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Section A

Bahagian A
[60 marks]
[60 markah]
Answer all questions in this section.
Jawab semua soalan dalam bahagian ini.
1 Diagrams A and B show a simple electrical circuit set up to measure the current and potential
. diff erence across a filament bulb.
Rajah A dan B menunjukkan suatu litar elektrik ringkas untuk mengukur arus dan beza
keupayaan merentasi
suatu mentol filamen.

DIAGRAM A / RAJAH A
(a (i) Name instruments P and Q.
)
Berikan nama alat-alat P dan Q.
P ______________________________________________________________________
= ____________
Q ______________________________________________________________________
= ____________
[2 marks/2 markah]
(ii What is the use of R in the circuit?
) Apakah kegunaan R dalam litar?
________________________________________________________________________
__________
[1 mark/1 markah]
(b Diagram B shows two types of ammeter, A and B, that can be used in the circuit shown in
) Diagram A.
Rajah B menunjukkan dua jenis ammeter, A dan B, yang boleh digunakan dalam litar pada
Rajah A.

DIAGRAM B / RAJAH B
(i) If the current flowing through the filament bulb is 0.8 A, which meter would be more
suitable to be used?
Jika arus yang melalui mentol filamen adalah 0.8 A, meter yang manakah lebih sesuai
digunakan?
________________________________________________________________________
__________
[1 mark/1 markah]
(ii Give one reason for your answer in (b)i.
) Berikan satu sebab bagi jawapan anda dalam (b)i.
________________________________________________________________________
__________
[1 mark/1 markah]
2.

The apparatus shown in Diagram below is set up with metal plates X and Y about 8 cm
apart. The ball is coated with metallic paint.
Radas yang ditunjukkan dalam Rajah di bawah didirikan dengan plat X dan Y dipisahkan
kira-kira 8 cm. Bola itu disalut dengan cat logam.

Diagram / Rajah

(a) The ball is displaced to touch plate X. Describe the subsequent motion of the ball if it is
released.
Explain your answer.
Bola itu disesarkan untuk menyentuh plat X. Huraikan pergerakan bola itu yang
seterusnya jika ia dilepaskan. Terangkan jawapan anda.
[2 marks/markah]
(b) Draw a force diagram to show all the forces acting on the ball after it has just touched
plate X.
Lukiskan satu rajah daya untuk menunjukkan semua daya yang bertindak ke atas bola
itu selepas ia baru sahaja menyentuh plat X.
[2 marks/markah]
(c) What is the purpose of painting the ball?
Apakah tujuan mencatkan bola itu?
[1 mark/markah]
(d) What happens if the supporting thread conducts electricity?
(Describe the motion of the ball when it is displaced to touch plate X and then released.)
Apakah yang berlaku jika tali sokongan itu mengkonduksi elektrik? (Huraikan
pergerakan bola itu apabila ia disesarkan untuk menyentuh plat X dan kemudian
dilepaskan.)
[2 marks/markah]
3 Diagram below shows the typical electrical wiring system in a house. The wiring system
. consists of two branch circuits, i.e. the lightning circuit and the power circuit.
Rajah di bawah menunjukkan sistem pendawaian elektrik yang biasanya didapati dalam
rumah.Sistem pendawaian itu mengandungi dua cawangan litar elektrik, iaitu litar lampu dan
litar alat elektrik.

Diagram / Rajah
(a (i) State whether the lightning circuit is connected in parallel or in series.

Nyatakan sama ada litar lampu itu disambungkan secara selari atau sesiri.
________________________________________________________________________
__________
[1 mark/1 markah]
(ii State the main difference between the lightning circuit and the power circuit.
) Nyatakan perbezaan utama antara litar lampu dengan litar alat elektrik.
________________________________________________________________________
__________
[1 mark/1 markah]

(b An electric iron is labelled 240 V, 2 kW.


) Alat seterika elektrik dilabelkan 240 V, 2 kW.
(i) Calculate the current flowing through the iron when it is used.
Hitungkan arus yang mengalir melalui seterika itu apabila digunakan.

[2 marks/2 markah]
(ii) You are provided with the following fuses: 5 A, 8 A, 13 A, 20 A. Which fuse is suitable
to be used in the circuit of the electric iron?
Anda dibekalkan dengan fius-fius yang berikut: 5 A, 8 A, 13 A, 20 A. Fius manakah yang
sesuai
digunakan dalam litar seterika elektrik itu?
_______________________________________________________________________
___________
[1 mark/1 markah]
(iii Give the name of the metal which is usually used to construct the heating element of the
) iron.
Berikan nama logam yang biasanya digunakan untuk membina elemen pemanas seterika
itu.
_______________________________________________________________________
___________
[1 mark/1 markah]
4.

Diagram below shows the wiring of a house.


Rajah di bawah menunjukkan satu sistem pendawaian di sebuah rumah.

