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# MIDTERM

## The visible spectrum can be crudely broken into three roughly

equal parts characterized as the primary colors of light. They are
The visible spectrum can be crudely broken into three roughly
equal parts characterized as the primary colors of light. They are
red, blue, and green.
You can see the path of a laser beam in fog because the
droplets of water scatter the laser light to your eye.
When yellow light and blue light are added together in roughly
equal intensities, the result is white light.
What is an umbra? Umbra is the complete (darkest) shade.
An opaque disk blocks light from a point source and makes a
shadow on a screen. The disk is aligned perpendicular to the path
of the light and placed midway between the light source and the
screen. If the positions of the source and the disk are constant
and screen is moved closer to the disk, diameter of the shadow
decreases.
An opaque disk blocks light from a point source and makes a
shadow on a screen. The disk is aligned perpendicular to the path
of the light and placed midway between the light source and the
screen. If the positions of the source and screen are constant and
disk is moved closer to the screen, the diameter of the shadow
decreases.
Which of the following sources will give the sharpest shadow of
an object placed between the source and a screen? A point
source.
What is the wavelength in air of the radio waves? (Hint: 1 MHz=
106 Hz.) 3.0 m
The range of wavelengths of visible spectrum is 400 700 nm.
The speed of light is 3.0 x 108 m/s.

The waves that you can propagate along a rope are transverse
mechanical waves.
How far does a traveling wave progress during a time interval of
one period? One wavelength
What is the speed of light in glass that has an index of refraction
of 1.5? 2 x 108 m/s.
The index of refraction n is defined to be c/v where c is the
speed of light in a vacuum and v is the speed of light in
matter.
The speed of light in water is 3/4 the speed of light in vacuum.
What is the index of refraction of water? 4/3
In optics the term normal refers to the line perpendicular to a
surface.
When a wave (such as a light wave) encounters a sudden change
of medium, as in going from air to glass, in general the wave is
partially reflected and partially transmitted.
The plane of incidence is the plane that contains the incident
ray and reflected ray.
Suppose you stand 3 feet from a plane mirror and face it. Where
is your image? Your image lies 3 feet behind the plane of
the mirror.
Your image in a plane mirror is erect and virtual.
Suppose you take a pencil and put its point in contact with a
mirror. If the reflected pencil point contacts the real pencil point
you have a front surface mirror.
When you look at an object such as a car, a desk, or a vase and
you see the object's shape and color, it is primarily due to
diffuse reflection.

## Which of the following is true for a convex mirror? The image of

a real object is always virtual.
Which of the following is true for a concave mirror? The image
of a real object may be virtual or real depending on the
image distance.
The image of a real object reflected in a concave spherical mirror
will be virtual and erect if the object distance is less than the
focal length of the mirror.
An object is located between the focal length of a concave
spherical mirror and the mirror's surface. As the object moves
closer to the mirror its image gets smaller.
The bending of the path of a light ray as it passes from one
medium into another is known as refraction.
When light incident on a surface with angle of incidence passes
from a medium of higher index of refraction into one with a lower
index, the light ray bends away from the normal to the
surface.
A ray of light in air hits a pane of glass with parallel sides. The
incident ray makes an angle with the normal. The light ray that
emerges from the back side of glass pane is traveling parallel to
the direction of the incident ray.
When light goes from a medium of higher index to lower index
there is a limiting angle of incidence beyond which the light is
totally reflected.
A lens is called a positive lens if it is a converging lens.
Which of the following is true for a diverging lens? The image of
a real object is always erect.
The near point of the "normal" eye is 25 cm.
A optometrist prescribes glasses with a focal length of 40 cm.
What is the strength of the glasses in diopters? 2.5 diopters

