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Individual Assignment

Student Name

Student Identification Number

Suwin Karunarathne

TP031486

Intake Code

: UC3F1404IT{BIS}

Module Title

: Innovation Management &


New Product Development

Module Code

: BM050-3-3- IMNPD

Project Title

: Google Glass

Name of Lecturer

: Tajuddin Bin A. Rashid

Hand in date

: 28/11/2014

Hand out date

: 06/02/2015

Word count

: 3508

Executive Summary
The current technology arena is subjected to rapid development and frequent changes with constant
innovation carried out by number of companies. Hence, in the software and IT industry Google,
Microsoft, Yahoo, Apple, Sony, and AOL Inc. can be classified as giants who are involved in
frequent innovation. The human desires and growth in technology has a direct correlation.
Therefore, when the scope of technology increases the desires of human increases as well.
Hence, as a ground to cater rising human desires Google unveiled their Google Glass project in
April 2011 boasting as the first movers in wearable technology. Google is considered as a highly
innovative company compared to its potential competitors, which heavily supported them to
develop Google Glass.
According to the study conducted, Google follows a solid NPD strategy and a process framework
in developing Google Glass. In addition, Google Glass can be labelled as a new product because
the firm has made rigorous changes to dimensions such as technology and quality
specification. Further, the operation environment of Google that nurtures innovation is
incontestable, which has enabled a solid ground for them to develop Google Glass.
Even though Google Glass is considered as a next generation product that takes sunglasses into
the next level of technology, it carries significant concerns as well. Privacy being one of them
hinders Google Glass from entering the market successfully. According to the Pearsons
uncertainty map, the product is in application engineering phase going under extensive research to
re-model it into the optimal condition suiting to the market. Whereby, it requires a combination of
market conditions and technology in order to launch the product into the market successfully.

Table of Contents
Executive Summary ......................................................................................................................... i
Table of Tables .............................................................................................................................. iv
Table of Figures .............................................................................................................................. v
Abbreviations ................................................................................................................................. vi
1

Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 1
1.1

About Google ................................................................................................................... 1

1.1.1

Organizational structure ............................................................................................ 4

1.1.2

Googles cooperate culture ....................................................................................... 5

1.1.3

Search engine ratings ................................................................................................ 8

Question 1 ............................................................................................................................... 9
2.1

Considerations for new product development .................................................................. 9

2.1.1

Ongoing Corporate Planning .................................................................................. 10

2.1.2

Ongoing Market Planning ....................................................................................... 10

2.1.3

Ongoing Technology Management......................................................................... 11

2.1.4

Opportunity Analysis/ Serendipity ......................................................................... 12

2.2

Usage of NPD for growth............................................................................................... 13

2.2.1
2.3

Multi- Dimensional concept of Google product development ....................................... 17

2.3.1

Application of ANSOFF Matrix on Google ........................................................... 15

Application of multi-dimensional concept on Google Glass .................................. 18

2.4

NPD Process Framework ............................................................................................... 20

2.5

Conclusion...................................................................................................................... 22

Question 2 ............................................................................................................................. 23
3.1

Dilemma of Innovation Management in Organizations ................................................. 23

3.2

Managing Uncertainties ................................................................................................. 25

3.2.1

Pearson Uncertainty Map ........................................................................................ 25

3.2.2

Quadrant elaboration ............................................................................................... 26

ii

3.3

Organizational Characteristics that Foster Innovation ................................................... 28

3.4

Propagation of virtuous circle ........................................................................................ 31

3.5

Conclusion...................................................................................................................... 34

References ............................................................................................................................. 35

Appendix ............................................................................................................................... 39
5.1

About Google ................................................................................................................. 39

5.1.1

Google Benefits ...................................................................................................... 39

5.1.2

Google Timeline ..................................................................................................... 41

iii

Table of Tables
Table 1 Google beliefs .................................................................................................................... 1
Table 2 Employee naming convention ........................................................................................... 5
Table 3 ANSOFF Matrix on Google ............................................................................................ 15
Table 4 Multi-dimensional concept of Google ............................................................................. 18
Table 5 NPD Process Framework ................................................................................................. 21
Table 6 Quadrant elaboration........................................................................................................ 26
Table 7 Organizational Characteristics that Foster Innovation..................................................... 28
Table 8 Virtuous circle explanation .............................................................................................. 31
Table 9 Google Benefits ............................................................................................................... 39
Table 10 Google Timeline ............................................................................................................ 41

iv

Table of Figures
Figure 1 Organizational structure ................................................................................................... 4
Figure 2 Walk in the park, London, UK ......................................................................................... 6
Figure 3 Tatami meeting room in Tokyo, Japan ............................................................................. 7
Figure 4 Bowling alee in Mountain View, California .................................................................... 7
Figure 5 Hatching ideas in Zurich, Switzerland ............................................................................. 7
Figure 6 Search marketplace ratings ............................................................................................... 8
Figure 7 Decision making process for generating NPD strategy.................................................... 9
Figure 8 Fuzzy front end theory.................................................................................................... 12
Figure 9 ANSOFF Matrix ............................................................................................................. 13
Figure 10 Industry growth framework .......................................................................................... 14
Figure 11 Multi- dimensional concept of products ....................................................................... 17
Figure 12 Change of product dimensions ..................................................................................... 17
Figure 13 NPD process ................................................................................................................. 20
Figure 14 Tension between creativity and organization efficiency .............................................. 23
Figure 15 Revenue generation ...................................................................................................... 24
Figure 16 Pearson's uncertainty map ............................................................................................ 25

Abbreviations
HQ- Head Quarters
NPD- New Product Development
SMEs- Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

vi

1 Introduction
1.1 About Google
Google concisely can be called as a search engine oriented company. The visionaries of Google
are Sergey Brin and Larry Page where they initiated Google as a university project called Backrub
in 1998 at Stanford University (Kuntze & Matulich , 2009). The seed has now grown into a billion
dollar company, which has captured almost every corner of the world, listing Google as a verb
in the dictionary (Kuntze & Matulich , 2009). This employee- centric organizations headquarters
is located in Mountain View, California, which also has its offices in 36 different countries
including 14 states in the USA. Further, Google was enlisted in the top 100 most powerful brands
while boasting about its product scope from web, mobile, media, geo, specialized search, home &
office, social and innovation (Google, 2014).
According to Google (2014), company operates based on ten core beliefs that are being revisited
on regular basis during strategic decision-making. The beliefs are as follows.
Table 1 Google beliefs

Belief

Explanation

Focus on the user and all else

From its beginning, all the developments were user

will follow

oriented where everything was based on user friendliness


and convenience. For example, the home page is simple
and convenient, which provides an efficient platform to
load in minimal time.

