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1.

0 OBJECTIVE

The objective is to verify member forces obtain from experiment with tension
coefficient method.

2.0 LEARNING OUTCOME

There are many learning outcome that we can get from this laboratory test:

2.1 The application of theoretical engineering knowledge through practical


application.
2.2 To enhance the technical competency in structural engineering through
laboratory application.
2.3 Communicate effectively in group.
2.4 To identify the problem, solving and finding out the appropriate solution
through laboratory application.

3.0 THEORY

If a members of a truss system is situated not in a two dimensional plane, then the
truss is defined as a space frame truss. In other words, space truss has components
in three axis i.e. x, y and z.
Consider a member with node A (xA, yA) and B (xB,yB)

Assume te force in the member is TAB (+ve tension) and length LAB

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Definition of tension coefficient (t), tAB = TAB
LAB

At A, the horizontal component TAB is :


TAB cos θ = tAB LAB cosθ = tAB LAB (xB – xA)
LAB
= tAB (xB – xA)

Use the same method, the vertical component at A is :


= tAB (yB – yA)

At B, the horizontal component TAB = tAB (xA – xB)


Vertical component TAB = tAB (yA – yB)

Using statics, write the equation for each joint using the coordinate value and
solve for it. Convert it into force using:
TAB = tAB LAB = √ (xB – xA)2 + (yB – yA)2

A space frame or space structure is a truss-like, lightweight rigid structure


constructed from interlocking struts in a geometric pattern. Space frames usually
utilize a multidirectional span, and are often used to accomplish long spans with
few supports. They derive their strength from the inherent rigidity of the
triangular frame; flexing loads (bending moments) are transmitted as tension and
compression loads along the length of each strut. Many architects and engineers
throughout the world have expressed their design freedoms with Space Frame
Systems. The simplicity of these systems provides a natural link between
yesterday and today. For this reason, designers have specified Space Frame
Systems for an increasing variety of renovation and remodeling applications. The
modular systems allow fast track delivery and job site assembly at affordable
prices. Space frame systems give you the architectural beauty you desire within
the budget you set.

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Some space frame applications include:

1) Parking canopy’sH

2) Hotel/Hospital/commercial building entrances

3) Commercial building lobbies/atriums

Some advantages of space frame systems over conventional systems are:

1) Random column placement

2) Column-free spaces

3) Minimal perimeter support

4) Controlled load distribution

5) Redundant integrity

6) Design freedom

7) Supports all types of roofing

8) Exposing building exterior to view adds color, texture and style

Figure 1 : Space frame for construction

4.0 APPARATUS

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Space frame apparatus

PROSEDURES

Part 1

1. First of all, we select any weight between 10 to 50 N.


2. Then, ensure that the distance a = 500 mm and place load hanger on D.

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3. Measure the distance b, c and d, and then record it in table 1.

4. We record the dynamometer readings for members S1, S2 and S3.

5. After that, we put the selected load on hanger at D and record it.

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6. Then, we repeat step (2) to (4) with the different value of a.
7. Finally, calculate the theoretical member forces and record it in table one.

Part 2

1. For part 2, we use a distance of 350 mm for a.


2. Then, we place the hanger on D.
3. After that, measure the distance b, c, and d. Then we record the dynamometer
reading for member S1, S2, S3 in table 2.
4. The next step is we put a load of 5 N on the hanger and record the
dynamometer readings.
5. We repeat step 2 to 4 using the different load.
6. We complete the table 2 by calculating the theoretical member value.
7. The last one is we plot the graf of force against load for the theoretical and
experimental results.

