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Roles and Applications for

Hydro Ontologies
Joshua Lieberman
Harvard Center for Geographic Analysis
jlieberman@fas.harvard.edu

What is an ontology?
What is linked data?
Information graph perspectives
Ontology roles
Hydrography / hydrology ontologies
Putting hydro ontologies to work

What is an ontology?

Specification of a conceptualization*
Theory within universe of discourse
Entities and their relationships
Semantics?
Predicate logic Tbox & Abox
Axioms

*Tom Gruber

Linked (Open) Data

Web of data"
RDF Triples
URL URI's
SPARQL
Distribution and
dereferencing

Ontology <- Graph <- Network


Network: representation pattern as nodes connected
by edges
Property graph: representation of entities with
properties connected by relationships with properties
(e.g. impedance)
Ontology: specifications and theories
Predicates (RDF data model)
Classes (RDFS)
Collections and Axioms (OWL)

Ontology <-> Property graph : material connections


with properties vs logical relationships
Semantics vis a vis syntax, logic, pragmatics

Information Graph Perspectives

Logical relationships
Spatial relationships
Physical networks
Distribution networks

Roles for Ontologies

Classification
Discovery
Data integration
Data provenance / orchestration
Knowledge entailment
Application logic
Model configuration

Hydro Ontology Uses & Cases


Classification of monitoring data according to hydro
conventions
Physical / virtual contracted nodes points of reporting
(Aus)
Linking and 2N mediation between hydro models
Discovery and extraction of hydro features and data
through links
Map data as a feature framework
Feature framework for place names
Flow & containment framework for water-related
modeling
Flow framework for flood prediction (e.g. NFIE and 2.7M
virtual gauges)

Links and linked data


Ontologies identify entities with globally
unique URIs
Linked data dereferences URIs to URLs with
useful results.
A proper hash of it
http://usgs.gov/nhd/flowline.349530#

Fair representation (.xml, .json)


Give it a REST API
Final resolution (SPARQL and otherwise)\
Identity questions (Reachcode,
Permanent_ID, COM_ID, etc.)

Work in Hydro Ontologies

CUAHSI Ontology
HY_Features Ontology
CEGIS NHD Ontology
OGC Testbed 11 Ontology
Hydro Ontology
Wet-dry Ontology

Upper ontologies vs Patterns


Semantic Sensor Networks
PROV-O

Upper ontologies vs Patterns


Semantic Sensor Networks
PROV-O
O&M
wasDerivedFrom

Entity
wasAttributedTo
wasGeneratedBy
Agent
actedOnBehalfOf

used

wasAssociatedWith
Activity
startedAtTime
xsd:dateTime

endedAtTime
wasInformedBy

xsd:dateTime

CUAHSI HIS Ontology

NHD Ontology

HY Features
Ontology

HydroOntology

N. Vijayasankaran MS Thesis

Figure 4.8 Class Hierarchy of HydroOntology

and make inferences from the hydro-gazetteer on hydrological relationship between


proper named features.

HydroOntology

N. Vijayasankaran MS Thesis
Figure 4.9 Hydrographic Relationships of River to Other Feature Types

Sample SPARQL Query


SPARQL query below retrieves all the streams that
are part of the main stem along with dam locations.
SELECT ?name ?damname
WHERE {?s gaz:gnisName 'Androscoggin River'.
?s ho:hasMainStem ?feature.
?feature gaz:gnisName ?name.
?feature ho:hasDam ?damfeature.
?damfeature gaz:gnisName ?damname}

Surface Water Features

Fig. 2. An illustration of how surface water features can be described as instances of classes
defined in the Dry (left) and Wet (right) modules of the Surface Water pattern.

Surface Water Patterns

Fig. 1. Surface Water patterns Dry and Wet


module classes (brown/blue) and properties (grey).

Activities
Ontology alignment metrics
Aligned flow network ontology pattern
Adaptation of hydraulic analysis techniques for channel
delineation
Contouring approach to surface network resolution
Social nexus approach to placename relationships
Model for generation and management of
dereferenceable feature URIs
Extraction of entities from NHD and NHDPlus to
populate and exercise knowledgebase
Ontology-driven applications
Further TNM Linked Data work in OGC Testbed 12

REST: Follow the Links

Get a bunch of features


http://www.pvretano.com/cubewerx/cubeserv/default/wfs/2.5.0/ows11/wwAccess
Get a specific feature
http://www.pvretano.com/cubewerx/cubeserv/default/wfs/2.5.0/ows11/wwAccess?
featureId=CWFID.WWACCESS.0.33678.BA8CA5E7ADF849B81F20020000
Get a feature in GML
http://www.pvretano.com/cubewerx/cubeserv/default/wfs/2.5.0/ows11/wwAccess?
featureId=CWFID.WWACCESS.0.33678.BA8CA5E7ADF849B81F20020000&f=application
%2Fgml%2Bxml%3B+version=3.1
Follow the link with rel="alternate" and type="application/vnd.geo+json" to get JSON
http://www.pvretano.com/cubewerx/cubeserv/default/wfs/2.5.0/ows11/wwAccess/
CWFID.WWACCESS.0.33678.BA8CA5E7ADF849B81F20020000?outputFormat=application
%2Fvnd.geo%2Bjson
Query Bbox
http://www.pvretano.com/cubewerx/cubeserv/default/wfs/2.5.0/ows11/wwAccess?
bbox=-43.4380,172.6489,-43.3947,172.7108&css=http://www.pvretano.com/cubewerx/css/
ows11_table.css
Follow the link with rel="collection" to get the featuretype, default 10 features.
http://www.pvretano.com/cubewerx/cubeserv/default/wfs/2.5.0/ows11/wwAccess?css=http://
www.pvretano.com/cubewerx/css/ows11_table.css
Follow the link with rel="service" to get the service document of the service.
http://www.pvretano.com/cubewerx/cubeserv/default/wfs/2.5.0/ows11

Copyright 2015 Open


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