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Significance of site investigation

and geotechnical characterization


using Field methods

Dr D Neelima Satyam
Assistant Professor
IIIT Hyderabad

Virtually every structure is


supported on soils; whose which
are not, either fly, float or fall over

SOIL :
Natural aggregates of mineral grains, loose or moderately
cohesive inorganic or organic in nature that have the
capacity of being separated by means of simple mechanical
processes.
Structures are built with soil
Dams , embankment
Structures are built in soil
Structural foundations footings, piles, rafts, tunnels


Geotechnical engineering

A unique combination of science, experience, judgment and a


passion for understanding the uniqueness and variability of
ground conditions resulting from the forces of nature.

It is the art of determining the properties of unseen and


variable materials to provide a facility that perform as
expected at acceptable level of risk and at an optional cost.

Foundation Engineering
In a broad sense, foundation engineering is a art of selecting,
designing and constructing the elements that transfer the weight of
structure to the underlying soil or rock.
 The role of engineer is to select the type of foundation, its design
and supervision of construction.


Before the engineer can design a foundation intelligently, he must


have a reasonably accurate conception of the physical properties
and the arrangement of the underlying materials. This requires
detailed soil explorations.

General Observation
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Soil does not posses a unique or linear stress-strain


relationship.
Soil behavior depends up on the pressure, time and
environment.
Soil at every location is essentially different
Nearly in all the cases, the mass of soil involved is underground
and cannot be seen entirely, but must be evaluated on the
basis of small size samples, obtained from isolated locations.
Most soils are very sensitive to disturbance from sampling and
thus the behavior measured by a lab test may be unlike that of
in situ soil.

Definition of foundation
The lowest part of a structure is generally referred to as foundation.

Function of foundation
To transfer load of the superstructure to the soil on which it is
resting.
Requirements (Functional)
A properly designed foundation is one that transfers the structural
load throughout the soil without overstressing of soil which can
result in either excessive settlement or shear failure,
both of which can damage the structure.

Foundation Engineering

Loads can be static or dynamic


 Static: Building, structure, dam, retaining wall,
embankment, etc.
 Dynamic: Earthquake, vibrating equipment, or
sensitive equipment

Subsurface Exploration

Purpose of subsoil exploration

Steps in Soil/Rock exploration







Collection of Preliminary information: type of


structure, general use, topography, GWT
map, soil map
Reconnaissance survey
Site investigation: Planning, test boreholes,
collecting soil samples

Collection of Preliminary Information

Collection of Preliminary Information

Db = 3S ( Light steel or narrow concrete buildings )


0.7

Db = 6 S ( Heavy steel or wide concrete buildings)


0.7

Foundation Design
Geotechnical Engineer

Where to sample
How deep to sample
What to sample
How to sample

Soil borings
Auger boring (Post hole and helical boring :
<5m),Power driven augers , 60-70m
Wash boring
Rotary drilling
Percussion drilling

Wash boring

Scrapper bucket: sand mixed with pebbles

Clayey soils

Very soft soils

GEOLOGICAL MAP OF DELHI

Soil Profiles of Delhi


G

N
O

L
G
A

B
J

P
I

K
E

D
Q

P
Q
D
F

AA
Kakraula Gaon
0

Sec-17
Dwaraka

Sec-12
Dwaraka

Sec-7
Dwaraka

Shahdra

--14

--14

--14

--23

--10

--9

--14

--36

--9

--10

--9

--16

--30

--32

--11

--8

--38

--22

--21

--23

--27

--18

--38

--50

--23

--37

--53

--35

--52

Depth --13
(m)
--13

--22
12

--12
--23
--30
--42
15

Filled up
soil

Sandy
silt

15

15
Silty
sand

Clayey
sand

Fine
sand

Quarzite

Gravely
sand

|--N

CC

Dayal Singh College,


Lodi road
Electric Cremation,

Ring Road Jn

Lodi road

--3
--2
--12
Depth --7
(m)
--6
--7

15

--6

--8

--9

--24

--12

--17

--19

--20

--34

--44

--19

--29

--25

--23

Filled up
soil

--4

--11

Sandy
silt

--100

Silty
sand

Clayey
sand

Fine
sand

Quarzite

Gravely
sand

|--N

EE
Sec-1,
Noida

Sec-6,
Noida

Dallupura
Sewage Plant
Noida

Sec-12,
Noida

Depth
(m)

