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Franz Joseph I of Austria

Franz Joseph redirects here. For other uses, see Franz


Joseph (disambiguation).

Hungarys declaration of war against the Kingdom of Serbia, which was Russias ally. This activated a system of
alliances which resulted in World War I.

Franz Joseph I or Francis Joseph I (German: Franz


Josef I., Hungarian: I. Ferenc Jzsef, Croatian: Franjo
Josip I., Czech: Frantiek Josef I., 18 August 1830 21
November 1916) was Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia. From 1 May 1850 until 24
August 1866 he was President of the German Confederation.[1]

Franz Joseph died on 21 November 1916, after ruling


his domains for almost 68 years. He was succeeded by
his grandnephew Charles. He was the longest-reigning
emperor of Austria.

1 Name

In December 1848, Emperor Ferdinand abdicated the


throne as part of Ministerprsident Felix zu Schwarzen- His name in German was Franz Josef I and in Hungarian
bergs plan to end the Revolutions of 1848 in Aus- was I. Ferenc Jzsef. His names in other languages were:
tria, which allowed Ferdinands nephew Franz Joseph
to ascend to the throne. The event took place in the
Romanian: Francisc Iosif (no number used)
Moravian city of Olomouc. Largely considered to be
a reactionary, Franz Joseph spent his early reign resist Croatian and Bosnian: Franjo Josip I.
ing constitutionalism in his domains. The Austrian Em Serbian: (no number used)
pire was forced to cede most of its claim to Lombardy
Venetia to the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia following
Slovene: Franc Joef I.
the conclusion of the Second Italian War of Independence in 1859, and the Third Italian War of Indepen Czech: Frantiek Josef I.
dence in 1866. Although Franz Joseph ceded no territory to the Kingdom of Prussia after the Austrian defeat
Slovak: Frantiek Jozef I.
in the Austro-Prussian War, the Peace of Prague (23 Au Italian: Francesco Giuseppe I.
gust 1866) settled the German question in favour of Prussia, which prevented the unication of Germany under
the House of Habsburg (Grodeutsche Lsung).[2]

2 Early life

Franz Joseph was troubled by nationalism during his entire reign. He concluded the Ausgleich of 1867, which
granted greater autonomy to Hungary, hence transforming the Austrian Empire into the Austro-Hungarian Empire under his dual monarchy. His domains were then
ruled peacefully for the next 45 years, although Franz
Joseph personally suered the tragedies of the execution
of his brother, Maximilian in 1867, the suicide of his son,
Crown Prince Rudolf in 1889, and the assassination of his
wife, Empress Elisabeth in 1898.

Franz Joseph was born in the Schnbrunn Palace in Vienna, the oldest son of Archduke Franz Karl (the younger
son of Holy Roman Emperor Francis II), and his wife
Princess Sophie of Bavaria. Because his uncle, from
1835 the Emperor Ferdinand, was weak-minded, and
his father unambitious and retiring, the young Archduke
Franzl was brought up by his mother as a future Emperor with emphasis on devotion, responsibility and diligence. Franzl came to idolise his grandfather, der Gute
Kaiser Franz, who had died shortly before the formers
fth birthday, as the ideal monarch. At the age of 13,
young Archduke Franz started a career as a colonel in the
Austrian army. From that point onward, his fashion was
dictated by army style and for the rest of his life he normally wore the uniform of a military ocer.[3]

After the Austro-Prussian War, Austria-Hungary turned


its attention to the Balkans, which was a hotspot of international tension due to conicting interests with the
Russian Empire. The Bosnian crisis was a result of Franz
Josephs annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1908,
which had been occupied by his troops since the Congress
of Berlin (1878). On 28 June 1914, the assassination
of the heir-presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne, Franz Joseph was soon joined by three younger brothers:
his nephew Archduke Franz Ferdinand, at the hands of Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian (born 1832, the future
Gavrilo Princip, a Serbian nationalist, resulted in Austria- Emperor Maximilian of Mexico); Archduke Karl Ludwig
(born 1833, and the father of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
1

DOMESTIC POLICY

duke, who it was widely expected would soon succeed his


uncle on the throne, was appointed Governor of Bohemia
on 6 April, but never took up the post. Instead, Franz was
sent to the front in Italy, joining Field Marshal Radetzky
on campaign on 29 April, receiving his baptism of re on
5 May at Santa Lucia. By all accounts he handled his rst
military experience calmly and with dignity. Around the
same time, the Imperial Family was eeing revolutionary Vienna for the calmer setting of Innsbruck, in Tyrol.
Soon, the Archduke was called back from Italy, joining
the rest of his family at Innsbruck by mid-June. It was
at Innsbruck at this time that Franz Joseph rst met his
cousin Elisabeth, his future bride, then a girl of ten, but
apparently the meeting made little impact.[5]