Diagram / Rajah
(a) What is a fuse?
Apakah itu fius?
[1 mark/markah]
(b) What are the characteristics of a material which is suitable to be used for making fuse
wire?
Apakah ciri-ciri bahan yang sesuai digunakan untuk membuat dawai fius?
[2 marks/markah]
(c) A heater has a power of 0.95 kW and is connected to a potential difference of 240 V.
Determine the
capacity of the fuse that should be used to protect this device.
Satu pemanas rendam mempunyai kuasa 0.95 kW dan disambungkan kepada beza
keupayaan 240 V.Tentukan keupayaan fius yang patut digunakan untuk melindungi alat
ini.
[2 marks/markah]
(d) Explain why the lamps are arranged as shown in Diagram above.
Terangkan mengapa lampu disusun seperti yang ditunjukkan pada Rajah di atas.
[1 mark/markah]
(e) Why must the wire circuit in the house be earthed?
Mengapakah litar dawai di rumah perlu dibumikan?
[1 mark/markah]
(f) Explain why a person is forbidden to use an electrical appliance which is in wet
condition.
Terangkan mengapa seseorang adalah dilarang untuk menggunakan alat elektrik dalam
keadaan basah.
[1 mark/markah]

5 Diagram below shows a 200 V domestic lighting circuit.


. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan satu litar pencahayaan domestik 200 V.

Diagram /Rajah
(a Explain why the lamps are all connected in parallel instead of in series.
) Terangkan mengapa semua mentol itu disambungkan secara selari bukannya sesiri.
__________________________________________________________________________
___________
[1 mark/1 markah]
(b The light bulbs in the circuit are all marked 100 W, 200 V. If all the light bulbs are
) switched on, find
Semua mentol cahaya litar itu ditandakan dengan 100 W, 200 V. Jika semua mentol
cahaya dipasangkan, cari
(i) the total resistance of the lighting circuit.
jumlah rintangan bagi litar pencahayaan itu.
________________________________________________________________________
__________
[2 marks/2 markah]
(ii the total current drawn from the main supply.
) jumlah arus yang diperoleh daripada bekalan utama.
________________________________________________________________________
__________
[2 marks/2 markah]
(c (i) Explain the use of the fuse in the circuit.
)
Terangkan kegunaan fius dalam litar itu.
_______________________________________________________________________
___________
[3 marks/3 markah]

(ii) Is the 5A-fuse suitable in this circuit?


Adakah fius-5A sesuai dalam litar ini?
________________________________________________________________________
__________
[1 mark/1 markah]
(iii Explain why the switches should be connected to the live wire instead of the neutral wire.
) Terangkan mengapa suis-suis itu harus disambungkan kepada dawai hidup bukannya
dawai neutral.
_______________________________________________________________________
___________
[2 marks/2 markah]
6 Diagram below shows part of the electrical wiring system in a kitchen. Two lamps, A and B,
. both labelled 240 V, 60 W, are connected across the live and neutral wires through a fuse, X,
in the live wire.
Rajah di bawah menunjukkan sebahagian sistem pendawaian elektrik dalam sebuah dapur.
Dua lampu A dan B,kedua-dua dilabelkan 240 V, 60 W, disambungkan merentasi dawai
hidup dan dawai neutral melalui fius X pada dawai hidup.
An electrical kettle, rated 240 V, 750 W is connected to the same live and neutral terminals
through another fuse, Y. A third fuse, Z, protects the complete circuit.
Suatu cerek elektrik, berkadar 240 V, 750 W disambungkan kepada terminal hidup dan
terminal neutral yang sama melalui fius Y. Suatu fius ketiga, Z melindungi seluruh litar.
An electrical kettle has a metal body which is connected to the earth wire.
Cerek elektrik mempunyai suatu badan logam yang disambungkan kepada dawai bumi.

DIAGRAM / RAJAH
(a Calculate the current passing through each of the fuses, X, Y and Z, when the electric kettle
) and both lamps are switched on.
Hitungkan arus yang mengalir melalui setiap fius X, Y dan Z apabila cerek elektrik, dan
kedua lampu dihidupkan.

[3 marks/3 markah]
(b A fault has developed in the kettle, causing a current of 10 A to flow through fuse Y. Lamps
) A and B continued to glow brightly.
Suatu kejejasan berlaku pada litar cerek elektrik, menyebabkan arus 10 A mengalir melalui
fius Y. Lampu Adan B terus menyala dengan cerah.
The maximum current allowed safely through each fuse is given in the table below.
Arus maksimum yang dibenarkan secara selamat mengalir melalui setiap fius adalah diberi
dalam jadual berikut:

Discuss and explain what happens to each of the fuses, X, Y and Z, when the fault develops.
Bincangkan dan terangkan apa yang berlaku kepada setiap fius X, Y dan Z apabila
kejejasan litar berlaku?
__________________________________________________________________________
___________
[3 marks/3 markah]

(DIAGRAM / RAJAH
(c If the live wire touches the metal body of the electric kettle as shown in Diagram above.
) Jika dawai hidup tersentuh pada badan logam cerek elektrik seperti ditunjukkan pada Rajah
di atas.
(i) state what will happen to the earth wire.
nyatakan apa yang akan berlaku kepada dawai bumi.

