Anda di halaman 1dari 41

1

Materials
Data
Book
2003 Edition

Cambridge University Engineering Department

PHYSICAL CONSTANTS IN SI UNITS


Absolute zero of temperature
Acceleration due to gravity, g
Avogadros number, N A
Base of natural logarithms, e
Boltzmanns constant, k
Faradays constant, F
Universal Gas constant, R
Permeability of vacuum, o
Permittivity of vacuum, o
Plancks constant, h
Velocity of light in vacuum, c
Volume of perfect gas at STP

273.15 C
9. 807 m/s2
6.022x1026 /kmol
2.718
1.381 x 1026 kJ/K
9.648 x 107 C/kmol
8.3143 kJ/kmol K
1.257 x 106 H/m
8.854 x 1012 F/m
6.626 x 1037 kJ/s
2.998 x 108 m/s
22.41 m3/kmol

CONVERSION OF UNITS
Angle,
Energy, U
Force, F
Length, l
Mass, M
Power, P
Stress,
Specific Heat, Cp
Stress Intensity, K
Temperature, T
Thermal Conductivity,
Volume, V
Viscosity,

1 rad
See inside back cover
1 kgf
1 lbf
1 ft
1 inch
1
1 tonne
1 lb
See inside back cover
See inside back cover
1 cal/g.C
1 ksi in
1 F
1 cal/s.cm.oC
1 Imperial gall
1 US gall
1 poise
1 lb ft.s

57.30
9.807 N
4.448 N
304.8 mm
25.40 mm
0.1 nm
1000 kg
0.454 kg

4.188 kJ/kg.K
1.10 MPa m
0.556 K
4.18 W/m.K
4.546 x 103 m3
3.785 x 103 m3
0.1 N.s/m2
0.1517 N.s/m2

CONTENTS
Page Number
Introduction
Sources

3
3
I. FORMULAE AND DEFINITIONS

Stress and strain


Elastic moduli
Stiffness and strength of unidirectional composites
Dislocations and plastic flow
Fast fracture
Statistics of fracture
Fatigue
7
Creep
Diffusion
Heat flow

4
4
5
5
6
6
7
8
8

II. PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS


Melting temperature
Density
Youngs modulus
Yield stress and tensile strength
Fracture toughness
Environmental resistance
Uniaxial tensile response of selected metals and polymers

9
10
11
12
13
14
15

III. MATERIAL PROPERTY CHARTS


Youngs modulus versus density
Strength versus density
Youngs modulus versus strength
Fracture toughness versus strength
Maximum service temperature
Material price (per kg)

16
17
18
19
20
21

IV. PROCESS ATTRIBUTE CHARTS


Material-process compatibility matrix (shaping)
Mass
Section thickness
Surface roughness
Dimensional tolerance
Economic batch size

22
23
23
24
24
25

2
V. CLASSIFICATION AND APPLICATIONS OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS
Metals: ferrous alloys, non-ferrous alloys
Polymers and foams
Composites, ceramics, glasses and natural materials

26
27
28

VI. EQUILIBRIUM (PHASE) DIAGRAMS


Copper Nickel
Lead Tin
Iron Carbon
Aluminium Copper
Aluminium Silicon
Copper Zinc
Copper Tin
Titanium-Aluminium
Silica Alumina

29
29
30
30
31
31
32
32
33

VII. HEAT TREATMENT OF STEELS


TTT diagrams and Jominy end-quench hardenability curves for steels

34

VIII. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SELECTED ELEMENTS


Atomic properties of selected elements
Oxidation properties of selected elements

36
37

INTRODUCTION
The data and information in this booklet have been collected for use in the Materials Courses in
Part I of the Engineering Tripos (as well as in Part II, and the Manufacturing Engineering
Tripos). Numerical data are presented in tabulated and graphical form, and a summary of useful
formulae is included. A list of sources from which the data have been prepared is given below.
Tabulated material and process data or information are from the Cambridge Engineering Selector
(CES) software (Educational database Level 2), copyright of Granta Design Ltd, and are
reproduced by permission; the same data source was used for the material property and process
attribute charts.
It must be realised that many material properties (such as toughness) vary between wide limits
depending on composition and previous treatment. Any final design should be based on
manufacturers or suppliers data for the material in question, and not on the data given here.

SOURCES
Cambridge Engineering Selector software (CES 4.1), 2003, Granta Design Limited, Rustat
House, 62 Clifton Rd, Cambridge, CB1 7EG
M F Ashby, Materials Selection in Mechanical Design, 1999, Butterworth Heinemann
M F Ashby and D R H Jones, Engineering Materials, Vol. 1, 1996, Butterworth Heinemann
M F Ashby and D R H Jones, Engineering Materials, Vol. 2, 1998, Butterworth Heinemann
M Hansen, Constitution of Binary Alloys, 1958, McGraw Hill
I J Polmear, Light Alloys, 1995, Elsevier
C J Smithells, Metals Reference Book, 6th Ed., 1984, Butterworths
Transformation Characteristics of Nickel Steels, 1952, International Nickel

I. FORMULAE AND DEFINITIONS


STRESS AND STRAIN

t =

F
A

n =

F
Ao

l
lo

t = ln

n =

llo
lo

t = true stress
n = nominal stress
t = true strain
n = nominal strain

F = normal component of force


Ao = initial area
A = current area
l o = initial length
l = current length
Poissons ratio,

lateral strain
longitudinal strain

Youngs modulus E = initial slope of t t curve = initial slope of n n curve.


Yield stress y is the nominal stress at the limit of elasticity in a tensile test.
Tensile strength ts is the nominal stress at maximum load in a tensile test.
Tensile ductility f is the nominal plastic strain at failure in a tensile test. The gauge length of
the specimen should also be quoted.
ELASTIC MODULI
G=

E
2 (1 + )

K=

E
3 (1 2 )

For polycrystalline solids, as a rough guide,


Poissons Ratio

1
3

Shear Modulus

3
E
8

Bulk Modulus

K E

These approximations break down for rubber and porous solids.

