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Section A

Bahagian A
[60 marks]
[60 markah]
Answer all questions in this section.
Jawab semua soalan dalam bahagian ini.
1 A student constructs a simple automatic light circuit by using a transistor and a LDR as shown
. in Diagram below. The lamp L is automatically switched on at night and switched off in the
daytime.
Seorang pelajar membina suatu litar lampu automatik dengan menggunakan suatu transistor
dan satu PPC(Perintang-peka-cahaya) seperti ditunjukkan dalam Rajah di bawah.
Lampu L akan dihidupkan secara automatik pada waktu malam dan dimatikan pada waktu
siang.

DIAGRAM / RAJAH
(a Name the type of transistor used for T.
) Namakan jenis transistor yang digunakan untuk T.
__________________________________________________________________________
___________
[1 mark/1 markah]
(b State the function of resistor R.
) Nyatakan fungsi perintang R.
__________________________________________________________________________
___________
[1 mark/1 markah]
(c The resistance of the light-dependent-resistor (LDR) can vary from 50 O to 3 500 O,
) depending on the intensity of light falling on the LDR.
Perintang-peka-cahaya (PPC) mempunyai rintangan yang berubah
daripada 50 ke 3500, bergantung kepada

keamatan cahaya yang jatuh padanya.


(i) Describe the relationship between the resistance of the LDR and the intensity of light
falling on it.
Huraikan hubungan antara rintangan bagi PPC dengan keamatan cahaya yang jatuh
padanya.
________________________________________________________________________
__________
________________________________________________________________________
__________
[2 marks/2 markah]
(ii When the LDR is in the dark, the lamp, L, glows brightly.
) Explain briefly why this happens.
Apabila PPC berada dalam keadaan gelap, lampu L akan menyala dengan terang.
Terangkan secara ringkas mengapa kejadian ini berlaku.
________________________________________________________________________
__________
________________________________________________________________________
__________
[3 marks/3 markah]
(d
)

DIAGRAM / RAJAH
Diagram above shows a logic gate, G.
Rajah di atas menunjukkan suatu get logik, G.
(i) Name logic gate G.
Namakan get logik itu.
________________________________________________________________________
__________
[1 mark/1 markah]
(ii Complete the truth table for logic gate G.
) Lengkapkan jadual kebenaran bagi get logik G.

If logic gate G is connected across point A and point B in Diagram above , describe
briefly any change to the operation of the lamp, L.
Jika get logik G disambungkan merentasi titik A dan titik B dalam Rajah di atas,
perihalkan secara ringkas sebarang perubahan kepada operasi lampu L.
________________________________________________________________________
__________
[2 marks/2 markah]
2 Diagram below shows a simple circuit made up of a battery, switch, bulb, ammeter, voltmeter
. and component X.
Rajah di bawah menunjukkan satu litar ringkas yang terdiri daripada bateri, suis, mentol,
ammeter, voltmeter dan komponen X.

Diagram / Rajah
(a When the switch is closed, what will happen to the bulb if component X is
) Apabila suis ditutup, apakah yang akan terjadi kepada mentol itu jika komponen X ialah
(i)

a capacitor/kapasitor

________________________________________________________________________
__________
[2 marks/2 markah]
(ii) a diode/diod

________________________________________________________________________
__________

[2 marks/2 markah]
(iii a similar bulb/mentol yang serupa
)

________________________________________________________________________
__________
[2 marks/2 markah]
(b If component X is a rheostat,
) Sekiranya komponen X ialah reostat,
(i) what relationship can be investigated with this arrangement of apparatus?
apakah hubungan yang boleh dikaji dengan susunan radas ini?
________________________________________________________________________
__________
[1 mark/1 markah]
(ii) explain the relationship you have stated in (b)(i).
terangkan hubungan yang anda nyatakan di (b)(i).
________________________________________________________________________
__________
[2 marks/2 markah]
(iii If the bulb is replaced with a semiconductor, what will be the relationship in (b)(i)?
) Explain your answer.
Sekiranya mentol itu digantikan dengan semikonduktor, apakah yang akan terjadi kepada
hubungan di (b)(i)? Terangkan jawapan anda.
________________________________________________________________________
__________
[3 marks/3 markah]
3 Diagram A shows deflection tube.
. Rajah A menunjukkan satu tiub pemesongan.