________________________________________________________________________
__________
________________________________________________________________________
__________
[1 mark/1 markah]
(ii state which fuse will melt first.
) nyatakan fius yang manakah akan melebur dahulu.
________________________________________________________________________
__________
________________________________________________________________________
__________
[1 mark/1 markah]
7 Diagram below shows how the lights in three rooms of a house are connected to the three wires
. labelled P, Q and E.
Rajah di bawah menunjukkan bagaimana lampu-lampu di tiga bilik sebuah rumah
disambungkan kepada tiga dawai P, Q, dan E.

Diagram /Rajah
(a The three wires are Earth, Live and Neutral. If E is the Earth wire, write down the names of
) wire P and wire Q.
Jika E ialah dawai Bumi, tuliskan nama dawai P dan dawai Q. Tiga dawai itu adalah Bumi,
Hidup dan Neutral.
P: ______________________________________

Q: ______________________________________
[1 mark/1 markah]
(b State whether the bulbs are connected in series or in parallel.
) Nyatakan sama ada lampu-lampu tersebut disambungkan secara bersiri atau secara selari.
__________________________________________________________________________
___________
[1 mark/1 markah]

(c Each bulb has a power of 100 W and is supplied with a potential difference of 240 V.
) Calculate
Setiap lampu berkuasa 100 W dan dibekalkan oleh beza keupayaan 240 V. Hitungkan
i. the resistance, R, of each bulb;
rintangan R setiap lampu;

[2 marks/2 markah]
ii. the current passing through each bulb when it is switched on.
arus yang melalui setiap lampu apabila ia dihidupkan.

[1 mark/1 markah]
(d The three bulbs are used for 10 hours each day.
) Ketiga lampu itu digunakan selama 10 jam sehari.
If the cost of electricity usage is 20 sen per unit, how much is the cost for using the three
bulbs for 1 month?
Jika kos penggunaan tenaga elektrik ialah 20 sen per unit, berapakah kos menggunakan
ketiga-tiga lampu itu untuk 1 bulan?

[3 marks/3 markah]
8 Table A shows three electrical appliances, their ratings and the number of hours they are used
. in a month.
Jadual A menunjukkan tiga alat elektrik, kadar dan bilangan jam pengunaan dalam masa satu
bulan.
Electrical appliance
Alat elektrik

Rating
Kadar

Number of hours used


Bilangan jam pengunaan

Television
Televisyon

240 V, 2 000 W

200

Refrigerator
Peti Sejuk

240 V, 1 000 W

100

240 V, 500 W

300

Fan
Kipas

Table A / Jadual A
(a i. What is meant by the rating 240 V, 2 000 W for a television?
)
Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan kadar 240V, 2000 W pada televisyen?

________________________________________________________________________
__________
[1 mark/1 markah]
ii. When the television functions normally, what is the current flowing through it?
Apabila sebuah televisyon berfungsi secara normal, berapakah nilai arus yang mengalir
melaluinya?

[2 marks/2 markah]
iii What is the most suitable value of fuse used for the television? Explain your answer.
. Berapakah nilai fius yang sesuai digunakan oleh televisyon? Terangkan jawapan anda.
________________________________________________________________________
__________
________________________________________________________________________
__________
[2 marks/2 markah]
(b Table B shows the tariff for the use of electrical energy in public housing in one month.
) Jadual B menunjukkan kadar tarif pengunaan tenaga elektrik untuk rumah kediaman awam
dalam masa satu bulan.
Electrical energy
Tenaga elektrik

Rate per unit


Kadar per unit

First 100 unit


100 unit pertama

RM 0.20

Second 200 unit


200 unit kedua

RM 0.23

Every additional unit


Setiap pertambahan unit

RM 0.25

Table B / Jadual B
Based on Table B, calculate the total cost of using electrical energy for the electrical
appliances listed in Table A.
Berdasarkan Jadual B, kirakan jumlah kos penggunaan tenaga elektrik untuk peralatan
elektrik dalam JadualA.

[2 marks/2 markah]
Section B
Bahagian B
[20 marks]
[20 markah]
Answer any one question from this section.
Jawab mana-mana satu soalan daripada bahagian ini.
9 Diagram below shows a circuit constructed to investigate the electromotive force and the
. internal resistance of a battery.
Rajah di bawah menunjukkan satu litar untuk mengkaji daya gerak elektrik dan rintangan
dalam bagi bateri.

Diagram / Rajah
Table A shows the readings of the voltmeter and the ammeter before and after the switch is
turned on when battery A is used.
Jadual A menunjukkan bacaan voltmeter dan ammeter sebelum dan selepas suis dihidupkan
apabila bateri Adigunakan.

Table A / Jadual A
Table B shows the readings of the voltmeter and the ammeter before and after the switch is
turned on when
battery B is used.
Jadual B menunjukkan bacaan voltmeter dan ammeter sebelum dan selepas suis dihidupkan

apabila bateri Bdigunakan.