5
STIFFNESS AND STRENGTH OF UNIDIRECTIONAL COMPOSITES
E II = V f E f + ( 1 V f ) E m

V f 1V f
E =
+
Ef
Em

ts = V f ff + ( 1 V f ) m
y
E II = composite modulus parallel to fibres (upper bound)
E = composite modulus transverse to fibres (lower bound)
V f = volume fraction of fibres
E f = Youngs modulus of fibres

E m = Youngs modulus of matrix


ts = tensile strength of composite parallel to fibres

ff = fracture strength of fibres

m
y = yield stress of matrix
DISLOCATIONS AND PLASTIC FLOW

The force per unit length F on a dislocation, of Burgers vector b , due to a remote shear stress
, is F = b . The shear stress y required to move a dislocation on a single slip plane is

y =

cT
bL

where T = line tension (about 1 G b 2 , where G is the shear modulus)


2

L = inter-obstacle distance
c = constant ( c 2 for strong obstacles, c < 2 for weak obstacles)
The shear yield stress k of a polycrystalline solid is related to the shear stress y required to
move a dislocation on a single slip plane: k 32 y .
The uniaxial yield stress y of a polycrystalline solid is approximately y = 2 k , where k
is the shear yield stress.
Hardness H (in MPa) is given approximately by: H 3 y .
Vickers Hardness HV is given in kgf/mm2, i.e. HV = H / g , where g is the acceleration due
to gravity.

6
FAST FRACTURE
K = Y

The stress intensity factor, K :

Fast fracture occurs when K = K IC


In plane strain, the relationship between stress intensity factor K and strain energy release rate
G is:
K =

EG
1

(as 2 0.1 )

EG

Plane strain fracture toughness and toughness are thus related by: K IC =
Process zone size at crack tip given approximately by: r p =

E G IC
1 2

E G IC

2
K IC

2f

Note that K IC (and G IC ) are only valid when conditions for linear elastic fracture mechanics
apply (typically the crack length and specimen dimensions must be at least 50 times the process
zone size).
In the above:
= remote tensile stress
a = crack length
Y = dimensionless constant dependent on geometry; typically Y 1
K IC = plane strain fracture toughness;
G IC = critical strain energy release rate, or toughness;
E = Youngs modulus
= Poissons ratio
f = failure strength
STATISTICS OF FRACTURE

Weibull distribution, Ps (V) = exp

For constant stress:

Ps (V) = exp



V o

dV

Vo

Vo

Ps = survival probability of component


V = volume of component
= tensile stress on component
Vo = volume of test sample

o = reference failure stress for volume Vo , which gives Ps =


m = Weibull modulus

1 = 0.37
e

7
FATIGUE

Basquins Law (high cycle fatigue):

N f = C1
Coffin-Manson Law (low cycle fatigue):

pl N f = C 2
Goodmans Rule. For the same fatigue life, a stress range operating with a mean stress m ,
is equivalent to a stress range o and zero mean stress, according to the relationship:

= o 1

m
ts

Miners Rule for cumulative damage (for i loading blocks, each of constant stress amplitude and
duration N i cycles):

Ni
= 1
N fi

Paris crack growth law:


da
= A Kn
dN
In the above:

= stress range;

pl = plastic strain range;


K = tensile stress intensity range;
N = cycles;
N f = cycles to failure;

, , C1 , C 2 , A, n = constants;
a = crack length;
ts = tensile strength.
CREEP

Power law creep:

& ss = A n exp ( Q / RT )

& ss = steady-state strain-rate


Q = activation energy (kJ/kmol)
R = universal gas constant
T = absolute temperature
A, n = constants

8
DIFFUSION

D = Do exp ( Q / RT )

Diffusion coefficient:

Ficks diffusion equations:

J =D

C = concentration
x = distance
t = time

dC
dx

C
2C
=D
t
x2

and

J = diffusive flux
D = diffusion coefficient (m2/s)
Do = pre-exponential factor (m2/s)
Q = activation energy (kJ/kmol)
HEAT FLOW

q=

Steady-state 1D heat flow (Fouriers Law):

dT
dx

T
2T
=a
t
x2
T = temperature (K)
q = heat flux per second, per unit area (W/m2.s)

Transient 1D heat flow:

= thermal conductivity (W/m.K)


a = thermal diffusivity (m2/s)

For many 1D problems of diffusion and heat flow, the solution for concentration or temperature
depends on the error function, erf :
x

C( x , t ) = f erf

2 D t

or

T ( x , t ) = f erf

2 a t

A characteristic diffusion distance in all problems is given by x


characteristic heat flow distance in thermal problems being x

D t , with the corresponding


at .

The error function, and its first derivative, are:


erf ( X ) =

( )

exp y 2 dy

d
[ erf ( X )] =
dX

and

exp X 2

The error function integral has no closed form solution values are given in the Table below.
X

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

erf ( X )

0.11

0.22

0.33

0.43

0.52

0.60

0.68

0.74

0.9

1.0

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

erf ( X )

0.80

0.84

0.88

0.91

0.93

0.95

0.97

1.0

II. PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS


II.1 MELTING (or SOFTENING) TEMPERATURE, Tm
All data are for melting points at atmospheric pressure. For polymers (and glasses) the data indicate the glass transition (softening)
temperature, above which the mechanical properties rapidly fall. Melting temperatures of selected elements are given in section VIII.
Tm (oC)

Tm (oC)
1

Metals
Ferrous

Non-ferrous

Ceramics
Glasses

Porous
Technical

Composites
Metal
Polymer

Cast Irons
High Carbon Steels
Medium Carbon Steels
Low Carbon Steels
Low Alloy Steels
Stainless Steels
Aluminium Alloys
Copper Alloys
Lead Alloys
Magnesium Alloys
Nickel Alloys
Titanium Alloys
Zinc Alloys

1130
1289
1380
1480
1382
1375
475
982
322
447
1435
1477
375

1250
1478
1514
1526
1529
1450
677
1082
328
649
1466
1682
492

Borosilicate Glass (*)


Glass Ceramic (*)
Silica Glass (*)
Soda-Lime Glass (*)
Brick
Concrete, typical
Stone
Alumina
Aluminium Nitride
Boron Carbide
Silicon
Silicon Carbide
Silicon Nitride
Tungsten Carbide

450
563
957
442
927
927
1227
2004
2397
2372
1407
2152
2388
2827

602
1647
1557
592
1227
1227
1427
2096
2507
2507
1412
2500
2496
2920

Aluminium/Silicon Carbide
CFRP
GFRP

525

Bamboo (*)
Cork (*)
Leather (*)
Wood, typical (Longitudinal) (*)
Wood, typical (Transverse) (*)