--10

--6

--22

--18

--8

--20

--15

Sec-33,
Noida

Sec-61,
Noida

--7

--5

--22

--7

--21

--8

--16

--9

--25

--16

--7

--9

--10
--8

--14

--8

--9

--10

--20

--12

--11

--11

--20

--22

--16

--21

--64

--6

--19

--28

--20

--32

--16

--17

--20

--15

--18

--30

--84

--15

--17

--17

--53

--56

--39

--47
--56

--27

15

Filled up
soil

Sandy
silt

Silty
sand

Clayey
sand

Fine
sand

Quarzite

Gravely
sand

|--N

GG
Pusa
Road
Tilak
Bridge
RL 208
200
196 --26
192
188

--29
--45

Mandi
House

--12
--10

--45

212
--18
--28

Punjab
Bagh Rohini
209

208
--12

--26

--21

--14
--26

--38

--15
--17

--40

--37

--25

--75

--20

--42

--22

--38

--30

--29

--51

--30

--48

180 --51

--60

Filled up
soil

C.P

--23
--25
--34

184 --42

176 --50

216
--12
--15
--20
--30
--40

Patel
Road

--70
--61

--25
--29

--35

--30
--37

--63

--40

Sandy
silt

Silty
sand

Clayey
sand

Fine
sand

Quarzite

Gravely
sand

|--N

JJ

Chanakyapuri
0

B.D Marg
--14
--18
--21
--38
--30
--39
--34
--42
--39
--25
--23
--35
--42
--63
--56

Depth
(m)

30

Filled up
soil

Sandy
silt

Sarai Kale
Golf
Links
Lodi Road
Khan
--12
--12
--26
--19
--21
--25
--26
--29
--30

Silty
sand

Sec-1,
Noida

Sec-12, Sec-62,
Noida Noida
--7
--10

--19
--16
--8
--9
--13
--14
--30
--28
--25
--34
--38
--77

--20
--13
--8
--10
--14
--13

--42

--26

--10
--15

--12
--13
--14
--15

--31

--22

--30

--43
--46

--17

--31

--81

--26

--29

Clayey
sand

--16
--18
--23

--26

Fine
sand

Quarzite

--18

--51
--78

Gravely
sand

--39
--25
--22
--32
--55
--29
--34
--30
--34
--32
--32
--38

|--N

RR

Shahjahah
Road
Sewanagar

Boat Club

209

208

RL 208
204
200

--3
--10
--20

N.D.Rly.Stn

212

--47
--7
--15

ISBT
208

207

--11

--15
--17

--17

--20

--36

--21

--7

--100

Chawri Bazar

196

--27

--18

--27

--32

196

--43

--22

--36

--35

188

--49

--34

--35

184

--57

--36

180

Filled up
soil

Sandy
silt

Silty
sand

Clayey
sand

--40

--51

--46

--60

Fine
sand

Quarzite

Gravely
sand

|--N

GROUND WATER CONTOURS OF DELHI

DEPTH OF BED ROCK

SITE CHARACTERIZATION
THROUGH
SEISMIC REFRACTION
&
MASW METHODS

oscilloscope

Seismic Refraction
ASTM D 5777

Note: Vp1 < Vp2


Determine depth
to rock layer, zR
Source
(Plate)

zR

x1
x2
x3
x4

t1
t2
Vertical Geophones
t3
t4

Soil: Vp1
Rock: Vp2

Seismic Refraction
Horizontal Soil Layer over Rock

Travel Time (seconds)