Archduke Franz Joseph in 1840 (by Moritz Danger)

Following victory over the Italians at Custoza in late July,


the court felt safe to return to Vienna, and Franz Joseph
travelled with them. But within a few months Vienna
again appeared unsafe, and in September the court left
again, this time for Olmtz in Moravia. By now, Alfred
I, Prince of Windisch-Grtz, the inuential military commander in Bohemia, was determined to see the young
Archduke soon put onto the throne. It was thought that
a new ruler would not be bound by the oaths to respect
constitutional government to which Ferdinand had been
forced to agree, and that it was necessary to nd a young,
energetic emperor to replace the kindly, but mentally unt Emperor.[6]
It was thus at Olmtz on 2 December that, by the abdication of his uncle Ferdinand and the renunciation of his
father, the mild-mannered Franz Karl, Franz Joseph succeeded as Emperor of Austria. It was at this time that he
rst became known by his second as well as his rst Christian name. The name Franz Joseph was chosen deliberately to bring back memories of the new Emperors greatgranduncle, Emperor Joseph II, remembered as a modernising reformer.[7]

3 Domestic policy
Under the guidance of the new prime minister Prince
Schwarzenberg, the new emperor at rst pursued a cautious course, granting a constitution in early 1849. At the
same time, military campaigns were necessary against the
Hungarians, who had rebelled against Habsburg central
authority under the name of their ancient liberties. Franz
Joseph was also almost immediately faced with a renewal
of the ghting in Italy, with King Charles Albert of Sardinia taking advantage of setbacks in Hungary to resume
Franz Joseph I in 1851 (by Johann Ranzi)
the war in March 1849. Soon, though, the military tide
began to turn in favor of Franz Joseph and the Austrian
whitecoats. Almost immediately, Charles Albert was deof Austria), and Archduke Ludwig Viktor (born 1842), cisively beaten by Radetzky at Novara, and forced both to
and a sister, Maria Anna (born 1835), who died at the sue for peace and to abdicate his throne. In Hungary, the
age of four.[4]
situation was more grave and Austrian defeat was quite
Following the resignation of the Chancellor Prince Met- possible. Sensing a need to secure his right to rule, he
ternich during the Revolutions of 1848, the young Arch- sought help from Russia, requesting the intervention of

3.1

Assassination attempt in 1853

Assassination attempt on the Emperor, 1853

Franz Joseph I in 1853

Tsar Nicholas I, in order to prevent the Hungarian insurrection developing into a European calamity.[8] Russian
troops entered Hungary in support of the Austrians and
the revolution was crushed by late summer of 1849. With
order now restored throughout the Empire, Franz Joseph
felt free to go back on the constitutional concessions he
had made, especially as the Austrian parliament, meeting
at Kremsier, had behaved, in the young Emperors view,
abominably. The 1849 constitution was suspended, and
a policy of absolutist centralism was established, guided
by the Minister of the Interior, Alexander Bach.[9]
The next few years saw the seeming recovery of Austrias
position on the international scene following the near disasters of 18481849. Under Schwarzenbergs guidance,
Austria was able to stymie Prussian scheming to create
a new German Federation under Prussian leadership, excluding Austria. After Schwarzenbergs premature death
in 1852, he could not be replaced by statesmen of equal
stature, and the Emperor eectively took over himself as
prime minister.[9]

3.1

Franz Joseph in 1865

Assassination attempt in 1853

On 18 February 1853, the Emperor survived an assassination attempt by Hungarian nationalist Jnos Libnyi.[10]
The emperor was taking a stroll with one of his ocers,
Maximilian Karl Lamoral O'Donnell, on a city-bastion,
when Libnyi approached him. He immediately struck
the emperor from behind with a knife straight at the neck.