Table B / Jadual B
(a) (i) What is meant by electromotive force?
Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan daya gerak elektrik?
[1 mark/markah]
(ii) By using only the information in Table A and B, compare the voltmeter reading and the
ammeter reading before and after the switch is turned on. Then state the relationship
between the
electromotive force and the internal resistance in battery A and battery B.
Menggunakan hanya maklumat dalam Jadual A dan B, bandingkan bacaan voltmeter
dan ammeter sebelum dan selepas suis dihidupkan. Seterusnya nyatakan hubungan
antara daya gerak elektrik dan rintangan dalam dengan bateri A dan bateri B itu.
[5 marks/markah]
(b) Batteries connected in parallel and in series will affect the effectiveness of the electromotive
force of the batteries. Explain this statement briefly.
Penyambungan sel-sel secara selari atau bersiri akan mempengaruhi daya gerak elektrik
berkesan bagi sel-sel itu. Huraikan secara ringkas pernyataan ini.
[4 marks/markah]

Diagram
Rajah
(c) Diagram above shows an electromagnet lifter which is used in a scrapyard to transfer scrap
metal from one place to another.
Sebuah kilang pemprosesan besi terbuang menggunakan pengangkat elektromagnet seperti
dalam Rajah di atas untuk memindahkan besi dari satu tempat ke satu tempat yang lain.

By using your knowledge about electricity and electromagnetism along with Diagram
above, explain
Menggunakan pengetahuan anda tentang elektrik dan keelektromagnetan dan Rajah di
atas, terangkan
(i) the materials that are needed to build the electromagnet lifter,
peralatan yang diperlukan untuk membina pengangkat elektromagnet,
(ii) how the lifter operates,
bagaimana peralatan itu beroperasi,
(iii how to increase the efficiency of the lifter.
) bagaimana meningkatkan keberkesanan pengangkat elektromagnet.
[10 marks/markah]
10. A student connected decorative lights in his home in two different ways as shown in
Diagrams below (a) and (b).
Seorang pelajar menyambungkan lampu-lampu hiasan di rumah dengan dua cara seperti
ditunjukkan dalam Rajah di bawah (a) dan (b).

Diagram / Rajah
(a) (i) Each light bulb is labelled 12 V, 10 W.
Explain the meaning of the label 12 V, 10 W
Setiap lampu dilabel 12 V, 10 W
Terangkan erti bagi label 12 V, 10 W
[1 mark/1 markah]
(ii) Draw an electrical circuit diagram to represent each of his connections.
Lukiskan suatu litar elektrik untuk mewakili setiap komponen.
[3 marks/3 markah]
(b) Observe the diagrams in Diagrams above (a) and (b). State the difference in the

brightness of the bulbs in the two circuits. Compare the brightness of the bulbs to the
current passing through them and the potential difference across them. Hence, relate
these differences in current and potential difference to the concept of parallel and series
connections.
Perhatikan Rajah di atas (a) dan Rajah (b). Nyatakan perbezaan kecerahan lampulampu dalam kedua litar itu. Bandingkan kecerahan lampu-lampu kepada arus yang
mengalir melalui mereka dan beza keupayaan merentasi mereka. Seterusnya, hubungkan
perbezaan arus dan beza keupayaan kepada konsep sambungan litar selari dan litar
sesiri.
[6 marks/6 markah]
(c) Diagram below shows a special room used for car repainting in a car service centre. By
using suitable physics concepts, discuss how the conditions of the room can be improved
for the place to become an automatic paint spraying centre.
Rajah di bawah menunjukkan suatu bilik khas di sebuah pusat servis kereta yang
digunakan semasa mengecat semula sebuah kereta. Dengan menggunakan konsep fizik
yang sesuai, bincangkan bagaimana keadaan bilik itu boleh diperbaiki supaya bilik ini
dijadikan pusat pengecat kereta secara semburan.

DIAGRAM / RAJAH
Your suggestions should include the following aspects:
Cadangan anda harus merangkumi aspek-aspek berikut:
(i) the number of 500 W hot lamps to be used, the way to arrange them and the electrical
circuit used.
bilangan lampu panas 500 W yang patut digunakan, cara susunan mereka dan litar
elektrik yang digunakan.
(ii) the method to control the constant temperature of the room of 600C during drying,
kaedah untuk mengawal suhu bilik malar pada 600C semasa proses mengering cat,
(iii the method of spraying the paint efficiently and uniformly,
) kaedah untuk menyembur cat secara cekap dan seragam,
(iv)the ways to save cost and time.
cara untuk menjimat kos dan masa.
[10 marks/10 markah]

Section C
Bahagian C
[20 marks]
[20 markah]
Answer any one question from this section.
Jawab mana-mana satu soalan daripada bahagian ini.
11 Diagram below shows the essential components of an oven (to heat up bread, hot dogs and
. sandwiches). The two heating elements are connected in parallel to a 240 V mains socket. The
resistance of each heating element is 100 . The connecting wires to the heating elements
have a total resistance of 0.01 .
Rajah di bawah menunjukkan komponen-komponen penting bagi suatu ketuhar (untuk
memanaskan roti, hotdog, dan sandwic). Kedua-dua unsur pemanas disambungkan secara
selari kepada soket bekalan rumah 240 V.Rintangan setiap unsur pemanas ialah 100
. Dawai sambungan kepada unsur-unsur pemanas mempunyai jumlah rintangan 0.01 .

