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Operant conditioning is a type of learning where behavior is controlled by consequences.

concepts in operant conditioning are positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment
and negative punishment.
Positive Reinforcement
Positive reinforcement is giving something pleasant after a behavior. This increases the probability that the
behavior will continue. Examples are:
Having a job and going to work every day to receive a paycheck.
Receiving praise after a musical performance would increase the amount that you perform.
A teacher complimenting students when they answer correctly will increase that behavior.
At a gym, customers receive a discount if they work out a certain number of times and eat healthy.
In the Skinner Box experiment, a rat got food as a reward for acceptable behavior, such as pressing
a lever.
Negative Reinforcement
Negative reinforcement is taking away something unpleasant as a result of the behavior that is acceptable.
This is also meant to increase the behavior. Examples are:
It is very noisy outside so you turn on the television to mask the noise. Turning on the radio
decreased the unpleasant noise.
A teacher exempts student from the final test if they have perfect attendance. So, the teacher is
taking away something unpleasant to increase behavior.
At a store, a child throws a tantrum because he did not get a candy bar. Dad finally gets him one.
He stopped the tantrum so he took away something unpleasant and Dads behavior of getting candy bars
will increase.
In the Skinner box experiment, a loud noise continuously sounded inside the cage until the rat did
what Skinner wanted him to do. When he did, the noise stopped, so the unpleasant noise was taken away.
In a biology class, students who made an "A" on the test did not have to dissect a frog.
Positive Punishment
Positive punishment is used to decrease a behavior and is presenting something unpleasant after the
behavior. Examples are:
An employee exhibits bad behavior at work and the boss criticizes him. The behavior will decrease
because of the bosss criticism.
When a student misbehaves in class, she receives a time out.
A child gets a spanking when he puts his hand in the cookie jar.
When a child does not out his clothes in the hamper, he has to do ten extra minutes of chores.
In an experiment, the subject received a slight electric shock when they got an answer wrong.
Negative Punishment
Negative punishment is also used to decrease a behavior and is removing something pleasant after the
behavior. Examples are:
An employee is habitually late for work so begins losing the privilege of listening to music while
working. The behavior will decrease because of losing a privilege.
A child doesnt put his bike away so the parents lock it up for a certain time. The parents took away
something pleasant to decrease behavior.
Ted gets a $500 fine and suspension of his driving license for driving under the influence. Money
and his license were removed to decrease behavior.
A family has a "swear jar." Every time someone swears, they have to put a dollar in the jar. This is
taking away money, which is something pleasant, and decreases the behavior of swearing.
Kevin trashes his sisters room and Mom told him he could not go camping with his friends.

Classical Conditioning Examples

One special and very powerful example of classical conditioning is taste aversion. Taste aversion
is a case where an organism learns to have an aversion to the taste or smell or other characteristics
of some food or drink. For example, after consuming too much alcohol, its not unusual for someone
to associate the smell or even sight of the alcohol with the sickness that resulted from consuming
the alcohol (Figure 2).

Another example thats legendary in psychology circles involves the story of John B. Watson, the
father of behaviorism and "Little Albert". John B. Watson carried out a classical conditioning
experiment with a child (Little Albert) by making a loud noise behind the childs head (smashing
two bars together) as the child was playing with a rabbit. Though the child was quite happy playing
with the rabbit up until that time, he came to be terrified of the rabbit (Figure 3).
Finally, lets consider a hypothetical example involving a college student. Lets start with the
assumption that college students instinctively fear tests. Lets then imagine that the student is
taking a general psychology class, and that the instructor always wears a Hawaiian shirt on test
day. Thus, the shirt eventually comes to serve as a conditioned stimulus in that it elicits fear in the
student, independent of the test (Figure 4). For the record, this last example is actually "second
order" classical conditioning in that in "pure" classical conditioning, the unconditioned stimulus unconditioned response contingency should be basic and instinctive. Students dont actually have
an instinctual fear of tests; rather, this is something that is itself classically conditioned at an earlier
age. However, note one important thing about all these examples, which is that they all involve a
target/learned behavior that is non-conscious and basic, usually involving some response of the
autonomic nervous system (e.g., fear, sadness, anxiety, excitement, or joy).
To make this a bit more concrete, we'll use Pavlov's dogs as an example. Before learning took place,
the dogs would reliably salivate (UCR) when given meat powder (UCS), but they gave no response
to the ringing of a bell (neutral). Then Pavlov would always ring a bell just before he would present
the dogs with some meat powder. Pretty soon, the dogs began to associate the sound of the bell
with the impending presence of meat powder. As a result, they would begin to salivate (CR) as soon
as they heard the bell (CS), even if it was not immediately followed by the meat powder (UCS). In
other words, they learned that the bell was a reliable predictor of meat powder. In this way, Pavlov
was able to elicit an involuntary, automatic, reflexive response to a previously neutral stimulus

