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kim (jk36442) Practice Midterm 02 yao (58995)

This print-out should have 17 questions.


Multiple-choice questions may continue on
the next column or page find all choices
before answering.
001 10.0 points
A uniform 9 kg rod with length 38 m has
a frictionless pivot at one end. The rod is
released from rest at an angle of 20 beneath
the horizontal.

002 10.0 points


Consider the elastic head-on collision between
a sledge hammer with 2000 g mass and a golf
ball with a 6 g mass.
The initial velocity of the sledge hammer is
14 m/s , and the golf ball is initially at rest.

14 m/s
2000 g

19 m

9 kg

20

38 m

6g

Estimate the approximate final speed v2 of


the golf ball.
1. v2 14 m/s
2. v2 43.9823 m/s

What is the angular acceleration of the rod


immediately after it is released? The moment
of inertia of a rod about the center of mass
1
is
m L2 , where m is the mass of the rod
12
and L is the length of the rod. The moment
1
of inertia of a rod about either end is m L2 ,
3
and the acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 .

6. v2 140 m/s

Correct answer: 0.363513 rad/s2 .

7. v2 112 m/s

Explanation:

8. v2 140 m/s

Let : m = 9 kg ,
L = 38 m , and
= 20 .
The rods moment of inertia about its end1
point is I = m L2 , so the angular accelera3
tion of the rod is
1
m g L cos

3 g
= = 2
cos
=
1
I
2 L
2
mL
3
3 9.8 m/s2
=
cos 20
2 38 m

9. v2 56 m/s

= 0.363513 rad/s2 .

3. v2 7 m/s
4. v2 4.45634 m/s
5. v2 28 m/s correct

10. v2 70 m/s

Explanation:

v1
v2
m1
m2

= 14 m/s ,
= 0 m/s ,
= 2000 g , and
= 6 g.

kim (jk36442) Practice Midterm 02 yao (58995)


m2
1. Therefore,
m1
we will approximate its square as zero. First,
we conserve momentum:
m2
m1 v0 = m1 v1 + m2 v2 v1 = v0
v2
m1
Clearly the expression

Now, we place this formula into our equation for conservation of energy, not bothering to calculate any terms proportional to

2
m2
.
m1
1
1
1
m1 v02 = m1 v12 + m2 v22
2
2
2
 2


m2
2
v2 + m2 v22
m1 v0 = m1 v0
m1
m1 v02 m1 v02 2 m2 v0 v2 + m2 v22
0 2 m2 v0 v2 + m2 v22
0 m2 v2 (2 v0 + v2 )

Consider a round body rolling down an inclined plane.

x
mg
N
f
The forward motion of the body is governed
by Newtons Second Law
m ax = Fxnet = m g sin f

1. The cylindrical shell.


2. The solid sphere. correct
3. All four take the same time.
4. The spherical shell.
5. Depends on the steepness of the incline.
6. The solid cylinder.
Explanation:

(1)

while the rotation around the bodys center is


governed by the torque equation
net
Icm = CM
ax
=fR
Icm
R
ax
Icm 2 = f
R

The v2 = 0 root just corresponds to no


collision having taken place. Therefore, our
best estimate is v2 2 v0 = 28 m/s .
003 10.0 points
Consider four round bodies of the same mass
7.5 kg and the same radius 0.48 m but of different geometries a solid sphere, a spherical
shell, a solid cylinder, and a cylindrical shell.
All four bodies start with zero initial velocity at the same distance from the bottom of
the incline and roll without slipping down the
same inclined plane.
Which body reaches the bottom first?