0.020

xc Vp2 Vp1
zc =
2 Vp2 + Vp1

0.015

Vp2 = 4880 m/s


0.010

xc = 15.0 m
0.005

1
Vp1 = 1350 m/s

t values

Depth to Rock:
zc = 5.65 m

0.000
0

10

20

30

40

Distance From Source (meters)


x values

50

Seismograph with all Accessories


PEG 40Kg
McSeis-SX48

Base plate
Accessories
Geophones
28Hz,& 4.5Hz

Battery

Wooden Hammer

Connecting Cables

Geophones
28 Hz
4.5 Hz

McSeis-SX48

Connecting
Cables

Field Arrangements

Seismic Refraction
Source: Propelled Energy Generator
(PEG-40)

Hammer Mass: 36 Kg
Hammer drop height: 36-43 cm
Motor: 12 Volt (requires car battery)
Output Frequency band: 10-250 Hz
(depends on ground conditions)
Weight assembled with shields: 113 kg.

1D Velocity Profiles
Vp (m/s)

Vp (m/s)
0

500

1000 1500 2000 2500 3000

300

600

900 1200 1500 1800

0
5

5
BMK

15

APS
SHL

20

D08
D22

25

Depth (m)

Depth (m)

10

10

DAP
JAP

15

TIJ
20

VIP
HAN

25

30

30

35

35

Vp (m /s)

Vp (m /s)
0

400

600

800

1000

D05
15
20

D13
D16
D19

25
30
35

10

D10

D20

Depth (m)

10
Depth (m)

200

15

300 600

900 1200 1500 1800

KIN
INP
KHY

20
25
30
35

WPB
PUV

Velocity Profiles
(m)
-100

Depth

-95

Velocity Model at JNU Campus, Opp. Girls Hostel


Vp
0.8

0.30
0.54
0.79
1.03
1.28

1.0

-90
-85
0

10

20

30

1.4

Distance

40

50

60
(m)

(km/sec)
Scale = 1 / 476

Velocity Profiles
( m)
-100

Janakpuri
Vp
0.30
0.45
0.60
0.75
0.90

Depth

-90
-80
-70
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Distance

( m)

DDA Park, Mayapuri


Vp

-95
Depth

( k m /s e c )
70
( m)
Scale = 1 / 100 0

0.34
0.63

-85

0.93
-75
0

10

20

30

40

Distance

50

60

( k m /s e c )
70
( m)
Scale = 1 / 100 0

VP at 40m depth

MASW

Source: wooden
hammer 11kg

Multichannel Records at JNU Site with Source Shifting along the Survey Line

-64

136

336

0
10
20
30
40
50
60

(a) at 69m

(f) at 39m

(b) at 63m

(g) at 33m

( c) at 57m

(h) at 21m

(d) at 51m

(i) at 9m

(e) at 45m

(j) at 3m

1D Velocity Profiles
Vs (m /s)
0

200

Vs (m /s)

400

600

0
5

400

600

10

SHV

10

BSF
JNU

15

VK1
20

VK2

Depth (m)

Depth (m)

200

LSA
SAB

15

PVI
20

LAS

NDV
25

25

30

30

Vs (m /s)
0

400

600

5
TUF
GKII

15

LTE
JAS

20
25
30

NFC

10
Depth (m)

10
Depth (m)

200

Vs (m/s)
200

400

600

SIN
JNS

15

JAN
SAN

20
25
30

RKP

Velocity Profiles
( m)
0

JNU Campus,Opp Girls Hostel


Vs

Depth

0.30
0.36
0.42
0.48

10
15
20
7

17

27

37

Distance

47

57
(m)

(km/s)
Scale = 1 / 666

Velocity Profiles
( m)

O pe n g r o u nd o p p t o N a n a d a d e v i A p t s , S e c - 1 0 D w a r k a
Vs

5 .0
Depth

0.21
0.26

15 .0

0.31
25 .0
3 .0

13.0

23.0

33.0

43 .0

53 .0

Di s t a n c e
( m)

Scale = 1 / 66 6

Defence land, sec-2 2 Dwar ka


Vs

5 .0
Depth

( k m/ s )

63.0
( m)

0.20
0.25

15 .0

0.31
0.36

25 .0
9 .0

19 .0

29.0

39.0

Distan ce

49.0

59.0
(m)