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5.0 RESULT

Table 1

Dimension (mm) Dynamometer Reading Force (N)


S1 S2 S3 Experiment Theory
a b c d
Loaded Unloaded Loaded Unloaded Loaded Unloaded S1 S2 S3 S1 S2 S3
500 483 260 365 60 40 55 0 80 1 20 55 80 142.35 142.35 -274.27
400 503 215 365 78 70 74 40 110 0 8 34 110 141.54 141.54 -273.51
300 532 170 365 109 15 104 11 150 10 94 93 140 72.16 72.16 -139.63
200 548 110 365 181 31 175 28 240 40 150 147 200 146.14 146.14 -279.47

Table 2

Load Dynamometer Reading Force (N)


(N) S1 S2 S3 Experiment Theory
Loaded Unloaded Loaded Unloaded Loaded Unloaded S1 S2 S3 S1 S2 S3
5 50 10 45 7 70 20 40 38 50 53.48 53.48 -98.97
10 90 10 85 7 120 20 80 78 100 106.96 106.96 -197.95
15 134 10 130 7 180 20 124 123 160 160.43 160.43 -296.92
20 178 10 175 7 245 20 168 168 225 213.91 213.91 -395.89
25 230 10 225 7 305 20 220 218 285 267.39 267.39 -494.86

Dimension a = 350mm Dimension b = 521mm Dimension c = 185mm Dimension d = 365mm

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Data Analysis

Part 1:

Example Of Experiment Calculation

a = 500 mm

1. S1 : loaded = 60N
Unloaded = 40N

So S1 = 60N – 40N
= 20N

2. S2 : loaded = 55N
Unloaded = 0N

So S2 = 55N – 0N
= 55N

3. S3 : loaded = 80N
Unloaded = 0N

So S3 = 80N –0N
= 80 N

Part 1:

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Table 1 theoretical calculation
Load F = 10 N

1. a = 500mm, b = 483mm, c = 260mm, d = 365mm.

Lx = b
Ly = d/2 (for S1 and S2)

Member Lx Ly Lz L (mm) t F (N) Remarks


(mm) (mm) (mm)
S1 483 -182.5 240 569.38 0.25 142.35 Tension
S2 483 182.5 240 569.38 0.25 142.35 Tension
S3 483 0.00 260 548.53 -0.50 -274.27 Compression
Force (N) 0 0 -10 - - - -
Lz = a – c (for S1 and S2)
F=Lxt
L = √ (Lx² + Ly² + Lz²)

∑ Fx = 0; 483s1 + 483s2 + 483s3 = 0

∑ FY = 0; -182.5s1 + 182.5s2 + 0s3 = 0

∑ Fz = 0; 240s1 + 240s2 + 260s3 = -10

By using calculator

So ts1 = 0.25
ts2 = 0.25
ts3 = -0.50

And S1 = 142.35
S2 = 142.35
S3 = -274.27

2. a = 400mm, b = 503mm, c = 215mm, d = 365mm.

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Lx = b
Ly = d/2 (for S1 and S2)

Member Lx Ly Lz L (mm) t F (N) Remarks


(mm) (mm) (mm)
S1 503 -182.5 185 566.16 0.25 141.54 Tension
S2 503 182.5 185 566.16 0.25 141.54 Tension
S3 503 0.00 215 547.02 -0.50 -273.51 Compression
Force (N) 0 0 -10 - - - -
Lz = a – c (for S1 and S2)
F=Lxt
L = √ (Lx² + Ly² + Lz²)

∑ Fx = 0; 503s1 + 503s2 + 503s3 = 0

∑ FY = 0;-182.5s1 + 182.5s2 + 0s3 = 0

∑ Fz = 0; 185s1 + 185s2 + 215s3 = -10

By using calculator

So ts1 = 0.25
ts2 = 0.25
ts3 = -0.50

And S1 = 141.54
S2 = 141.54
S3 = -273.51

3. a = 300mm, b = 532mm, c = 170mm, d = 365mm.

Lx = b
Ly = d/2 (for S1 and S2)

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Member Lx Ly Lz L (mm) t F (N) Remarks
(mm) (mm) (mm)
S1 532 -182.5 130 577.26 0.125 72.16 Tension
S2 532 182.5 130 577.26 0.125 72.16 Tension
S3 532 0.00 170 558.50 -0.25 -139.63 Compression
Force (N) 0 0 -10 - - - -
Lz = a – c (for S1 and S2)
F=Lxt
L = √ (Lx² + Ly² + Lz²)

∑ Fx = 0; 532s1 + 532s2 + 532s3 = 0

∑ FY = 0; -182.5s1 + 182.5s2 + 0s3 = 0

∑ Fz = 0; 130s1 + 130s2 + 170s3 = -10

By using calculator

So ts1 = 0.125
ts2 = 0.125
ts3 = -0.25

And S1 = 72.16
S2 = 72.16
S3 = -139.63

4. a = 200mm, b = 548mm, c = 110mm, d = 365mm.

