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Anda di halaman 1dari 9

of of

the

ASME

2010

Pressure

Vessels

and

Proceedings

the

ASME

2010

Pressure

Vessels

& Piping Division / K-PVP Conference

PVP2010

PVP2010

July 18-22, 2010, Bellevue, Washington, USA

July

PVP2010-25092

PVP2010-250

LOWER BOUND BUCKLING LOAD OF A FLOATING ROOF PONTOON

Shoichi Yoshida

Yokohama National University

Yokohama, Japan

ABSTRACT

The 2003 Tokachi-Oki earthquake caused severe damage

to oil storage tanks due to liquid sloshing. Seven single-deck

floating roofs had experienced sinking failures in large

diameter tanks at a refinery in Tomakomai, Japan. The

pontoons of the floating roofs might be buckled due to bending

load during the sloshing. The content in the tank was spilled

on the floating roof from small failures which were caused in

the welding joints of pontoon bottom plate by the buckling.

Then the floating roof began to lose buoyancy and sank into the

content slowly. The elastic buckling of the pontoon is

important from the viewpoint of the single-deck floating roof

sinking. The authors had reported the buckling strength of the

pontoons subjected to bending and compressive loads in the

published literatures. The axisymmetric shell finite element

method for linear elastic bifurcation buckling was used in the

analysis. The buckling characteristics of the pontoon both

with and without ring stiffeners were investigated. The initial

geometrical imperfection may diminish the buckling load.

This paper presents the lower bound buckling load according to

the reduced stiffness method proposed by Croll and Yamada.

The lower bound buckling loads of the pontoon subjected to

circumferential bending load are evaluated from the

axisymmetric finite element analysis which includes the

reduced stiffness method.

INTRODUCTION

The floating roofs are used in large aboveground oil

storage tanks to prevent evaporation of the content. They are

welded steel structure and are classified into two basic types,

single-deck and double-deck structures. The single-deck

floating roofs, which are considered herein, consists of a thin

circular plate called a deck attached to a buoyant ring of boxshaped cross section called a pontoon.

Seven single-deck floating roof had sunk in the 2003

Tokachi-Oki earthquake at a refinery in Tomakomai, Japan.

The floating roofs deformed to leak oil due to the liquid

sloshing as shown in Fig.1, and they lost buoyancy to sink

failures in welded joints or in stress concentrated parts of the

pontoon were caused due to the sloshing, and next these

failures expanded gradually in the sinking process.

Floating roof

the circumferential bending load, which is concave downward

on the maximum wave height side and upward on the minimum

wave height side. The buckling may occur on either roof

plate or bottom plate of the pontoon, on which circumferential

compressive stress acts. The elastic buckling of the pontoon

is important from the viewpoint of the single-deck floating roof

sinking.

The author had investigated the elastic buckling

characteristics of the pontoons with and without ring stiffeners

subjected to several combined bending load and compressive

load due to the sloshing using the axisymmetric shell finite

element analysis [1~4]. They were linear elastic bifurcation

buckling analyses for non-axisymmetric buckling modes under

axisymmetric loading. Though the sloshing load is nonaxisymmetric, it was assumed to be axisymmetric in the

analyses for simplification. In addition, the previous analyses

were for the pontoons without initial geometrical imperfection.

In thin shell structures, it is well known that the theoretical

buckling load is different from the experimental buckling load.

The reason of the difference is the geometrical imperfection of

the shell. The design formula for buckling load is usually

hand, the reduced stiffness method proposed by Croll and

Yamada [5~7] gives the lower bound buckling load

theoretically. In this method, the lower bound is assumed to

be obtained to eliminate the linear membrane strain energy

from the quadratic components of the variation of potential

energy in equilibrium condition. The shape of geometrical

imperfection is not required to define in this method.

This paper presents the lower bound buckling loads of the

floating roof pontoon subjected to circumferential bending

load. The axisymmetric shell finite element method which is

the same as the previous studies [1~4] is used. The results of

the analyses are evaluated to the lower bound using the reduced

stiffness method.