Its best to do one thing really,

The firms has partnered up with leading research experts in

really well

order to identify any issues related to its search engine,


since the firms primary brand is searching. Hence,
constant developments and solving issues related to
searching are carried out to provide seamless experience
for the customers. For example, Gmail and Google Maps.

Fast is better than slow

One of the primary goals of the firm is to create a faster


environment within the searching option, allowing the
1

users to obtain their search answers and leave the website


quickly as possible. Regular updates are being made in
order to scrape off any extra bits within the web pages. For
example, Google Chrome for mobile platform is
considered as one of the fastest mobile search engines
Democracy on the web works

The importance of each web page is being monitored using


200 different signals and the patented PageRank algorithm,
hence, providing the most voted website across other web
pages. In addition, usage of open source software
development, allows many programmers to participate in
innovation through collective effort

You dont need to be at your

The firm takes every measure to bridge the gap between

desk to need an answer

stationed and mobile search environment. Google has


pioneered in mobile application development allowing the
users to access information wherever they are, whenever
they need it. In addition, the approach of Android, which is
open source and free benefits the customers and the
developers to participate in new mobile experiences

You can make money without

The major sources of revenue for the firm is their

doing evil

advertising mechanisms implemented within the search


engine environment, AdWords are used to promote
products, and AdSense program is involved in delivering
respective advertisements to relevant websites. However,
Google follows a specific advertising guideline to avoid
any hindrance to user search experience

Theres always more

Firm uses various algorithms and mechanisms in order tap

information out there

any unused data sources and integrate it to the existing

database allowing the users to view maximum amount data


in a particular search query.
The need for information

Google focuses on diversification of their search engines

crosses all borders

and transmitting data around the world. As a measure, firm


currently operates in 60 different countries handling 180
internet domains, which enabled the firm to provide search
interfaces in 130 different languages

You be serious without a suit

Googles main goal is to create a casual working


environment for its employees to generate mind-blowing
ideas effectively. For example, having meetings in the gym
or cafeteria. In addition, firm employs individuals from
various background and cultures

Great just isnt good enough

The firm did not halt its progression from the mindblowing search engine. Google is a hard-core believer in
achieving success through innovation and iteration that has
led them to create many products. For example, initially
search engine was working fine with properly spelled
words, while it did not for typos, hence the firm came up
with the spell checker
Source: Google (2014)

1.1.1 Organizational structure

CEO (Larry
Page)
Senior VP &
CFO

CBO

Chief
Economist

Director,
Advertismen
ts

Chief
Accountant

Head of
Global
Mobile Sales

VP of
Finance

VP,
Americas
Sales

CEO,
YouTube
Global Head
of Product
Commerciali
zation

Head,
Research
and Search
Director,
Google PLay
Senior VP,
Ads and
Commerce

Senior VP &
Google
Fellow

Senior VP
Access &
Energy

Senior VP,
Comm & PP
Senior Vp,
Public
Relations

Lead
Director
(John
Hennessy)

Chairman of
Board (Eric
Schmidt)

Senior VP,
Legal

Senior VP,
Google X

Director
(Sergey
Brin)

Senior VP,
Internation
Mrkt.

Director
(John Doerr)

Senior VP,
Knowledge

Corporate
Director,
Strategic
Initiatives

Director
(Diane
Greene)

Senior VP,
PO
Head of
Global
Staffing
VP PO

Senior VP
and General
Counsel

Director
(Ann
Mather)

Senior VP,
Products

Senior VP, TI

Regional
Director,
New
Prodcut
Solutions

Director
Performanc
e Solutions

VP Chrome
Books

VP Display
Advertising

VP Maps

VP, Real
Estate

VP Product
Managemen
t
VP Product
Mkt.
CTO Public
Sector

Figure 1 Organizational structure

Source: The Official Board (2014)

Director
(Alan
Mullaly)

Director
(Paul
Otellini)

Director
(Ram
Shriram)

Director
(Shirley
Tilghman)

Above diagrams defines the overall organizational structure of Google. Majority of the todays
firms prefer following bureaucratic or traditional organizational structure where decision-making
is done at the top level and ordered down to the lower levels. However, Google believes in
collective effort that persuades the firm to follow a cross- functional organizational structure
(DeCenzo , et al., 2013). Even though google comprises of a hierarchical structure as shown in the
figure 1, the firm ensures participation of every employee for decision making process, thus
making the employees feel as a contributor for Googles success (DeCenzo , et al., 2013).
1.1.2 Googles cooperate culture
Googles cooperate culture is well defined from its headquarters, Googleplex in Mountain View,
CA. The HQ is modelled in a manner similar to a college campus like environment that has directly
reflected on creating a high-energy, fast-paced work environment (Kuntze & Matulich , 2009).
The core intention of creating a relaxed and full of individuality environment is to promote
creativity and innovation within the Googlers, which has allowed the firm to develop variety of
innovative products in the recent past (Kuntze & Matulich , 2009).
According to Google (2014), the environment within the firm is diversified, meaning Google hire
individuals who are smart and determined from all around the world that speak dozens of different
languages. However, Google ensures that each employee shares a common goal and the vision of
the company (Google , 2014). The following employee naming convention followed by the
company shows the diversification and the respect of every culture, age, race etc.
Table 2 Employee naming convention

Name

Description

Googlers

Employees of Google

Xooglers

Former employees of Google

Nooglers

New recruits

Gayglers

Lesbian,

gay,

community

bisexual

and

transgender

Googlers who are over 40 years old

Greyglers

Source: Kuntze & Matulich (2009) and Portet (2011)

The firm abides with a rule called 70/20/10, meaning 70% of their daily work is contributed
towards the projects assigned by the top management, 20% is allocated for working on new
projects and 10% for developing their personal new ideas (Thompson & Media , 2014). Hence,
company management states that aforesaid rule has catered towards rapid product development at
large, mainly due to the participation employees at every functional level (Thompson & Media ,
2014).
According to Google (2014), the firm follows a concept called TGIF meetings where every
employee is given the chance to share their ideas and directly connect with Larry, Sergy and other
executives, in addition, these meetings are held via email or in the caf.
Google currently boasts about maintaining their position in Fortune 100 best companies to work
for with their effective cooperate culture (Fortune , 2014). In support of the culture, Googlers are
provided with variety of benefits (see appendix 5.1.1) and big pay checks. See appendix 5.1.2 for
Google timeline.
Following figures shows Googles attractive and innovative office spaces in several countries.