Franz Joseph almost always wore a uniform, which had


a high collar that almost completely enclosed the neck.
The collars of uniforms at that time were made from
very sturdy material exactly to counter this kind of attack.
Even though the Emperor was wounded and bleeding, the
collar saved his life. Count O'Donnell (descendant of the
Irish noble dynasty O'Donnell of Tyrconnell[11] ) struck

4 FOREIGN POLICY

Libnyi down with his sabre.[10]


O'Donnell, hitherto only a Count by virtue of his Irish
nobility, was thereafter made a Count of the Habsburg
Empire, conferred with the Commanders Cross of the
Royal Order of Leopold, and his customary O'Donnell
arms were augmented by the initials and shield of the
ducal House of Austria, with additionally the doubleheaded eagle of the Empire. These arms are emblazoned
on the portico of no. 2 Mirabel Platz in Salzburg, where
O'Donnell built his residence thereafter. Another witness who happened to be nearby, the butcher Joseph Ettenreich, quickly overwhelmed Libnyi. For his deed he
was later elevated to nobility by the Emperor and became
Joseph von Ettenreich. Libnyi was subsequently put on
trial and condemned to death for attempted regicide. He
was executed on the Simmeringer Heide.
After this unsuccessful attack, the Emperors brother
Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph, later Emperor of Mexico,
called upon Europes royal families for donations to a
new church on the site of the attack. The church was
to be a votive oering for the survival of the Emperor.
It is located on Ringstrae in the district of Alsergrund
close to the University of Vienna, and is known as the Franz Joseph in hunters costume, by Edmund Mahlknecht
Votivkirche.[10]

4 Foreign policy
3.2

Austro-Hungarian Compromise of
1867

Rare lm footage of the emperor, being greeted, circa 1910


Coronation as King of Hungary in 1867

The 1850s witnessed several failures of Austrian external policy: the Crimean War and break-up with Russia, and defeat in the Second Italian War of Independence. The setbacks continued in the 1860s with defeat
in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, which resulted in the
Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867.[12]
Political diculties in Austria mounted continuously
through the late 1800s and into the 20th century. But
Franz Joseph remained immensely respected. His patriarchal authority held the Empire together while the politicians squabbled.[13]

4.1 The German question


The main foreign policy goal of Franz Joseph I had been
the unication of Germany under the House of Habsburg.[14] This was justied on grounds of precedence;
from 1452 to the end of the Holy Roman Empire in
1806, with only one period of interruption under the
Wittelsbachs, the Habsburgs had generally held the German crown.[15] However, Franz Josephs desire to retain the non-German territories of the Habsburg Austrian
Empire in the event of German unication proved problematic. There quickly developed two factions, one party

4.4

The Vatican

of German intellectuals favouring a Greater Germany under the House of Habsburg; the others favouring a Lesser
Germany. The Greater Germans favoured the inclusion
of Austria in a new all-German state on the grounds that
Austria (sterreich) had always been a part of Germanic
empires, that it was the leading power of the German
Confederation, and that it would be absurd to exclude
eight million Austrian Germans from an all-German nation state. The champions of a lesser Germany argued
against the inclusion of Austria on the grounds that it was
a multination state, not a German one, and that its inclusion would bring millions of non-Germans into the German nation state.[16] If Greater Germany was to prevail,
the crown would necessarily have to go to Franz Joseph,
who had no desire to cede it in the rst place to anyone
else.[16] On the other hand, if the idea of a smaller Germany won out, the German crown could of course not
possibly go the Emperor of Austria, but would naturally
be oered to the head of the largest and most powerful German state outside of Austriathe King of Prussia.
The contest between the two ideas thus quickly developed
into a contest between Austria and Prussia. After Prussia
decisively won the Seven Weeks War, this question was
solved; Austria lost no territories as long as they remained
out of German aairs.[16]

4.2

The Three Emperors League

In 1873, two years after the unication of Germany,


Franz Joseph entered into the League of Three Emperors
with Kaiser Wilhelm I of Germany and Tsar Alexander
II of Russia (who was succeeded by Tsar Alexander III
in 1881). The league had been designed by the German
chancellor Otto von Bismarck, as an attempt to maintain
the peace of Europe. It would last intermittently until
1887.

4.3

The Czech Question

Many Czech people were waiting for political changes in


monarchy, including Tom Garrigue Masaryk and others. Masaryk served in the Reichsrat (Austrian Parliament) from 1891 to 1893 in the Young Czech Party and
again from 1907 to 1914 in the Realist Party (which he
founded in 1900), but he did not campaign for the independence of Czechs and Slovaks from Austria-Hungary.
In 1909 he helped Hinko Hinkovi in Vienna in the defense during the fabricated trial against mostly prominent
Croats and Serbs, members of the Croato-Serb Coalition
(such as Frano Supilo and Svetozar Pribievi), and others, who were sentenced to more than 150 years and a
number of death penalties. The Czech question was not
solved during all Franz Josephs political career.