77
77
107
77
77

Polymers
Elastomer

Thermoplastic

Thermoset

102
102
127
102
102

73
73
83
78
48
73
123
88
9
27
44
142
143
25
68
85
18
25
74
120
75
107

n/a
n/a
n/a

63
23
78
63
43
23
73
128
107
77
56
205
199
15
80
165
8
15
110
160
105
123

Polymer Foams
Flexible Polymer Foam (VLD) (*)
Flexible Polymer Foam (LD) (*)
Flexible Polymer Foam (MD) (*)
Rigid Polymer Foam (LD) (*)
Rigid Polymer Foam (MD) (*)
Rigid Polymer Foam (HD) (*)

- 627
n/a
n/a

Natural

Butyl Rubber (*)


EVA (*)
Isoprene (IR) (*)
Natural Rubber (NR) (*)
Neoprene (CR) (*)
Polyurethane Elastomers (elPU) (*)
Silicone Elastomers (*)
ABS (*)
Cellulose Polymers (CA) (*)
Ionomer (I) (*)
Nylons (PA) (*)
Polycarbonate (PC) (*)
PEEK (*)
Polyethylene (PE) (*)
PET (*)
Acrylic (PMMA) (*)
Acetal (POM) (*)
Polypropylene (PP) (*)
Polystyrene (PS) (*)
Polyurethane Thermoplastics (tpPU) (*)
PVC
Teflon (PTFE)
Epoxies
Phenolics
Polyester

112
112
112
67
67
67

177
177
177
171
157
171

For full names and acronyms of polymers see Section V.


(*) glass transition (softening) temperature
n/a: not applicable (materials decompose, rather than melt)
(Data courtesy of Granta Design Ltd)

10

II.2

DENSITY,

(Mg/m3)

(Mg/m3)
1

Metals
Ferrous

Non-ferrous

Ceramics
Glasses

Porous
Technical

Composites
Metal
Polymer

Cast Irons
High Carbon Steels
Medium Carbon Steels
Low Carbon Steels
Low Alloy Steels
Stainless Steels
Aluminium Alloys
Copper Alloys
Lead Alloys
Magnesium Alloys
Nickel Alloys
Titanium Alloys
Zinc Alloys

7.05
7.8
7.8
7.8
7.8
7.6
2.5
8.93
10
1.74
8.83
4.4
4.95

7.25
7.9
7.9
7.9
7.9
8.1
2.9
8.94
11.4
1.95
8.95
4.8
7

Borosilicate Glass
Glass Ceramic
Silica Glass
Soda-Lime Glass
Brick
Concrete, typical
Stone
Alumina
Aluminium Nitride
Boron Carbide
Silicon
Silicon Carbide
Silicon Nitride
Tungsten Carbide

2.2
2.2
2.17
2.44
1.9
2.2
2.5
3.5
3.26
2.35
2.3
3
3
15.3

2.3
2.8
2.22
2.49
2.1
2.6
3
3.98
3.33
2.55
2.35
3.21
3.29
15.9

Aluminium/Silicon Carbide
CFRP
GFRP

2.66
1.5
1.75

2.9
1.6
1.97

Bamboo
Cork
Leather
Wood, typical (Longitudinal)
Wood, typical (Transverse)

0.6
0.12
0.81
0.6
0.6

0.8
0.24
1.05
0.8
0.8

Polymers
Elastomer

Thermoplastic

Thermoset

Butyl Rubber
EVA
Isoprene (IR)
Natural Rubber (NR)
Neoprene (CR)
Polyurethane Elastomers (elPU)
Silicone Elastomers
ABS
Cellulose Polymers (CA)
Ionomer (I)
Nylons (PA)
Polycarbonate (PC)
PEEK
Polyethylene (PE)
PET
Acrylic (PMMA)
Acetal (POM)
Polypropylene (PP)
Polystyrene (PS)
Polyurethane Thermoplastics (tpPU)
PVC
Teflon (PTFE)
Epoxies
Phenolics
Polyester

0.9
0.945
0.93
0.92
1.23
1.02
1.3
1.01
0.98
0.93
1.12
1.14
1.3
0.939
1.29
1.16
1.39
0.89
1.04
1.12
1.3
2.14
1.11
1.24
1.04

0.92
0.955
0.94
0.93
1.25
1.25
1.8
1.21
1.3
0.96
1.14
1.21
1.32
0.96
1.4
1.22
1.43
0.91
1.05
1.24
1.58
2.2
1.4
1.32
1.4

Flexible Polymer Foam (VLD)


Flexible Polymer Foam (LD)
Flexible Polymer Foam (MD)
Rigid Polymer Foam (LD)
Rigid Polymer Foam (MD)
Rigid Polymer Foam (HD)

0.016
0.038
0.07
0.036
0.078
0.17

0.035
0.07
0.115
0.07
0.165
0.47

Polymer Foams

Natural

1 For full names and acronyms of polymers see Section V


(Data courtesy of Granta Design Ltd).

11

II.3

YOUNGS MODULUS, E

E (GPa)

E (GPa)
1

Metals
Ferrous

Non-ferrous

Ceramics
Glasses

Porous
Technical

Composites
Metal
Polymer

Cast Irons
High Carbon Steels
Medium Carbon Steels
Low Carbon Steels
Low Alloy Steels
Stainless Steels
Aluminium Alloys
Copper Alloys
Lead Alloys
Magnesium Alloys
Nickel Alloys
Titanium Alloys
Zinc Alloys

165
200
200
200
201
189
68
112
12.5
42
190
90
68

180
215
216
215
217
210
82
148
15
47
220
120
95

Borosilicate Glass
Glass Ceramic
Silica Glass
Soda-Lime Glass
Brick
Concrete, typical
Stone
Alumina
Aluminium Nitride
Boron Carbide
Silicon
Silicon Carbide
Silicon Nitride
Tungsten Carbide

