Anda di halaman 1dari 5

SPIC JEL ENGINEERING CONSTRUCTION LIMITED

Head office / Fabrication Shop : 156, Old Mahabalipuram Road, Kumaran Nagar,
Chemmancherry, Sholinganallur Post, Chennai 600 119. INDIA.
Site : Torrent Power Plant, 1100 MW Sugen Combined Cycle Power Plant,
Akhakhol-Village, Kamrej, Surat- 394155 Mobile :9979886901

PROCEDURE FOR RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION.


1.0 SCOPE
This specification provides a system of general condition and specific instruction as an aid to
personal required to perform radiographic examination.
2.0 PERSONNEL QUALIFICATION
The examiner shall have been qualified in accordance with the requirements of the ASNT
recommend practice SNT-TC-1A certified as an NDE level II in the radiographic examination
method.
3.0 EQUIPMENT & MATERIALS
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4

Radiographs shall be made using Film Type 1 or 2.


Radiographic Isotopes shall be used as source of radiation.
Location & identification markers shall be made of lead.
Image quality indicators ( IQI ) made of radiographically similar material as the object being
inspected shall be used.
3.5 A densitometer or film density strip shall be used to measure film density.
3.6 A film viewer with variable brightness adjustment .
4.0 PROCEDURE
4.1.1
4.1.2

Weld surface shall not contain any irregularities that could mask or be confused with the
image of any discontinuity. These shall be removed by any suitable process.
The finished surface of all butt welded joints may be flush with the base metal or may
have reinforcements that do not exceed that specified in the applicable code.

4.2 Direction of Radiation.


4.2.1 The direction of the central beam of radiation shall be centered on the area of interest
when ever practial.
4.3
4.3.1

Radiographic Density.
The transmitted film density through the radiographic image of the penetrameter and area
of interest shall be between 2.0 4.0
1

4.3.2
4.4
4.4.1
4.4.2

4.5
4.5.1
4.5.2
4.5.3
4.5.4
4.6
4.6.1
4.6.2
4.6.3
4.6.4
4.6.5
4.7
4.7.1

For composite viewing of multiple film exposure , each film of the composite set shall
have a minimum density of 1.3 and a maximum of 4.0
Scattered Radiation
A lead symbol B with a minimum dimensions of inch ( 13 mm ) in height and
1/16 inch ( 1.6 mm ) in thickness shall be attached to the back of each film holder as a
check on back scattered radiation.
If a light image of the B appears on a darker background , protection from back
scatter is insufficient and the radiograph shall be rejected. A dark image of the B on a
lighter back back ground is not cause for rejection.
Location and Identification Markings
A system of identification shall be used to produce permanent identification on the
radiograph which is traceable to the part being examined . --- ATTACHMENT - 1
A letter R shall be used to designate a radiograph of a repair and shall include -1 , -2
for number of repair.
Location markers appearing as radiographic images on the film shall be placed on the
part and not on the cassette.
The placement of location markers shall be as defined in T 237 of article 2 of the
ASME code section v generally.
IMAGE QUALITY INDICATORS ( IQI )
Radiography shall be performed with a technique of sufficient sensitivity to display the
penetrameter image and the specified hole.
Penetrameter as designated in the table ( ATTACHMENT II ) shall be used for the
indicated thickness range.
The thickness on which the penetrameter is based is the normal ring wall thickness plus
the maximum reinforcement permitted by the applicable code.
Penetrameters shall be placed on the source side where inaccessibility prevents placing
the penetrameter on the source side, the penetrameter may be placed on the film side and
the lead letter F shall be placed adjacent to it.
A shim material radiographically similar to the weldmetal shall be placed under the
penetrameter if the reinforcement is not removed.
Geometrical Un sharpness Limitations ( Ug )
Limits of geometric un sharpness shall be as shown in Attachment III.

4.7.2

Geometrical un sharpness equal source size times thickness over object to source distance
Ug = Fd / D
Where F = source size or focal spot, In.
D = distance ( in ) from source of radiation to weld
d = distance ( in ) from source side of weld to the film distance
Refer Attachment I V.