NOMENCLATURE

Nonlinear strain-displacement transformation matrix

[Bdm]

Radial displacement for m

dr-m

z-direction displacement for m

dz-m

d-m

Circumferential displacement for m

{dm}

Nodal displacement vector or buckling mode

E

Youngs modulus

RS factor

fRS

RS factor for m

fRSm

Moment of inertia of pontoon cross section

Ir

[KLm] Small displacement stiffness matrix

[KMm] Membrane component of small displacement

stiffness matrix

[Km] Initial stress stiffness matrix

Elemental initial stress stiffness matrix

[km]

Lower edge difference

LD

Inner rim height

Li

Outer rim height

Lo

Pontoon width

LP

Ring stiffener length

LR

M

Circumferential bending moment

Circumferential buckling bending moment

Mcr

Mcr with i ring stiffeners

Mcr-i

Lower bound circumferential buckling

M*cr

bending moment

M*cr with i ring stiffeners

M*cr-i

Circumferential buckling bending moment for m

Mcrm

Mcrm-i Mcrm with i ring stiffeners

M*crm Lower bound circumferential buckling

bending moment for m

M*crm-i M*crm with i ring stiffeners

Bending moment of i-direction

Mi

m

Circumferential wave number

Membrane force of i-direction

Ni

Initial meridional membrane force for m=0

NS0

Initial circumferential membrane force for m=0

N0

Inner rim radius

ri

(r, , z) Cylindrical coordinates

s

Elemental coordinate

t

Shell thickness

ti

tL

to

tR

tu

U2b

U2m

u

um

V2m

v

vm

w

wm

m

Ni

Mi

i

i

i

m

min

*

[ ]

Pontoon bottom plate thickness

Outer rim plate thickness

Thickness of ring stiffener

Pontoon roof plate thickness

Linear bending strain energy

Linear membrane strain energy

Tangential displacement of shell element

Tangential displacement of shell element for m

Nonlinear membrane strain energy

Circumferential displacement of shell element

Circumferential displacement of shell element for m

Normal displacement of shell element

Normal displacement of shell element for m

Rotation angle of nodal point

Rotation angle of nodal point for m

Membrane force of i-direction for virtual displacement

Bending moment of i-direction

for virtual displacement

Strain of i-direction for virtual displacement

Change of curvature of i-direction

for virtual displacement

Variation of total potential energy

Strain of i-direction

Eigenvalue or buckling load parameter for m

Minimum of m

RS Buckling parameter

Total potential energy

Poissons ratio

Initial circumferential membrane stress for m=0

Elemental angle

Coordinate transformation matrix

Change of curvature of i-direction

Subscript -i

Subscript m

Superscript (L)

Superscript (N)

Superscript *

Circumferential wave number

Liner term

Nonlinear term

Lower bound

The single-deck floating roof is made of mild steel, and its

members are jointed together by the welding. The thin

circular plate called a deck attaches to a buoyant ring of boxshaped cross section called a pontoon, as shown in Fig.2. The

pontoon consists of the inner rim, the outer rim, the pontoon

roof and the pontoon bottom. Both the plates of the pontoon

roof and the pontoon bottom have the range between 4.5 mm

and 6 mm in thickness, and both the inner rim and the outer rim

are about 12 mm. The deck thickness is about 4.5 mm (3/16

inch) regardless of the tank diameter. The pontoon is usually

a wide and shallow trapezoidal shape. The width of the

pontoon which equals to the length between the inner rim and

a number of compartments in the pontoon by the radially

arranged plates called a bulkhead. Each compartment has

leakproof. API Standard 650 Appendix C [8] gives the

minimum requirement for the floating roof design. However,

the sloshing motion has not been considered in the floating roof

design.

The sloshing in cylindrical oil storage tanks occurs due to

relatively long period earthquake motion in which predominant

period is 5 seconds to 15 seconds. The 1st natural period of

the tank is usually within this range. In the sloshing, the

direction of the maximum and the minimum wave height side

of the tank is the earthquake excitation direction as shown in

Fig.3. The pontoon is subjected to the circumferential

bending load which is concave downward on the maximum

wave height side and upward on the minimum wave height side

during the sloshing. The buckling may occur on either the

roof plate or the bottom plate of the pontoon, where the

circumferential compression stress acts.

remained afloat. Fig.5 shows the failure of the single-deck

floating roof in a 100,000 m3 crude oil tank at the 2003

Tokachi-Oki earthquake in Japan [3]. The floating roof had

damaged due to the sloshing, and it sank into the content.