Figure 2 Walk in the park, London, UK

Source: Google (2014)

Figure 3 Tatami meeting room in Tokyo, Japan

Source: Google (2014)

Figure 4 Bowling alee in Mountain View, California

Source: Google (2014)

Figure 5 Hatching ideas in Zurich, Switzerland

Source: Google (2014)

1.1.3 Search engine ratings


Google is considered as the leading role in search market place by taking consecutive lead against
its competitors such as Microsoft sites, Yahoo Sites, Ask Network, and AOL Inc. (comScore ,
2014). Accordingly, Google has maintained its market share at 67.3% by August 2014 followed
by a drop of .1% from July 2014. While Microsoft at 19.4%, Yahoo Sites at 10.0%, Ask Network
at 2.0% and AOL Inc. at 1.3%. Following figure shows the rankings.

Figure 6 Search marketplace ratings

Source: comScore (2014)

2 Question 1
Discuss and suggest some feasible application considerations when developing a new product
development strategy for Google Glass.

2.1 Considerations for new product development


According to Zafar, et al. (2014), majority of the new product development frameworks followed
by leading product-oriented companies have failed to achieve success, due to the inability to meet
customer acceptance in terms of satisfaction, quality, and speed to market, flexibility, and pricing.
For example, WebTV provided their customers to access internet via the televisions in 1990s, the
growth statistics were rapidly increasing in the first few quarters while it dropped in the later years
due to consumer technological adaption factor. Hence, WebTV was bought over by Microsoft in
1997, where it never crossed the benchmark of one-million subscribers (DailyFinance , 2014).
Therefore, it is necessary that firms follow a set of consideration during the development NPD
strategies to achieve competitive advantage and sustainability in the market. Following are four
main considerations forwarded by Trott (2011). Further, SARIOLU, et al. (2013) claims that
decision making for NPD strategy should be dynamic and should resist constant change with the
evolving processes. Following figure describes the previously mentioned statement based on the
internal organization inputs and external environmental changes.

Figure 7 Decision making process for generating NPD strategy

Source: SARIOLU, et al. (2013)

2.1.1 Ongoing Corporate Planning


This is the process of dynamic strategic decision making where in large organizations it is done by
the top management (board of directors, executives, senior management etc.) while in SMEs it is
carried out by the owners in an informal manner (SARIOLU , et al., 2013). According to TAS
Gov (2014), this process defines a firms vision, mission, values, and effective business projectiles
to achieve sustainability and competitive advantage.
DeCenzo, et al. (2013) defines that Google follows a cross- functional organizational structure,
which takes a horizontal employee structuring within the firm. This mechanism allows the firm to
create an environment where employees will feel like it is a small business, enabling the employees
at every functional level to participate in decision-making process rather than it being a top down
approach. Further, this mechanism is achieved by practicing TGIF meetings where every
employee is allowed to directly contact with Larry, Sergy and other executives to share their ideas
related to companys strategic decision making (DeCenzo , et al., 2013) (Google , 2014).
During the TGIF meetings, employees are required to share their innovative ideas and
developments with the senior management, while the management will evaluate the ideas based
on the feasibility factor and allocated necessary funding to carry out development process. This
procedure has allowed google to capture a larger market base within the web-based environment
through rigorous innovation (Thompson & Media , 2014).
Finally, it is mandatory that companies should consider the external environmental factors such as
shares, market trends, demographics, competitors and geography in parallel to ongoing corporate
planning (SARIOLU , et al., 2013).
2.1.2 Ongoing Market Planning
Ongoing market planning is concern related to the market planners and their decisions plays a
major role (SARIOLU , et al., 2013). It is necessary that a firm understands the needs, wants and
desires of their potential customers to avoid dissatisfaction among them. In addition, it is necessary
that firm identify its possible competitors beforehand. In order to achieve the aforesaid company
should conduct in-depth market research (SARIOLU , et al., 2013).
Google, which is a search engine oriented company competes against the firms mentioned in figure
6, it was identified that since its initiation Google has managed to be the frontier in the search
10

marketplace (comScore , 2014). To conduct successful market planning Google high relies on
capturing consumer behaviour and feedback from customers. Therefore, they use various
algorithms and tools to track customer behaviour within their websites to gather data such as
trends, demographics, search pattern, buying pattern etc. (Ernst & Young, 2011). For example,
Nokia the leading mobile phone giant since 1990s failed vastly in the year of 2010 with Samsung
smartphones and Google Android OS taking over the market (Lomas, 2012).
Hence, it defines that company with the maximum amount of information regarding the market
will attain the monopoly over the competitors. In addition to the information, it is necessary that
firms follow a flexible marketing plan that could resist any external environmental change with
the NPD. Further, before launch of a new product it is necessary that company conduct in-depth
market research.
2.1.3 Ongoing Technology Management
This is aspect is significant for technological oriented companies, because, the firms awareness
on rapid technological development is essential in order to compete in the fast growing market
(SARIOLU , et al., 2013). For example, Nokia failed majorly in 2000s mainly due to the usage
of old aged software (Symbian platform) and hardware technology while IPhone introduced
cutting edge stylish smartphones that captured a vast market base (Lomas, 2012). Further, it is
necessary that companies maintain a parallel growth in between the R & D sector and the growing
technology in order to exploit largely available technological opportunities (SARIOLU , et al.,
2013).
On April 2004, Google implemented Gmail to compete with Hotmail and Yahoo Mail. However,
at present 288 million unique visitors are being handled by Gmail while Hotmail handles only 286
million by 2012 December (Brownlow, 2012). Gmail holds an upper hand among its competitors
due to its unique feature such as ability to compose an email while using the inbox and provision
of up to 10GB for file integration between Gmail and Google Drive.
Therefore, the technological department requires working closely with product development in
order to provide strategic partnership insights and product improvement efforts, which will allow
the firm to launch a NP successfully. Accordingly, Google continuously revisits the technological

11

aspect during NPD to ensure that product is interlined with the current technological development
trends (Google , 2014).
2.1.4 Opportunity Analysis/ Serendipity
Apart from the above inputs, there are certain inputs that are labelled as miscellaneous or
serendipity, meaning taking advantage of any unexpected discoveries (SARIOLU , et al., 2013).
Hence, it is essential that a firm identify its potential opportunities to exploit them and achieve the
upper hand among its competitors.
According to the Google rule of 70/20/10, each employee is given 20% of their daily time to work
on personal ideas that could enhance product formation (Thompson & Media , 2014). This fact
proves that Google follows a fuzzy front end theory, meaning all the generated ideas will be
discussed in TGIF meetings and put on to a context where it gives meaning to be used for product
enhancement.
Source: Herstatt (2001)

Figure 8 Fuzzy front end theory

Source: Herstatt (2001)

Above highlighted section in the figure defines the fuzzy front end, where the result is not certain
until it goes through a certain production process and pass the phase 2.