61
64
68
68
10
25
6.9
215
302
400
140
300
280
600

64
110
74
72
50
38
21
413
348
472
155
460
310
720

81
69
15

100
150
28

15
0.013
0.1
6
0.5

20
0.05
0.5
20
3

Aluminium/Silicon Carbide
CFRP
GFRP

Polymers
Elastomer

Thermoplastic

Thermoset

Butyl Rubber
EVA
Isoprene (IR)
Natural Rubber (NR)
Neoprene (CR)
Polyurethane Elastomers (elPU)
Silicone Elastomers
ABS
Cellulose Polymers (CA)
Ionomer (I)
Nylons (PA)
Polycarbonate (PC)
PEEK
Polyethylene (PE)
PET
Acrylic (PMMA)
Acetal (POM)
Polypropylene (PP)
Polystyrene (PS)
Polyurethane Thermoplastics (tpPU)
PVC
Teflon (PTFE)
Epoxies
Phenolics
Polyester

0.001
0.01
0.0014
0.0015
0.0007
0.002
0.005
1.1
1.6
0.2
2.62
2
3.5
0.621
2.76
2.24
2.5
0.896
2.28
1.31
2.14
0.4
2.35
2.76
2.07

0.002
0.04
0.004
0.0025
0.002
0.003
0.02
2.9
2
0.424
3.2
2.44
4.2
0.896
4.14
3.8
5
1.55
3.34
2.07
4.14
0.552
3.075
4.83
4.41

Flexible Polymer Foam (VLD)


Flexible Polymer Foam (LD)
Flexible Polymer Foam (MD)
Rigid Polymer Foam (LD)
Rigid Polymer Foam (MD)
Rigid Polymer Foam (HD)

0.0003
0.001
0.004
0.023
0.08
0.2

0.001
0.003
0.012
0.08
0.2
0.48

Polymer Foams

Natural
Bamboo
Cork
Leather
Wood, typical (Longitudinal)
Wood, typical (Transverse)

1 For full names and acronyms of polymers see Section V


(Data courtesy of Granta Design Ltd)
.

12

YIELD STRESS, y, AND TENSILE STRENGTH, ts

II.4

y (MPa)

y (MPa)

ts (MPa)

Metals
Ferrous

Non-ferrous

Ceramics
Glasses

Porous
Technical

Composites
Metal
Polymer

Cast Irons
High Carbon Steels
Medium Carbon Steels
Low Carbon Steels
Low Alloy Steels
Stainless Steels
Aluminium Alloys
Copper Alloys
Lead Alloys
Magnesium Alloys
Nickel Alloys
Titanium Alloys
Zinc Alloys

215
400
305
250
400
170
30
30
8
70
70
250
80

790
1155
900
395
1100
1000
500
500
14
400
1100
1245
450

350
550
410
345
460
480
58
100
12
185
345
300
135

1000
1640
1200
580
1200
2240
550
550
20
475
1200
1625
520

264
750
1100
360
50
32
34
690
1970
2583
3200
1000
524
3347

22
62
45
31
7
2
5
350
197
350
160
370
690
370

384
2129
1600
420
140
60
248
5500
2700
5687
3460
5250
5500
6833

32
177
155
35
14
6
17
665
270
560
180
680
800
550

Aluminium/Silicon Carbide
CFRP
GFRP

280
550
110

324
1050
192

290
550
138

365
1050
241

Bamboo
Cork
Leather
Wood, typical (Longitudinal)
Wood, typical (Transverse)

35
0.3
5
30
2

44
1.5
10
70
6

36
0.5
20
60
4

45
2.5
26
100
9

Borosilicate Glass (*)


Glass Ceramic (*)
Silica Glass (*)
Soda-Lime Glass (*)
Brick (*)
Concrete, typical (*)
Stone (*)
Alumina (*)
Aluminium Nitride (*)
Boron Carbide (*)
Silicon (*)
Silicon Carbide (*)
Silicon Nitride (*)
Tungsten Carbide (*)

Natural

(Data courtesy of Granta Design Ltd)

ts (MPa)

Polymers
Elastomer

Thermoplastic

Thermoset

Butyl Rubber
EVA
Isoprene (IR)
Natural Rubber (NR)
Neoprene (CR)
Polyurethane Elastomers (elPU)
Silicone Elastomers
ABS
Cellulose Polymers (CA)
Ionomer (I)
Nylons (PA)
Polycarbonate (PC)
PEEK
Polyethylene (PE)
PET
Acrylic (PMMA)
Acetal (POM)
Polypropylene (PP)
Polystyrene (PS)
Polyurethane Thermoplastics (tpPU)
PVC
Teflon (PTFE)
Epoxies
Phenolics
Polyester

2
12
20
20
3.4
25
2.4
18.5
25
8.3
50
59
65
17.9
56.5
53.8
48.6
20.7
28.7
40
35.4
15
36
27.6
33

3
18
25
30
24
51
5.5
51
45
15.9
94.8
70
95
29
62.3
72.4
72.4
37.2
56.2
53.8
52.1
25
71.7
49.7
40

5
16
20
22
3.4
25
2.4
27.6
25
17.2
90
60
70
20.7
48.3
48.3
60
27.6
35.9
31
40.7
20
45
34.5
41.4

10
20
25
32
24
51
5.5
55.2
50
37.2
165
72.4
103
44.8
72.4
79.6
89.6
41.4
56.5
62
65.1
30
89.6
62.1
89.6

Flexible Polymer Foam (VLD)


Flexible Polymer Foam (LD)
Flexible Polymer Foam (MD)
Rigid Polymer Foam (LD)
Rigid Polymer Foam (MD)
Rigid Polymer Foam (HD)

0.01
0.02
0.05
0.3
0.4
0.8

0.12
0.3
0.7
1.7
3.5
12

0.24
0.24
0.43
0.45
0.65
1.2

0.85
2.35
2.95
2.25
5.1
12.4

Polymer Foams

For full names and acronyms of polymers see Section V.


(*) NB: For ceramics, yield stress is replaced by compressive strength,
which is more relevant in ceramic design. Note that ceramics are of the
order of 10 times stronger in compression than in tension.