Diagram / Rajah
(a Explain the process that occurs when the 6 V supply is switched on.
) Huraikan proses yang berlaku apabila bekalan 6 V dihidupkan.
[2 marks/markah]
(b For each of the cases below, a 6 V supply is switched on.
) Sketch the trace displayed on the screen in Diagram B until E for each following cases:
Untuk setiap kes yang berikut, bekalan 6 V dihidupkan.
Lakarkan lintasan sinar katod di skrin berpendarfluor pada Rajah B hingga E bagi setiap
kes yang berikut:
(i) E.H.T 1 is switched on while E.H.T 2 is switched off. [Diagram B]
VLT 1 dihidupkan manakala VLT 2 dimatikan [Rajah B].
(ii) E.H.T 1 and E.H.T 2 are switched on. [Diagram C]
VLT 1 dan VLT 2 dihidupkan [Rajah C]
(iii E.H.T 1 and E.H.T 2 are switched on with terminal E.H.T 2 inverted. [Diagram D]
) VLT 1 dan VLT 2 dihidupkan dengan VLT 2 disongsangkan terminal. [Rajah D ].
(iv E.H.T 1 is switched on while E.H.T 2 is switched off and the north pole of the magnet is
) brought near
the Q plate. [Diagram E]
VLT 1 dihidupkan manakala VLT 2 dimatikan dan kutub utara magnet dibawa
berdekatan dengan plat Q. [Rajah E].

Diagram B/Rajah B

Diagram C/Rajah C
E/Rajah E

Diagram D/Rajah D

Diagram

[4 marks/markah]
(c State two characteristics of the cathode rays formed.
) Nyatakan dua ciri sinar katod yang dihasilkan.

[2 marks/markah]
4.

The signals in Diagram A are applied to inputs A and B of the logic gate in Diagram B.
(Note: 5 V denotes a high state of voltage and 0 V denotes a low state of voltage.)
Isyarat-isyarat dalam Rajah A diaplikasikan kepada input A dan B bagi gek logik dalam
Rajah B.
(Perhatian: 5 V menandakan satu keadaan voltan tinggi dan 0 V menandakan satu keadaan
voltan rendah.)

Diagram A/Rajah A

Diagram B/Rajah B

Diagram B/Rajah B
(a) (i) Name the gate shown in Diagram B.
Namakan get yang ditunjukkan dalam Rajah B.
[1 mark/markah]
(ii) Draw the waveform of the output C of the logic gate.
Lukiskan bentuk gelombang bagi output C bagi get logik itu.
[2 marks/markah]
(b) Box X in Diagram C represents an unknown logic gate.
The variations of input voltages and the corresponding output voltage are shown in
Diagram D.
Kotak X dalam Rajah C mewakili satu get logik yang tidak diketahui. Perubahan voltan
input dan voltan output yang sepadan ditunjukkan dalam Rajah D.

Diagram C/Rajah C

Diagram D/Rajah D
(i) What is X?
Apakah X?
[1 mark/markah]
(ii) Construct a truth table for X.
Binakan jadual kebenaran bagi X.
[2 marks/markah]
5
.

DIAGRAM/RAJAH
Diagram above shows a simple circuit made up of a battery, switch, bulb, ammeter, voltmeter
and component X.
Rajah di atas menunjukkan satu litar ringkas yang terdiri daripada bateri, suis, mentol,
ammeter, voltmeter dan komponen X.
(a When the switch is closed, what will happen to the bulb if component X is
) Apabila suis ditutup, apakah yang akan terjadi kepada mentol itu jika komponen X ialah
(i)
a capacitor/kapasitor

_______________________________________________________________________
___________
[2 marks/2 markah]

(ii)
a diode/diod

_______________________________________________________________________
___________
[2 mark/2 markah]
(iii
) a similar bulb/mentol yang serupa
?
_______________________________________________________________________
___________
[2 mark/2 markah]
(b If component X is a rheostat,
) Sekiranya komponen X ialah reostat,
(i) what relationship can be investigated with this arrangement of apparatus?
apakah hubungan yang boleh dikaji dengan susunan radas ini?
_______________________________________________________________________
___________
[1 mark/1 markah]
(ii) explain the relationship you have stated in (b)(i).
terangkan hubungan yang anda nyatakan di (b)(i).
_______________________________________________________________________
___________
[2 marks/2 markah]
(iii If the bulb is replaced with a semiconductor, what will be the relationship in (b)(i)?
) Explain your answer.
Sekiranya mentol itu digantikan dengan semikonduktor, apakah yang akan terjadi kepada
hubungan di (b)(i)? Terangkan jawapan anda.
_______________________________________________________________________
___________
[3 marks/3 markah]

6 Diagram A shows a car detector placed in front of the traffic lights and Diagram B shows the
. traffic light system using the flip-flop circuit.
Rajah A menunjukkan pengesan kereta yang diletakkan di depan lampu isyarat dan Rajah B
menunjukkan sistem lampu isyarat yang menggunakan litar flip-flop.