This picture was taken after draining oil and cleaning the tank

several months after the earthquake. The large deformation

and failure of the floating roof is presumed to be caused during

the sinking process. This roof remained afloat without

collapse for several days after the earthquake according to

aerial photos. The author presumes that the damage condition

of both the single-deck floating roofs in Fig.4 and Fig.5 were

almost identical immediately after the earthquake. It is

concluded that the collapse of the single-deck floating roof as

shown in Fig.5 did not occur at the earthquake, but it occurred

during the sinking process.

Pontoon

Pontoon

Detail of Pontoon

Deck

Pontoon

Seal

Spilled oil

Bulkhead

Spilled oil

Outer rim

Deck

Deck

Deck

Shell

Bottom

Pontoon

Pontoon

Deck

Max. Sloshing

direction

Buckling

Deck

Buckling

Fig.4 shows the pontoon buckling in a 130,000 m3 crude

oil tank at the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan. Crude oil

was inundated into the pontoon from ruptured pontoon bottom

plate, and spilled into the deck from ruptured inner rim-to-deck

ANALYSIS

Axisymmetric Shell Finite Element

The axisymmetric shell finite element used in this analysis

is a conical frustum element as shown in Fig.6. In this

element, the tangential displacement u and the circumferential

displacement v are assumed to be linear function and the

normal displacement w to be cubic function with respect to s,

where s is the elemental coordinate.

The strain-displacement relation based on the KirchhoffLoves assumption is given by the Novozhilovs equation [10],

and the linear term is expressed by Eq.(1) and the nonlinear

term is expressed by Eq(2) [11]:

i

s

r

dr

L

1 v 1

+ (w cos + u sin )

s( L )

r r

(L )

u v v

sin

+

( L )

r s r

(1)

s

(L ) =

2w

2

s

s

(L )

2

1 w cos v sin w

s(L )

2

+ 2

2

s

r s

r

r

1

w

sin

w

cos

v

sin

cos

2

v

+ 2

+

r s

r

r

r s

u

j

dz

z

v

: Nodal point

number. The relation of the displacements between the global

coordinate and the elemental coordinate is defined as follows:

1 w

2 s

s( N )

2

( N ) 1 w

v cos

= 2

( N ) 2 r

s 1 w w

v

cos

r s

um cos

v

m 0

=

wm sin

m 0

(2)

of curvature. The superscript (L) and (N) denote a linear term

and a nonlinear term, respectively.

The elastic stress-strain relation based on the Hookes law

can be written as:

1

1

Ns

Et

N s

=

2

M s 1

M s

sym.

w =dw/ds

0

1

2

t2

t2

12

12

t2

12

0

s

0

s (3)

0

s

0

(1 )t 2 s

24

0

0

0 um

u

cosm

v 0

sinm

0

0 vm

=

0

cosm

0 wm

w m=0 0

0

0

cosm m

0

(4)

(5)

global coordinate and the rotation angle. Eq.(5) can be simply

written as follows:

{u m } = [ ]{d m }

thickness. Ni and Mi (i = s, , s) are the membrane forces and

the bending moments.

The displacements in elemental coordinate are expressed

using the Fourier expansion as follows:

0 sin 0d zm

1 0 0d m

0 cos 0d r m

0 0

1 m

(6)

The virtual work principle gives the equation of

bifurcation buckling for the circumferential wave number

m 2 under axisymmetric load as follows:

(7)

stiffness matrix, the initial stress stiffness matrix, the

displacement vector and the buckling load parameter,

respectively. The elemental initial stress stiffness matrix is

expressed by the following forms:

T N

0

[km ] = [Bdm ] s0

[Bdm ]dVe

(8)

N 0

0

Ve

where Ns0 is the initial meridian membrane forces and N0 is the

initial circumferential membrane forces of the shell element.

These are axisymmetric forces while the sloshing load is non-

the sloshing are approximately obtained from the axisymmetric

load.

[Bdm] is the nonlinear strain-displacement

transformation matrix.

Eq.(7) is the equation for a eigenvalue problem, and is

solved for the circumferential wave number m 2 . The

buckling load is derived from the minimum eigenvalue m.

