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The following examples illustrate the Materials


design methods presented in the article • Concrete: normal weight (150 pcf), ¾-in.
“Timesaving Design Aids for Reinforced maximum aggregate, f′c = 5,000 psi
Concrete, Part 3: Columns and Walls,” by • Mild reinforcing steel: Grade 60 (fy =
David A. Fanella, which appeared in the 60,000 psi)
November 2001 edition of Structural
Engineer magazine. Unless otherwise Loads
noted, all referenced table, figure, and • Floor framing dead load = 80 psf
equation numbers are from that article. • Superimposed dead loads = 30 psf
The examples presented here are for • Live load = 100 psf (floor), 20 psf (roof)
columns.
Building Data
Examples for walls are available on our • Typical interior bay = 30 ft x 30 ft
Web page: www.portcement.org/buildings. • Story height = 12 ft-0 in.

Example 1 The table below contains a summary of the


axial loads due to gravity. The total
In this example, an interior column at the factored load Pu is computed in accordance
1st floor level of a 7-story building is with Sect. 9.2.1, and includes an estimate
designed for the effects of gravity loads. for the weight of the column. Live load
Structural walls resist lateral loads, and reduction is determined from ASCE 7-98.
the frame is nonsway. Moments due to gravity loads are negligible.

Floor DL (psf) LL (psf) Red. LL (psf) Pu (kips) Cum. Pu (kips)


7 80 20 20.0 142 142
6 120 100 50.0 238 380
5 120 100 42.7 227 607
4 120 100 40.0 223 830
3 120 100 40.0 223 1,053
2 120 100 40.0 223 1,276
1 120 100 40.0 223 1,499
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Use Fig. 1 to determine a preliminary size For a 22 x 22 in. column at the 1st floor
for the tied column at the 1st floor level. level:

Assuming a reinforcement ratio ρg = Pu /Ag = 1,499/484 = 3.10 ksi


0.020, obtain Pu /Ag ≈ 3.0 ksi (f′c = 5 ksi).
From Fig. 1, required ρg = 0.026, or
Since Pu = 1,499 kips, the required Ag =
1,499/3.0 = 499.7 in.2 As = 0.026 x 22 x 22 = 12.58 in.2

Try a 22 x 22 in. column (Ag = 484 in.2) Try 8-No. 11 bars (As = 12.48 in.2)
with a reinforcement ratio ρg greater than
0.020. Check Eq. (10-2) of ACI 318-99:

Check if slenderness effects need to be φPn(max) = 0.80φ[0.85f’c (Ag – Ast) + fy Ast]


considered.
φPn(max) = 1,542 kips > 1,499 kips O.K.
Since the column is part of a nonsway
frame, slenderness effects can be From Table 1, 5-No. 11 bars can be
neglected when the unsupported column accommodated on the face of a 22-in. wide
length is less than or equal to 12h, where column with normal lap splices and No. 4
h is the column dimension (Sect. 10.12.2). ties. In this case, only 3-No. 11 bars are
provided per face.
12h = 12 x 22 = 264 in. = 22 ft > 12 ft
story height, which is greater than the Use 8-No. 11 bars (ρ = 2.58%).
unsupported length of the column.
Therefore, slenderness effects can be Determine required ties and spacing.
neglected.
According to Sect. 7.10.5.1, No. 4 ties are
Use Fig. 1 to determine the required area required when No. 11 longitudinal bars are
of longitudinal reinforcement. used.
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22 − 2 1.5 + 0.5 +


According to Sect. 7.10.5.2, spacing of 1.41 

ties shall not exceed the least of:
Clear space =  2  − 1.41
2
16 long. bar diameters = 16 x 1.41 = 6.885 in.
16 long. bar diameters = 22.6 in.
Since the clear space between longitudinal
48 tie bar diameters = 48 x 0.5 bars > 6 in., cross-ties are required per
48 tie bar diameters = 24 in. Sect. 7.10.5.3.

Least column dimension = 22 in. (governs) Reinforcement details are shown below.

Check clear spacing of longitudinal bars: See Sect. 7.8 for additional special
reinforcement details for columns.

8-No. 11

22″

No. 4 ties @ 22″

22″
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Example 2 • Point 2 (fs1 = 0)

In this example, a simplified interaction Layer 1:


diagram is constructed for an 18″ x 18″ d
1 − C 2 1 = 1 − 1 (1) = 0
tied column reinforced with 8-No. 9 Grade d1
60 bars (ρg = 8/182 = 0.0247). Concrete
compressive strength = 4 ksi. Layer 2:
1 − C 2 2 = 1 − 1 
d 9.00 
 = 0.42
Use Fig. 3 to determine the 5 points on d1  15.56 
the interaction diagram.
Layer 3:
• Point 1: Pure compression
1 − C 2 3 = 1 − 1 
d 2.44 
 = 0.84
d1  15.56 
φPn(max) = 0.80 φA g [ 0.85 fc′
+ ρ g ( fy − 0.85 fc′ )] Since 1 – C2 (d3 /d1) > 0.69, the steel in
layer 3 has yielded.
= 0.56 × 18 2 [( 0.85 × 4 )
+ 0.0247 (60 − (0.85 × 4 ))] Therefore, set 1 – C2 (d3 /d1) = 0.69 to
= 871 kips ensure that the stress in the bars in
layer 3 is equal to 60 ksi.
1.5″ (typ.)
d3 = 2.44″

18″
No. 3 tie
d2 = 9.00″

3-No. 9
d1 = 15.56″

18″

2-No. 9

3-No. 9
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 n  di   • Point 3 (fs1 = -0.5fy)