DIAGRAM / RAJAH
(a (i) Define the term resistance.
)
Takrifkan sebutan rintangan.
[1 mark/1 markah]
(ii) Explain why the heating element becomes much hotter than the wires connecting it to
the mains supply.
Terangkan mengapa unsur pemanas menjadi lebih panas daripada dawai sambungan
kepada bekalan rumah.
[2 marks/2 markah]
(iii Explain why the temperature of the heating element becomes steady soon after the oven
) is switched on.
Terangkan mengapa suhu unsur pemanas menjadi mantap sekejap selepas ketuhar
dihidupkan.
[3 marks/3 markah]
(b You are supplied with 5 different resistance wires. The physical characteristics of the 5
) wires, P, Q, R, S and T, are listed in Table A.

Anda dibekalkan 5 jenis dawai rintangan berlainan. Ciri fizikal bagi 5 dawai rintangan P,
Q, R, S dan T
disenaraikan dalam Jadual A.
You are also provided with five fuses of different current ratings as shown in Table below.
Anda juga dibekalkan dengan lima fius yang berlainan kadar seperti ditunjukkan dalam
Jadual di bawah.

TABLE A / JADUAL A

TABLE B / JADUAL B
(i) Use the information given in Table B to discuss the suitability of each of the physical
characteristics of the resistance wires to be used as the heating element of the oven.
Gunakan maklumat dalam Jadual B untuk membincang kesesuaian setiap ciri fizikal
dawai rintangan itu supaya diigunakan sebagai unsur ketuhar.
[8 marks/8 markah]
(ii) Which resistance wire is the most suitable to be used as the heating element in the oven,
and why?
Dawai rintangan yang manakah adalah paling sesuai sebagai unsur pemanas seperti
dalam Jadual di atas,dan mengapa?
[2 marks/2 markah]
(c The electrical circuit diagram for the heating elements of the oven is as shown in Diagram

) below.
Litar elektrik bagi unsur pemanas ketuhar adalah seperti ditunjukkan dalam Rajah di
bawah.

DIAGRAM / RAJAH
(i) Calculate the current flowing through the fuse when the oven is in use.
Hitungkan arus yang mengalir melalui fius apabila ketuhar digunakan.
[2 marks/2 markah]
(ii) Which of the fuses in Table B is the most suitable to be used in Diagram above. Explain
your answer.
Fius yang manakah dalam Jadual B adalah paling sesuai digunakan untuk litar dalam
Rajah di atas. Terangkan jawapan anda.
[2 marks/2 markah]
12. Diagram A shows a heating element in an electric kettle. Table A shows the characteristics of
some materials that can be used for making a heating element.
Rajah A menunjukkan satu unsur pemanas dalam sebuah cerek elektrik.
Jadual A menunjukkan ciri-ciri bahan yang boleh digunakan untuk membuat unsur
pemanas.

Diagram A/Rajah A

Table A/Jadual A
(a) i. What is meant by resistance?
Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan rintangan?
[1 mark/1 markah]
ii. You are assigned to investigate the characteristics of the materials in Table A for use
in the making of a heating element as shown in Diagram A.
Anda ditugaskan untuk mengkaji ciri-ciri bahan dalam Jadual A untuk digunakan
bagi membuat unsur pemanas seperti pada Rajah A.
Explain the suitability of each characteristic in Table A and then determine the most
suitable material for making into a heating element. State the reasons for your choice.
Terangkan kesesuaian setiap ciri dalam Jadual A dan seterusnya tentukan bahan
yang paling sesuai untuk membuat unsur pemanas itu. Berikan sebab-sebab untuk
pilihan anda.
[10 marks/10 markah]
(b) Diagram B shows a circuit for determining the electromotive force and the internal
resistance of a dry cell.
Rajah B menunjukkan satu litar untuk menentukan daya gerak elektrik dan rintangan
dalam sel bagi satu sel kering.

Diagram B/Rajah B
i. Sketch a graph of potential difference against current for the circuit. Use your graph
to explain how the electromotive force and the internal resistance of a dry cell can be
determined.
Lakarkan graf beza keupayaan melawan arus bagi litar itu. Gunakan graf anda untuk
menerangkan bagaimana daya gerak elektrik dan rintangan dalam sel kering dapat
ditentukan.
[4 marks/4 markah]
ii. The total resistance for both the resistors and rheostat in the circuit is 5 ohm.
Calculate the current in the circuit if the potential difference before the switch is on
and after the switch is on are 6 V and 5 V respectively. Then, calculate the internal

resistance of the dry cell.


Jumlah rintangan bagi kedua-dua perintang dan reostat dalam litar itu ialah 5
ohm. Hitungkan arus dalam litar jika beza keupayaan sebelum suis ditutup dan
selepas suis ditutup masing-masing ialah 6 V dan 5 V.Seterusnya, kirakan rintangan
dalam sel kering itu.
[5 marks/5 markah]

1 (a) i. P: Ammeter
.
Q: Voltmeter
ii. To change the resistance of the circuit/To control the current flowing through the circuit.
Untuk mengubah rintangan litar/mengawal/menghadkan arus litar
(b) i. Ammeter B
ii. More accurate
Lebih jitu
2 (a) The ball will move rapidly to and fro between the plates. After touching X, it is positively
. charged,
then it is repelled by X and attracted by Y. After touching Y, it is negatively charged, then
it is repelled
by Y and attracted by X.
(b)

T = Tension
R = Repulsive force by X
A = Attractive force by Y
Mg= gravitational force on the ball
(c) To make it a conductor.
(d) The ball will move back to its original position after a few oscillations, then it stops
moving. It is because
that it is earthed.
3 (a) (i) Parallel circuit
.
(ii) The power circuit has an extra earth wire which the lightning circuit does not have.