12

2.2 Usage of NPD for growth


According to SARIOLU, et al. (2013), majority of the firms in the current world have achieved
vast growth due to NPD. Aforesaid is clearly proved by Google with their constant innovation in
the market, which has led them to rapid growth. Therefore, ANSOFFs matrix, which was
forwarded by Igor Ansoff in 1957, provides a clear picture on how to use four different market
strategies in order to achieve rapid growth (Hussain , et al., 2013). Four strategies are Market
penetration, market development, product development, and diversification. Following figure
shows a diagrammatic explanation of ANSOFF matrix.

Figure 9 ANSOFF Matrix

Source: Business Case Studies (2014)

Further, Hussain et al. (2013) claims that NPD strategy as a whole does not cater towards firms
growth, the internal and external environment factors affects the business growth as well.
Therefore, in order to achieve successful growth it is necessary that firm consider the
environmental factors as well. Following diagram shows how firms can achieve growth with the
combination of environmental factors and growth strategies.

13

Figure 10 Industry growth framework

Source: Hussain, et al. (2013)

14

2.2.1 Application of ANSOFF Matrix on Google


Table 3 ANSOFF Matrix on Google

Existing Products

New Products

According to SARIOLU, et al. (2013), opportunities It is the process of providing new products into existing
to be exploited exists within the existing market space. markets and this approach is carries a higher risk. Hence,
Thus, market share can be increased by following this quadrant can be achieved through new product
different market mix activities. Google, as an approach development. Riley (2012) claims that, research &
to increase its market base, firm created strategic development and innovation, detailed insights into customer
alliances with many companies (UKEssays , 2014).
Existing
Markets

Google partnered with AOL to enhance its operation of

Firms partnered with NASA Ames to increase their

competitive advantage ( Riley , 2012). Accordingly, Google

research capacities and the boundaries

developed its first browser, Google Chrome in 2008 with its

Partnering with Sun Microsystems in 2005 to share

significant differentiating feature, which is speed among the

technology with each other, allowing Google to

other browsers

enhance their existing technology

new product development. Further, product having


differentiating features from competitors allows achieving

the video search engine

desires and being first in the market are keys to success in

The $900 million partnership with News Corp has


allowed Google to access Myspace, which is a social
networking website

15

All the above partnerships allows Google to engage in


a larger market base and increase it in the long run
achieving high market penetration
In this quadrant, firms enter into new markets spaces In this quadrant, firms enter into new market with their new
with the use of their existing products. When entering products. However, this approach carries the highest risk
into new markets, firms need to change products compared to other quadrant due to both dimension being
pricing, packaging, policies or distribution channels to new to the firm (SARIOLU , et al., 2013). The
ensure fast adaptability to the new environment. In this diversification approach can be carried out in three main
case, Google collaborated up with AOL and Dell in ways:
India in order to achieve new market space effectively.
New

Due to this Google was able to counter any issues

Markets

arising during entering new markets because Dell and


AOL in India was familiarized with the local operations

Forward integration: Manufacturer opening a retail outlet

Backward integration: Manufacturer starting to produce


components

Horizontal diversification: Buying over competitors

(UKEssays , 2014)
Google glass is one of the best example, firms new trend,
which is a new product entering into a new market.
Therefore, company might face issues where certain
markets will not accept the product. Thus, it requires
extensive market research before launch
Source: Authors work (2014)

16

2.3 Multi- Dimensional concept of Google product development


According to SARIOLU, et al., (2013), the process of libelling a product as new has been
controversial over the years. It is identified that any product is multi- dimensional and the
dimensions cam be either tangible or intangible (Trott, 2011). Following figure shows a multidimensional structure of a product.

Brand name

Feature
s
Quality
Specification
s

Price
Packaging

Level
of
Service
Technology

Figure 11 Multi- dimensional concept of products

Source: Trott (2011)

Therefore, by changing any of the above dimension can result in new product development and
can be labelled as new theoretically (Trott, 2011). For example, Amazon conducting R & D on
developing a drone system to distribute small packaged items is a new process of conducting their
distribution proceedings. Following figure gives diagrammatic explanation of dimension change.
Brand name
Feature
s
Quality
Specifications

Price

Level
of
Service

Packaging
Technology
Figure 12 Change of product dimensions

Source: Trott (2011)

17

2.3.1 Application of multi-dimensional concept on Google Glass


Table 4 Multi-dimensional concept of Google

Dimension
Brand name

Change

Description

Usage of Googles name

Google glass is a new product offered

integrated with Glass

by Google; hence, they give a name for


their product based on the company
name. Therefore, a significant change
in brand name is not identified

Quality

specifications

Accordingly, Google can be classified

Fits
o

Adjustable nose pads

as the first mover in the context of

Extra nose pads

Google Glass. Because, Google is the

Display
o

first firm to develop wearable

High resolution screen,


25 inch HD and eight
feet away

Photo: 5MP

Videos: 720p

into an ordinary sunglass

Audio
o

Bone Conduction
Transducer

Connectivity
o

Wi Fi 802.11 b/g 2.4


GHz

Bluetooth

Storage
o

12 GB of usable
memory, synced with
Google cloud storage

Battery
o

mainstream sunglass usage with the


integration of mentioned specifications

Camera
o

technology. Hence, they changed the

One day of use

18

Charger
o

Micro USB cable


charger

(Google , 2014)

Price

Costs around USD 1,500

The price does not pose a significant


change

Packaging

Features

Uses minimum packaging

The packaging is similar to other

material, similar to Apple

existing products, therefore, packaging

IPhone boxes

dimension change is not significant

Google Glass provides many

Features are more less similar to the

features as of the existing high- existing products


tech items, such as GPS, voice
integration, image capturing
etc.
Technology

Wearable technology

This dimension plays a significant role,


despite the fact that it comprises of
majority of the features and option
included in existing products, Google
has managed to integrate everything
into a one single glass. Hence, making
them a first mover in the wearable
technology industry

Level of service

Similar to the after sales


provided by Google to other
products
Source: Authors work (2014)

19

When analysing the above multi- dimensional concept of Google Glass, it can be identified that
Google Glass is a new product based on the technological and quality specification dimensions.
Google has managed to transform the high tech hand carrying industry to wearable technology.
Meaning, all the features included in an ordinary smartphone are being integrated into a sunglass
giving new customer experience.

2.4 NPD Process Framework


Despite of the strategy required to successfully develop Google Glass, it requires a solid process
framework as well. Therefore, author will be discussing a suitable framework in this section.
Following figures shows a diagrammatic explanation of the proposed NPD process framework.

