
According to the study respondents said that
their total area is dependent on rainfall.
Traditional modes of irrigation are used by the
farmers to water their plants and crops. Lack of
irrigational accommodations is a major cause of
limited expansion in farming area in Chakwal. The
lesser water supply from water course in the
fields is the serious problems which influence of
farming sector and it bear bad effects on the
agricultural production. At the point when there
is no rain then farmers faced major issues in
irrigation. There is not even a solitary dam in the
range which highlights the poor irrigation
framework. It lessened the crops development
seriously. In spite of the fact that, farmers
inundated crops by utilizing crops development
yet it is more costly due to power bills. Little and
poor farmers could not manage the cost of
overwhelming measure of bills. Along these lines
agricultural production decreases and individuals
need to move to different segments (Haq, et al.
2014).
Table. 6: Adoption Patterns of Farm Technologies
Petron of
adaption
of
technology
in farmers
Upper
Middle
Lower
early
adopter
22
13
0
59.45%
14.60
0%
follower
15
70
59
40.54%
78.65%
79.72%
laggard
0
6
15
0% 16.2%
20.27 %

This table shows that in upper class 59.45%, in


middle class 14.60% and in lower class 0% of the
framers in area are the early adopters of
technology. In upper class 40.54%, in middle class
78.65% and in lower class 79.72% of the framers
in area are the followers of early adopters of
technology. In upper class 0%, in middle class
16.21% and in lower class 20.27% of the framers
in area are laggards in adoption of technology.
CONCLUSION

Reliance on technology is considered important


for high production. If developing countries like
Pakistan intend to catch up with agricultural
industry leaders; they will need to create more
permissive regulatory systems that allow for the
research, development, and use of genetically
modified crops. Old farmers are attached with
agriculture in a way that they are totally
dependent on conventional methods of farming
along the inaccessibility to basic agricultural
facilities. New generation is moving to other less
tedious income sources like government jobs,
private jobs, business, overseas employment.
Higher the prevalence of technology, effective
use and precautionary measure, better the
results of crop production. Agricultural
production is inclining and is positively affecting
the local agricultural production of specifically
and the agricultural economy at large.
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