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1. The correct statement concerning RNA and DNA polymerases is

D. All RNA and DNA polymerases can add nucleotides only at the 3 end of the growing
polynucleotide chain
2. RNA polymerase:
B. can synthesize RNA chains de novo (without a primer).
3. Which of the following best describes the function of the sigma subunit in the RNA
polymerase of E.coli?
B. It is essential for the recognition of and binding to the promoter sequence.
4. The 5' CAP on a mRNA has a guanine ribonucleotide that is connected in a
D. 5' to 5' triphosphate bond to the first nucleotide to be transcribed.
5. During mRNA splicing, which snRNA(s) base pair with the 5' splice (donor) site?
C. U2 and U6


1. Transcription involves the separation of template and coding strands resulting in
single stranded DNA which is exposed to nuclease attack.
False. Transcription involves the separation of template and coding strands resulting in single
stranded RNA which then undergo splicing producing mature RNA.
2. The expression of gene encoding different sigma factors in response to environmental
stresses accounts for the regulation of many responses conferring stress tolerance.
True. The expression of gene encoding different sigma factors respone to environmental
3. Rhoprotein dependent termination occurs more frequently in bacteria than intrinsic
False. Rho independent termination occur more frequently in bacteria than rho dependent
4. In eukaryotes, one of the RNA polymerase enzymes is used to synthesize tRNAs and
some small rRNA molecules.

True. Eukaryotic contain three distinc nuclear RNA polymerase that can transcribe different
class of gene. RNA polymerase II synthesize small rRNA . RNA polymerase I and II synthesize

1. Give the definitions and roles of these components in the production of mRNA
a) the promoter .(4 marks)
Promoter is a site where RNA polymerase bind. This site recognize by sigma factor of RNA
polymerase. When this sigma factor bind to RNA polymerase this sigma factor will form
holoenzyme with the RNA polymerase thus it cause RNA polymerase have high affinity towards
the promoter sequence then bind specifically to the DNA template.
b) spliceosome (4 marks).
Spliceosome is an assembled from snRNPs and protein complex. Spliceosome consist of
U1,U2,U4,U5 and U6. All subunit will work together in splicing activity which is removal of
introns in the pre-matured mRNA producing mature RNA.
2. In a independent terminator, there is a palindrome rich in GC base pairs, followed
by 810 uridineresidues. Explain how each of the following changes might affect
terminator function:
(a) Substitution of cytidines for the 810 uridines. (2 marks)
Termination still occur without affected since both uracil and cystidine can pair complemently to
adenine and form two hydrogen bond.
(b) Mutations in the palindrome that decrease its GC content. (3 marks)
When G-C content decrease it also cause in decreasing termination efficiency. The loop will
become unstable since there are least G-C paired. Some cases the loop may not form then
termination cannot occur .