Lx = b
Ly = d/2 (for S1 and S2)
Lz = a – c (for S1 and S2)

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Member Lx Ly Lz L (mm) t F (N) Remarks
(mm) (mm) (mm)
S1 548 -182.5 90 584.56 0.25 146.14 Tension
S2 548 182.5 90 584.56 0.25 146.14 Tension
S3 548 0.00 110 558.93 -0.50 -279.47 Compression
Force (N) 0 0 -10 - - - -
F=Lxt
L = √ (Lx² + Ly² + Lz²)

∑ Fx = 0; 548s1 + 548s2 + 548s3 = 0

∑ FY = 0; -182.5s1 + 182.5s2 + 0s3 = 0

∑ Fz = 0; 90s1 + 90s2 + 110s3 = -10

By using calculator

So ts1 = 0.25
ts2 = 0.25
ts3 = -0.50

And S1 = 146.14
S2 = 146.14
S3 = -279.47

Part 2 :

Table 2 theoretical calculation:

1. Load F = 5 N

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a = 350mm, b = 521mm, c = 185mm, d = 365mm.

Lx = b
Ly = d/2 (for S1 and S2)

Member Lx Ly (mm) Lz L (mm) t F (N) Remarks


(mm) (mm)
S1 350 -182.5 165 427.82 0.125 53.48 Tension
S2 350 182.5 165 427.82 0.125 53.48 Tension
S3 350 0.00 185 395.89 -0.25 -98.97 Compression
Force 0 0 -5 - - - -
(N)
Lz = a – c (for S1 and S2)
F=Lxt
L = √ (Lx² + Ly² + Lz²)

∑ Fx = 0; 350s1 + 350s2 + 350s3 =0

∑ FY = 0; -182.5s1 + 182.5s2 + 0s3 = 0

∑ Fz = 0; 165s1 + 165s2 + 185s3 = -5

By using calculator

So ts1 = 0.125
ts2 = 0.125
ts3 = -0.25

And S1 = 53.48
S2 = 53.48
S3 = -98.97

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2. Load F = 10 N

a = 350mm, b = 521mm, c = 185mm, d = 365mm.

Lx = b
Ly = d/2 (for S1 and S2)

Member Lx Ly (mm) Lz L (mm) t F (N) Remarks


(mm) (mm)
S1 350 -182.5 165 427.82 0.25 106.96 Tension
S2 350 182.5 165 427.82 0.25 106.96 Tension
S3 350 0.00 185 395.89 -0.50 -197.95 Compression
Force 0 0 -10 - - - -
(N)
Lz = a – c (for S1 and S2)
F=Lxt
L = √ (Lx² + Ly² + Lz²)

∑ Fx = 0; 350s1 + 350s2 + 350s3 =0

∑ FY = 0; -182.5s1 + 182.5s2 + 0s3 = 0

∑ Fz = 0; 165s1 + 165s2 + 185s3 = -10

By using calculator

So ts1 = 0.25
ts2 = 0.25
ts3 = -0.50

And S1 = 106.96
S2 = 106.96
S3 = -197.95

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3. Load F = 15 N

a = 350mm, b = 521mm, c = 185mm, d = 365mm.

Lx = b
Ly = d/2 (for S1 and S2)

Member Lx Ly Lz L (mm) t F (N) Remarks


(mm) (mm) (mm)
S1 350 -182.5 165 427.82 0.375 160.43 Tension
S2 350 182.5 165 427.82 0.375 160.43 Tension
S3 350 0.00 185 395.89 -0.75 -296.92 Compression
Force 0 0 -15 - - - -
(N)
Lz = a – c (for S1 and S2)
F=Lxt
L = √ (Lx² + Ly² + Lz²)

∑ Fx = 0; 350s1 + 350s2 + 350s3 =0

∑ FY = 0; -182.5s1 + 182.5s2 + 0s3 = 0

∑ Fz = 0; 165s1 + 165s2 + 185s3 = -15

By using calculator

So ts1 = 0.375
ts2 = 0.375
ts3 = -0.75

And S1 = 160.43
S2 = 160.43
S3 = -296.92

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4. Load F = 20 N

a = 350mm, b = 521mm, c = 185mm, d = 365mm.