The eigenvector {dm} corresponding to the eigenvalue m

becomes the buckling mode.

The computer code based on the theory mentioned above

was developed by the author. It was verified to investigate the

application to several problems [12,13].

INITIAL STRESS

The hatching area of Fig.7 is the pontoon cross section

and is discretized into 1500 to 1600 axisymmetric shell finite

elements. Point G is the centroid of the cross section. The

deck plate is not modeled in the analysis. The bulkhead plates

can not be taken into consideration in the analytical model

because of the axisymmetric analysis. Fig.8 shows the ring

stiffener which is LR in length and tR in thickness, and it

attaches to both the pontoon roof plate and the pontoon bottom

plate at regular intervals. The pontoon is subjected to

circumferential bending moment M as illustrated in Fig.9

M

M

In the elastic bifurcation buckling analysis, the initial

circumferential stresses are applied to the pontoon cross section

as shown in Fig.10. The initial circumferential stress which

is equivalent to the circumferential bending moment M is given

by:

=

M

z

Ir

(9)

through the centroid G, z is the distance from r axis through the

centriod. The initial meridional membrane forces in the

Eq.(8) is defined by the following equation in this analysis.

NS0 = 0

(10)

tu

N 0 = t

to

ti

Li

(11)

calculated by the following formulas:

M cr = min M

Lo

(12)

LD

Lp

ri

tL

eigenvalues m in each circumferential wave number m. The

circumferential buckling bending moment Mcrm for m is defined

by:

M crm = m M

(13)

The virtual displacements u, v, w are non

axisymmetric, and are given to axisymmetric shell structure

which is equilibrium condition under axisymmetric load. In

this condition, the strains and the changes of curvature of the

shell are written as follows:

s s0 + s( L ) + s( N )

(L)

(N )

0 + +

s s(L ) + s(N )

(14)

=

s( L )

( L )

(L)

s

s

where i(L), i(L) (i= s, , s) are the linear strain and the

change of curvature, i(N) (i= s, , s) is the nonlinear strain

due to the virtual displacements.

The membrane forces and the bending moments due to the

virtual displacements can be also written in the following form.

(15)

and the bending moment, Ni(N) (i= s, , s) is the nonlinear

membrane force due to the virtual displacements.

The variation of total potential energy can be written as:

= 1 + 2 + 3 + L

(16)

variation of total potential energy with respect to the

displacement.

The linear component 1 = 0

equilibrium and the quadratic component 2 = 0

buckling. 2 is decomposed as follows:

2 = U 2 M + U 2b + V2 M

of the

virtual

is the

is the

(17)

1

N s( L ) s( L ) + N( L ) ( L ) + N s(L ) s(L ) dA

2 A

(18)

1

N s 0 s( N ) + N S( N ) s 0 + N 0 ( N ) + N ( N ) 0 dA (20)

2 A

U 2 M + U 2b + V2 M = 0

(21)

U + U 2b

(22)

= 2M

V2 M

The linear membrane strain energy U2m seems to reduce

due to the initial geometrical imperfection. In the reduced

stiffness method [5~7], U2m is eliminated from the quadratic

component of the variation of total potential energy 2 as

follows:

(23)

U

(24)

* = 2 b

V2 M

In this paper, RS factor fRS is defined as:

U 2b

*

(25)

f RS =

=

U 2 M + U 2b

In the finite element analysis, RS factor for each

circumferential wave number fRSm is derived form the following

equation:

{d }T ([K Lm ] [K Mm ]){d m }

(26)

f RSm = m

{d m }T [K Lm ]{d m }

where {dm} is the buckling mode vector and [KMm] is the

membrane component of small displacement stiffness matrix.

The lower bound buckling load for each circumferentil wave

number Mcrm* is expressed as:

where U2b is the linear bending strain energy, U2m is the linear

membrane strain energy and V2m is the nonlinear membrane

strain energy.

These can be written in the following

equations.

V2 M =

1

M s( L ) s( L ) + M ( L )( L ) + M s(L ) s(L ) dA (19)

2 A

U 2b + *V2 M = 0

N s N s0 + N s( L ) + N s( N )

N

(L)

(N )

N 0 + N + N

N s N s(L ) + N s(N )

=

M s( L )

Ms

M

M ( L )

M s

M s(L )

U 2M =

U 2b =

(27)

value of Mcrm*.