13

II.5

FRACTURE TOUGHNESS (PLANE STRAIN), KIC


KIC (MPam)

KIC (MPam)
1

Metals
Ferrous

Non-ferrous

Ceramics
Glasses

Porous
Technical

Composites
Metal
Polymer

Cast Irons
High Carbon Steels
Medium Carbon Steels
Low Carbon Steels
Low Alloy Steels
Stainless Steels
Aluminium Alloys
Copper Alloys
Lead Alloys
Magnesium Alloys
Nickel Alloys
Titanium Alloys
Zinc Alloys
Borosilicate Glass
Glass Ceramic
Silica Glass
Soda-Lime Glass
Brick
Concrete, typical
Stone
Alumina
Aluminium Nitride
Boron Carbide
Silicon
Silicon Carbide
Silicon Nitride
Tungsten Carbide
Aluminium/Silicon Carbide
CFRP
GFRP

22
27
12
41
14
62
22
30
5
12
80
14
10

54
92
92
82
200
280
35
90
15
18
110
120
100

0.5
1.4
0.6
0.55
1
0.35
0.7
3.3
2.5
2.5
0.83
2.5
4
2

0.7
1.7
0.8
0.7
2
0.45
1.5
4.8
3.4
3.5
0.94
5
6
3.8

15
6.1
7

24
88
23

5
0.05
3
5
0.5

7
0.1
5
9
0.8

Natural
Bamboo
Cork
Leather
Wood, typical (Longitudinal)
Wood, typical (Transverse)

(Data courtesy of Granta Design Ltd)

Polymers
Elastomer

Thermoplastic

Thermoset

Butyl Rubber
EVA
Isoprene (IR)
Natural Rubber (NR)
Neoprene (CR)
Polyurethane Elastomers (elPU)
Silicone Elastomers
ABS
Cellulose Polymers (CA)
Ionomer (I)
Nylons (PA)
Polycarbonate (PC)
PEEK
Polyethylene (PE)
PET
Acrylic (PMMA)
Acetal (POM)
Polypropylene (PP)
Polystyrene (PS)
Polyurethane Thermoplastics (tpPU)
PVC
Teflon (PTFE)
Epoxies
Phenolics
Polyester

0.07
0.5
0.07
0.15
0.1
0.2
0.03
1.19
1
1.14
2.22
2.1
2.73
1.44
4.5
0.7
1.71
3
0.7
1.84
1.46
1.32
0.4
0.79
1.09

0.1
0.7
0.1
0.25
0.3
0.4
0.5
4.30
2.5
3.43
5.62
4.60
4.30
1.72
5.5
1.6
4.2
4.5
1.1
4.97
5.12
1.8
2.22
1.21
1.70

0.005
0.015
0.03
0.002
0.007
0.024

0.02
0.05
0.09
0.02
0.049
0.091

Polymer Foams
Flexible Polymer Foam (VLD)
Flexible Polymer Foam (LD)
Flexible Polymer Foam (MD)
Rigid Polymer Foam (LD)
Rigid Polymer Foam (MD)
Rigid Polymer Foam (HD)
1

For full names and acronyms of polymers see Section V.

Note: K IC only valid for conditions of linear elastic fracture mechanics


(see I. Formulae & Definitions). Plane Strain Toughness, GIC , may be
2
estimated from K IC
= E GIC /( 1 2 ) E GIC (as 2 0.1 ).

14

A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A

A
A
A
A
A
B
C
A
C
C
B
C
E

Borosilicate Glass
Glass Ceramic
Silica Glass
Soda-Lime Glass
Brick, Concrete, Stone
Alumina
Aluminium Nitride
Boron Carbide
Silicon
Silicon Carbide
Silicon Nitride
Tungsten Carbide

A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A

B
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A

B
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
B
A
A
A

A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A

A
A
B
A
C
A
A
A
B
A
A
A

Aluminium/Silicon Carbide
CFRP
GFRP

A
B
B

A
A
A

B
A
A

A
B
B

B
C
C

Bamboo
Cork
Leather
Wood

D
D
D
D

C
B
B
C

C
B
B
C

B
A
B
B

D
B
B
D

Natural

Wear resistance

Composites
Metal
Polymer

C
C
C
C
C
A
B
A
A
D
A
A
C

Sunlight (UV)

Porous
Technical

B
B
B
B
B
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A

Salt water

Ceramics
Glasses

A
A
A
A
A
A
B
A
A
A
A
A
A

Fresh water

Non-ferrous

Cast Irons
High Carbon Steels
Medium Carbon Steels
Low Carbon Steels
Low Alloy Steels
Stainless Steels
Aluminium Alloys
Copper Alloys
Lead Alloys
Magnesium Alloys
Nickel Alloys
Titanium Alloys
Zinc Alloys

Butyl Rubber
EVA
Isoprene (IR)
Natural Rubber (NR)
Neoprene (CR)
Polyurethane Elastomers (elPU)
Silicone Elastomers
ABS
Cellulose Polymers (CA)
Ionomer (I)
Nylons (PA)
Polycarbonate (PC)
PEEK
Polyethylene (PE)
PET
Acrylic (PMMA)
Acetal (POM)
Polypropylene (PP)
Polystyrene (PS)
Polyurethane Thermoplastics (tpPU)
PVC
Teflon (PTFE)
Epoxies
Phenolics
Polyester

E
E
E
E
E
E
B
D
D
D
C
B
B
D
D
D
D
D
D
C
A
A
B
B
D

A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A

A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A

B
B
B
B
B
B
B
C
B
B
C
B
A
D
B
A
C
D
C
B
A
B
B
A
A

B
B
B
B
B
B
B
D
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
B
C
D
C
C
B
C
C
C

Flexible Polymer Foams


Rigid Polymer Foams

E
C

A
A

A
A

C
B

D
E

Polymers
Elastomer

Metals
Ferrous

Flammability

Wear resistance

ENVIRONMENTAL RESISTANCE

Sunlight (UV)

Salt water

Fresh water

Flammability

II.6

Thermoplastic

Thermoset
Polymer Foams

For full names and acronyms of polymers see Section V.


Ranking:
A = very good; B = good; C = average; D = poor; E = very poor.
(Data courtesy of Granta Design Ltd)

15

II.7 UNIAXIAL TENSILE RESPONSE OF SELECTED


METALS & POLYMERS

Figure 2.1 Tensile response of some common metals

Figure 2.2 Tensile response of some common polymers

16

III. MATERIAL PROPERTY CHARTS


III.1 YOUNGS MODULUS DENSITY

Figure 3.1:

Youngs modulus, E , against density, .