## A student wears 2.0-diopter glasses. What is the focal length of

the lenses? 0.50 m
The overall illumination (measured with a light meter) is known
as brightness.
Changes in the eye as it adjust to different levels of brightness is
Someone with a near point of 25 cm and a far point of infinity
has vision that is considered to be normal.
A binocular is rated as 7 x 35. It has a magnification of 7x.
A simple magnifier consists of a single positive lens with a focal
length of 4 cm. What is the approximate magnifying power of this
lens? 6x
An astronomical telescope has a 30-cm-focal-length objective
and an eyepiece with a focal length of + 6.0 cm. The
magnification of the telescope is -5x.
The image seen with the astronomical telescope of the previous
problem is inverted.
A stereo pair of images printed one on top of the other in
contrasting colors that can be blocked by corresponding color
filters in known as a/an anaglyph.
You have seen examples of random dot stereograms. When
viewed properly they revealed three-dimensional images even
though neither left eye nor right eye views individually showed
any image. What depth cue is used in discerning the threedimensional image of such stereograms? Stereopsis
The single image formed in the brain from the separate images
from the two eyes is known as the cyclopean view.
A characteristic of the depth cue of linear perspective is that
parallel lines converge with distance.

## Edge enhancement is a result of lateral inhibition.

Ambiguous figures like the Necker cube and Schrder's stairs are
considered to be psychological illusions.
The reflectance of a surface is known as lightness.
The physical quantity that we measure with a light meter is
called brightness.
HW 7

## A thin transparent film may be used to make an antireflection

coating on a lens. If the index of refraction of the film is less than
that of the glass, what should be the thickness of such a layer?
(Let = wavelength of light in the film.) /4
What is the thickness of the thinnest transparent film that will
strongly reflect light having a wavelength of 400 nm in the film?
(Hint: The film is surrounded by air on both sides.) 100 nm
We demonstrated the interference pattern made when light from
a helium-neon laser ( = 633 nm) is passed through a pair of
closely-spaced narrow slits. If violet light of = 422 nm was
used, the pattern would be changed so that the center-to-center
distance between the interference maxima (bright spots) would
be 2/3 as far apart.
An interference pattern occurs when light from a helium-neon
laser (l = 633 nm) is passed through a pair of closely-spaced
narrow slits. If red light from a laser pointer with = 650 nm is
used, the pattern changes so that the center-to-center distance
between the interference maxima (bright spots) is slightly
farther apart.
An interference pattern occurs when light from a red laser pointer
( = 650 nm) is passed through a pair of closely-spaced narrow
slits. If green light from a laser pointer with = 550 nm is used,
the pattern is changed so that the center-to-center distance

## between the interference maxima (bright spots) is somewhat

closer together.
We demonstrated the diffraction pattern made when light from a
helium-neon laser ( = 633 nm) was passed through a single
narrow slit. If green light from a diode laser pointer with = 550
nm was used, the pattern would be changed so that the width of
the central maxima (bright spot) would be smaller.
The statement relating the minimum angle of resolution to the
wavelength and diameter of the aperture is known as Rayleighs
criterion.
The Rayleigh criterion refers to the minimum angle of
resolution.
What is the minimum angle of resolution for a telescope with an
objective lens 50 mm in diameter? Take the average wavelength
of the light to be 550 nm. 1.34 x 10-5 radians
Most research telescopes are reflecting telescopes that have very
large mirrors. The large mirrors are used because they allow the
telescopes to gather more light and have greater resolution
(i.e. smaller min)
What is the minimum angle of resolution (in radians) for the
human eye in bright light when the pupil is narrowed to 2 mm?
Take the average wavelength of the light to be 550 nm.
3.3610-4
Which of the following is responsible for the colors observed in
soap bubbles? Interference
The first measurement of the wavelengths of light was made by
Thomas Young.
When light is passed through a narrow slit (slit width approaching
the wavelength of the light) the light is spread out by a
process called diffraction.