ANALYTICAL MODEL

The pontoon is made of mild steel, and Young's modulus E

and Poisson's ratio are 200 GPa and 0.3, respectively. In

this analysis, the circumferential bending moment M where the

pontoon roof plate is subjected to compressive stress is defined

as positive as shown in Fig.9. Table 1 shows the basic

analytical conditions of the pontoon. The cross sectional area

Radius r i

30 m

Height

L

Inner rim

450 mm

i

Plate thickness t i

12 mm

Height L o

900 mm

Outer rim

Plate thickness t o

12 mm

Width L p

4m

Pontoon Roof plate thickness t u

6 mm

Bottom plate thickness t L 6 mm

Lower edge difference L D

150 mm

Length L R

Ring

120 mm

Stiffener Thickness t R

10 mm

Young's modulus E

200 GPa

Poison's ratio

0.3

circumferential wave number m is shown in Fig.13. The

minimum value of M*crm-i becomes the lower bound buckling

load M*cr-i which is shown as the ratio in Table 2. The ratio

M*crm-2/Mcr-2 with two ring stiffeners decreases largely at m =

14. The circumferential wave number m of the buckling load

Mcr-i is identical to that of the lower bound buckling load M*cr-i

both without and with one ring stiffener. On the other hand,

in the pontoon with two ring stiffeners, m is 101 in Mcr-2 and m

is 14 in M*cr-2 as shown in Table 2, and they are not identical.

10000

Mcrm-i (kN-m)

mm4 in this pontoon without ring stiffener. This is almost

equivalent to the pontoon which has 70 m in diameter.

The ring stiffeners are attached to both the pontoon roof plate

and the pontoon bottom plate at regular intervals.

Table 2 shows the buckling load without initial

geometrical imperfection Mcr-i which is derived from Eq.(12),

the minimum value of the RS factor fRSm-i and the lower bound

buckling load ratio M*cr-i/Mcr-i. M*cr-i is the lower bound

buckling load obtained by the reduced stiffness method and the

notation i denotes the number of ring stiffeners.

The buckling load without initial geometrical imperfection

Mcrm-i for each circumferential wave number m is shown in

Fig.11. The minimum of Mcrm-i becomes the buckling load

Mcr-i which is shown in Table 2. The RS factor fRSm-i for m is

shown in Fig.12. The minimum value of fRSm-i without ring

stiffener (i = 0) is 0.733 at m = 6, that with one ring stiffener ( i

= 1 ) is 0.478 at m = 12 and that with two ring stiffeners ( i = 2)

is 0.256 at m = 16 as shown in Table 2. The RS factor fRSm-i is

less than 1.0 and it decreases largely in the circumferential

wave number m less than 30. Also fRSm-i decreases with

increasing the number of ring stiffeners.

Circumferential bending

No ring ( i=0 )

One ring ( i=1 )

Two rings ( i=2 )

1000

100

10

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

1.2

RS factor fRSm-i

1.0

Minimum

Number of

M cr-i

*

M cr-i /M cr-i

f RSm-i

Ring Stiffeners

(kN-m)

i =0

57.20 (39)

0.733 (6)

0.975 (38)

171.37

(69)

0.478

(12)

0.995

(68)

i =1

370.94 (101)

0.256 (16)

0.564 (14)

i =2

(Circumferential wave number m )

0.8

Circumferential bending

0.6

No ring ( i=0 )

One ring ( i=1 )

Two rings ( i=2 )

0.4

0.2

0.0

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

Fig.12 RS factor

1000000

Circumferential bending ( i =1 )

10.0

Circumferential bending

No ring ( i=0 )

One ring ( i=1 )

Two rings ( i=2 )

crm-i /Mcr-i

100.0

1.0

100000

10000

U2b

U2b

U2m

U2M

1000

100

0.1

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

20

40

60

80

100

120

Eq.(18) and the linear bending strain energy U2b derived from

Eq.(19) are shown in Fig.14~Fig.16. Fig.14 shows the

energies of the pontoon without ring stiffeners, Fig.15 shows

the energies with a ring stiffener and Fig.16 shows the energies

with two ring stiffeners. Those strain energies are calculated

assuming the maximum buckling mode to 1 mm and those are

divided by the circular constant . U2b increases with

increasing the circumferential wave number m. On the other

hand, U2M increases first and then it decreases with increasing

m. The grade of an increase and decrease of U2M becomes

large with increasing the number of ring stiffeners.