4.4 The Vatican


In 1903, Franz Josephs veto of Cardinal Rampolla's election to the papacy was transmitted to the conclave by Cardinal Jan Puzyna. It was the last use of such a veto, because new Pope Pius X provided penalties for such.[17][18]

4.5 Bosnia and Herzegovina


Main article: Bosnian crisis
The mid 1870s witnessed a series of violent rebellions
against Ottoman rule in the Balkans, and equally violent
and repressive responses from the Turks. The Russian
Tsar, Alexander II, wanting to intervene against the Ottomans, sought and obtained an agreement with AustriaHungary. In the Budapest Conventions of 1877, the two
powers agreed that Russia would annex Bessarabia, and
Austria Hungary would observe a benevolent neutrality
toward Russia in the pending war with the Turks. As
compensation for this support, Russia agreed to AustriaHungarys annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina.[19] A scant
15 months later, the Russians imposed the Treaty of San
Stefano on the Ottomans, which reneged on the Budapest
accord and declared that Bosnia-Herzogovina would be
jointly occupied by Russian and Austrian troops.[19] The
treaty of San Stefano was overturned by the 1878 Treaty
of Berlin. which allowed for sole Austrian occupation
of Bosnia-Herzegovina, but did not specify a nal disposition of the provinces. This omission was addressed
in the Three Emperors League treaty of 1881, where
both Germany and Russia endorsed Austrias right to annex Bosnia-Herzegovina[20] However, by 1897, under a
new Tsar, the Russian Imperial government had managed, again, to withdraw its support for Austrian annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina. The Russian Foreign minister, Count Michael Muraviev, stated that an Austrian
annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina would raise an extensive question requiring special scrutiny.[21]
In 1908, the Russian foreign minister, Alexander Izvolsky again, and for the third time, oered Russian support for the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by
Austria-Hungary, in exchange for Austrian support for
the opening of the Bosporus Strait and the Dardanelles to
Russian warships. The Austrias foreign minister, Alois
von Aehrenthal, pursued this oer vigorously, resulting in
the quid pro quo understanding with Izvolsky, reached on
the 16th of September 1908, at the Buchlau Conference.
However, Izvolsky made this agreement with Aehrenthal,
without the knowledge of Tsar Nicholas II, his government in St. Petersburg, nor any of the other foreign powers including Britain, France and Serbia.
Based upon the assurances of the Buchlau Conference,
not to mention the preceding treaties, Franz Joseph signed
the proclamation announcing the annexation of BosniaHerzegovina into the empire on 6 October 1908. How-

ever, a diplomatic crisis erupted, as both the Serbs, and,


incomprehensibly, the Italians, demanded compensation
for the annexation, which the Austrian-Hungarian government would not entertain. The matter was not resolved until the revision of the Treaty of Berlin in April
1909. The incident served to exacerbate tensions between Austria-Hungary and the Serbs.

Outbreak of World War I

FAMILY

trian army, and the rest of the ministers.[23] On 21 July,


Franz Joseph was apparently surprised by the severity of
the ultimatum that was to be sent to the Serbs, and expressed his concerns that Russia would be unwilling to
stand idly by, yet he nevertheless chose to not question
Berchtolds judgment.[24] A week after the ultimatum, on
28 July, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, and two
days later, the Austro-Hungarians and the Russians went
to war. Within weeks, the French and British entered the
fray. Because of his age, Franz Joseph was unable to take
as much as an active part in the war in comparison to past
conicts.[25]

6 Death
Franz Joseph died in the Schnbrunn Palace on the
evening of 21 November 1916, aged 86, during World
War I. His death was a result of his developing pneumonia
of the right lung several days after catching a cold while
he was walking in Schonbrunn Park with the King of
Bavaria.[26] He was succeeded by his grand-nephew Karl.
But two years later, after the defeat in World War I, the
Austro-Hungarian Monarchy was dissolved.[27]
His 67-year reign is the third-longest in the recorded history of Europe (after those of Louis XIV of France and
Johann II, Prince of Liechtenstein).[28]
He is buried in the Kaisergruft in Vienna, where owers
are still left by monarchists.