HW 8
On a clear day when the sun is low in the west, if you look
directly overhead into the blue sky you should expect it to be
polarized in the north-south direction.
Polaroid sunglasses are designed to block the glare of sunlight
reflected from shiny surfaces. They are designed to block
horizontally polarized light.
The Brewster angle is the angle of ___.
When incident unpolarized light of intensity I0 is passed through a
single ideal linear polarizer the resulting light intensity is I0 /2.
A second ideal polarizer is placed after the polarizer of the
previous problem. The polarization direction of the second
polarizer is oriented at 45o to that of the first polarizer. What is
the intensity of the light that passes through the second
polarizer? I0 /4
A third ideal polarizer is placed after the second polarizer of the
previous problem. The polarization direction of this third polarizer
is oriented at 90o to that of the first polarizer. What is the
intensity of the light that passes through the third polarizer?
Unpolarized light of intensity I0 is incident on an ideal polarizer
with its polarization axis aligned vertically. The light then passes
through a second ideal polarizer with its polarization axis tilted at
an angle to the vertical. When = 90o the intensity emerging
through the second polarizer is 0?
Two ideal linear polarizers are aligned with their polarization axes
at 90o. A third polarizer is inserted between them. If the angle
between the first polarizer and the middle one is 90o no light is
passed.
Two ideal linear polarizers are aligned with their polarization axes
at 90o. A third polarizer is inserted between them. If the angle
between the first polarizer and the middle one is 45o

## Polarization of light is best understood using the wave model of

light.
In a demonstration, polarized light was shined through a column
of Karo syrup. What you saw was due to optical activity and
dispersion.
The quantitative statement that relates the intensity passes by a
polarizer to the angle between the transmission axis of the
polarizer and the polarization angle of the incident light is known
as Maluss law.
In the lecture you saw a birefringent crystal of calcite placed over
a line and rotated. At one position, when looking through the
crystal, the single line became two lines. The light corresponding
to these two images is linearly polarized at right angles to
each other.
HW 9
Use for next three problems: A single 40-W incandescent lamp
emits 500 lumens and a single 100-W lamp emits 1750 lumens.
(Hint: At 550 nm, 1 W = 683 lumens.)
What is the efficacy of the 40-W lamp? 12.5 lumens/watt
Two 100-W lamps consume the same power as five 40-W lamps.
What fraction of light is given off by two 100-W lamps compared
to five 40-W lamps? 1.40
Estimate the efficiency of the 40-W lamp in terms of light power
out compared to electric power in. 1.8%
The unit for the flux of radiant energy is the watt. What is the
equivalent unit for visible light? lumen
A Sylvania clear glass light bulb operates on 60 W of electrical
power and emits 890 lumens of light. What is the efficiency of
the light bulb? (%) 2.17

## The difference between phosphorescence and fluorescence is that

phosphorescence is a delayed fluorescence.
A small incandescent lamp operates at a temperature of 2000 K.
If the same filament could withstand a temperature of 4000 K,
how much radiation would it emit at the higher temperature than
it would at the lower temperature? 16 times as much
An incandescent lamp operates at a temperature of 2900 K. What
is the wavelength of the peak in its radiant spectrum? 1.00 x 106
m
When an object is heated to a high temperature it glows. When it
just begins to glow it is a ____ and it becomes ____ and then
____ as it gets hot enough.
The surface of a particular star is at 5800 K. What is the
wavelength of the peak in its radiant spectrum? 500 x 10-9 m
The peak sensitivity of the eye in bright light (daylight) is 555
nm and in dim light (night) is 510 nm.
The energy of a photon with wavelength = 620 nm is that 2
eV.
What is the wavelength, of a photon with energy of 4.00 eV?
310 nm
The photon with a wavelength, of 310 nm lies in the
ultraviolet spectral region.
An unexcited atom has its electrons in quantized energy states in
the lowest energy possible. When enough energy is available, the
electron moves to higher energy states. For simplicity consider a
one-electron atom with a lowest state of energy E0 and a higher
state E1.
In a collection of such atoms we normally find that more atoms
have electrons in state E0 than in E1.
For the atoms above, we describe them as having an inverted