DIAGRAM B / RAJAH B
DIAGRAM A / RAJAH A
(a Explain how the system in Diagram A functions.
) Terangkan bagaimana sistem dalam Rajah A berfungsi.
__________________________________________________________________________
___________
[2 marks/2 markah]
(b Explain one simple activity in the laboratory that uses the same analoque system shown in
) Diagram A.
Terangkan satu aktiviti ringkas di makmal yang menggunakan sistem anologi sama yang
ditunjukkan dalam Rajah A.
__________________________________________________________________________
___________
[2 marks/2 markah]
(c (i) Name logic gate X.
)
Namakan get logik X.
________________________________________________________________________
__________
[1 mark/1 markah]
(ii Name circuit Y.
) Namakan litar Y.
________________________________________________________________________
__________
[1 mark/1 markah]
(d Explain how the system in Diagram B functions.
) Terangkan bagaimana sistem dalam Rajah B berfungsi.
__________________________________________________________________________
___________

[2 marks/2 markah]
7 A student constructs a simple automatic light circuit using a transistor and a LDR as shown in
. Diagram A. The lamp L is automatically switched on at night and switched off in the daytime.
Seorang pelajar membina suatu litar lampu automatik dengan menggunakan suatu transistor
dan satu PPC(Perintang-peka-cahaya) seperti ditunjukkan dalam Rajah A. Lampu L akan
dihidupkan secara automatik pada waktu malam dan dimatikan pada waktu siang.

Diagram A/Rajah A
(a Name the type of transistor used for T.
) Namakan jenis transistor yang digunakan untuk T.
__________________________________________________________________________
___________
[1 mark/1 markah]
(b State the function of resistor R.
) Nyatakan fungsi perintang R.
__________________________________________________________________________
___________
[1 mark/1 markah]
(c The resistance of the light-dependent-resistor (LDR) can vary from 50 to 3 500 ,
) depending on the intensity of light falling on the LDR.
Perintang-peka-cahaya (PPC) mempunyai rintangan yang berubah daripada 50 ke 3500,
bergantung kepada keamatan cahaya yang jatuh padanya.
(i) Describe the relationship between the resistance of the LDR and the intensity of light
falling on it.
Huraikan hubungan antara rintangan bagi PPC dengan keamatan cahaya yang jatuh
padanya.
________________________________________________________________________
__________
________________________________________________________________________
__________

[2 marks/2 markah]
(ii When the LDR is in the dark, the lamp, L, glows brightly.
) Explain briefly why this happens.
Apabila PPC berada dalam keadaan gelap, lampu L akan menyala dengan terang.
Terangkan secara ringkas mengapa kejadian ini berlaku.
________________________________________________________________________
__________
________________________________________________________________________
__________
[3 marks/3 markah]
(d
)

Diagram B/Rajah B
Diagram B shows a logic gate, G.
Rajah B menunjukkan suatu get logik, G.
(i) Name the logic gate G.
Namakan get logik itu.
________________________________________________________________________
__________
[1 mark/1 markah]
(ii Complete the truth table for the logic gate, G.
) Lengkapkan jadual kebenaran bagi get logik G.

If the logic gate, G, is connected across point A and point B in Diagram B, describe
briefly any change to the operation of the lamp, L.
Jika get logik G disambungkan merentasi titik A dan titik B dalam Rajah B, perihalkan
secara ringkas sebarang perubahan kepada operasi lampu L.
________________________________________________________________________
__________
[2 marks/2 markah]

8
.

DIAGRAM / RAJAH
Diagram above shows the arrangement of four diodes in a bridge rectifier for a step-down
transformer used
for full-wave rectification.
Rajah di atas menunjukkan susunan empat diod dalam bentuk tetimbang bagi suatu
transformer injak turun yang digunakan untuk rektifi kasi gelombang penuh.
(a Why is the circuit not connected directly to the 240 V a.c. power supply?
) Mengapakah litar itu tidak boleh disambung terus ke bekalan elektrik 240 V a.u.?
__________________________________________________________________________
___________
__________________________________________________________________________
___________
[1 mark/1 markah]
(b Which of the four diodes shown in the circuit is connected in the reverse direction?
) Antara empat diod yang ditunjukkan dalam litar, manakah yang disambung terbalik?
__________________________________________________________________________
___________
__________________________________________________________________________
___________
[1 mark/1 markah]
(c If the mistake in the connection in (b) is corrected, sketch the shape of the trace observed on
) the
CRO screen when the time-base is on.
Jika kesilapan penyambungan dalam (b) dibetulkan, lakarkan bentuk surih yang
diperhatikan pada skrin OSKapabila dasar masa dihidupkan.
[1 mark/1 markah]

(d (i) If a student connects a capacitor in parallel across a resistor R, sketch the shape of the
)
trace obtained.
Jika seorang pelajar menyambungkan satu kapasitor secara selari dengan
perintang R, lakarkan bentuk surih yang diperoleh.
[1 mark/1 markah]

(ii What is the function of the capacitor?


) Apakah fungsi kapasitor itu?
________________________________________________________________________
__________
[1 mark/1 markah]
(e Sketch the shape of the trace observed on the CRO screen if diode D3 malfunctions.
) Jika diod D3 telah rosak, lakarkan bentuk surih yang diperhatikan pada skrin OSK.
[1 mark/1 markah]

Section B
Bahagian B
[20 marks]
[20 markah]
Answer any one question from this section.
Jawab mana-mana satu soalan daripada bahagian ini.