(km/s)
S c al e = 1 / 6 6 6

Average Shear Wave Velocity Vs30 Map of Delhi Region

Down-hole/cross-hole tests

Down-hole/cross hole tests are in-situ test methods


-

to measure dynamic soil/rock properties

to determine P-wave and S-wave velocities

to identify soil stratification

to determine shear modulus, G =.vs

Down-hole Seismic test


Surface source

S-wave arrival time, t

vs = dz/dt

Layer 1
Transd. 1

Layer 2
Transd. 2
Depth, z

Down-hole test
Source of impulse

Receiver

a) Down-hole test

Receiver

Source of impulse

b) Up-hole test

Cross-hole test

Source

Receiver
L

2 boreholes arrangement

Cross-hole test

Source

Receivers

3 boreholes arrangement

Down-hole testing
Downhole
Testing
Horizontal Plank

Oscilloscope

Pump

with normal load

x
t

z1

Hammer

z2

packer

Horizontal
Velocity
Transducers
(Geophone
Receivers)

Test
Depth
Interval

Shear Wave Velocity:


t
Vs = R/

R12 = z12 + x2
R22 = z22 + x2

Cased
Borehole

GPR Demo Survey for utility


mapping at Habsiguda

By

Dr. Neelima Satyam D


Earthquake Engineering Research Centre
International Institute of Information Technology Hyderabad
Hyderabad-32
Email: neelima.satyam@iiit.ac.in; neelima.satyam@ gmail.com

Survey plan

GPR Data Collected

Plan of Utility Survey

10m x 5m
10mx 5m

Manhole 0.3m circular

1st cable : bunch dia 40mm (network ca


2nd cable single dia 60mm (High power
Dia 200mm (Metallic)
Dia 600mm (Non-Metallic : RCC)

3D Sectional view

Free Orbit View (sectional)

0.19
0.75
0.82
0.88

0.19

0.9
0.93

0m

0.7
0.94

1.0 m

1st cable : bunch dia 40mm (network cable


2nd cable single dia 60mm (High power ca
Dia 200mm (Metallic)
Dia 600mm (Non-Metallic : RCC)

3D View of Utility

Remarks



2 grids with 10m x 5m are made and surveyed


Two sets of cables (red colored) one in bunch (40mm dia) mostly it is
network cables and other running as single cable (60mm dia) which is
a high power cable are shown along with depths mentioned (slide 8)
One water pipe line (blue color) metallic with 200 mm dia was detected
with depths mentioned (slide 8)
Sewer pipe non-metallic (grey color) line with 600 mm dia was
detected with depths mentioned (slide 8)
Manhole invert levels are detected approximately at 2.2 m below GL
(since strata was highly saturated because of rain noise levels are
high)
Rain water collection chamber was also identified.

Plan of Utility Survey


A-1724'51"N 78 32'50"E
B- 1724'51"N 78 32'51"E
C-1724'51"N 78 32'51"E
D-1724'50"N 78 32'51"E

Divider
1*

Road to Uppal

Dia 100mm (Metallic)


bunch dia 60mm

Grid Size 20m x 8m

Optical fiber / telephone


1* Bunch of cables
Others are single

3D Sectional view

Sp
Sf

Bp
Bf

(CLAY )

B p
=
S f B f
Sp

B f + 0.3

( SAND)
B + 0.3
p

PROCEDURE


30 cm diameter hole is trimmed


where
.
the plunger is to be seated

Seating load of 4 kg is attached to the plunger


and dial gages reading is brought to zero

Results

Electrical resistivity method


Four electrodes at equal spacing, 2 will be used to send electric
current and 2 Which are inside will measure the voltage drop
between them

RA
=
L

Report











Description of the scope of the investigation


Description of the structure
Site location (neighboring structures, drainage
condition, veg type)
Geological settings
Details of field exploration (#, spacing, Db)
Type of soil profile
Lab tests
Water table details
Recommendations, limitations and conclusions of
the investigation

Figures/graphs





Site map
Plan view of the exploration
Bore log details
Graphs corresponding to test data