(2)

Adding eqs. (1) and (2), we obtain


ICM
ax = mg sin
R2
m ax R2 + ICM ax = m g R2 sin
m g R2 sin
ax =
m R2 + ICM
m ax +

(3)

All four bodies have same masses, same


radii, and they roll down the same incline
from the same height, but they have different
moments of inertia, so by to eq. (3) the body
with the smallest moment of inertia has the
highest downhill acceleration. Specifically, for
the spheres
Isolid =

2
M R2
5

and

Ihollow =

2
M R2 ,
3

and for the cylinders


1
Isolid = M R2
2

and

Ihollow = M R2 .

kim (jk36442) Practice Midterm 02 yao (58995)


The solid sphere has smallest ICM of the
four bodies, so it rolls faster and is the first to
get to the bottom of the incline.
004 10.0 points
A student weighing 700 N climbs at constant
speed to the top of an 8 m vertical rope in 10
s.
The average power expended by the student
to overcome gravity is most nearly

006 10.0 points


A string is wound around a uniform disk of
radius R and mass M . The disk is released
from rest with the string vertical and its tip
end tied to a fixed support as in figure.

1. P = 560 W. correct
M
2. P = 5, 600 W.

Define v as the velocity of the center of


mass of the disk at height h.
The correct work-energy equation is given
by

3. P = 1.1 W.
4. P = 875 W.
5. P = 87.5 W.
Explanation:

P =

W
Fd
(700 N)(8 m)
=
=
= 560 W .
t
t
10 s

005 10.0 points


A(n) 2672 kg van runs into the back of a(n)
862 kg compact car at rest. They move off
together at 5.3 m/s. Assuming no friction
with the ground, find the initial speed of the
van.
Correct answer: 7.00981 m/s.
Explanation:
Basic concepts
Momentum of any object is
p = mv
The collision is inelastic, and by conservation
of momentum,
pbef ore = paf ter
mv vv + 0 = (mv + mc )vf
vv =

(mv + mc )vf
mv

3
1. M g R = M v 2 .
4
5
2. M g h = M v 2 .
4
1
3. M g R = M v 2 .
2
5
4. M g R = M v 2 .
4
3
5. M g h = M v 2 . correct
4
6. M g R = M v 2 .
1
7. M g h = M v 2 .
2
1
8. M g h = M v 2 .
4
9. M g h = M v 2 .
1
10. M g R = M v 2 .
4
Explanation:
By energy conservation we know that the
initial energy equals the final energy. In this
case energy conservation implies
M g h = Kcm + Krot .
1
I 2
We also know that Krot is equal to
2
1
where I = M R2 for our uniform disk, and
2

kim (jk36442) Practice Midterm 02 yao (58995)


we know =
Krot =

v
. This implies that
R

1 1
1
v2
1
I 2 =
M R2 2 = M v 2 .
2
2 2
R
4

the figure below. The child starts from rest at


the top.
The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 .
n

Thus
M g h = Kcm + Krot
1
1
= M v2 + M v2
2
4
3
= M v2 .
4
007 10.0 points
A spring-loaded toy dart gun is used to shoot
a dart straight up in the air, and the dart
reaches a maximum height of 24 m. The same
dart is shot up a second time from the same
gun, but this time the spring is compressed
only half as far before firing.
How far up does the dart go this time, neglecting friction and assuming an ideal spring?
1. 48 m

h
w = mg

If a frictional force acts on the child, what


is the magnitude of the mechanical energy
dissipated by this force, if the speed of the
child at the bottom is 10 m/s?
Correct answer: 775.786 J.
Explanation:
In this case Kext is not equal to zero and
mechanical energy is not constant. We can
use the equation
K + U = Kext ,

2. 24 m
3. Impossible to determine.
4. 12 m
5. 3 m
6. 6 m correct
7. 96 m
Explanation:
The potential energy of a spring is proportional to the square of the distance over which
the spring is compressed.
All of the springs potential energy is converted to gravitational potential energy, so
the dart
 goesup one-fourth of the original
24 m
height
= 6 m.
4
008 10.0 points
A child of mass 24.6 kg takes a ride on an
irregularly curved slide of height 8.32 m, as in

to find the loss of kinetic energy due to friction, assuming the final speed at the bottom
is known
Kext = Ef Ei
1
= m vf2 m g h
2
1
= (24.6 kg) (10 m/s)2
2
(24.6 kg) (9.8 m/s2 ) (8.32 m)
= 775.786 J
|Kext| = 775.786 J .