The design guide-lines assist in

selection of materials for minimum weight, stiffness-limited design. (Data courtesy of Granta
Design Ltd)

17

III.2 STRENGTH DENSITY

Figure 3.2: Failure strength, f , against density, . Failure strength is defined as the tensile

elastic limit (usually yield stress) for all materials other than ceramics, for which it is the
compressive strength. The design guide-lines assist in selection of materials for minimum weight,
strength-limited design. (Data courtesy of Granta Design Ltd)

18

III.3 YOUNGS MODULUS STRENGTH

Figure 3.3: Youngs modulus, E , against failure strength, f . Failure strength is defined as

the tensile elastic limit (usually yield stress) for all materials other than ceramics, for which it is
the compressive strength. The design guide-lines assist in the selection of materials for maximum
stored energy, volume-limited design. (Data courtesy of Granta Design Ltd)

19

III.4 FRACTURE TOUGHNESS STRENGTH

Figure 3.4: Fracture toughness (plane strain), K IC , against failure strength, f . Failure

strength is defined as the tensile elastic limit (usually yield stress) for all materials other than
2
/ 2f , which is
ceramics, for which it is the compressive strength. The contours show K IC

approximately the diameter of the process zone at a crack tip. Valid application of linear elastic
fracture mechanics using K requires that the specimen and crack dimensions are large compared
to this process zone. The design guide-lines are used in selecting materials for damage tolerant
design. (Data courtesy of Granta Design Ltd)

20

III.5 MAXIMUM SERVICE TEMPERATURE

Figure 3.5: Maximum service temperature. The shaded bars extend to the maximum service
temperature materials may be used safely for all temperatures up to this value, without
significant property degradation. (Note: there is a modest range of maximum service
temperature in a given material class not all variants within a class may be used up to the
temperature shown, so caution should be exercised if a material appears close to its limit).

NB: For full names and acronyms of polymers see Section V. (Data courtesy of Granta Design
Ltd)

21

III.6 MATERIAL PRICE (PER KG)

Figure 3.6: Material price (per kg), C m (2003 data). C m represents raw material price/kg,

and does not include manufacturing or end-of-life costs.


NB: For full names and acronyms of polymers see Section V. (Data courtesy of Granta Design
Ltd)

Polymer Foams

Thermosets

Thermoplastics

(Data courtesy of Granta Design Ltd)

Natural Materials can only be machined, though


some woods are also hot formed.

Polymer Composites are shaped by dedicated


forming techniques, and are difficult to machine.

Ceramics are all processed by powder methods, and


Glasses are also moulded. Both are difficult to
machine.

Notes on other materials:

Titanium Alloys

Machining

Nickel Alloys

Aluminium, Copper, Lead,


Magnesium, Zinc Alloys

Injection
Moulding

Elastomers

Polymers

Low Alloy/Stainless Steels

Low Carbon Steels

Blow
Moulding

Figure 4.1b: Polymers and Foams

Non-ferrous

Extrusion

Sheet
Forming

Medium/High Carbon Steels

Compression
Moulding

Powder
Methods

Cast Irons

Rotational
Moulding

Ferrous

Sand
Casting

Polymer
Casting

Metals

Die
Casting

Figure 4.1a: Metals


Investment
Casting

IV.1 MATERIAL PROCESS COMPATIBILITY MATRIX (SHAPING)

IV. PROCESS ATTRIBUTE CHARTS

Rolling/
Forging
Composite
Forming

Machining

22

23

IV.2 MASS

Metal shaping

Sand casting
Investment Casting
Rolling/Forging
Extrusion
Sheet forming

Ceramic
shaping
Polymer and
composite shaping

Die casting

Powder methods
Machining
Injection moulding
Blow moulding
Compression moulding
Rotational moulding
Polymer casting
Composite forming
10-3

10-2

0.1

10

102

103

104

Mass (kg)

Figure 4.2: Process attribute chart for shaping processes: mass range (kg)

IV.3 SECTION THICKNESS

Polymer and
composite shaping

Ceramic
shaping

Metal shaping

Sand casting
Die casting
Investment Casting
Rolling/Forging
Extrusion
Sheet forming
Powder methods
Machining
Injection moulding
Blow moulding
Compression moulding
Rotational moulding
Polymer casting
Composite forming
10-4

10-3

10-2

0.1

Section thickness (m)

Figure 4.3: Process attribute chart for shaping processes: section thickness (m)
(DATA COURTESY OF GRANTA DESIGN LTD)

24

IV.4 SURFACE ROUGHNESS

Metal shaping

Sand casting
Investment Casting
Rolling/Forging
Extrusion
Sheet forming

Ceramic
shaping
Polymer and
composite shaping

Die casting

Powder methods
Machining
Injection moulding
Blow moulding
Compression moulding
Rotational moulding
Polymer casting
Composite forming
0.1

10

102

Roughness (m)

Figure 4.4: Process attribute chart for shaping processes: surface roughness (m)

IV.5 DIMENSIONAL TOLERANCE

Polymer and
composite shaping

Ceramic
shaping

Metal shaping

Sand casting
Die casting
Investment Casting
Rolling/Forging
Extrusion
Sheet forming
Powder methods
Machining
Injection moulding
Blow moulding
Compression moulding
Rotational moulding
Polymer casting
Composite forming
10-2

0.1

10

Tolerance (mm)

Figure 4.5: Process attribute chart for shaping processes: dimensional tolerance (mm)

25

IV.6 ECONOMIC BATCH SIZE

Polymer and
composite shaping

Ceramic
shaping

Metal shaping

Sand casting
Die casting
Investment Casting
Rolling/Forging
Extrusion
Sheet forming
Powder methods
Machining
Injection moulding
Blow moulding
Compression moulding
Rotational moulding
Polymer casting
Composite forming
1

10

102

103

104

105

106

107

Economic batch size (units)

Figure 4.6: Process attribute chart for shaping processes: economic batch size (Data courtesy
of Granta Design Ltd)

Ferrous

Non-ferrous

Metals
Cutting tools, springs, bearings, cranks, shafts, railway track
General mechanical engineering (tools, bearings, gears, shafts, bearings)

Steel structures (mild steel) bridges, oil rigs, ships; reinforcement for concrete; automotive parts,
car body panels; galvanised sheet; packaging (cans, drums)
Springs, tools, ball bearings, automotive parts (gears connecting rods etc)
Transport, chemical and food processing plant, nuclear plant, domestic ware (cutlery, washing
machines, stoves), surgical implements, pipes, pressure vessels, liquid gas containers