Figure 13 NPD process

Source: Advameg. Inc. (2014)

20

Table 5 NPD Process Framework

Stage
Idea generation

Description
This is stage is when fresh ideas are being gathered it might be from
internal (employees) or external (suppliers, customers, distributors,
competitors). Further, this stage can be considered as a fuzzy front end
since ideas are not being compiled into a context that gives meaning.
Google encourages their employees to generate ideas on daily basis

Idea screening

Process by which ideas that are best suited for the organizations
sustainability is identified and rejecting the ideas that are not valuable.
The selection is done based on the size of the target market, expected
market growth, profitability etc. Google hold weekly TGIF meetings
where Googlers are allowed to share their ideas with the top management

Concept

This stage is when accepted ideas are being modelled into a working

development and

concept and tested. The concept will be launched into several areas such

testing

as particular set of customers, suppliers, and intellectual communities etc.


to gather feedback on the product. For example, Google Glass is being
given to police forces, universities, developers, competitors etc. to obtain
feedback about the product

Business analysis

Based on the feedback and the history sales forecasting, costing of the
production and the profit statements will be generated in order to analyse
the feasibility of the product

Product

Based on the feedbacks further improvements and additions will be made

development

into the product to generate a working model. Followed by a rigorous


testing phase, such as, reliability testing, usage testing, features testing.
Technical testing, transport testing etc.

21

Test marketing

Selling the product into small market bases to identify the sales
percentage. For example, Google Glass is already being sold to parties
who interested but not to the mass market

Commercialization In this stage, all the plans such as advertising, manufacturing and
distribution will be made in order to cater the products effectively to the
mass market
Source: Authors work (2014) based on King Saud University (2014)

2.5 Conclusion
Author has discussed four different considerations that should be made during NPD, application
of NPD for rapid growth and multi- dimensional concept. When analysing the above information,
the considerations that were stated should be rigorously followed and revisited by Google when
developing Google Glass. Because, it was identified that Google Glass is a new product entering
into a new market, thus it carries a higher risk in the context of ANSOFF matrix. Hence, it is
essential that Google should be fully aware of the market changes and its trends. In addition, based
on the multi- dimensional concept application on Google Glass, it proves that this product can be
classified as a new product in the market with the significant changes in technology and quality
specifications dimensions. Further, Google Glass or any other new product should go through an
effective development process as shown above in order to achieve an effective market base upon
the launch of the product.

22

3 Question 2
In this highly competitive environment, illustrate how Google Glass better manage
innovation within the organization to stay ahead of its competitor in the industry?

3.1 Dilemma of Innovation Management in Organizations


In the rapid growing industry, firms need to follow various mechanisms in order to gain
competitive advantage among its potential competitors. According to the question 1, it was
identified that NPD has become one the most common practice of firms in order to gain the upper
hand among its competitors. However, at the same time majority of the firms fail to maintain the
ratio in between company stability and the rate of creativity and innovation causing a dilemma
within the organization (Trott, 2011). Following figure shows a diagrammatic explanation of the
dilemma caused due to unbalance operation of the aforesaid components.

Figure 14 Tension between creativity and organization efficiency

Source: University of Derby (2014)

For example, a distribution agent requires delivering its goods to retail outlets via multiple
channels to hit the daily target, while the firm requires generating new ideas to innovate the
distribution process in order to stay ahead among the competitors. Hence, if the organization
maintains a higher micro management level in one component compared to the other, organization
is bound to fail in the long run (University of Derby , 2014).
When applying Google to the scenario, it can be identified that the firm has taken every possible
step in order to nurture creativity while achieving constant effectiveness and efficiency. This fact
can be proved with their daily operation rule, which is 70/20/10 (Thompson & Media , 2014).
23

Where each employee is required to allocate 20% of their daily time to generate creative ideas
while 70% of their time in working on the assigned projects. Further, when analysing Googles
evolution timeline (appendix 5.1.2) it shows that company has maintained a constant NPD
percentage since 1995 that has directly reflected on its revenue growth over time. Following figure
proves that Google has managed to increase its profit every year even though the firm carry out
major innovation projects.

Figure 15 Revenue generation

Source: Google (2014)


Hence, it proves that Google has successfully managed to maintain its balance between creativity
and innovation over time.

24

3.2 Managing Uncertainties


According to University of Derby (2014), innovation is a complex procedure that should be
scrutinized and controlled effectively in order to get the optimal results of it, which results in
constant growth. Hence, innovation may arise with external and internal factors that are beyond
the control of the management. One of the significant factor is uncertainty, it is necessary that
management take every possible measure to counter uncertainty (Trott, 2011).
3.2.1 Pearson Uncertainty Map
Based on the uncertainty factor, the Pearsons uncertainty map provides a potential framework to
measure the degree of uncertainty and in the innovation process (University of Derby , 2014). The
framework, which was developed based on the in-depth studies on significant innovative
developments such as 3M Post-It notes, Pilkingtons float glass process and Sonys Walkman
splits uncertainty into two main dimensions (University of Derby , 2014).

Uncertainty abbot the ends (What is end product of a certain project)

Uncertainty about the means (How to achieve the final target)

Following figure shows the Pearsons uncertainly map that defines the uncertainty and how it
varies over time.

Figure 16 Pearson's uncertainty map

Source: University of Derby (2014)

25

3.2.2 Quadrant elaboration


Table 6 Quadrant elaboration

Quadrant

Explanation
This quadrant carries a high level of uncertainty, because the end
output (product) and the process of achieving the final output is not
clear. Google Glass is one of the best examples that fit this quadrant.

Exploratory

In the initiation, companys core focus was to develop wearable

research

technology that could facilitate that features provided by a


smartphone. Therefore, after conducting decades of extensive
research on their working boards, Google was able to find a final
product and the way of producing, which was unclear at initial stages
This quadrant defines when a firm has identified its final output but
not the process of achieving the output. Therefore, the R&D sector
is bound to conduct research based on the production process and
other processes beyond its scope to identify an effective way of
achieving the final output. According to Googles philosophy, the

Development
engineering

firm is a customer- centric, where all their products are built to


ensure user convenience. Hence, Google wanted to develop a
navigation system, which facilitated GPS, traffic identification, map
marking etc. thus, Googles end product was defined. Therefore,
they conducted extensive research to identify how to develop the
product. In support, they first acquired Keyhole to get satellite
mapping, developed Google Maps in 2004 and acquired Waze to
optimize the traffic monitoring (Google , 2014).
This quadrant comes into play when there is uncertainty end product.