(b) (i) P = VI, 2 000 = 240 I


Current, I =

= 8.33 A
(ii) The fuse used must have a current rating which is slightly higher than the normal
current. A suitable
fuse is a 13 A fuse.
(iii) Nichrome
4 (a) A wire that will melt and break when too much current flows through it. A fuse is used to
.
protect an electrical device when a short circuit occurs.
(b) Tin or lead wire that is fine and has a small melting point as well as heat capacity
(c) Current that is needed

= 3.95 A. The suitable fuse used is 5.0 A.


(d) The lamps are arranged in parallel because each lamp has its own switch and can be
controlled directly
from there. If one of the lamps is spoiled, it will not affect the operation of the other
lamps.
(e) To let excess current flow back to earth when a short circuit occurs.
(f) In wet conditions, the resistance of the body is very low.
Excess current will rush through the body that has less resistant to the earth. An electric
shock is more
likely to occur.
5 (a) The lamps are connected in parallel so that the voltages across the lamps are the same.
.
It ensures that each lamp is run on the marked power rating.
Or, if one of the bulb spoil, the others still can function.
(b) (i) Since
The resistance of each lamp is

= 400

Thus, if R is the total resistance, then

R = 100

(ii) Since P = IV, the current flowing through each lamp

=
= 0.5 A
Hence, the total current drawn from the main supply
= 0.5 4 A
=2A
(c) (i) If a fault develops and a large current flows, the fuse blows and breaks the circuit
before the cable
overheats and catches fire.
(ii) Since the total current drawn is 2 A, a 5 A fuse is suitable.
(iii) If the switches were connected to the neutral wire, then the cable and lamps will still be
live when the
switches are turned off. This will be dangerous to us if a fault develops or if the cable is
broken
accidentally.
6 (a) For each lamp of 60 W
.
Bagi setiap lampu 60 W
P = VI1
60 = 240 I
1

For the kettle


Bagi cerek, P = VI2
750 = 240 I ,
2

Current flowing through fuse X/Arus melalui fius X = 2I1 = 2(0.25) = 0.5 A
Current flowing through fuse Y/Arus melalui fius Y = I2 = 3.125 A
Current flowing through fuse Z/Arus melalui fius Z = 2I1 + I2 = 3.625 A
(b) The current flowing through fuse Y is 10 A, which is higher than the maximum allowed
current of 5 A.
Arus mengalir melalui fius Y ialah 10 A, lebih tinggi daripada arus maksimum 5 Ayang
dibenarkan.
Fuse Y will blow
Fius Y akan putus.
The current flowing through X = 0.25 + 0.25 = 0.5 A, which is less than the maximum
allowed current
of 3 A.
Fuse X can be used.
Arus yang melalui fius X = 0.25 + 0.25 = 0.5 A, ini kurang daripada arus maksimum3
A yang
dibenarkan. Maka fius X boleh digunakan.
The current flowing through fuse Z = 0.5 + 10 = 10.5 A, which is less than the maximum
allowed
current of 15 A.

Fuse Z can be used.


Arus melalui fius Z = 0.5 + 10 = 10.5 A, ini kurang daripada arus maksimum 15 Ayang
dibenarkan.
Maka fius Z boleh digunakan.
(c) i. A large current will flow from the live wire through the metal body and then through the
earth wire to
the ground.
Suatu arus amat besar akan mengalir dari dawai hidup melalui badan logam dan
kemudian melalui
dawai bumi ke bumi.
ii. Fuse Y, which has a lower maximum allowed current than fuse Z will melt first.
Fius Y, yang mempunyai arus maksimum yang lebih rendah daripada fius Z akan
melebur dahulu.
7.

(a) P = Live wire,


wayar hidup,
Q = neutral wire.
wayar neutral.
(b) In parallel.
Secara selari.
(c)
i.
V2
R

P=
V2
R

R=

= 576
ii.
V
R

I=
= 0.42 A

(d) Energy used in 1 day = Power time


Tenaga yang digunakan dalam 1 hari

Energy used in 1 month


Tenaga yang digunakan dalam 1 bulan
= 1 kWh 30
= 30 kWh

240
576

V2
R

Cost/Harga = 30 RM 0.20
= RM 6.00
8 (a) i. Television needs 240 V source to function normally and the power of the television is 2
. 000 W.
Televisyen memerlukan sumber 240 V untuk berfungsi dengan normal dan kuasa
televisyen ialah 2000 W.