High Carbon Steels

Medium Carbon Steels

Low Carbon Steels

Low Alloy Steels

Stainless Steels

Roof and wall cladding, solder, X-ray shielding, battery electrodes


Automotive castings, wheels, general lightweight castings for transport, nuclear fuel containers;
principal alloying addition to Aluminium Alloys
Gas turbines and jet engines, thermocouples, coinage; alloying addition to austenitic stainless steels
Aircraft turbine blades; general structural aerospace applications; biomedical implants.
Die castings (automotive, domestic appliances, toys, handles); coating on galvanised steel

Lead Alloys

Magnesium Alloys

Nickel Alloys

Titanium Alloys

Zinc Alloys

Aerospace engineering, automotive bodies and panels, lightweight structures and ships

Heat-treatable Alloys

Electrical conductors and wire, electronic circuit boards, heat exchangers, boilers, cookware,
coinage, sculptures

Electrical conductors, heat exchangers, foil, tubes, saucepans, beverage cans, lightweight ships,
architectural panels

Non-heat-treatable Alloys

Copper Alloys

Automotive parts (cylinder blocks), domestic appliances (irons)

Casting Alloys

Aluminium Alloys

Automotive parts, engine blocks, machine tool structural parts, lathe beds

Cast Irons

Applications

V.1 METALS: FERROUS ALLOYS, NON-FERROUS ALLOYS

V. CLASSIFICATION AND APPLICATIONS OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

26

Elastomer

Polymer Foams

Thermoset

Thermoplastic

Polymers

IR
NR
CR
el-PU

Isoprene

Natural Rubber

Polychloroprene (Neoprene)

Polyurethane Elastomers

Packaging, buoyancy, cushioning, sponges, sleeping mats


Thermal insulation, sandwich panels, packaging, buoyancy

Rigid Polymer Foam

Furniture, boats, sports goods

Flexible Polymer Foam

Electrical plugs, sockets, cookware, handles, adhesives

Non-stick coatings, bearings, skis, electrical insulation, tape

Polyester

PTFE

Polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon)

Pipes, gutters, window frames, packaging

Phenolics

PVC

Polyvinylchloride

Cushioning, seating, shoe soles, hoses, car bumpers, insulation

Adhesives, fibre composites, electronic encapsulation

tp-PU

Polyurethane Thermoplastics

Toys, packaging, cutlery, audio cassette/CD cases

Ropes, garden furniture, pipes, kettles, electrical insulation, astroturf

Zips, domestic and appliance parts, handles

Aircraft windows, lenses, reflectors, lights, compact discs

Blow moulded bottles, film, audio/video tape, sails

Packaging, bags, squeeze tubes, toys, artificial joints

Electrical connectors, racing car parts, fibre composites

Safety goggles, shields, helmets; light fittings, medical components

Gears, bearings; plumbing, packaging, bottles, fabrics, textiles, ropes

Packaging, golf balls, blister packs, bottles

Tool and cutlery handles, decorative trim, pens

Communication appliances, automotive interiors, luggage, toys, boats

Electrical insulation, electronic encapsulation, medical implants

Packaging, hoses, adhesives, fabric coating

Wetsuits, O-rings and seals, footware

Gloves, tyres, electrical insulation, tubing

Epoxies

PS

PET

Polyethylene terephthalate

Polystyrene

PE

Polyethylene

PP

PEEK

Polyetheretherketone

Polypropylene

PC

Polycarbonate

PMMA

PA

Polyamides (Nylons)

POM

Ionomer

Polyoxymethylene (Acetal)

CA

Cellulose Polymers

Polymethyl methacrylate (Acrylic)

ABS

Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene

Silicone Elastomers

Bags, films, packaging, gloves, insulation, running shoes

EVA

Ethylene-vinyl-acetate
Tyres, inner tubes, insulation, tubing, shoes

Tyres, seals, anti-vibration mountings, electrical insulation, tubing

Applications

Butyl Rubber

Abbreviation

V.2 POLYMERS AND FOAMS

27

Natural

Ceramics

Metal

Technical

Porous

Glasses

Polymer

Composites

Corks and bungs, seals, floats, packaging, flooring


Shoes, clothing, bags, drive-belts
Construction, flooring, doors, furniture, packaging, sports goods

Cork

Leather

Wood

Cutting tools, drills, abrasives

Tungsten Carbide

Building, scaffolding, paper, ropes, baskets, furniture

Bearings, cutting tools, dies, engine parts

Silicon Nitride

Bamboo

Microcircuits, semiconductors, precision instruments, IR windows, MEMS


High temperature equipment, abrasive polishing grits, bearings, armour

Lightweight armour, nozzles, dies, precision tool parts

Boron Carbide

Silicon Carbide

Microcircuit substrates and heatsinks

Aluminium Nitride

Silicon

Cutting tools, spark plugs, microcircuit substrates, valves

Buildings, architecture, sculpture

Stone

Alumina

General civil engineering construction

Windows, bottles, tubing, light bulbs, pottery glazes

Soda-Lime Glass

Concrete

High performance windows, crucibles, high temperature applications

Silica Glass
Buildings

Cookware, lasers, telescope mirrors

Brick

Ovenware, laboratory ware, headlights

Borosilicate Glass

Boat hulls, automotive parts, chemical plant

GFRP

Glass Ceramic

Lightweight structural parts (aerospace, bike frames, sports goods, boat hulls and oars, springs)

Automotive parts, sports goods

CFRP

Aluminium/Silicon Carbide

Applications

V.3 COMPOSITES, CERAMICS, GLASSES AND NATURAL MATERIALS

28

29

VI.