Application

Meaning the firm is unclear on how to obtain optimal benefits when

engineering

put into practice. Current status of Google Glass can be applied into
this quadrant. It was identified that Google Glass is being distributed
among many social entities such as police forces, universities,

26

developers, software solution companies etc. in order to gain


feedback

about

the

product

from

different

perspectives.

Accordingly, the privacy factor is playing a major role in hindering


the manoeuvre of Google Glass entering into the market. Therefore,
Google Glass requires further developments in order to counter
negative feedback from the users
The quadrant, which is highly favourable for innovation, where
uncertainty on the end and the process nil or very low. In this stage,

Combining

firms may create the products with using high technology in

market

combination with the proper understanding of market requirements.

opportunities

Therefore, for Google Glass to enter into the market, firm needs to

with technical

carry out further extensive research based on the customer feedback

capabilities

to counter the negative feedbacks such as privacy, battery life etc.


Hence, after improving the product into the optimal state, Google is
ready to launch the product successfully
Source: Authors work (2014) based on University of Derby (2014)

27

3.3 Organizational Characteristics that Foster Innovation


In the above sections, author discussed how dilemma in organizations occur due imbalance in
innovation process and uncertainties that exists and how it varies in innovation. As a measure to
avoid the aforesaid issues, an organization should re-model its proceedings by facilitating the
following characteristics, which cater towards nurturing innovation within an organization.
Table 7 Organizational Characteristics that Foster Innovation

Characteristic
Growth orientation

Description
Any firm whose main objective is to be a leading giant in their
respective industry requires making growth as their common
goal. Growth does not mean that a firm should earn large
amount of profits over the year, it is all about expanding their
company portfolio. Google can be classified as a perfect
growth oriented company, when identifying its major
acquisitions over the year. Google acquired YouTube, Waze,
Motorola, DoubleClick marketing agency, KeyHole etc.

Vigilance

It is the process of maintaining regular scanning about the


external entities surrounding the firm; it may be competitors,
market, technology, consumer, suppliers etc. By capturing
information regarding latest developments of these entities
enables the firm to be dynamic during decision-making. For
example Google highly relies on customer feedback, in
addition it uses several algorithms to track customer behaviour
within their websites

Commitment to technology

A firm should be keen in acquiring latest technology and


should be ready to invest intellectual input from science,
technology, and engineering. This provides a favourable
platform for many scientist join the company due to the rapid
growing environment. According to the Googles timeline, it
can be identified that Google is acquiring new technology on
28

regular basis allowing a solid platform for creativity. In


addition, Google Glass can be considered as a good example
Acceptance of risk

The firm should have the willingness to accept risks, meaning


they should be able to conduct risk assessment, grasp the
calculated risk, and allocate in projects in a balanced manner.
For example, Google Glass is considered as high in risk
according to the ANSOFFs matrix

Cross- functional operation

Many researches show that silo operation and lack of interdepartmental communication acts as a major barrier for
innovation. Hence, it is necessary that each departmental unit
should be closely linked in order to generate ideas effectively.
For example one of the sale representatives forwarded the 3M
scotch tape ideology. Thus, relationship between R&D and
other units should be effective. DeCenzo , et al. (2013) claims
that Google follows a cross- functional organization structure
where employees in each functional level are encouraged to
conduct idea generation for product development and decision
making

Receptivity

It is the capacity of an organization to be well aware of the


latest technology developments and obtain optimal advantage
out of it. Majority of the technological platforms may be
expensive or unable to be built in-house, thus resulting in many
acquisitions or alliances. For example Google made an alliance
with Sun Microsystems (Java platform) to share the technology
and Google acquired KeyHole to support the technology that
they use for Google Earth at present

Slack

It is not all about efficiency within the firm, an employee


requires a certain time frame to generate ideas of their personal
interest as well. For example Google follows the 70/20/10 rule
29

where each employee is given the freedom to use 20% of their


daily time to generate ideas related to the project they are
assigned and 10% to generate idea of their personal interest
Adaptability

It is identified that innovation and efficiency balancing of the


firm causes a dilemma. However, certain innovations might
make changes in a better way, therefore, firms should be able
to change their usual way of doing business efficiently

Diverse range of skills

A firm require combined form of knowledge sources ranging


from science, marketing, advertising, marketing etc. in order to
nourish innovation within the firm. In addition, individuals
should be hybrid, meaning being able to understand both
technical and non-technical environments. For example
Google hires smart employees from various cultural and
knowledge backgrounds (Google , 2014)
Source: Authors work (2014) based on University of Derby (2014)

30

3.4 Propagation of virtuous circle


The virtuous circle of innovation is considered as a loop, to achieve and maintain it a firm should
foster continuous innovation (University of Derby , 2014). Following shows the virtuous circle.

Table 8 Virtuous circle explanation

Attribute

Description

Organizations reputation

Reputation of a company generated based on the rate of

for innovation

innovation requires large amount of cash flow and time. In


addition, it is necessary that firm conducts frequent product
successful product launches, high investments in trending
technology, strong R&D sector etc. Further, the reputation has a
direct correlation with the firms performance as well. In this
context, Google has the upper hand among its potential
competitors such as Yahoo, AOL, and Microsoft etc. Googles
constant innovative product release, welcoming trending
technology such as wearable technology (Google Glass) has
31

supported extensively in building a stronghold reputation based


on innovation
Attraction of creative

Individuals

from

different

technical

and

non-technical

people

background are attracted to companies that are highly creative


and innovative. Therefore, Google is a firm that highly believes
in innovation, which is being proved with their corporate culture
as discussed in the above sections. Further, Google is names as
the number 1 company to work for in 2014 by the Fortune
magazine. Hence, many graduates and undergraduates are
competing to get into Google, the competition to be employed by
Google has direct relationship with the benefits (appendix 5.1.1)
provided as well apart from the big pay checks

Organizational

A company whose willing to nurture innovation must facilitate

encouragement

sufficient resources and time for the employees to generate


effective ideas, in addition, firm should be able to grasp any
mistakes or errors during idea generations. Googles casual
environment and its daily operation rule of 70/20/10, proves the
companys effective environment for innovation. Further, this
has helped Google to attain sustainability and competitive edge

Development of innovative The development of new products does not require an integration
product

with latest technology. It is about how well the technology used


for the product is managed and the success rate in the market
place. Google Glass is an improvement of existing technology,
meaning firm integrated the technology that exists within the
smartphones into an ordinary sunglass. However, for Google
Glass to jump this barrier it need to achieve success in the market