φPn = φ C 1d 1b + 87 ∑ A si  1 − C 2 
 i=1  d 1  
Layer 1:
d
= 0.70 {(2.89 × 15.56 × 18) 1 − C 2 1 = 1 − 1.34 (1) = −0.34
d1
+ 87[(3 × 0) + (2 × 0.42)
+ (3 × 0.69)]} Layer 2:
= 0.70 (809 .4 + 253 .2) d
1 − C 2 2 = 1 − 1.34  9.00  = 0.23
 
= 744 kips d1  15.56 

Layer 3:
  βd 
φMn = φ 0.5C 1d 1b h − 1 1 
1 − C 2 3 = 1 − 1.34 
d 2.44 
  C2   = 0.79
d1  15.56 
 d i  h 
 − di   / 12
n
+ 87 ∑ A si  1 − C 2
i=1  d 1  2  Use 0.69

= 0.70{[( 0.5 × 2.89 × 15.56 × 18)  n  di  


φPn = φ C 1d 1b + 87 ∑ A si  1 − C 2 
 i=1  d 1  
0.85 × 15.56  
×  18 − 
 1.00 
+ 87[(3 × 0)(9 − 15.56) = 0.70 {(2.15 × 15.56 × 18)
+ (2 × 0.42)(9 − 9) + 87[(3 × -0.34 ) + (2 × 0.23)
+ (3 × 0.69)(9 − 2.44 )]} / 12 + (3 × 0.69)]}
= 0.70(602 .2 + 131 .4 )
= 0.70 (1, 932 .1 + 1, 181 .4 ) / 12 = 514 kips
= 182 ft - kips
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  βd  Layer 3:
φMn = φ 0.5C 1d 1b h − 1 1 
1 − C 2 3 = 1 − 1.69 
d 2.44 
  C2   = 0.74
d1  15.56 
 d i  h 
 − di   / 12
n
+ 87 ∑ A si  1 − C 2 Use 0.69
i=1  d 1  2 
 n  d 
φPn = φ C 1d 1b + 87 ∑ A si  1 − C 2 i  
= 0.70{[( 0.5 × 2.15 × 15.56 × 18)  d1 
 i=1
0.85 × 15.56  
×  18 − 
 1.34  = 0.70 {(1.71 × 15.56 × 18)
+ 87[(3 × -0.34 )(9 − 15.56) + 87[(3 × -0.69) + (2 × 0.02)
+ (2 × 0.23)(9 − 9) + (3 × 0.69)]}
+ (3 × 0.69)(9 − 2.44 )]} / 12 = 0.70 ( 478 .9 + 3.5) = 338 kips

= 0.70 (2, 447 .8 + 1, 763 .5) / 12   βd 


= 246 ft - kips φMn = φ 0.5C 1 d 1b h − 1 1 
  C2 
 d  h 
+ 87 ∑ A si  1 − C 2 i  − d i   / 12
n
• Point 4 (fs1 = -fy)
i=1  d 1  2 
Layer 1:
d
1 − C 2 1 = 1 − 1.69 (1) = −0.69 = 0.70{[( 0.5 × 1.71 × 15.56 × 18)
d1 0.85 × 15.56  
×  18 − 
 1.69 
Layer 2: + 87[(3 × -0.69)(9 − 15.56)
1 − C 2 2 = 1 − 1.69 
d 9.00 
 = 0.02 + (2 × 0.02)(9 − 9)
d1  15.56 
+ (3 × 0.69)(9 − 2.44 )]} / 12
= 0.70 (2, 436 .3 + 2, 362 .8) / 12
= 280 ft - kips
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• Point 5: Pure bending fs2 = E s ε s2


= 29, 000 × ( −0.0038 ) = −108 .8 ksi
Use iterative procedure to determine > -60 ksi, use fs2 = −60 ksi
φMn.

Try c = 4.0 in. Ts2 = As2 fs2 = 2 × ( −60) = −120 kips

c − d1 
ε s 1 = 0.003 
c − d1 
 ε s 3 = 0.003  
 c   c 
4 − 2.44 
= 0.003 
4 − 15.56 
 = 0.003  
 4   4 
= −0.0087 = 0.0012

fs 1 = E s ε s 1 fs 3 = E s ε s 3
= 29, 000 × (−0.0087 ) = −251 .4 ksi = 29, 000 × 0.0012 = 33 .9 ksi
> - 60 ksi, use fs1 = −60 ksi
C s3 = A s 3 fs 3 = 3 × 33 .9 = 102 kips
Ts1 = As 1 fs 1 = 3 × (−60) = −180 kips
C c = 0.85 fc′ ab
c − d1  = 0.85 × 4 × (0.85 × 4 ) × 18
ε s2 = 0.003  
 c  = 208 kips
4 − 9
= 0.003  
 4  Total T = (-180) + (-120) = -300 kips
= −0.0038
Total C = 102 + 208 = 310 kips

Since T ≈ C, use c = 4.0 in.


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Mns 1 = Ts 1  − d 1 
h Compare simplified interaction diagram to
2  interaction diagram generated from the
PCA computer program PCACOL.
= (−180 ) − 15.56  / 12
18
2 
= 98.4 ft - kips The comparison is shown on the next page.
As can be seen from the figure, the
comparison between the exact (black line)
Mns 2 = Ts2  − d2 
h
and simplified (red line) interaction
2  diagrams is very good.
= (−120 ) − 9  / 12
18
2 
=0

Mns 3 = C s 3  − d 3 
h
2 
= 102  − 2.44  / 12
18
2 
= 55.8 ft - kips

3
Mn = 0.5C c (h − a) + ∑ Mnsi
i=1
= [ 0.5 × 208 × (18 − 3.4 )] / 12 + 154 .2
= 280 .7 ft - kips

φMn = 0.9 × 280 .7 = 253 ft - kips


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