1000000

Cicumferential bending ( i =2 )

100000

U2b

U2b

U2M

U2m

10000

1000

100

0

40

60

80

100

120

1000000

Circumferential bending ( i =0 )

Strain energy (N-mm)

20

100000

10000

U2b

U2b

U2M

U2M

1000

100

10

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

stiffeners are shown in Fig.17. These modes are illustrated on

the section = 0, and they distribute cosm along the

circumferential direction.

The buckling mode of the

circumferential wave number m = 12 deforms in whole area of

the pontoon roof plate. The buckling mode of m = 26 shows

the local buckling which deforms in the pontoon roof plate

between the ring stiffeners. The linear membrane strain

energy U2M becomes the maximum at m = 20 in Fig.16. The

buckling mode of m = 20 is just transforming into the local

buckling.

Because the buckling mode transforms into local buckling

at m = 20 with increasing m, the linear membrane strain energy

U2M becomes the maximum and then it decreases with

increasing m.

CONCLUSIONS

The initial geometrical imperfection may diminish the

buckling load. The lower bound buckling loads of the

floating roof pontoon of an oil storage tank subjected to

circumferential bending load are evaluated from the

axisymmetric finite element analysis and the reduced stiffness

method. The shape of imperfection is not required to define

in the reduced stiffness method.

As a result, the lower bound buckling loads of the pontoon

both without ring stiffeners and with one ring stiffener are

almost the same as the buckling loads without geometrical

imperfection. However, the lower bound buckling load of the

pontoon with two ring stiffeners is 56% of the buckling loads

without geometrical imperfection.

In this paper, the finite element method is the linear elastic

bifurcation buckling analysis for non-axisymmetric buckling

mode under axisymmetric loading. Though the sloshing load

is non-axisymmetric and theoretically has the circumferential

wave number m=1 due to the horizontal seismic excitation, it is

assumed to be axisymmetric, i.e., m=0, in this analysis. The

verification of this assumption will be a future study.

REFERENCES

[1]Yohida, S. and Kitamura, K., 2006, "Buckling of SingleDeck Floating Roofs in Aboveground Oil Storage Tanks

due to Circumferential Bending Load", PVP2006-ICPVT-

Vancouver.

[2]Yoshida, S. and Kitamura, K., 2007, "Buckling of Ring

Stiffened Pontoons of Floating Roofs in Aboveground Oil

Storage Tanks", PVP2007-26252, Proceedings of 2007

ASME PVP Conference, San Antonio.

[3]Yoshida, S., 2008, "Buckling Characteristics of Floating

Roof Pontoons in Aboveground Storage Tanks Subjected to

Bending Load in Two Directions", PVP2008-61085,

Proceedings of 2008 ASME PVP Conference, Chicago.

[4]Yoshida, S., 2009, "Buckling Characteristics of Floating

Roof Pontoons in Aboveground Storage Tanks Subjected to

Both Compressive and Bending Load", PVP2009-77227,

Proceedings of 2009 ASME PVP Conference, Prague.

[5]Yamada, S., and Croll, J.G.A, 1989, "Buckling Behavior of

Pressure Loaded Cylindrical Panels", Journal of

Engineering Mechanics, 115(2), pp.327-344.

[6]Yamada, S., and Croll, J.G.A, 1993, "Buckling and PostBuckling Characteristics of Pressure-Loaded Cylinders",

Journal of Applied Mechanics, 60, pp.290-299.

[7]Yamada, S., and Croll, J.G.A, 1999, "Contribution to

Understanding the Behavior of Axially Compressed

Cylinders", Journal of Applied Mechanics, 66, pp.299-309.

[8]American Petroleum Institute, 2007, API Standard 650,

Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage, 11th edition.

[9]Yoshida, S., Zama, S., Yamada, M., Ishida, K. and Tahara,

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