7 Family

Tomb of Franz Joseph I, in the Imperial Crypt, Vienna

After the death of Crown Prince Rudolf in 1889, Franz


Josephs nephew, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, became
heir to the throne. On 28 June 1914, Franz Ferdinand
and his morganatic wife, Countess Sophie Chotek, were
assassinated on a visit to Sarajevo. When he heard the
news of the assassination, Franz Joseph said that one has
Franz Joseph I with his family
not to defy the Almighty. In this manner a superior power
has restored that order which I unfortunately was unable It was generally felt in the court that the Emperor should
to maintain.[22]
marry and produce heirs as soon as possible. Various
While the emperor was shaken, and interrupted his vaca- potential brides were considered: Princess Elisabeth of
tion in order to return to Vienna, he soon resumed his va- Modena, Princess Anna of Prussia and Princess Sidonia
cation to his imperial villa at Bad Ischl. With the emperor of Saxony.[29] Although in public life the Emperor was
ve hours away from the capital, most of the decision- the unquestioned director of aairs, in his private life
making during the "July Crisis" fell to Count Leopold his formidable mother still had a crucial inuence. She
Berchtold, the Austrian foreign minister, Count Franz wanted to strengthen the relationship between the Houses
Conrad von Htzendorf, the chief of sta for the Aus- of Habsburg and Wittelsbach, descending from the lat-

7
ter house herself, and hoped to match Franz Joseph with
her sister Ludovikas eldest daughter, Helene (Nen"),
four years the Emperors junior. However, the Emperor
became besotted with Nen's younger sister, Elisabeth
(Sisi), a girl of fteen, and insisted on marrying her instead. Sophie acquiesced, despite some misgivings about
Sisis appropriateness as an imperial consort, and the
young couple were married on 24 April 1854 in St. Augustines Church, Vienna.[30]

noted that her father expressed his greater condence in


his new heir presumptive, his great-nephew, Archduke
Karl. The emperor admitted to his daughter, regarding
the assassination, that, for me, it is a relief from a great
worry.[36]

Their married life was not happy. Sisi never really


adapted herself to the court and always had disagreements
with the imperial family; their rst daughter Sophie died
as an infant; and their only son, Crown Prince Rudolf,
died by suicide in 1889, in the infamous Mayerling Incident.[17]

9 Ancestry

8 Issue

10 Orders, decorations, and honours

In 1885 Franz Joseph met Katharina Schratt, a leading


actress of the Vienna stage, and she became his friend Austrian decorations
and condante. This relationship lasted the rest of his
life, and was, to a certain degree, tolerated by Sisi. Franz Emperor Franz Joseph was Grand Master of the followJoseph built Villa Schratt in Bad Ischl for her, and also ing chivalric orders:
provided her with a small palace in Vienna.[31] Though
their relationship lasted 34 years, it remained platonic.[32]
Order of the Golden Fleece (ex ocio as Emperor
of Austria)
The Empress was an inveterate traveller, horsewoman,
and fashion maven who was rarely seen in Vienna. She
Military Order of Maria Theresa (Militr Mariawas stabbed to death by an Italian anarchist in 1898 while
Theresien-Orden, ex ocio as Emperor of Austria)
on a visit to Geneva; Franz Joseph never fully recovered from the loss. According to the future empress Zita
Royal Hungarian Order of Saint Stephen (Kniglich
of Bourbon-Parma he usually told his relatives: You'll
ungarischer St. Stephan-Orden, ex ocio as Emnever know how important she was to me or, according
peror of Austria)
to some sources, You will never know how much I loved
Order of Leopold (Leopold-Orden, ex ocio as Emthis woman. (although there is no denite proof he acperor of Austria)
tually said this).[33]

7.1

Relationship with Franz Ferdinand

With Rudolfs death, Archduke Franz Ferdinand became


heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary. The aging emperor, Franz Joseph, had a fairly contentious relationship
with his nephew, however. He had never been a favorite
nephew of the emperor. Franz Ferdinand had earned
the ire of Franz Joseph in declaring his desire to marry
Sophie Chotek, a marriage that was out of the question in
the mind of the emperor, as Chotek was merely a countess, as opposed to being of royal or imperial blood. Despite the fact that the emperor was receiving letters from
members of the imperial family throughout the fall and
winter of 1899, Franz Joseph stood his ground.[34] Franz
Joseph nally consented to the marriage in 1900. However, the marriage was to be morganatic and any children
that they were to have would be ineligible to succeed to
the throne.[35] The couple were married on 1 July 1900.
The emperor did not attend the wedding, nor did any of
the archdukes. After that, the two men disliked and distrusted each other.[31]
Following the assassination of Franz Ferdinand and Sophie in 1914, Franz Josephs daughter, Marie Valerie