9 Semiconductors are raw materials that are very important in the electronic industry. Table A
. shows the
crystal structure and the value of the resistivity before doping and after doping of the n-type
semiconductor.
Semikonduktor merupakan bahan mentah yang sangat penting dalam industri elektronik.
Jadual A menunjukkan struktur hablur dan nilai kerintangan sebelum pendopan dan selepas
pendopan bagi semikonduktor jenis n.

Table A/Jadual A
Table B shows the crystal structure and the value of the resistivity before and after doping of
the p-type
semiconductor.
Jadual B menunjukkan struktur hablur dan nilai kerintangan sebelum pendopan dan selepas
pendopan bagi
semikonduktor jenis p.

Table B / Jadual B
(a) (i) What is the meaning of doping?
Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan pendopan?

[1 mark/markah]
(ii) Using only the information from Tables A and B, compare the n-type semiconductor and
the p-type semiconductor. Then state the relationship between the type of impurity atom
and the charge carrier.
Menggunakan hanya maklumat dalam Jadual A dan B, bandingkan semikonduktor jenis
n dan semikonduktor jenis p. Seterusnya nyatakan hubungan antara jenis atom
bendasing dengan pembawa cas.
[5 marks/markah]
(b) The n-type semiconductor and p-type semiconductor can be combined to form a diode
semiconductor.
This diode only functions when the potential difference which is supplied exceeds the
crossing voltage.
Explain this process.
Semikonduktor jenis n dan semikonduktor jenis p boleh dicantumkan untuk menghasilkan
diod semikonduktor. Diod ini hanya berfungsi apabila beza keupayaan yang dibekalkan
melebihi voltan simpang. Huraikan proses ini.
[4 marks/markah]
(c) Diodes are mostly used for protecting electrical appliances which can possibly by spoilt due
to mistakes made when connecting the terminals of the battery. This is because a diode
allows current to flow in one direction only.
Diod banyak digunakan untuk melindungi peralatan elektrik yang mungkin rosak kerana
kesilapan dalam penyambungan terminal bateri. Hal ini disebabkan diod hanya
membenarkan arus mengalir dalam satu arah sahaja.

Diagram
Rajah
By using your knowledge about semiconductor diodes and Diagram above, explain
Menggunakan pengetahuan anda tentang diod semikonduktor dan Rajah di atas, terangkan
(i) how the diode functions to protect an electrical appliance that might be spoilt due to

mistakes made when connecting the terminals of a battery.


bagaimana diod bertindak untuk melindungi peralatan elektrik yang mungkin rosak
kerana kesilapan dalam penyambungan terminal bateri.
[2 marks/markah]
(ii) changing of alternating current to direct current. You may use a diagram to explain the
answer.
penukaran arus ulang-alik kepada arus terus. Anda boleh menggunakan gambar rajah
untuk menjelaskan jawapan.
[8 marks/markah]
10 Semiconductors are raw materials that are very important in the electronic industry. Table A
. shows the crystal structure and the value of the resistivity before doping and after doping of
the n-type semiconductor.
Semikonduktor merupakan bahan mentah yang sangat penting dalam industri elektronik.
Jadual A menunjukkan struktur hablur dan nilai kerintangan sebelum pendopan dan selepas
pendopan bagi semikonduktor jenis n.

Table A/Jadual A
Table B shows the crystal structure and the value of the resistivity before and after doping of
the p-type semiconductor.
Jadual B menunjukkan struktur hablur dan nilai kerintangan sebelum pendopan dan selepas
pendopan bagi semikonduktor jenis p.

Table B/Jadual B
(a) (i) What is the meaning of doping?
Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan pendopan?
[1 mark/1 markah]
(ii) By using only the information from Tables A and B, compare the n-type semiconductor
and the p-type semiconductor. Then state the relationship between the type of impurity
atom and the charge carrier.
Menggunakan hanya maklumat dalam Jadual A dan B, bandingkan semikonduktor
jenis n dan semikonduktor jenis p. Seterusnya nyatakan hubungan antara jenis atom
bendasing dengan pembawa cas.
[5 marks/5 markah]
(b) The n-type semiconductor and p-type semiconductor can be combined to form a diode
semiconductor.
This diode only functions when the potential difference which is supplied exceeds the
crossing voltage. Explain this process.
Semikonduktor jenis n dan semikonduktor jenis p boleh dicantumkan untuk menghasilkan
diod semikonduktor. Diod ini hanya berfungsi apabila beza keupayaan yang dibekalkan
melebihi voltan
simpang. Huraikan proses ini.
[4 marks/4 markah]
(c) Diodes are mostly used for protecting electrical appliances which can possibly be spoilt
due to mistakes made when connecting the terminals of the battery.
This is because a diode allows current to flow in one direction only.
Diod banyak digunakan untuk melindungi peralatan elektrik yang mungkin rosak kerana
kesilapan dalam penyambungan terminal bateri.
Hal ini disebabkan diod hanya membenarkan arus mengalir dalam satu arah sahaja.