32

Willingness within the

It is important that all the employees be in a perfect stance to

organization to accept new accept any suitable changes or new ideas and carry it out through
ideas

certain process to achieve an end product. According to Googles


philosophy, they promote constant innovation within their
employees at all times. This factor is clearly proven from how
their search engine has evolved from its initial stage

Motivates people within

The appreciation and valuing of the ideas coming from

the organization and

employees is necessary in order to motivate them to generate

reduces frustration

more ideas in the future. Google highly works on this factor; the
best example is their TGIF meetings, where each employees is
given the chance to connect with Larry, Sergy or any other
executive to share their ideas. In addition, Google operates as
small business units, which allows employees at every functional
level to share their ideas and contribute for companys success

High morale and retention Upon the completion of each entity as discussed above, it will
of creative people

cater towards increase morale and high interest within employees


to generate more innovative ideas. Hence, resulting in an
reinforcement in firms innovative capacity
Source: Authors work (2014) based on University of Derby (2014)

According to the above table, it can be identified that Google has successfully surpassed each
entity in the circle, allowing the firm to operate within the loop. This loop certainly has given
competitive edge for Google, in result, any additional profit generated from this circle can be reinvested to reinforce the loop and maintain the momentum.

33

3.5 Conclusion
Author has discussed several aspects that Google should concentrate when managing innovation
during the development of Google Glass and to stay ahead of its possible competitors.
Accordingly, the potential competitors of Google Glass are Sony, Oakley, Baidu, Apple, and
Oculan. Among them Sony is developing something similar to Google Glass while Oculan, which
is a Taiwanese company is producing the same product at a lower price. Therefore, it is necessary
that Google use the innovative frontier, which they nurture already in order to counter the possible
competitors. It was identified that majority of the discussed characteristics that foster innovation
in organizations are present within Google, therefore, the company should take required steps to
strengthen it and maintain. In addition, Google has taken satisfactory measures to address the
dilemma of innovation within organizations. In addition, Google should maintain its momentum
in order to strengthen is virtuous circle, which allows them to gain a completive advantage. The
only fall back of Google Glass is that it is still in the application-engineering quadrant according
to the Pearsons uncertainty map. Therefore, Google should carry out extensive research and use
their technology combined with the market research to move on to the 4th quadrant allowing the
product to be launched to the market successfully and achieve fight against the possible
competition.

34

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38

5 Appendix
5.1 About Google
5.1.1 Google Benefits
Table 9 Google Benefits

Benefit
Free food

Description
Googles rule is that food sources should be within 100 feet from staff
members, therefore, Googleplexs 11 gourmet restaurants provide
variety of food to its employees. This includes other offices as well

Onsite childcare

The Mountain View campus provides onsite childcare and back up

facility

child care for Californian parents when their routine child care falls
behind

Healthcare services

Google ensure 100% medical care for the Googlers and their family
member. In addition, on site physicians and dentists are available at
Mountain View and Seattle campuses

Transportation

Firms offers free transport to areas within California in Wi-Fi enabled

services

busses

Laundry services

Mountain View campus allows free laundry for all the employees

Sport facilities

Mountain View campus is equipped with high technology swimming


pools, gym, climbing walls, tennis courts, basketball courts etc.

Pets allowed

The firms allows to bring in their well-trained pets

20% creative time

Provision of 20% of their daily work load for generation of new

program

personal ideas

Environmentalism

Google believes in sustainable energy, hence, it provides subsidies for


employees who purchase hybrid cars and install solar panels in their
houses

39

Numerous holidays

Employees get 25 leave days and 12 holidays a year. While mothers

and leave days

get 18 weeks paid maternity leave and father 7 weeks of paternity


leave

Other services

Facilitates hair dressing, oil changing, car service etc.


Source: Kuntze & Matulich (2009)

40

5.1.2 Google Timeline


Table 10 Google Timeline

Year
1995

Significance
Larry and Sergy in Stanford build a search engine called Back Rub on Stanford
servers that ended up exceeding the existing bandwidth

1997

Registering Google.com as a domain in 1997 September 5th

1997

Press reports and reviews on Google search engine was positive

January
1997 April Launching of the Google Friends Newsletter, which included company
information
1997

Sun co-founder Bechtolsheim invests USD 100,000 on Google Inc.

August

Development of first doodle, before heading to Burning Man Festival in


Nevada Dessert Larry and Sergy changed the logo into an iconic man to
inform where Google crew is going to be

1997

September

1997

Setting up the first workspace in Susan Wojcickis Garage in California


Hiring their first employee Craig Silverstein is a fellow Stanford graduate

Depositing the Bechtolsheim check on a officially opened bank account

Google was listed as the search engine of choice in the top 100 websites

December
1998

Moving to a new location in Palo Alto, California with eight new employees

February
1998 April Yoshka, the first company dog
1998 May

Omid Kordestani joins Google to handle its sales

1998 June

Releasing of the first press with a $25 million round from Sequoia Capital and
Kleiner Perkins; John Doerr and Michael Moritz join the board.

41

1998

Moving to Mountain View, California and Sunnyvale, Santa Clare

August
1998

Hiring of the first chef, Charlie Ayers

November
1999 April Launching of the first April Fools Joke, MentalPlex
1999 May

Winning the first Webby Award

Initiating the first doodle series

Releasing Google.com with 10 different languages

1999 July

First international doodle celebrating Bastille Day in France

1999

September

Starting Google New York in a Starbucks


Google.com started offering 15 different languages

1999

Google AdWords being launched with 350 customers

October

First doodle by a guest artist, goes live

1999

Implementing the Google toolbar

December
2000

Acquisition of Deja.comes Usenet discussion service

February
2000

Eric Schmidt being appointed as the Chairman of board of directors

March
2000 April Swedish chef becoming a language search preference in search
2000 July

Introduction of image search with access to 250 million images

2000

Opening of the first international office in Tokyo, Japan

August

Eric Schmidt appointed as the CEO

42

2000

Launch of fist Goole Zeitgeist

December
2001

February

Releasing of the first Google products to enterprise that allows to search their
own documents when plugged into the network system

Introduction of Cost-per-click

2001 April Releasing a set of APIs, allowing developers to query more than 2 billion web
documents and program in their favourite environment
2001 May

Launch of Google Labs, which allowed many beta technologies to be tested

2001 May

Launching of Google News with 400 news sources

2001

Opening the office in Sydney

October
2001

Search for products to purchase with Froogle

December
2002

Acquisition of Pyra Labs, the creator of Blogger.com

February
2002

Launching of the content targeted advertising, AdSense

March
2002 April Google Grants, the non-profit version of AdWords
2002

Launching the Code Jam competition

October
2002

Launching of Google print, which is now known as Google Books

December
2003

Launching of Orkut, the social networking website

January

43

2003

Moving to new HQ, GooglePlex

March

Introduction Google Local, listing businesses in the neighbourhood

2003 April

Introducing Gmail
Introducing Google Blog

2003 July

Acquisition of Picasa

2003

Going public, with 19,605,052 shares of Class A common stock on Wall Street.