## population when more atoms have electrons in state E1 than

in E0.
When an atom with its electron in state E1 de-excites by radiation
to state E0, it emits a photon of energy Ep = E1 - E0. When a
photon of energy EP hits an atom with its electron in state E1 it is
possible to get stimulated emission of another photon.
When an atom with its electron in state E1 de-excites by radiation
to state E0, it emits a photon of energy Ep = E1 - E0. When a
photon of energy EPhits an atom with its electron in state E0 it is
possible to get absorption of the photon.
What do you see when looking at laser light reflecting off the wall
that tells you that it is coherent? The speckle pattern
Newer light emitting diodes have an efficacy that is greater
than that of incandescent lamps.
HW 10
We categorize color with three attributes: hue, saturation, and
lightness. The terms value and chroma are often used to mean
lightness and saturation, respectively.
The four psychological colors are: red, green, blue, and
yellow.
Characterize the yellow light that you see in a spectrum produced
from white light. Spectral yellow contains only wavelengths
from 570 nm to 590 nm.
Two colors that appear to be the same under one type of lighting
(say fluorescent) but appear different under other lighting (such
as daylight) are known as metamers.
An effect that results from chromatic lateral inhibition is color
constancy.
When you walk into a darkened room from the bright outdoors,

you cannot see well immediately. After a few minutes you realize
that you are seeing quite well. The change of your visual
The color sensitive cells in the retina are known as cones.
You view a bright blue book for a minute, then shift your gaze to
a white sheet of paper. You then see a yellow image of the book.
This effect is called negative afterimage.
Which type of photoreceptors in the eye are most sensitive to low
levels of light, which are most sensitive to color, and which do not
give any color information? Rods, cones, rods

HW 11
Characterize the yellow light that you see reflected from a
lemon? The light reflected from the lemon may have
wavelengths from near 500 to 700 nm.
Predicting the result of adding two colors of paint is more difficult
than predicting the color created using filters because color
mixing in paint is a combination of both additive and
subtractive color processes.
In the L*a*b* system for quantifying color, L*, a*, and b* form
the axes of a three-dimensional coordinate system. Which
coordinate(s) are needed to define hue? a* and b*
In the L*a*b* system for quantifying color, L*, a*, and b* form
the axes of a three-dimensional coordinate system. Which
coordinate(s) are needed to define lightness (value)? L* only
In the L*a*b* system for quantifying color, L*, a*, and b* form
the axes of a three-dimensional coordinate system. Which
coordinate(s) are needed to define saturation (or chroma)? a*
and b*
The CIE color measurement system is based on human

## observers matching a color with three primary-colored

lights.
Meters that measure color in the L*a*b* system do so by
determining the CIE tristimulus values and computing L*,
a*, and b* from them.
Television is able to reasonably reproduce the colors of most
object because most objects reflect a broad band of
wavelengths.
In printing magazines, the colors are made using the subtractive
primaries. They are cyan, magenta, and yellow.
Yellow and red filters are referred to as turn-on filtersbecause
they block light up to a particular wavelength at which they begin
to turn on and transmit light of longer wavelengths. Consider
an orange filter that turns on at 600 nm. When four layers of
that filter are overlapped, the resulting transmittance curve is
decreased and shifted to longer wavelengths.
When printing photos in books and magazines, it is standard to
separate the image into four screened images and to overlay
them using four separate colors. The four colors normally used
are: cyan, magenta, yellow, and black.
When a colored material is ground up into a very fine powder, its
color becomes a desaturated pastel shade of its initial color
because the fine powder has many more surfaces that
reflect white light.
If light is first passed through a yellow filter and then through a
cyan filter, the color of the emerging light is
If light is passed through a red filter and then through a green
filter, the color of the emerging light is black, i.e. no light
emerges.
If light is passed through a yellow filter and then through a blue
filter, the color of the emerging light is

## If light is passed through a red filter and then through a magenta

filter, the color of the emerging light is red.