Diagram /Rajah
By using your knowledge about semiconductor diodes and Diagram above, explain
Menggunakan pengetahuan anda tentang diod semikonduktor dan Rajah di atas,
terangkan
(i) how the diode functions to protect an electrical appliance that might be spoilt due to
mistakes made when connecting the terminals of a battery.
bagaimana diod bertindak untuk melindungi peralatan elektrik yang mungkin rosak
kerana kesilapan dalam penyambungan terminal bateri.
[2 marks/2 markah]
(ii) the changing of alternating current to direct current. You may use a diagram to explain
your answer.
penukaran arus ulang-alik kepada arus terus. Anda boleh menggunakan gambar rajah
untuk
menjelaskan jawapan.
[8 marks/8 markah]
Section C
Bahagian C
[20 marks]
[20 markah]
Answer any one question from this section.
Jawab mana-mana satu soalan daripada bahagian ini.
11 As a research engineer in a factory, you are asked to investigate the characteristics of several
. substances in order to produce semiconductors with better conductivity.
Sebagai seorang jurutera di kilang, anda ditugaskan untuk mengkaji ciri-ciri beberapa bahan
untuk menghasilkan semikonduktor dengan kekonduksian baik.
(a What is meant by semiconductors?
) Apakah maksud semikonduktor?
[1 mark/1 markah]
(b Name two types of semiconductors. Explain the differences between these two types of
) semiconductors.

Namakan dua jenis semikonduktor. Terangkan perbezaan antara dua jenis semikonduktor
ini.
[5 marks/5 markah]
(c Table below shows the characteristics of five substances, P, Q, R, S and T.
) Jadual di bawah menunjukkan ciri-ciri bagi lima bahan P, Q, R, S dan T.

TABLE / JADUAL
Based on Table above,
Berdasarkan Jadual di atas,
(i) explain the suitability of the characteristics of the substances to be used in the
production of a semiconductor with better conductivity.
terangkan kesesuaian ciri-ciri bahan untuk digunakan bagi pembuatan semikonduktor
dengan kekonduksian baik.
[8 marks/8 markah]
(ii) determine the most suitable substance to be used and give one reason for your choice.
tentukan bahan yang paling sesuai digunakan dan beri satu sebab bagi pilihan anda.
[2 marks/2 markah]
(d A high voltage supply gives 4 kV across the anode and the cathode of a vacuum tube.
) Satu bekalan voltan tinggi memberikan 4 kV merentasi anod dan katod satu tiub vakum.

(i) Name the process that occurs.


Namakan proses yang berlaku.
[1 mark/1 markah]
(ii) Calculate the velocity of the electron when it reaches the anode tube. [The mass of an
electron,
m = 9.1 1031 kg, the charge of an electron, e = 1.6 1019 C]
Hitungkan halaju elektron itu apabila ia sampai ke tiub anod. [Jisim elekron, m = 9.1
1031 kg, caselekron,
e = 1.6 1019 C]
[3 marks/3 markah]
12 You are an engineer studying the characteristics of the metals given in Table below and have
. to choose a metal which is most suitable to be used as the filament for a cathode ray tube.
Anda sebagai seorang jurutera yang mengkaji ciri-ciri logam yang diberikan dalam Jadual di
bawah kena memilih satu logam yang paling sesuai digunakan sebagai filamen bagi sebuah
tiub sinar katod.

DIAGRAM / RAJAH

TABLE / JADUAL
(a) (i) What is meant by thermionic emission?
Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan pancaran termion?
[1 mark/1 markah]
(ii) Draw a picture to show the primary structure of the cathode ray tube of an oscilloscope.

Lukiskan satu gambar rajah untuk menunjukkan struktur utama tiub sinar katod suatu
osilopkop sinar katod.
[4 marks/4 markah]
(b) Explain the suitability of the characteristics of the metals in Table above to be used as the
filament of the oscilloscope. Then determine the most suitable metal for the filament of the
CRO. Give reasons for your choice.
Terangkan kesesuaian ciri-ciri logam dalam Jadual di atas untuk digunakan sebagai
filamen osiloskop itu. Seterusnya tentukan logam yang paling sesuai bagi filamen OSK itu.
Berikan alasan untuk pilihan anda.
[8 marks/8 markah]
(c) Draw the shape of the trace seen on the CRO screen when...
Lukiskan bentuk surihan yang diperhatikan pada skrin OSK apabila...
(i) the timebase is switched off and the Y-input is d.c. voltage.
dasar masa dimatikan dan input-Y dikenakan voltan a.t.
[1 mark/1 markah]
(ii) the timebase is switched on and the Y-input is a.c. voltage.
dasar masa dihidupkan dan input-Y dikenakan voltan a.u.
[1 mark/1 markah]
(iii the timebase is switched off and the Y-input is a.c. voltage.
) dasar masa dimatikan dan input-Y dikenakan voltan a.u.
[1 mark/1 markah]
(d) Diagram below shows a signal obtained at the control tower of an airport. The radar signal
sent by a transmitter to an aeroplane is shown on the CRO screen as A. The signal is sent
back from the aeroplane and is detected by the CRO as B. The timebase of the CRO is set
at 200 ms mm1.
Rajah di bawah menunjukkan satu isyarat yang diperoleh di sebuah pusat kawalan
lapangan terbang. Isyarat radar yang dipancarkan oleh pemancar ke sebuah kapal
terbang ditunjukkan pada skrin OSK sebagai A. Isyarat itu dipantul balik daripada kapal
terbang dan dikesan oleh OSK sebagai B. Dasar masa bagi OSK itu disetkan pada 200 ms
mm1.