The Classical Conditioning Process

Classical conditioning basically involves forming an association between two stimuli resulting in a learned
response. There are three basic phases of this process:
Phase 1: Before Conditioning
The first part of this process requires a naturally occurring stimulus that will automatically elicit a response.
Salivating in response to the smell of food is a good example of a naturally occurring stimulus. During this
phase of the processes, the unconditioned stimulus (USC) results in an unconditioned response (UCR). At
this point there is also a neutral stimulus that produces no effect - yet. It isn't until this neutral stimulus is
paired with the UCS that it will come to evoke a response.

The Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)

The unconditioned stimulus is one that unconditionally, naturally, and automatically triggers a response.
For example, when you smell one of your favorite foods, you may immediately feel very hungry. In this
example, the smell of the food is the unconditioned stimulus.

The Unconditioned Response (UCR)

The unconditioned response is the unlearned response that occurs naturally in response to the
unconditioned stimulus. In our example, the feeling of hunger in response to the smell of food is the
unconditioned response.
Phase 2: During Conditioning
During the second phase of the classical conditioning process, the previously neutral stimulus is repeatedly
paired with the unconditioned stimulus. As a result of this pairing, an association between the previously
neutral stimulus and the UCS is formed. At this point the neutral stimulus becomes known as the
conditioned stimulus (CS).

The Conditioned Stimulus

The conditioned stimulus is previously neutral stimulus that, after becoming associated with the
unconditioned stimulus, eventually comes to trigger a conditioned response. In our earlier example,
suppose that when you smelled your favorite food, you also heard the sound of a whistle. While the whistle
is unrelated to the smell of the food, if the sound of the whistle was paired multiple times with the smell,
the sound would eventually trigger the conditioned response. In this case, the sound of the whistle is the
conditioned stimulus.
Phase 3: After Conditioning
Once the association has been made between the UCS and the CS, presenting the conditioned stimulus
alone will come to evoke a response even in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus. The resulting
response is known as the conditioned response (CR).

The Conditioned Response

The conditioned response is the learned response to the previously neutral stimulus. In our example, the
conditioned response would be feeling hungry when you heard the sound of the whistle.

Born-Haber Cycle
There are several important concept to understand before the Born-Haber Cycle can be applied to
determine the lattice energy of an ionic solid; ionization energy, electron affinity, dissociation energy,
sublimation energy, heat of formation, and Hess's Law.

Ionization Energy is the energy required to remove an electron from a neutral atom or an ion.
This process always requires an input of energy, and thus will always have a positive value. In general,
ionization energy increases across the periodic table from left to right, and decreases from top to bottom.
There are some excepts, usually due to the stability of half-filled and completely filled orbitals.
Electron Affinity is the energy released when an electron is added to a neutral atom or an ion.
Usually, energy released would have a negative value, but due to the definition of electron affinity, it is
written as a positive value in most tables. Therefore, when used in calculating the lattice energy, we must
remember to subtract the electron affinity, not add it. In general, electron affinity increases from left to
right across the periodic table and decreases from top to bottom.

Dissociation energy is the energy required to break apart a compound. The dissociation of a
compound is always an endothermic process, meaning it will always require an input of energy. Therefore,
the change in energy is always positive. The magnitude of the dissociation energy depends on the
electronegativity of the atoms involved.
Sublimation energy is the energy required to cause a change of phase from solid to gas, bypassing
the liquid phase. This is an input of energy, and thus has a positive value. It may also be referred to as the
energy of atomization.
The heat of formation is the change in energy when forming a compound from its elements. This
may be positive or negative, depending on the atoms involved and how they interact.
Hess's Law states that the overall change in energy of a process can be determined by breaking
the process down into steps, then adding the changes in energy of each step. The Born-Haber Cycle is
essentially Hess's Law applied to an ionic solid.
Rules for Drawing the Lewis Electron Structure
Step 1: Find the total number of valence electrons of all atoms in the molecule or ion. For example, total
number of valence electrons in PCl3 is 26; phosphorus (Group 5A) has 5 valence electrons and each of 3
chlorine (Group 7A) has 7 valence electrons.
Step 2: Look for the central atom. The atom with the highest covalency number is the central atom.
Step 3: Draw a line between each pair of connected atoms to represent the two electrons in a covalent
Step 4: Add lone pairs so that each peripheral atom (except H) connected to the central atom gets an
Step 5: Place all remaining electrons on the central atom.
Step 6: If the central atom does not yet have an octet after all the electrons have been assigned, take a
lone pair from neighboring atom and form a multiple bond to the central atom.


