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Comparison between diesel and solar powered mobile base

stations
Mobile Base Station
In todays world mobile phones are very common and nearly everyone use
them, and due to this the power consumption of in this sector has also increased.
Communication network has gain strength such that we can communicate to
anyone anywhere in the world whenever we want. This has been possible due to
the wireless communication all over the world , for this wireless communication
we have to set up base stations , so that we are always connected to the network,
these base stations are powered by electricity , but when these BTS(base
stations) are located in some places where electricity is not being provided like
in many villages in India or where it is not possible to operate the base station
due to the low Line voltages or power cut off in many places ,then we have to
use either the back up system with batteries or we have to use diesel generator
to run the BTS. Using the generator cause CO2 emission and if we want to
reduce the emission we have to use an alternate energy source for the purpose,
and I would like discuses about solar energy because it is renewable and is
available everywhere and has no environmental impact once installed.
Power consumption of a Mobile Base Station:
The whole system of wireless network runs on 48-54 volts DC. The current
drawn by the system depends on the number of users using their Mobile phones
which are networking with the base station. On an average the current is nearly
25- 35 amps.
power for bts = 2000kw

Diesel powered base station:


Calorific value of diesel = 44800 kj/kg
CO2 emission= 2.62 kg/ltr
Average of transport vehicle= 11 km/ltr
Energy in transportation=
Amount of diesel for generator in 1 hr = 2.27 litres

Amount of diesel in day= 2.27*24 litres


Amount of diesel in a year = 2.27* 24* 365 litres
= 19885.2 litres
Amount of CO2 in a year = 19885.2* 2.62= 52099.22 Kg
Lets say a vehicle carrys 100 litres of diesel in a time to the Base Station.
So it would have to go 199 time to the base station from the nearest petrol pump.

Pv cells:
Photovoltaics (PV), also known as solar cells, are made of crystalline silicon, a
semi-conducting material which converts sunlight into electricity. The silicon
required for PV modules is extracted from quartz sand at high temperatures.
This is the most energy intensive phase of PV module production, accounting
for 60% of the total energy requirement.
For 1 m2 of PV system:
Production of 2.234 kg Mg-Si = 20*2.234 = 44.68 kWh
Production of 2.011 kg Eg-Si =100*2.011 =201.1 kWh
Production of 1.448 kg Cz-Si = 290* 1.448 = 419.92kWh
Total

= 665.7 kWh =666 kWh (approx.)

Energy required for 1 m2 of solar cell is 120kWh.


Energy required for 1 m2 of PV module is 190 kWh.
Total energy embodied in the 1 m2 module is 666 + 120 + 190 kWh = 976kWh
The efficiency of the is nearly 11% but after some years it would drop to 8% .
Packaging factor = actual area of cells on module / total area of module.
Packaging factor of .82 in PV module so the radiation will have a factor of .82 in conversion
to electricity.
400kWh of energy for installation of this 1 m2 of PV module.

Energy output of the 1 m2 PV module = average solar radiation in a year *


efficiency of solar cell * packaging factor * Efficiency of other systems.

Average solar radiation in a year= radiation in a day *(number of days the sky Was clean)
We know that 0.99kg of CO2 is produced for 1kWh of electrical energy of coal.

CO2 emissions per year for 1 m2 of PV module = (Energy embodied *


0.99)/life expectancy
1 m3 of concrete = 272.1 kwh and 14.2 kg of co2
The total energy required to run the mobile Base Station

= 2kWh *24 Hrs*365 days


=17520 kWh / yr.

Area required for installation of PV module = / Energy output of the 1 m2 PV module


Lets take 12 volts luminous batteries with 180Ah rating
The energy required for store for night and other usage is 2*12=24 kwh.
no. of batteries required= 24/2.16 = 12 batteries.

Village jaitsar:
When the BTS is operated by diesel then
nearest petrol pump approx. 60 km
vehicle average= 11km /ltr
amount of diesel for vehicle in a year =(120/11)*(199 up-down)=2170ltrs
total diesel= 2170+19885 =22055ltr
the energy embodied= energy in diesel

= 44.8 MJ/kg * 22055 ltr * .85 kg/ltr


= 839862 MJ/yr

amount of CO2 =2170*2.62


amount of CO2 per year is

= 5687.78 kg
5687.78 + 52099.22

= 57787 kg

When the Base Station is operated by solar panels :


Average Solar radiation a day= 5.35 kwh/m2 /day. at angle of 630 tilt facing south.
This is the best case scenario.
Radiation may vary.

Solving for worst case.


Average day length is 11.25 hours but max intensity is for nearly 8 hrs.
Total radiation in a day = 5 kwh/m2
Efficiency of other electrical systems (rectifiers inverters )= .9
Amount of energy converted to useful electricity= 5*0.11*0.82* 0.9 = 0.4
Energy needed in a day = 48 kWh
Area of panel= 48/0.4=120 m2
Energy embodied in PV system = 120 * 976 =117120 kwh
CO2 emissions =117120 * 0.99 / 30yrs= 3864.96 kg

Conclusion:
Every thing is in per year.
The energy embodied diesel is 2280 MWh
The co2 emission in diesel is 52099.22 kg
The energy embodied PV is 117.12 MWh
The co2 emission in PV is 3864.96 kg
We can see a big difference in the values of embodied energy and CO2 emissions.