Diagram / Rajah
Determine the distance of the aeroplane from the control tower.

Tentukan jarak kapal terbang dari pusat kawalan itu.


[Speed of radar waves in air = 3.0 108 m s1]
[Laju gelombang radar dalam udara = 3.0 108 m s1]
[4 marks/4 markah]

Jawapan

1 (a) npn
.
(b) To reduce/limit the base current.
Untuk mengurangkan arus tapak
(c) (i) In darkness (low intensity), resistance of LDR is high.
Dalam kegelapan (keamatan rendah), rintangan PPC adalah tinggi.
In bright light (high intensity), resistance of LDR is low.
Dalam cahaya terang (keamatan tinggi), rintangan PPC adalah rendah.
(ii) In darkness (night time), resistance of LDR is high (3 500 ).
Dalam kegelapan (waktu malam), rintangan PPC adalah tinggi (3 500 ).
Potential difference across LDR is high.
Beza keupayaan merentasi PPC adalah tinggi.
This causes a base current to flow. A bigger collector current flows through the lamp, L.
Lamp
L is switched on.
Ini menyebabkan arus tapak mengalir. Suatu arus pengumpul yang lebih besar mengalir
melalui
lampu, L. Lampu L dihidupkan.
(d) (i) NOT gate/get TAK
(ii)

Lamp L works in the reverse, i.e. it is switched on during the day and switched off
during the night.
Lampu L bekerja secara terbalik, contohnya, ia dihidupkan semasa siang dan
dimatikan pada waktu

malam.
2 (a) (i) The bulb does not light up. This is because direct current does not flow through the
. capacitor.
(ii) The diode is reversed forward, hence the current flows and the bulb lights up.
(iii) Both bulbs will light up but they will not be so bright.
(b) (i) The relationship between the temperature and the resistance of the bulb.
(ii) When the temperature of the bulb rises, the atoms vibrate more strongly. This will
produce more
obstacles or resistance to the flow of electrons. Hence the resistance of the bulb
filament
increases when the temperature increases.
(iii) For a semiconductor, when the temperature rises, the resistance decreases. This is
because
at a high temperature, more carriers of charges are produced. This will increase the flow
of
current through the semiconductor. Hence the resistance decreases.
3 (a) When power is supplied, the filament is heated. Emission of thermion will occur, i.e.
. electrons are freed
from the surface of the metal that is heated.
(b) i.

ii.

iii.

iv.

(c) 1. Cathode rays travel in straight lines.


2. Cathode rays have momentum and energy.
4.

(a) i. OR gate
ii.

(b) i. NOR gate


ii.

5 (a) (i) The bulb does not light up. This is because direct current does not flow through the

. capacitor.
(ii) The diode is reversed forward, hence the current flows and the bulb lights up.
(iii) Both bulbs will light up but they will not be so bright.
(b) (i) The relationship between the temperature and the resistance of the bulb.
(ii) When the temperature of the bulb rises, the atoms vibrate more strongly. This will
produce more obstacles or resistance to the flow of electrons. Hence the resistance of the bulb
filament increases when the temperature increases.
(iii) For a semiconductor, when the temperature rises, the resistance decreases. This is
because at a high temperature, more carriers of charges are produced. This will increase the
flow of current through the semiconductor. Hence the resistance decreases.
6 (a) When a vehicle passes through a road which has a detector, the steel body of the vehicle
. increases the
magnetic field produced by the coil carrying a current. This change is used to change the
colour of
the signal lights.
(b) The permanent magnet is brought into the coils of wire carrying a current. The permanent
magnet is
the car and the coils of wire are the coils beneath the ground as shown in Diagram A.
(c) (i) Gate ANDNOT. (ii) Flip-flop circuit
(d) One LED is red or green LED which will light up.
Both LEDs will not light up simultaneously.
7 (a) npn
.
(b) To reduce/limit the base current.
Untuk mengurangkan arus tapak
(c) (i) In darkness (low intensity), resistance of LDR is high.
Dalam kegelapan (keamatan rendah), rintangan PPC adalah tinggi.
In bright light (high intensity), resistance of LDR is low.
Dalam cahaya terang (keamatan tinggi), rintangan PPC adalah rendah.
(ii) In darkness (night time), resistance of LDR is high (3 500 W).
Dalam kegelapan (waktu malam), rintangan PPC adalah tinggi (3 500 W).
Potential difference across LDR is high.
Beza keupayaan merentasi PPC adalah tinggi.
This causes a base current to flow. A bigger collector current flows through the lamp L. Lamp
L is switched on.
Ini menyebabkan arus tapak mengalir. Suatu arus pengumpul yang lebih besar mengalir
melalui lampu L. Lampu L dihidupkan.