August

With USD 85 per share

2003

First office in Hong Kong

September
2003

Acquiring Keyhole, which is a digital mapping company

October

Opening the offices in Bangalore and Hyderabad

Opening European HQ in Dublin

Launching Google SMS

2003

Launch of the Google Scholar as a beta version

November
2003

Launch of the Google.org

December
2004

Google Maps was launched

February
2004 April

Implementing Maps on the mobile platform

Maps in the European union

First video on YouTube

2004 May

Personalized web pages

2004 June

Google search on mobile platform

Launch of Google Earth


44


2004

Release of Google Maps API

Launch of Google Talk

August
2004

Launch of Google talk events by the Googlers

October
2004

Launch of Google Analytics

November

Opening the office in Latin America

First Doodle 4 Google contests

2004

Google transits launches in Portland

December

Gmail on mobile platform

2005

Launch of Google Finances

March
2005 April

2005 May

2005 June

2005

Launch of Google Calendar

Launch of Google Translator

Launch of Google Trends

Launch of Gmail in 40 different languages

Google Checkout enabling to conduct payments online effectively

Launch of Picasa Albums

Oxford English Dictionary adds the word Google

Releasing of the App Suite

August
2005

Launch of apps for education

October

Launch of web based documents and spreadsheets

Acquisition of YouTube

45

2006

Google becomes #1 in the Fortunes list in best companies to work for

January
2006

Celebrating first valentine with a doodle

February

Majority of the presidential candidates in 2006 visits Google

Adding the traffic component to Google Maps

2006

Launch of GBikes, allowing the employees to get around the campus effectively

March

and in a healthy manner

2006 April Launch of GOOG-411, allowing people to dial the number and obtain local
information
2006 May

2006 June

2006

Launch of Street View Maps in the USA

Extending the scope of YouTube by partnering with popular figures

Enabling Universal Search

Enabling Safe Browsing

Installation of solar panels in the main campus

Launching of the electric vehicles

AdSense on mobile platform

September
2006

Launching an app to make presentations

Launch of Android an open source platform for mobiles

November
2007

BOLD, the first internship program launches in Google

January
2007

Acquisition of DoubleClick, a marketing agency

March
2007 May

Launch of the firs Google I/O, the developers conference

46

Launch of the first Google Global Service Week

Enables Map Maker in Google Maps

Launch of Street View in France

IPhone gets the Google Search

2007

Launch of a website dedicated to US elections

August

Launch of the auto suggest in search

Street View in Japan and Australia

Launch of the first phone built on Android

2007 June

2007 July

2007

September

Enabling Google Chrome for download

2007

The Google Maps on IPhone was able to conduct voice search

November

Release of Google Flu Trends

2008

First message on Twitter

February

Voice search on Android

2008

Launch of the Google Voice

March

Launch of Google Ventures

Launch of interest based advertising as a beta version

Removing the beta version tag from Google Apps

Google Chrome on OS

2008 July

2008

Launch of a real-time market place via DoubleClick Exchange

September
2008

Google Maps with navigation function and 3D view

October
2008

Launch of Google Chrome on Mac and Linux

December

47

2009

Launch of Nexus One

January

Launch of Google Crisis Response, as person finder after the Haiti


Earthquake

2009

Experimental fibre network

February
2009

Bike directions and bike trails on Google Maps

March
2009 April Launch of the transparency report
2009 May

Investing in more renewable energy

Launch of Google TV

Acquisition of AdMob, a mobile display advertising agency

2009 July

Green power within data centres

2009

Enabling priority inbox to handle the mails

August
2009

September
2009

Google Instant, enabling to search information within seconds


Street View expands to another seven continents

Launch of self-driving cars

October
2009

YouTube TrueView ads, allowing user to skips the ad after 5 seconds if not

December

interested

2010

Google Art Project

February

Two step verification for Google Apps

2010 April Larry Page appointed as the CEO


2010 May

Introducing Google Wallet

48

2010 June

Launch of Google offers

Launch of first Chromebooks partnering with Samsung and Acer

Voice search on desktop search

Google+ project

Re-design for all the Google products

2010 July

AdWords allowing to begin advertising in less than 5 minutes

2010

Allowing offline access to Google Apps (Gmail, Docs) who are using Chrome

August
2010

Acquisition of Zagat to find places effectively

September
2010

Android 4.0, Ice Cream Sandwich becomes available on both tabs and phones

October
2010

Google Maps in indoors

November
2010

10 billion app downloads in the Android marketplace

December

New office in Paris

2011

Chrome launches on Android

February
2011

Android marketplace re-launched as Google Play

March
2011 April

2011 May

Project Google Glass unveiled

Launch of Google Drive

Hangouts on Air launches

Launch of Knowledge Graph in search allows to search anything easily

Acquisition of Motorola
49

2011 June

Expanding the Transparency Reports

Transformation of Google Products to Google Shopping

Unveil of new DoubleClick digital advertising market

Introducing Google Now

Release of the first Nexus 7

2011 July

Enabling live video watching on YouTube

2011

Selling Samsung Chromebooks for USD 429

October

Google Crisis Response launches Public Alerts

2011

Begin installation of Google Fibre in Kansas City

November
2011

Google Maps for IPhones

December

Launch of Google Impact Awards

Launch of YouTube Space

2012

Investing more than USD 1 billion in clean energy

January
2012

Enhanced campaigns

February

Launch of new laptop, Chromebook Pixel

2012 April Google on IOS


2012 May

2012 June

2012 July

Google Play, monthly music subscription

Gmail gets a new Inbox

Launch of Google(x) project, balloon powered internet

Acquisition of Waze

Updates on Google Maps

Launch of Chromecast

50

2012

Launching free Wi-Fi at Starbucks partnering with Google

Android passes 1 billion device activations

September

Launch of the new company focusing on health, Calico

2012

Launching KitKat for Android

October

Update to Google+ photos

2012

Street View in Venice

November
2012

Computer Engine, allowing developers to build applications on Google

December

Infrastructure on launch it

2013

Launching company Nest, reinventing the home products

January

Launch of Smart Contact Lenses

2013

Street View in Canadian Tundra

February

Chromebox for meetings

2013 April Launch of Time Travel in Google Maps


2013 May

Sharing the diversification within the workforce in public

2013 June

Android on more screens

2013 July

Football world cup trends


Source: Google (2014)

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