Order of the Iron Crown (Orden der Eisernen Krone,


ex ocio as Emperor of Austria)
Imperial Order of Franz Joseph
Order of Elizabeth
He was awarded the following military medals:
War Medal
Cross of Honour for 50 years of military service
Military Cross for the 60th year of the reign
Franz Joseph founded the Order of Franz Joseph
(Franz Joseph-Orden), 1849, and the Order of Elizabeth
(Elizabeth-Orden), 1898.
Foreign decorations
Order of Milosh the Great, Kingdom of Serbia
Knight of the Supreme Order of the Order of the
Most Holy Annunciation (Kingdom of Italy) 1869

12 OFFICIAL GRAND TITLE


Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Saints Maurice
and Lazarus (Kingdom of Italy) 1869

Colonel-in-chief, 1st (The Kings) Dragoon Guards,


British Army, 25 March 1896 1914

Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown of


Italy (Kingdom of Italy) 1869

Colonel-in-chief, Kexholm Life Guards Grenadier


Regiment, Russian Army, until 26 June 1914

Knight of the Order of the Garter (United Kingdom)


1867 (Expelled in 1915)

Colonel-in-chief, 12th Belgorod Lancer Regiment,


Russian Army, until 26 June 1914

Royal Victorian Chain (UK) (Expelled in 1915) 1904

Colonel-in-chief, 16th (Schleswig-Holstein) Hussars, German Army

Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order


(United Kingdom) (Expelled in 1915)

Colonel-in-chief, 122nd (Emperor Francis Joseph


of Austria, King of Hungary (4th Wrttemberg)
Fusiliers

Knight Grand Cross of the Military Order of Max


Joseph (Bavaria)
Knight of the Order of the Black Eagle (Prussia)
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Red Eagle
(Prussia)

Field Marshal, British Army, 1 September 1903


1914

11 Legacy

Pour le Mrite (Blue Max, Prussia)

The archipelago Franz Josef Land in the Russian high


Knight Grand Cross of the Royal House Order of Arctic was named in his honor in 1873. Franz Josef
Hohenzollern (German Empire)
Glacier in New Zealands South Island bears his name.
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Prince Danilo Franz Joseph founded in 1872 the Franz Joseph University (Hungarian: Ferenc Jzsef Tudomnyegyetem, RomaI (Montenegro)
nian: Universitatea Francisc Iosif) in the city of Cluj Knight Grand Cross of the Ludwig Order (Grand Napoca (at that time a part of Austria-Hungary under
Duchy of Hesse)
the name of Kolozsvr). The university was moved to
Szeged after Cluj became a part of Romania, becoming
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Norwegian
the University of Szeged.
Lion (Norway)
In certain areas, celebrations are still being held in re Knight Grand Cross of the Military Order of St. membrance of Franz Josephs birthday. The MitteleuHenry (Saxony)
ropean Peoples Festival takes place every year around
Knight of the Order of Saints Cyril and Methodius 18 August, and is a spontaneous, traditional and brotherly meeting among peoples of the Central-European
(Kingdom of Bulgaria)
Countries[37] ". The event includes ceremonies, meet Knight of the Order of St. Andrew (Russian Em- ings, music, songs, dances, wine and food tasting, and
pire)
traditional costumes and folklore from Mitteleuropa.
Imperial Order of St. George, 4th class (Russian
Empire)

12 Ocial Grand Title

Baili of Honour and Devotion of the Sovereign


Military Order of Malta
His Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty,
Knight Grand Cross of the Equestrian Order of the Franz Joseph I, by the Grace of God Emperor of AusHoly Sepulchre (Vatican)
tria, King of Hungary, Bohemia, King of Lombardy
and Venice, of Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, Galicia,
Senator Grand Cross with Necklace of the Sacred
Lodomeria and Illyria; King of Jerusalem etc., Archduke
Military Constantinian Order of Saint George (6
of Austria; Grand Duke of Tuscany and Cracow, Duke of
September 1849, Duchy of Parma)
Lorraine, of Salzburg, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola and of
Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Order of Kame- the Bukovina; Grand Prince of Transylvania; Margrave of
Moravia; Duke of Upper and Lower Silesia, of Modena,
hameha I (Kingdom of Hawaii, 1865)
Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla, of Auschwitz, Zator and
Knight Grand Cross with Collar of the Royal Order Teschen, Friuli, Ragusa (Dubrovnik) and Zara (Zadar);
of Kalkaua (Kingdom of Hawaii, 1878)
Princely Count of Habsburg and Tyrol, of Kyburg, Gorizia
and Gradisca; Prince of Trent (Trento) and Brixen; MarHonorary appointments
grave of Upper and Lower Lusatia and in Istria; Count