(d) (i) NOT gate/get TAK


(ii)

The lamp L works in the reverse, i.e. it is switched on during the day and switched off during
the night.
Lampu L bekerja secara terbalik, contohnya, ia dihidupkan semasa siang dan dimatikan pada
waktu malam.
8. (a) High voltage will cause malfunction of the diode
Voltan yang terlalu tinggi akan merosakkan diod.
(b) D4
(c)

(d) i.

ii. Acts as a current regulator/smoother


Bertindak sebagai perata arus.
(e)

9 (a) i. Process that dopes impurity atoms into a pure semiconductor. [1 m]


.
ii. Both semiconductors are built of the same material, i.e. silicon. [1 m]
Both of the n-type semiconductors and p-type semiconductors are produced through
doping. [1 m]
For n-type semiconductors, the impurity atoms that are used are pentavalent atoms
while the impurity
atoms that are used in p-type semiconductors are trivalent atoms. [1 m]
Both of the n-type semiconductors and p-type semiconductors have a lower resistance
compared
to their original atoms. That is why the conductivity of electricity increases. [1 m]
Impurity atoms that are pentavalent atoms will use electrons as the majority charge
carrier
whereas the impurity atoms that are trivalent atoms will use holes as the majority
charge
carrier. [1 m]

(b) A semiconductor diode is built from the n-type semiconductor and p-type semiconductor
as shown in
the diagram. [1 m]

In the forward bias, electrons from part n will flow to part p to fill in the holes. [1 m]
This will create a layer of part p that is negatively charged (because electrons are given
out). The
depletion layer of part n is positively charged (because electrons are accepted). [1 m]
The existence of these opposing charges create a potential difference at the depletion
layer p-n which is
known as the depletion layer. [1 m]
(c) i. A diode allows the current to flow in one direction only. [1 m]
With this, a diode prevents an appliance from spoiling because there will be no current
flowing if the
terminals of the supply are connected wrongly. [1 m]
ii. There are two types of rectification for alternating current, which are the positive and
negative
half circuits. [1 m]

[1 m]
During the positive half circuit, the negative terminal of the diode receives a positive
potential
difference. Forward bias will happen and current can flow through it. [1 m]
During the negative half circuit, the positive terminal of the diode receives a negative
potential
difference. Reverse bias will happen and current cannot pass through it. [1 m]
This process is the half-wave rectification where a direct current is produced as shown
in the diagram
below. [1 m]

[1 m]
Four diodes can be used to create a full-wave rectifier. [1 m]
This is the full-wave rectification where a direct current is produced as shown in the
diagram
below.[1 m]

[1 m]
A capacitor can store charge and can be charged at anytime. It is used to smoothen
charges. [1 m]
Using the capacity with the rectifier will create a more constant direct current as
shown below. [1 m]

[any eight]
10 (a) (i) The process that dopes impurity atoms into a pure semiconductor. [1 m]
.
(ii) Both semiconductors are built of the same material, i.e. silicon. [1 m]
Both the n-type semiconductor and p-type semiconductor are produced through
doping. [1 m]
For the n-type semiconductor, the impurity atoms that are used are pentavalent atoms
while
the impurity atoms that are used in the p-type semiconductor are trivalent atoms. [1
m]
Both the n-type semiconductor and p-type semiconductor have a lower resistance
compared
to their original atoms. That is why the conductivity of electricity increases. [1 m]
Impurity atoms that are pentavalent atoms will use electrons as the majority charge
carrier
whereas the impurity atoms that are trivalent atoms will use holes as the majority
charge carrier. [1 m]
(b) A semiconductor diode is built from the n-type semiconductor and the p-type
semiconductor as
shown in the diagram. [1 m]

In the forward bias, electrons from part n will flow to part p to fill in the holes. [1 m]
This will create a layer of part p that is negatively charged (because electrons are given
out). The
depletion layer of part n is positively charged (because electrons are accepted). [1 m]
The existence of these opposing charges create a potential difference at the depletion
layer p-n
which is known as the depletion layer. [1 m]
(c) (i) A diode allows the current to flow in one direction only. [1 m]
With this, a diode prevents an appliance from spoiling because there will be no
current flowing
if the terminals of the supply are connected wrongly. [1 m]
(ii) There are two types of rectification for alternating current, which are the positive and
negative half
circuits. [1 m]

