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POSTULATES AND THEOREMS

Points, Lines, Planes


Postulate 1
A plane contains at least three non-collinear points.
A line contains at least two distinct points.
Postulate 2
Two distinct points determine a line.
Postulate 3
Three non-collinear points determine a unique plane.
Postulate 4
If two points are contained in a plane, then the line that is formed by the two points
is also contained in the same plane.
Postulate 5
If two planes intersect, then their intersection is a line.
Theorem 1.1
If two distinct lines intersect, then they intersect at exactly one point.
Theorem 1.2
A line and a point not on the line are contained in one and only one plane.
Theorem 1.3
Two intersecting lines are contained in one and only one plane.
Segment and Rays
Postulate 6. The Ruler Postulate
The set of points of any line can be made into a one-to-one correspondence with the
set of real numbers and any two points A and B, such that point A corresponds to
zero and point B corresponds to any positive number.
Definition of Betweeness
Point B is between points A and C, in line ABC, if and only if it satisfies the following
conditions:
A, B and C are collinear
AB + BC = AC
Theorem 2.1. Midpoint Theorem
If B is the midpoint of AC, then the following statements are true:
AB = AC or AC = 2AB

BC = AC or AC = 2BC
Theorem 2.2
On line AC, with A and C having coordinates 0 and h, respectively and h is a positive
real number.
If B has a coordinate of h/2, then B is a midpoint of AC.
If B is a midpoint of AC, then B has a coordinate of h/2.
Theorem 2.3
The coordinate of the midpoint of a segment Xm, having the coordinates of the
endpoints as x1 and x2 is (x1 + x2)/2.
Theorem 2.4
A segment has a unique midpoint.
Theorem 2.5
Reflexive, symmetric and transitive properties are applicable to congruent
segments.
Theorem 2.6
Let CD be a ray. If we let x be a positive number, then there is exactly one point J
such that CJ = x.
Postulate 7. Plane Separation Postulate
Given a plane K and line g on Plane K, the points on the plane that do not lie on the
line form two disjoint convex sets. If we choose a point R on one of the sets and
point T on the other set, then the line formed by points R and T intersects line G.
Angle and Perpendicular Lines
Postulate 8. Angle Measure Postulate
For every angle, there is a unique real number between 0 and 180 known as its
degree measure.
Postulate 9. Protractor Postulate.
Let AB be a ray and K be the half plane determined by the ray. For every real
number d with 0 < d < 180, there is a unique ray, AC, with C in K such that the
mABC = d.
Postulate 10. Angle Addition Postulate
If B is in the interior of ADC, then mADC = mADB + mBDC.
Theorem 3.1
All right angles are congruent.
Theorem 3.2
If two angles are both congruent and supplementary, then the two angles are right
angle.

Theorem 3.3
Congruence of angles are reflexive, symmetric and transitive.
Theorem 3.4
If two angles are congruent, then their supplements are also congruent.
Theorem 3.5
Supplements of the same angle are congruent.
Theorem 3.6
Complements of congruent angles are congruent.
Theorem 3.7
Complements of the same angle are congruent.
Postulate 11. Linear Pair Postulate
Angles that form a linear pair are supplementary.
Theorem 3.8. Vertical Angle Theorem
Vertical angles are congruent.
Theorem 3.9
If two lines are perpendicular, then they form four right angles.
Theorem 3.10
If the angles in a linear pair are congruent, then the lines containing their sides are
perpendicular.
Theorem 3.11
In a plane, through a point on a given line there is one and only one line
perpendicular to the given line.
Theorem 3.12
In a plane, a segment has a unique perpendicular bisector.
Theorem 3.13
If two angles are adjacent and complementary, the non-common sides are
perpendicular.
Theorem 3.14
In a plane, if the non-common sides of adjacent angles are perpendicular then the
angles are complementary.
Parallel Lines in a Plane
Postulate 12

When two parallel lines are cut by a transversal, then each pair of corresponding
angles are congruent.
Theorem 4.1
If two parallel lines are cut by a transversal, then the alternate interior angles
formed are congruent.
Theorem 4.2
If two parallel lines are cut by a transversal, then the alternate exterior angles
formed are congruent.
Theorem 4.3
If a transversal cuts two parallel lines, then all pairs of interior angles on the same
side of the transversal are supplementary.
Theorem 4.4
If a transversal is perpendicular to one of two parallel lines, then it is also
perpendicular to the other.
Postulate 13
If two lines cut by a transversal form a pair of congruent corresponding angles, then
the two lines are parallel.
Theorem 4.5
If two lines cut by a transversal form a pair of congruent of alternate interior angles,
then the two lines are parallel.
Theorem 4.6
If two lines cut by a transversal form a pair of congruent alternate exterior angles,
then the two lines are parallel.
Theorem 4.7
If two lines cut by a transversal form interior angles on the same side of the
transversal that are supplementary, then the two lines are parallel.
Theorem 4.8
In a plane, if two lines are perpendicular to the same line, then they are parallel.
Postulate 14. Parallel Postulate
Given a line and a point not on the line, there is only one line that is parallel to the
line and passes through the point.
Theorem 4.9
In a plane, if two lines are parallel to the same line, then they are parallel to each
other.

PROPERTIES
Properties of Real Numbers

a+b=b+ a

Commutative Property of Addition

a b=b a

Commutative Property of Multiplication


Associative Property of Addition

( a+b )+ c=a+(b+ c)

Associative Property of Multiplication

( a b ) c=a (b c)

Distributive Property

a ( b+ c ) =a b+ a c

Additive Identity Property

a+0=0+ a=a

Multiplicative Identity Property

a 1=1 a=a

Existence Property of Addition

a+ (a ) =a+a=0

(Additive Inverse)

1 1
a = a=1; a 0
a a

Existence Property of Multiplication


(Multiplicative Inverse)
Zero Properties
Multiplication Property of Zero

a 0=0 a=0

Division Property of Zero

0
=0, a 0
a

Division by Zero is UNDEFINED!


Properties of Equality
Reflexive Property
Symmetric Property

a=a
a=b , b=a

Transitive Property

a=b , b=c ; a=c

Addition Property

a=b ; a+ c=b+c

a=b ; a b=b c

Multiplication Property

a+ c=b+c ; a=b

Cancellation Property of Addition

a c=b c ; a=b such that c 0

Cancellation Property of Multiplication

a=ba+c=d ; b+ c=d

Substitution Property
Closure Property

If

and

are real numbers, their sum

and product are real.


Properties of Inequality
Trichotomy Property

Only and only one is true;

Transitive Property

If a b ,b c ,then a c

Addition/Subtraction Property

If a b ,then a+c b +c
If a b ,then ac bc

Multiplication Property

If a<bc >0, thenac <bc


If a<bc <0, thenac >bc

a=b , a>b , a< b