4.8
4.8.1
4.9
4.9.1

Radiographic Techniques.
Radiographic techniques are shown in attachment V.
Quality of Radiographs.
All Radiographs shall be free from mechanical , chemical or other blemishes to the
extent that they cannot mask or be confused with the image of any discontinuity in the
area of interest.

Such blemishes include but are normal limited to :


a) Fogging
b) Processing defects such as Streaks, water marks or Chemical stains.
c) Scratches, finger marks , crimps , dirtiness , static marks , smudges or tears.
d) Loss of detail due to poor screen to film contact.
e) False indications due to defective screens or internal faults.
4.9.2

Final acceptance of radiographs shall be passed on the ability to see the prescribed
penetrameter image and the specified hole.

4.10 Evaluation of Indications


4.10.1 Equipment for viewing radiographs shall provide a light source sufficient for the essential
penetrameter hole to be visible for the desired density range.
4.10.2 All indications shall be evaluated in terms of the acceptance standard of the applicable
code ; ASME Sec. VIII , and ANSI B 31.1
5.0 ACCEPTANCE STANDARD
5.1 Welds having any of the following type imperfections shall be judged unacceptable.
5.1.1 Any type of crack or Zone of incomplete fusion or penetration.

5.1.2 Any elongated slag inclusion which has a length Grater than :
for T up to
1/3 t for T from to 2.25
for T over 2.25
Where T is the thickness of the weld without any reinforcement.
5.1.3 Any group of inclusions in line that have an aggregate length grater than T in a length
12T , except when the distance between the successive imperfections exceeds 6L , where L is the
length of longest imperfection in a group.
5.1.4

porosity in excess of that specified in the porosity charts in ATTACHMENT VI.

6.0 EXAMINATION OF REPAIRS


6.1 Radiography Repairs shall be removed by grinding and the ground area will be re-examined
by visual and DPT before re welding, and the repair shall be re examined by the same procedure
used for the original examination.
7.0 REPORTS
7.1 A Radiographic examination Record shall be filled out and if the weld is rejected , the
inspector shall mark the portion of the weld to be repaired.
8.0 RETENSION OF FILMS
8.1 A complete set of films shall be retained and kept in a aluminum box and the same will be
returned to the client at the end of site.
9.0 RADIATION SAFETY
9.1 Each radiography test member shall be provided with personal monitoring device such as
film badges and dosimeter
9.2 Each radiography team shall be provided with survey meter , radiation bleeper , radiation
sign boards , sufficient length of rope ( Radiation barricades ) and warning lights .
9.3 When ever radiographic operations are to be carried out at site , The Radiographic In
charge need to secure work permit, at the location where radiographic opera rations are to be
carried out.
9.4 All Radioactive source shall be kept in their respective exposure devices, or sealed in the
source changer and stored in a safe storage pit. The storage pit shall be located in a place
designated by a safety officer as safe and shall be barricaded , Locked and safety radiation sign

boards put up. The storage pit shall not be unlocked without the presence of the qualified
radiographer.
9.5

9.5.8

Before making any radiographic exposure , the following safety precautions shall
be observed by the radiographic team carrying out the exposure :
Rope off the area of operation
Calculate area boundaries and place stanchions. Actual radiation boundary shall be
established by using the survey meter.
Erect rope barriers.
Post sign boards where it can be seen easily.
Switch on all warning lights.
Clear area of all personnel.
A member of the radiographic team shall post as Look out around the area operation
during exposure.
Radiographic testing shall be carried out only at night times or Non productive Hours.

9.5.9

Building and Installation specifications.

9.5.1
9.5.2
9.5.3
9.5.4
9.5.5
9.5.6
9.5.7

a) In determining barrier thickness the production provided should be such that :i) in areas occupied by radiation workers , the radiation level does not exceed
100 mR / Week.
ii ) in areas occupied by non radiation workers or the general public the radiation does not
exceed 10 mR/week.
b) Normally the radiography camera will be kept in the pit having Mild steel of
1.mtr ^ 3 and the boundaries ( room ) made of fire proof materials.
c) Conspicuously marked with Radiation sings , Danger symbols and the name ,phone number
of the responsible user. The room should be operated only by the radiography responsible
persons..

Attachment.
1) Radiographic interpretation report
2) Attachments 1 to VI