009 10.0 points


Two blocks of respective masses m1 = 0.29 kg
and m2 = 7.7 kg stand without motion on
a frictionless horizontal table. A spring is
compressed between the two blocks, but the
blocks remain motionless because they are

kim (jk36442) Practice Midterm 02 yao (58995)


tied to each other by a cord.

m1

on this system, so the horizontal momentum


is conserved:
Pnet = 0
= m2 v2 m1 v1 ,

m2
=0

[before]
[after]

hence

before

m2
v2 = 87.6207 m/s
m1

v1 =

The masses of the spring and the cord are negligible compared to the masses of the blocks.
Once the system is set up, the cord is
burned by a match and the blocks are pushed
apart by the spring.
v1

v2

m1

m2
=0

and therefore
Uspring =

m1 v12
m2 v22
+
= 1155.15 J.
2
2

010 10.0 points


A tire placed on a balancing machine in a service station starts from rest and turns through
4.14 rev in 1.29 s before reaching its final angular speed.
Find its angular acceleration.
Correct answer: 31.263 rad/s2 .

after

Explanation:
Once the spring is completely relaxed, it detaches from the m1 block, and the blocks
continue to move away from each other at
respective speeds v1 and v2 .
Given m1 = 0.29 kg, m2 = 7.7 kg, v2 =
3.3 m/s, but v1 is not given.
How much energy was stored in the compressed spring before the cord was burned?
Correct answer: 1155.15 J.
Explanation:
By energy conservation,
Emech = const
= Uspring
= K1 + K2
m1 v12
m2 v22
=
+
,
2
2

Let : 0 = 0 rev/s ,
= 4.14 rev ,
t = 1.29 s .

and

There is a constant angular acceleration, so


1
1
t2 = t2
2
2
2 (4.14 rev) 2 rad
2

= 2 =
t
(1.29 s)2
rev
= 0 t +

= 31.263 rad/s2 .
[before]
[after]

but to make use of this formula we need to


know the speeds of both blocks after the cord
is burned.
Fortunately, the velocities of the two
blocks are related by momentum conservation: There are no external horizontal forces

011 10.0 points


A large wheel is coupled to a wheel with half
the diameter as shown.

2r

kim (jk36442) Practice Midterm 02 yao (58995)


How does the rotational speed of the
smaller wheel compare with that of the larger
wheel? How do the tangential speeds at
the rims compare (assuming the belt doesnt
slip)?
1. The smaller wheel has half the rotational
speed and half the tangential speed as the
larger wheel.
2. The smaller wheel has four times the rotational speed and the same tangential speed
as the larger wheel.
3. The smaller wheel has twice the rotational
speed and twice the tangential speed as the
larger wheel.
4. The smaller wheel has twice the rotational
speed and the same tangential speed as the
larger wheel. correct
Explanation:
v = r
The tangential speeds are equal, since the
rims are in contact with the belt and have the
same linear speed as the belt.
The smaller wheel (with half the radius)
rotates twice as fast:



1
r (2 ) = r = v
2

012 10.0 points


A playground merry-go-round of radius 1.6 m
has a moment of inertia 113 kg.m2 and is
rotating at 10 rev/min about a frictionless
vertical axle. Facing the axle, a 25 kg child
hops onto the merry-go-round, and manages
to sit down on the edge.
What is the new angular speed of the
merry-go-round?
Correct answer: 6.38418 rev/min.
Explanation:

Given : R = 1.6 m ,
m = 25 kg ,
I1 = 113 kg.m2 ,
= 10 rev/min .
The net angular momentum of the system remains constant, therefore, from conservation
of the angular momentum we have:
I1 1 = (I1 + m R2 ) 2
And
1 I 1
2 =
I1 + m R 2
(10 rev/min)(113 kg.m2 )
=
(113 kg.m2 ) + (25 kg)(1.6 m)2
= 6.38418 rev/min
013 10.0 points
In another solar system is planet Driff, which
has 5 times the mass of the earth and also 5
times the radius.
How does the gravitational acceleration on
the surface of Driff compare to the gravitational acceleration on the surface of the earth?
1. Its 5 times as much.
2. Its 25 times as great.
3. There is no gravity on Driff because 5
times 4000 miles (the radius of the earth), is
20000 miles, far beyond the pull of gravity.
1
4. Its th as much. correct
5
1
5. Its th as much.
25
6. Its the same, 10 m/s2 .
Explanation:
Let : MD = 5 Me and
RD = 5 Re .
Gravitational force is
Mm
F = mg = G 2
r
M
GM
g = 2 2 , so
r
r

kim (jk36442) Practice Midterm 02 yao (58995)

mD
r2
MD re2
gD
(5 me ) re2
1
=
= D =
=
2
2
me
ge
me (5 re )
5
me rD
2
re
1
gD = ge .
5

015 10.0 points


An object is thrown upward at v0 from the
surface of a small spherical planetoid of mass
M and radius R.
v

R
014 10.0 points
A bead slides without friction around a loopthe-loop. The bead is released from a height
of 17.6 m from the bottom of the loop-theloop which has a radius 5 m.
The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 .
A
5m
17.6 m

What is its speed at point A ?


Correct answer: 12.2049 m/s.
Explanation:
Let : R = 5 m and
h = 17.6 m .
From conservation of energy, we have
K i + Ui = K f + Uf
m v2
0 + mgh =
+ m g (2 R)
2
v 2 = 2 g (h 2 R) .
Therefore
p
v = 2 g (h 2 R)
r
h
i
= 2 (9.8 m/s2 ) 17.6 m 2 (5 m)
= 12.2049 m/s .

v0

When the object is a distance R above the


surface, how fast is it moving in simple terms
GM m
.
of v0 , R and M ? Ug (r) =
r
r
2GM
1. v = v02
R
2. None of these
r
GM
3. v = v02 +
R
r
GM
4. v = v02
correct
R
r
2GM
5. v = v02 +
3R
r
GM
6. v = v02
R2
Explanation:
Since gravity is the only force acting upon
the object, the total energy
GM m
1
E = K + Ug = m v 2
2
r
is conserved.
E1 = E2
1
G
M
m
1
GM m
m v02
= m v2
2
R
2
2R
GM
1 2 1 2 GM
v = v0
+
2
2
R
2R
G
M
v 2 = v02
R
r
GM
v = v02
.
R

kim (jk36442) Practice Midterm 02 yao (58995)


016 10.0 points
Which of the two object shown below has the
greatest kinetic energy?
A

3. decrease because of conservation of momentum. correct


4. increase because of conservation of mechanic energy.

B
v

1
m
2

5. remain the same because the raindrops


are falling perpendicular to the direction of
carts motion.

2v

Explanation:
This is an inelastic collision in the direction
along which the cart is rolling. Only momentum ~p along that direction is conserved.
Because the raindrops fall vertically, they do
not carry momentum horizontally. Assume
m of rain water accumulates on the cart:

1. Kinetic energies are the same.


2. A
3. Unable to determine.
4. B correct

pi = pf
m v = (m + m) v .

Explanation:

1
For mass A, KA = m v 2 .
2
For mass B,


1 1
m (2 v)2 = m v 2 .
KB =
2 2

Therefore
m
v
m + m
v < v .

v =

So B has more kinetic energy.


017 10.0 points
An open cart on a level surface rolls without
frictional loss through a vertical downpour of
rain, as shown below.
As the cart rolls, an appreciable amount of
rain water accumulates in the cart.
rain

rain water

cart
The speed of the cart will
1. increase because of conservation of momentum.
2. decrease because of conservation of mechanic energy.

The speed of the cart will decrease because


of conservation of momentum.