iii. A current of 9 A exceeds the normal situation. The fuse will melt and break the electric
circuit/electricity immediately.
Arus sebanyak 9 A melebihi situasi yang normal. Fius akan mencair dan memutuskan
litar elektrik/ arus elektrik dengan segera.
(b) The use of electrical energy
Penggunaan tenaga elektrik
= 2 kW 200 h + 1 kW 100 h + 0.5 kW 300 h
= 400 kWh + 100 kWh + 150 kWh
= 650 kWh
The cost of electricity
Kos penggunaan elektrik
= 100 RM 0.20 + 200 RM 0.23 + 350 RM 0.25
= RM 153.50
9 (a) i. Electric energy supplied by a source when 1 coulomb of charge flows through the
. source. [1 m]
ii. For both circuits, the reading of the voltmeter decreases after the switch is turned on.
[1 m]
For both circuits, the ammeter reading before the switch is turned on is 0 A and after
the switch is
turned on, a reading is obtained. [1 m]
The voltmeter reading decreases because both batteries have internal resistance. [1 m]
There is a voltmeter reading because it is the electromotive force of the battery. (both
batteries
used are the same) [1 m]
Battery B is used longer than battery A because there is a bigger loss of potential
difference in
circuit B. (which is, the internal resistance of battery B is larger) [1 m]
(b) Connecting batteries in series produces a bigger electromotive force. [1 m]
When batteries are connected in parallel, the electromotive force produced is the same
as the
electromotive force produced by one dry cell only. [1 m]
But when the batteries are connected in parallel the batteries will last longer. [1 m]
This is because the amount of energy that is kept in the batteries is more. [1 m]

(c) i. An electromagnet lifter consists of a soft iron core that is coiled with thick copper
strips. [1 m]
Soft iron is used as the core because it can demagnetise easily when the current is
stopped. [1 m]
Steel is not used because it cannot demagnetise easily when the current is stopped. [1
m]
ii. When a current is supplied, the lifter will become a very strong electromagnet and can
attract
metals or alloys. [1 m]
With the metal or alloy is attracted to the lifter, the lifter transfers it to another place. [1
m]
The lifter can also separate metal from non-metal. [1 m]
iii. Increase the magnitude of the current flowing through the electromagnet. [1 m]
Increase the number of coils on the copper strips.
Use an electromagnet that is made from an Ushaped metal core. [1 m]
The centre and side must have different poles so that a larger lifting force can be
produced. [1 m]
10 (a) i. 12 V, 10 W means when the bulb is connected to a potential diff erence of 12 V, it
. produces a power
of 10 J per second.
12 V, 10 W bererti apabila mentol disambung kepada beza keupayaan 12 V,kuasa
dihasilkan
oleh mentol ialah 10 J sesaat.
ii.

(b) All the bulbs in (a) have the same brightness. All the bulbs in (b) have the same
brightness also.
Setiap mentol bagi (a) mempunyai kecerahan sama, setiap mentol dalam litar (b)juga
mempunyai
kecerahan yang sama.
The bulbs in (a) are brighter than those in (b).
Mentol-mentol dalam (a) lebih cerah daripada mentol-mentol (b).
The potential difference across each bulb in circuit (a) is 12 V.
Beza keupayaan merentasi setiap mentol dalam (a) ialah 12 V.
The potential difference across each bulb is circuit (b) is 3 V
Beza keupayaan merentasi setiap mentol dalam (b) ialah 3 V.
The current flowing through each bulb in (a) is higher than the current flowing through
each bulb
in circuit (b).
Arus yang melalui setiap mentol dalam (a) adalah lebih tinggi daripada arus yang

melalui setiap
mentol dalam (b).
In the series connection, the current flowing through all the resistors is the same. In the
parallel
connection, the potential diff erence across all the resistors is the same.
Dalam susunan siri, arus yang melalui setiap perintang adalah sama. Dalam susunan
selari, beza
keupayaan merentasi setiap perintang adalah sama.
(c) i. 1. Each wall and the ceiling are fitted with 10 hot lamps of 500 W each, uniformly
arranged.
Setiap dinding dan siling dipasang dengan 10 lampu panas setiapnya berkuasa500
W, disusun
secara seragam.
2. So that heat is radiated uniformly the car.
Supaya haba dipancarkan secara seragam ke atas kereta.
3. The bulbs are connected in a parallel circuit.
Lampu-lampu disambungkan secara selari.
4. So that if one bulb is burnt, the others can still work/no interruptions.
Maka jika satu lampu terbakar, lampu lain masih boleh bernyala.
ii. 1. Ceiling fans are installed at the 4 corners of the room.
Kipas siling dipasangkan pada 4 sudut bilik.
2. To help circulate the hot air inside, to help in drying the paint.
Untuk membantu menggerakkan udara dalam bilik, membantu mengeringkan cat
kereta.
3. Thermostats are installed at the centre of the room to control the temperature. When
the
temperature reaches 600C, half of the bulbs are switched off .
Termostat dipasangkan di tengah bilik untuk mengawal suhu bilik. Apabila suhu
mencapai 600C,
setengah bilangan lampu dimatikan.
iii. 1. Paint is sprayed from jets kept at a positive potential, while the car body is kept at a
negative potential.
Cat disemburkan sebagai titisan bercas positif daripada jet/muncung sempit,
manakala badan
kereta dikekal pada keupayaan negatif.
2. Attraction between the positively charged paint droplets and the negatively charged
car
body ensures uniform painting at even sharp corners.
Tarikan antara cat bercas positif dan badan kereta bercas negatif memastikan
pengecatan seragam
berlaku, walaupun pada sudut tajam.
iv. 1. A big tray is placed below the car to collect excess paint to be reused.
Suatu dulang besar diletak di bawah kereta untuk mengumpul cat lebihan untuk
diguna semula.
2. The car is painted in thin layers, each layer is left to dry before a new layer is sprayed.