9
of Hohenems, Feldkirch, Bregenz, Sonnenberg, etc.; Lord
of Trieste, of Cattaro (Kotor), and over the Windic
march..[38]
After 1867:
His Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty,
Francis Joseph I, by the grace of God Emperor of Austria;
Apostolic King of Hungary, King of Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, Galicia, Lodomeria, Illyria; King
of Jerusalem, etc.; Archduke of Austria; Grand Duke of
Tuscany, Crakow; Duke of Lorraine, Salzburg, Styria,
Carinthia, Carniola, the Bukovina; Grand Prince of Transylvania; Margrave of Moravia; Duke of the Upper &
Lower Silesia, Modena, Parma, Piacenza, Guastalla, Oswiecin, Zator, Cieszyn, Friuli, Ragusa, Zara; Princely
Count of Habsburg, Tyrol, Kyburg, Gorizia, Gradisca;
Prince of Trent, Brixen; Margrave of the Upper & Lower
Lusatia, in Istria; Count of Hohenems, Feldkirch, Bregenz, Sonnenberg, etc.; Lord of Triest, Kotor, the Wendish
March; Grand Voivode of the Voivodship of Serbia etc.
etc..

13

Personal motto

mit vereinten Krften (German) = Viribus Unitis (Latin) = With united forces (as the Emperor
of Austria). A homonymous war ship existed.
Bizalmam az si Ernyben (Hungarian) = Virtutis Condo (Latin) = My trust in [the ancient]
virtue (as the Apostolic King of Hungary)

14

In popular culture

Franz Joseph is a character in both the 1930


operetta/musical The White Horse Inn (German: Im
weien Rl) and the Danish 1964 lm (inspired by
the operetta/musical) Summer in Tyrol (in Danish:
Sommer i Tyrol), starring actor Peter Malberg as the
Emperor in the latter.
In the 1974 BBC miniseries Fall of Eagles, he was
played by Miles Anderson as a young man and by
Laurence Naismith in old age.
In Kronprinz Rudolf (2006) (TV Movie) aka The
Crown Prince, a retelling of the tragic love aair
between Austrian Archduke Rudolf, the only son of
the aging Emperor, and Baroness Mary Vetsera, in
which Franz Joseph I is played by Klaus Maria Brandauer.
Franz Joseph I is seen as part of a Tom and Jerry
cartoon episode in which the cat and mouse duo are
set in c. 1890s Vienna. Word of their accidental

Imperial monogram

yet successful cooperation in piano play receives the


attention of the public and high Imperial ocials,

10

16
eventually leading to 'the Emperor himself!', who
then organizes a royal command concert, mimicking
the famous concert Empress Maria Theresa once arranged for child prodigy Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
in 1762.

REFERENCES

[19] Albertini, Luigi (2005). The Origins of the War of 1914.


New York, NY: Enigma Books. p. 16.
[20] Albertini, Luigi (2005). The Origins of the War of 1914.
New York, NY: Enigma Books. p. 37.
[21] Albertini, Luigi (2005). The Origins of the War of 1914.

New York, NY: Enigma Books. p. 94.


He also appears as one of the historical cameos in
novel Signum laudis (1988) written by Czech writer
[22] Albert Freiherr von Margutti: Vom alten Kaiser.
Vladimr Kalina.

15

Leipzig & Wien 1921, S. 147f. Zitiert nach Erika


Bestenreiter: Franz Ferdinand und Sophie von Hohenberg. Mnchen (Piper), 2004, S. 247

See also

Family tree of the German monarchs he was related to every other ruler of Germany.

[23] Palmer, Alan Twighlight of the Habsburgs: the Life and


Times of Emperor Francis Joseph (Atlantic Monthly Press,
1994) pg. 328

List of coupled cousins

[24] Palmer, pg. 330

Franc Jozeph Island, island in Albania named in


honor of the Emperor.

[25] Palmer pgs. 332 & 333

16

References

[26] Sausalito News 25 November 1916 California Digital Newspaper Collection. Cdnc.ucr.edu. 1916-11-25.
Retrieved 2013-12-02.
[27] Norman Davies, Europe: A history p. 687

[1] Francis Joseph, in Encyclopdia Britannica. Retrieved 19


April 2009
[2] Gale Encyclopedia of Biography: ''Francis Joseph''".
Answers.com. Retrieved 2013-12-02.

[28] Murad 1968, p. 1.