A covalent bond formed by the mutual sharing of one electron pair between two atoms is called a "Single
Covalent bond." In single bond formation each atom provide one electron.
It is denoted by single short line(


A covalent bond formed between two atoms by the mutual sharing of two electron pairs is called a
"double covalent bond". It is denoted by double short line (


A covalent bond formed by the mutual sharing of three electron pairs is called a "Triple covalent bond". It
is denoted by triple short line (


A covalent bond formed between two different atoms is known as Polar covalent bond.
For example when a Covalent bond is formed between H and Cl , it is polar in nature because Cl is more
electronegative than H atom . Therefore, electron cloud is shifted towards Cl atom. Due to this reason a
partial -ve charge appeared on Cl atom and an equal +ve charge on H atom

A covalent bond formed between two like atoms is known as Non-polar bond. Since difference of
electro negativity is zero therefore, both atoms attract electron pair equally and no charge appears on
any atom and the whole molecule becomes neutral.
Cl - Cl

Ionic bonding is the complete transfer of valence electron(s) between atoms. It is a type of chemical
bond that generates two oppositely charged ions. In ionic bonds, the metal loses electrons to become a
positively charged cation, whereas the nonmetal accepts those electrons to become a negatively charged
anion. Ionic bonds require an electron donor, often a metal, and an electron acceptor, a nonmetal.
Ionic bonding is observed because metals have few electrons in their outer-most orbitals. By losing those
electrons, these metals can achieve noble gas configuration and satisfy the octet rule. Similarly, nonmetals
that have close to 8 electrons in their valence shells tend to readily accept electrons to achieve noble gas
configuration. In ionic bonding, more than 1 electron can be donated or received to satisfy the octet rule.
The charges on the anion and cation correspond to the number of electrons donated or received. In ionic
bonds, the net charge of the compound must be zero.
Covalent bonding is the sharing of electrons between atoms. This type of bonding occurs between two
atoms of the same element or of elements close to each other in the periodic table. This bonding occurs
primarily between nonmetals; however, it can also be observed between nonmetals and metals.

If atoms have similar electronegativities (the same affinity for electrons), covalent bonds are most likely to
occur. Because both atoms have the same affinity for electrons and neither has a tendency to donate
them, they share electrons in order to achieve octet configuration and become more stable. In addition,
the ionization energy of the atom is too large and the electron affinity of the atom is too small for ionic
bonding to occur. For example: carbon does not form ionic bonds because it has 4 valence electrons, half
of an octet. To form ionic bonds, Carbon molecules must either gain or lose 4 electrons. This is highly
unfavorable; therefore, carbon molecules share their 4 valence electrons through single, double, and triple
bonds so that each atom can achieve noble gas configurations. Covalent bonds include interactions of the
sigma and pi orbitals; therefore, covalent bonds lead to formation of single, double, triple, and quadruple
Bond Polarity
Polarity in organic chemistry refers to a separation of charge and can
describe a bond or an entire molecule. Experimentally, bond polarity is
measured by its dipole moment. Bonds connecting atoms of different
electronegativity are polar with a higher density of bonding electrons
around the more electronegative atom giving it a partial negative
charge (designated as d-). The less electronegative atom has some of
its electron density taken away giving it a partial positive charge (d+).
Molecular Polarity
The polarity of the molecule is the sum of all of the bond polarities in
the molecule. Since the dipole moment (m, measured in Debyes (D))
is a vector (a quantitiy with both magnitude and direction), the
molecular dipole moment is the vector sum of the individual dipole
Dipole (Polar) Molecules
Entire molecule can be polar if electrons are attracted more strongly to one part of the molecule than to
Molecules polarity is due to the sum of all individual bond polarities and lone-pair contribution in the