[1 m]
During the positive half circuit, the negative terminal of the diode receives a positive
potential
difference. Forward bias will occur and current can flow through it. [1 m]
During the negative half circuit, the positive terminal of the diode receives a
negative potential
difference. Reverse bias will occur and current cannot pass through it. [1 m]
This process is the half-wave rectification where a direct current is produced as
shown in the
diagram below. [1 m]

[1 m]
Four diodes can be used to create a full-wave rectifier. [1 m]
This is the full-wave rectification where a direct current is produced as shown in the
diagram
below. [1 m]

[1 m]
A capacitor can store charge and can be charged at anytime. It is used to smoothen
charges. [1 m]
Using the capacity with the rectifier will create a more constant direct current as
shown below. [1 m]

[1 m]
11 (a) Semiconductors are a group of materials that can conduct electricity better than insulator
. but not as good
as metal conductors.
Semikonduktor adalah sekumpulan bahan yang boleh mengkonduksikan elektrik lebih
baik daripada
penebat tetapi tidak sebaik konduktor logam.
(b) n-type semiconductor and p-type semiconductor
Semikonduktor jenis-n dan semikonduktor jenis-p
The atoms of the doping substance for the n-type semiconductor act as donor atoms
while those for
the p-type semiconductor act as receiver atoms.
Atom bahan pendopan bagi semikonduktor jenis-n bertindak sebagai atom penderma
manakala atom
bahan pendopan bagi semikonduktor jenis-p bertindak sebagai atom penerima.
The doping substance for the n-type semiconductor is pentavalent while the doping
substance for the
p-type semiconductor is trivalent.
Bahan pendopan bagi semikonduktor jenis-n adalah pentavalen manakala bahan

pendopan bagi
semikonduktor jenis-p adalah trivalent.
The majority charge-carriers for the n-type semiconductor are electrons while the
majority
charge-carries for p-type semiconductor are positive holes.
Pembawa cas majoriti bagi semikonduktor jenis-n adalah elektron manakala pembawa
cas majoriti
bagi semikonduktor jenis-p adalah lohong positif.
The minority charge-carries for n-type semiconductor are positive holes while the
minority
charge-carriers for p-type semiconductor are electrons.
Pembawa cas minoriti bagi semikonduktor jenis-n adalah lohong positif manakala
pembawa
cas minoriti bagi semikonduktor jenis-p adalah elektron.
(c) i. The resistivity at 0 C is low.
Kerintangan pada 0 C adalah rendah.
A current can flow through it more easily, thereby increasing the conductivity of the
substance.
Arus boleh mengalir melaluinya dengan lebih mudah, maka menambahkan
kekonduksian bahan ini.
High melting point/Takat lebur tinggi
So that the substance will not melt at high temperatures.
Supaya bahan tidak melebur pada suhu yang tinggi.
The valency of the doping substance is 3 or 5
Valensi bagi bahan pendopan adalah 3 atau 5
Substance with valency of 3 is used to make p-type semiconductor and that with
valency of 5
is used to make n-type semiconductor
Bahan dengan valensi 3 digunakan untuk membuat semikonduktor jenis-p dan bahan
dengan
valensi 5 digunakan untuk membuat semikonduktor jenis-n.
Size of the atom of the doping substance is almost the same as the size of the atom of
the
substance
Saiz atom bagi bahan pendopan adalah hampir sama dengan atom bahan itu.
So that it can maintain the crystalline structure of the substance and give a good effect
in the
doping process
Supaya ia dapat mengekalkan struktur kekisi hablur bagi bahan itu dan memberi
suatu kesan
yang baik dalam proses pendopan.
ii. Substance Q is chosen.
Bahan Q dipilih.
Substance Q has quite a low resistivity at 0 C, high melting point, and a valency of 3.
The size

of the doping substance is almost the same as the size of the atom of the substance.
Bahan Q mempunyai kerintangan yang agak rendah pada 0 C, takat lebur tinggi dan
valensi 3.
Saiz bagi bahan pendopan adalah hampir sama dengan saiz atom bahan itu.
(d) i. Acceleration of electrons/Production of cathode rays
Pecutan elektron/Penghasilan sinar katod.
ii. Velocity of the electron,
Halaju elektron

12 (a) (i) Thermionic emission is the release of electrons from a heated metal cathode.
.

(b) (i) The metal should have high density


So that it is harder
Has a big mass number
Can increase the efficiency of production of thermionic emissions
Has a high melting point
So that it is heat-resistant
Has small work function
Can produce thermionic emission easily
Metal R is chosen
It has a high density, big mass number, high melting point and low work function.

(d) Total time


= 36 mm 200 s mm1
= 7.2 103 s
The velocity of the radar
= Total distance travelled by the radar
= 7.2 103 3.0 108
= 2.16 106 m
The distance of the aeroplane from the control tower
= 1.08 106 m