[29] Twilight of the Habsburgs: The Life and Times of Emperor
Francis Joseph By Alan Palmer
[30] Murad 1968, p. 242.

[3] Murad 1968, p. 61.


[4] Murad 1968, p. 101.

[31] Murad 1968, p. 120.

[5] Murad 1968, p. 33.

[32] Morton, Frederic (1989). Thunder at Twilight: Vienna


1913/1914. pp. 8586.

[6] Murad 1968, p. 8.


[33] Murad 1968, p. 117.

[7] Murad 1968, p. 6.


[8] Rothenburg, G. The Army of Francis Joseph.
Lafayette, Purdue University Press, 1976. p. 35.

West

[9] Murad 1968, p. 41.


[10] Murad 1968, p. 42.
[11] O'Domhnaill Abu O'Donnell Clan Newsletter no. 7,
Spring 1987 (ISSN 0790-7389))
[12] Murad 1968, p. 169.
[13]

William M. Johnston, The Austrian Mind: An


Intellectual and Social History, 18481938
(University of California Press, 1983), p. 38

[14] Murad 1968, p. 149.


[15] Murad 1968, p. 150.
[16] Murad 1968, p. 151.
[17] Murad 1968, p. 127.
[18] See also http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05677b.htm
(discussing the papal veto from the perspective of the
Catholic Church)

[34] Palmer, pg. 288


[35] Palmer, pg. 289
[36] Palmer, pg. 324
[37] Associazione Culturale Mitteleuropa. Retrieved 21 April
2012
[38] The ocial title of the ruler of Austrian Empire and later
the Austria-Hungary had been changed several times: by
a patent from 1 August 1804, by a court oce decree
from 22 August 1836, by an imperial court ministry decree from 6 January 1867 and nally by a letter from 12
December 1867. Shorter versions were recommended for
ocial documents and international treaties: Emperor
of Austria, King of Bohemia etc. and Apostolic King
of Hungary, Emperor of Austria and Apostolic King of
Hungary, His Majesty Emperor and King and His Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty. The term Kaiserlich
und kniglich (K.u.K.) was decreed in a letter from 17 October 1889 for the military, the navy and the institutions
shared by both parts of the monarchy.
From the Ottos encyclopedia (published during 1888
1909), subject 'King', online in Czech.

11

17

Bibliography

Anatol Murad (1968). Franz Joseph I of Austria and


his Empire. Twayne Publishers. ISBN 978-0-82900172-3.

18

Further reading

Bagger, Eugene Szekeres (1927). Francis Joseph:


Emperor of Austria--king of Hungary. New York:
G.P. Putnams Sons.
Beller, Steven. Francis Joseph. Proles in power.
London: Longman, 1996. ISBN 0582060907
Bled, Jean-Paul. Franz Joseph. Oxford: Blackwell,
1992. ISBN 0631167781
Cunlie-Owen, Marguerite. Keystone of Empire:
Francis Joseph of Austria. New York: Harper, 1903.
Ger, Andrs. Emperor Francis Joseph: King of the
Hungarians. Boulder, Colo.: Social Science Monographs, 2001.
Owens, Karen. Franz Joseph and Elisabeth The
Last Great Monarchs of Austria-Hungary. Jeerson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc.,
Publishers, 2013. . ISBN 9781476612164
Palmer, Alan. Twilight of the Habsburgs: The Life
and Times of Emperor Francis Joseph. New York:
Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1995. ISBN 0871136651
Redlich, Joseph. Emperor Francis Joseph Of Austria. New York: Macmillan, 1929.
Unterreiner, Katrin. Emperor Franz Joseph, 18301916: Myth and Truth. Wien: C. Brandsttter,
2006. ISBN 3902510447
Van der Kiste, John. Emperor Francis Joseph: Life,
Death and the Fall of the Habsburg Empire. Stroud,
England: Sutton, 2005.
Winkelhofer, Martina. The Everyday Life of
the Emperor: Francis Joseph and His Imperial
Court. Innsbruck-Wien: Haymon Taschenbuch,
2012. ISBN 9783852189277

19

External links

Biography at WorldWar1.com
Details at Regiments.org at the Wayback Machine
(archived December 19, 2007)
Genealogy
Mayerling tragedy

Mikls Horthy reects on Franz Josef


Internet museum of Emperor Franz Joseph I, Wilhelm II and First World War
Wien Attentat Kaiser Franz Joseph Lasslo
Libnyi Graf O'Donnell Josef Ettenreich
Geschichte Votivkirche at www.wien-vienna.at

12

20

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