Kereta dicat lapisan demi lapisan, setiap lapisan dibiar kering sebelum lapisan baru
dicat semula.
11 (a) i. Th e resistance, R, is the ratio of the potential difference, V, to the current, I. i.e.
.
Rintangan, R ialah nisbah beza keupayaan V kepada arus I,iaitu

ii. The heating element has a much higher resistance that the connecting wires. The heat
produced
per second = I2R.
Unsur pemanas mempunyai rintangan lebih tinggi daripada dawai sambungan. Haba
sesaat dihasilkan
= I2 R.
iii. The heating element is a coiled wire which has a large surface area to help dissipate
heat to the surroundings.
Unsur pemanas berbentuk gegelung maka mempunyai luas permukaan besar untuk
melesapkan haba
ke sekitar.
When the heat produced per second by the heating element is equal to the heat lost per
second from
the surface of the heating element, the temperature of the heating element is constant.
Apabila haba sesaat dihasilkan oleh unsur pemanas sama dengan haba sesaat
dilesapkan oleh unsur
pemanas, suhu unsur pemanas akan menjadi mantap.
(b) i. 1. The density must be low/Ketumpatan rendah
2. So that its mass is small/not heavy
Maka jisim kecil/tak berat
3. The melting point should be high
Takat lebur harus tinggi
4. So that it does not melt when hot.
Supaya ia tak melebur apabila panas
5. The resistivity should be high./Kerintangan tinggi
6. In order that more heat can be produced per second/Supaya lebih haba dihasilkan
sesaat
7. It must be highly resistant to rust/Tahan karat
8. So that it is long lasting/reliable.
Supaya tahan lama, tahan pakai.
ii. The most suitable is S because it has a low density, high melting point, reasonably low
resistivity and is
highly resistant to rust.
Paling sesuai ialah S, kerana mempunyai ketumpatan rendah, takat lebur tinggi,
kerintangan rendah
dan tahan karat.
(c) i.

Eff ective resistance./Rintangan berkesan, R = 50 V = IR, 240 = I(50), I = 4.8 A


ii. The fuse used must have a current rating which is higher than the normal current in the
circuit. 5 A
is too near to 4.8 A and 13 A is too high. The most suitable is 10 A.
Fius digunakan harus mempunyai suatu kadar arus lebih tinggi daripada arus normal
dalam litar.
Paling sesuai ialah 10 A.
12 (a) i. Resistance is the ratio of potential difference to current.
. Rintangan adalah nisbah beza keupayaan kepada arus.
ii. A high melting point
Takat lebur yang tinggi
So that the heating element does not melt easily at high temperatures
Supaya elemen pemanasan tidak melebur dengan mudah pada suhu yang tinggi
A low resistance
Rintangan yang rendah
So that a larger current can flow through it. This will produce a better heating effect.
Supaya arus yang lebih besar boleh mengalir melaluinya. Ini akan menghasilkan suatu kesan
pemanasan yang lebih baik
Does not break easily at high temperatures
Tidak berpecah dengan mudah pada suhu yang tinggi
So that the heating element can last longer and is not spoilt at high temperatures.
Supaya elemen pemanasan boleh tahan lebih lama dan tidak rosak pada suhu yang tinggi
Not easily oxidised.
Tidak mudah dioksidakan
So that water that is boiled is free from chemicals.
Supaya air yang dididihkan adalah bebas daripada bahan kimia
Material P is chosen.
Bahan P dipilih.
This is because material P has a high boiling point, low resistance, not easy to break at high
temperatures and is not very easily oxidised.
Ini disebabkan bahan P mempunyai takat didih yang tinggi, rintangan rendah, tidak mudah
pecah pada suhu yang tinggi dan tidak mudah sangat dioksidakan
(b) i.

Electromotive force is determined by extending the graph to cut the y-axis (When x = 0)
Daya gerak elektromagnet ditentukan dengan memanjangkan graf untuk memotong pada
paksi-y (apabila x = 0)
Internal resistance of the dry cell is determined by the gradient of the graph.

Rintangan dalam sel kering ditentukan oleh kecerunan graf


ii. Potential difference that flows across the resistor when the switch is switched on is V = 5
V,
Beza keupayaan yang merentasi perintang apabila suis dipasang pada V= 5V,
with this the current that flows in the circuit is
dengan arus ini yang mengalir dalam litar ialah
I = _V _ = _ 5
R
10
= 0.5 A
The potential difference that is lost in the dry cell is
Beza keupayaan yang hilang dalam sel kering itu ialah V = 6 V -5 V = 1V
The internal resistance of the dry cell is/
Rintangan dalam sel kering itu ialah r