EQUILIBRIUM (PHASE) DIAGRAMS

Figure 6.1 Copper Nickel equilibrium diagram

Figure 6.2 Lead Tin equilibrium diagram

30

Figure 6.3 Iron Carbon equilibrium diagram

Figure 6.4 Aluminium Copper equilibrium diagram

31

Figure 6.5 Aluminium Silicon equilibrium diagram

Figure 6.6 Copper Zinc equilibrium diagram

32

Figure 6.7 Copper Tin equilibrium diagram

Figure 6.8

Titanium Aluminium equilibrium diagram

33

Figure 6.9 Silica Alumina equilibrium diagram

VII. HEAT TREATMENT OF STEELS

Figure 7.1 Isothermal transformation diagram for 1% nickel steel, BS503M40 (En12)

Figure 7.2 Jominy end quench curves for 1% nickel steel, BS503M40 (En12)

34

35

Figure 7.3 Isothermal transformation diagram for 1.5% Ni Cr Mo steel, BS817M40 (En24)

Figure 7.4 Jominy end quench curves for 1.5% Ni Cr Mo steel, BS817M40 (En24)

36

VIII. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SELECTED ELEMENTS


ATOMIC PROPERTIES OF SELECTED ELEMENTS
Element

Symbol

Atomic
Number

Relative
Atomic
1
Weight

Melting
Point
(oC)

Crystal
structure 2
(at 20oC)

Lattice constants 3 (at 20oC)


a, (b) ()

c ()

Aluminium

Al

13

26.982

660

f.c.c.

4.0496

Beryllium

Be

9.012

1280

h.c.p.

2.2856

3.5843

Boron

10.811

2300

t.

8.73

5.03

Carbon

12.011

3500

hex.

2.4612

6.7079

Chlorine

Cl

17

35.453

101

Chromium

Cr

24

51.996

1900

b.c.c.

2.8850

Copper

Cu

29

63.54

1083

f.c.c.

2.5053

Germanium

Ge

32

72.59

958

d.

5.6575

Gold

Au

79

196.967

1063

f.c.c.

4.0786

Hydrogen

1.008

259

Iron

Fe

26

55.847

1534

b.c.c.

2.8663

Lead

Pb

82

207.19

327

f.c.c.

4.9505

Magnesium

Mg

12

24.312

650

h.c.p.

3.2094

Manganese

Mn

25

54.938

1250

cub.

8.912

5.2103

Molybdenum

Mo

42

95.94

2620

b.c.c.

3.1468

Nickel

Ni

28

58.71

1453

f.c.c.

3.5241

Niobium

Nb

41

92.906

2420

b.c.c.

3.3007

Nitrogen

14.007

210

Oxygen

15.999

219

Phosphorus

15

30.974

44

cub.

7.17 ( at 35oC)

Silicon

Si

14

28.086

1414

d.

5.4305

Silver

Ag

47

107.870

961

f.c.c.

4.0862

Sulphur

16

32.064

119

f.c.orth.

10.437, (12.845)

24.369

Tin

Sn

50

118.69

232

b.c.t.

5.8313

3.1812

Titanium

Ti

22

47.90

1670

h.c.p.

2.9504

4.6833

Tungsten

74

183.85

3380

b.c.c.

3.1652

Vanadium

23

50.942

1920

b.c.c.

3.0282

Zinc

Zn

30

65.37

419

h.c.p.

2.6649

4.9468

Zirconium

Zr

40

91.22

1850

h.c.p.

3.2312

5.1476

The values of atomic weight are those in the Report of the International Commission on
Atomic Weights (1961). The unit is 1/12th of the mass of an atom of C12.

f.c.c. = face-centred cubic; h.c.p. = hexagonal close-packed; b.c.c. = body-centred cubic;


t. = tetragonal; hex. = hexagonal; d. = diamond structure; cub. = cubic;
f.c.orth. = face-centred orthorhombic; b.c.t. = body-centred tetragonal.

Lattice constants are in ngstrm units (1 = 1010 m)

+ 0.34
+ 0.40
+ 0.77
+ 0.80

Cu Cu2+ + 2e

O2 + 2H2O + 4e 4(OH)

Fe2+ Fe3+ + e

Ag Ag+ + e

(Data courtesy of Granta Design Ltd)

Au Au3+ + 3e

2H2O O2 + 4H + 4e
+ 1.42

+ 1.23

+ 0.15

Sn2+ Sn4+ + 2e

0.00

H2 2H+ + 2e

0.13

Pb Pb2+ + 2e

+ 2e

0.14

Sn Sn

2+

0.25

0.44

Ni Ni

+ 2e

+ 2e

2+

Fe Fe

+ 3e

Cr Cr

2+

0.76

Zn Zn2+ + 2e
0.74

1.66

Al Al3+ + 3e

2.36

Mg Mg2+ + 2e

3+

Normal hydrogen
scale (volts)

Oxidation reaction for solution of the


metal

Standard electrode potentials (300K, molar solutions)

Cr2O3
ZnO
3SiO2 + 2N2
SiO2 + CO2
MoO2
WO3
Fe3O4
NiO

CO2
Pb3O4
CuO

Ag2O
Au2O3

Zinc
Silicon nitride
Silicon carbide
Molybdenum
Tungsten
Iron
Nickel
Most polymers
Diamond, graphite
Lead
Copper
GFRP
Silver
Gold

Nb2O5

SiO2

TiO

ZrO2

Al2O3

Chromium

Niobium

Silicon

Titanium

Zirconium

Aluminium

MgO

BeO

Beryllium
Magnesium

Oxide

Material

+ 80

200

254

309

389

400

439

508

510

534

580

629

636

701

757

836

848

1028

1045

1162

1182

Free energy (kJ/mol O2)

Free energy of oxidation (at 273K)

OXIDATION PROPERTIES OF SELECTED ELEMENTS

37

38

CONVERSION OF UNITS
STRESS, PRESSURE AND ELASTIC MODULUS *

MN/m (or MPa)


lb/in2
kgf/mm2
bar

MN/m2 (or MPa)


1
6.89 x 103
9.81
0.10

lb/in2
1.45 x 102
1
1.42 x 103
14.48

kgf/mm2
0.102
7.03 x 104
1
1.02 x 102

bar
10
6.89 x 102
98.1
1

CONVERSION OF UNITS ENERGY *

J
cal
eV
ft lbf

J
1
4.19
1.60 x 1019
1.36

cal
0.239
1
3.83 x 1020
0.324

eV
6.24 x 1018
2.61 x 1019
1
8.46 x 1018

ft lbf
0.738
3.09
1.18 x 1019
1

CONVERSION OF UNITS POWER *

kW (kJ/s)
hp
ft lbf/s

kW (kJ/s)
1
0.746
1.36 x 103

hp
1.34
1
1.82 x 103

ft lbf/s
7.38 x 102
5.50 x 102
1

To convert row unit to column unit, multiply by the number at the column-row intersection, thus
1 MN/m2 = 10 bar