Lx = b
Ly = d/2 (for S1 and S2)

Member Lx (mm) Ly (mm) Lz L (mm) t F (N) Remarks


(mm)
S1 350 -182.5 165 427.82 0.5 213.91 Tension
S2 350 182.5 165 427.82 0.5 213.91 Tension
S3 350 0.00 185 395.89 -1 -395.89 Compression
Force 0 0 -20 - - - -
(N)
Lz = a – c (for S1 and S2)
F=Lxt
L = √ (Lx² + Ly² + Lz²)

∑ Fx = 0; 350s1 + 350s2 + 350s3 =0

∑ FY = 0; -182.5s1 + 182.5s2 + 0s3 = 0

∑ Fz = 0; 165s1 + 165s2 + 185s3 = -20

By using calculator

So ts1 = 0.5
ts2 = 0.5
ts3 = -1

And S1 = 213.91
S2 = 213.91
S3 = -395.89

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5. Load F = 25 N

a = 350mm, b = 521mm, c = 185mm, d = 365mm.

Lx = b
Ly = d/2 (for S1 and S2)

Member Lx Ly Lz L (mm) t F (N) Remarks


(mm) (mm) (mm)
S1 350 -182.5 165 427.82 0.625 267.39 Tension
S2 350 182.5 165 427.82 0.625 267.39 Tension
S3 350 0.00 185 395.89 -1.25 -494.86 Compression
Force 0 0 -25 - - - -
(N)
Lz = a – c (for S1 and S2)
F=Lxt
L = √ (Lx² + Ly² + Lz²)

∑ Fx = 0; 350s1 + 350s2 + 350s3 =0

∑ FY = 0; -182.5s1 + 182.5s2 + 0s3 = 0

∑ Fz = 0; 165s1 + 165s2 + 185s3 = -25

By using calculator

So ts1 = 0.625
ts2 = 0.625
ts3 = -1.25

And S1 = 267.39
S2 = 267.39
S3 = -494.86

GRAPH

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Graph of Force versus Load

300

250

200
Force (N)

S1 Exp.
150
S1 Theory
100

50

0
5 10 15 20 25
Load (N)

Graph of Force versus Load 2

300

250

200
Force (N)

S2 Exp.
150
S2 Theory
100

50

0
5 10 15 20 25
Load (N)

6.0 DISSCUSSION

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Based on the graph that have been plotted, we can see that for the graph1, the
comparison between the theoretical and the experimental results is there is not much
different for the two lines. When more load were applied, the value of force was also
increase.
It is same like the graph2, which is there is a little difference between the
theoretical and the experimental results. The value of force in increase due to the
increasing of load.
But for the graph3, the results of the theoretical and the experimental is totally
difference because for the experiment, the results is in range 0 to 300 while for the results
of the theoretical is around range -0 to -300. For the theoretical, when more load were
applied, the value of force were decrease but for the experimental, when more load were
applied, the force will increase.
The reason of discrepancy in the results maybe cause by the spring that used was
not elastic anymore after being stretched for many time of doing experiment, it might
have a mistake during taking the results. Beside that, it maybe cause by the error of the
apparatus which is not in good condition.

7.0 CONCLUSION

The experiment is to prove experimental and theoretical have a small relative


value. Space frames usually utilize a multidirectional span, and are often used to
accomplish long spans with few supports. They derive their strength from the inherent
rigidity of the triangular frame; flexing loads (bending moments) are transmitted as
tension and compression loads along the length of each structure.
In many ways this looks like the horizontal jib of a tower crane repeated many
times to make it wider. A stronger purer form is composed of interlocking tetrahedral
pyramids in which all the struts have unit length. More technically this is referred to as an
isotropic vector matrix or in a single unit width an octet truss.

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