Anda di halaman 1dari 6

Scale-Up

Design of a production-scale system on the basis of the performance of a model


system

System Characteristics

thermodynamics

e.g. CL*, CP (scale independent)

kinetics

e.g. specific growth rate, (scale independent)

transport-phenomena

e.g. kLa (scale independent)

One of the fundamental problems is incomplete mixing on scale-up concentration


gradients, cell growth on walls. etc.
Similarity between model and prototype systems
for similarity in two mixing systems, it is (ideally) important to achieve:
Geometric similarity: both systems must be the same shape and linear dimensions in
model must be related to the corresponding dimensions in model must be related to
the corresponding dimensions in the prototype by a constant factor
Desain dari sistem produksi skala atas dasar kinerja dari sebuah sistem model
sistem Karakteristik
termodinamika mis CL *, CP (skala independen)
kinetika mis Tingkat pertumbuhan spesifik, (independen skala)
transportasi-fenomena misalnya KLA (skala independen)
Salah satu masalah mendasar adalah tidak lengkap pencampuran pada skala-up
konsentrasi gradien, pertumbuhan sel di dinding. dan lain-lain
Kesamaan antara model dan sistem prototype untuk kesamaan dua sistem
pencampuran, itu adalah (idealnya) penting untuk mencapai:
Kesamaan geometris: kedua sistem harus bentuk dan ukuran yang sama linear dalam
model harus berhubungan dengan dimensi yang sesuai dalam model harus
berhubungan dengan dimensi yang sesuai pada prototipe dengan faktor konstan
D

i.e.

and

etc.
F

Kinematic similarity: similar flow patterns in both vessels; velocities at


corresponding points must have a constant ratio

Dynamic similarity: all corresponding forces at corresponding points in two


geometrically similar systems have a constant ratio, i.e.
Kesamaan kinematik: pola aliran yang sama di kedua kapal, kecepatan pada titik-titik
yang sesuai harus memiliki rasio yang konstan
Dinamis kesamaan: semua kekuatan yang sesuai pada titik-titik yang sesuai pada dua
sistem geometris serupa memiliki rasio yang konstan, yaitu

P0

3 5
N D

ND 2

N 2D

P0

3
5
N D

ND 2

N 2D

However it is very difficult to achieve dynamic similarity when more than one
dimensionless group is involved in a system common criteria for scale-up have been
developed:

constant P/V

constant impeller tip speed (ND)

constant volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kLa)

constant impeller Reynolds No.

constant mixing time (tmix) or circulation time (tcirc)

common to scale-up in the basis of geometric similarity and at least one of the
above

Example
Assuming dynamic similarity, can you determine the power consumption and impeller
speed of a 1000 L fermenter, based on the findings of the optimum conditions from a
geometrically similar 1 L vessel? If not, can you scale-up by using a different fluid
system?
Namun sangat sulit untuk mencapai kesamaan dinamis ketika lebih dari satu
kelompok berdimensi yang terlibat dalam sistem kriteria umum untuk skala-up
telah dikembangkan:

konstan P / V
impeller konstan kecepatan ujung ( ND)
volumetrik konstan koefisien perpindahan massa (KLA)
konstan impeller Reynolds No
waktu pencampuran konstan (tmix) atau waktu sirkulasi (tcirc)
umum untuk skala-up di dasar kesamaan geometris dan setidaknya salah satu di atas
contoh
Dengan asumsi kesamaan dinamis, bisa Anda menentukan konsumsi daya dan
kecepatan impeller dari fermentor L 1000, berdasarkan temuan dari kondisi optimum
dari sebuah kapal 1 L geometris serupa? Jika tidak, bisa Anda skala-up dengan
menggunakan sistem fluida yang berbeda?
Solution
VM

VF

D
1
1

M

1000
D
1000

3
5
N D

1
10

3
5
N D

1
3

If using same fluid in both systems M F , and M F ,


NF
PF PM
NM

DF

DM

NF
10
NM

PM

Equality of Reynolds Number demands that


N M DM2 N F DF2 N F N M DM DF 0.01N M
2

But, equality of Froude Number demands that


N M2 DM N F2 DF N F N M

DM D F N M 1 10 0.3162 N M

impossible to achieve dynamic similarity using same fluid in both model and fullscale systems.
But, if M F , and M F , then for this system can satisfy dynamic similarity
using a model fluid such that

31.62

i.e. is the full-scale system involves a fluid similar to water, then the chosen model
fluid must have a kinematic viscosity of 1/31.62 that of water. IMPOSSIBLE!
Constant P/V most commonly used criterion for scale-up

3
D

P
3
D

and if
3

N
D 5

NF

NM

D
M
DF

NF

N
D 5

D
N M M
DF

2
3

Constant kLa desirable for biological processes


P

u SG

recall

kLa K

turbulent flow

N P cons tan t P N 3 D 5

gas velocity

u SG

kLa N 3D2

To maintain

k L a F k L a M

Qg

Qg
D2

D2 F

Q
2
D

Q
2
D

N 3D2 M

Q
2
D

can keep both kLa and P/V constant,


but only if uSG is also constant
If geometric similarity is maintained, then D F is fixed, with respect to D M can
determine NF and QF
Jika kesamaan geometris dipertahankan, maka DF adalah tetap, sehubungan dengan
DM dapat menentukan NF dan QF

Constant Impeller Tip Speed (ND) may be appropriate for shear sensitive systems
(although shear rate is frequently correlated with impeller rotational speed N)
constant tip speed (ND ) F ND M
Impeller Kecepatan Tip Konstan ( ND) - mungkin cocok untuk sistem yang sensitif
geser (meskipun laju geser sering berkorelasi dengan impeller kecepatan rotasi N)
kecepatan ujung konstan
turbulent flow

3
5
N D

3
5
N D

ND D 2

ND D
3

P
2
D

DF
PF PM
DM

P
2
D

If impeller tip speed is kept constant, what about Re?

N F DF D F DF
Re F N F DF2

2
Re M

N M D M N M D M D m D M
Re F Re M

DF
DM

Constant Mixing Time/Circulation Time


most commonly used in chemical reactors
t circ

V
and t mix 5 6 t circ
Q

In a standard configuration STR


NQ

Q
2.8 for turbulent flow
ND 3
Q
ND 3

Lam
Turb
Re

Constant tmix?
assuming turbulent flow

Q
3
ND

Q
3
ND

Q 1

3
D F N

Q
3
D

for constant mixing time, NF = NM

1

M N

Solution to Viscosity Problem

M R 0 Ri
2Ri h

Question assumes the student knows the nomenclature relating to this formula
a = Apparent viscosity
M = Torque
Ro = Radius of outer cylinder
Ri = Radius of inner cylinder
h

= height of cylinder

= Angular velocity

For this case using a rotational speed in RPM

2N
60

Where N is the rotational speed of the cylinder in RPM


1. Convert N to using above formula
2. Calculate a for each of the above points