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SAFAL Diaries is a report made by the 3rd year interns of

Institute Of Home Economics, University of Delhi, during the
Summer Internship (2015) based on visual observations and
hand-on experience of the various process and practices
taking place through the 24/7 working environment


Under the
mentorship of:

Report by:

Mr. R K Singh


Mr. Hari Om Sharma

Mr. Ashok Raina



I take this opportunity to express my sincere gratitude to
Mr. R K Singh (Senior Manager, Quality Assurance) for his expert
Mr. Hari Om Singh (Deputy Manager, Quality Assurance) for his
expert guidance, valuable time he devoted teaching us and his faith in
us to complete the task.
My sincere regards to Mr. Ashok Raina(Senior Coordinator) for his
hospitality and expert advice through the very few but still existing
troubled times.
A special thanks to Ms. Jyoti Kanwar (Assistant Manager) for her
constant support for completing our project and gaining the best of
experience in the short stay we had at Fruits And Vegetable Division
Of Mother Dairy Fruit And Vegetable Pvt. Ltd., Mongolpuri.
I would also like to thank the faculty and management with whose
informative knowledge this project would not have been completed.

Stages In Banana
Pulp Temperature
Co2 Reading

Mother Dairy as an Organisation:

Mother Dairy was set up in 1974 under the Operation Flood Programme. A wholly owned
company of the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB).
Product Divisions:
1. Milk , under the Brand name Mother Dairy.
2.Milk products (Milk, Cultured Products, Ice Creams, Paneer and Ghee), under the Brand
name Mother Dairy.
3. Range of Edible oils, under the Brand name Dhara.
4. Range of fresh Fruit & vegetables, Frozen Vegetables, Processed Fruit & Vegetable
Products, Fruit Pulps & Concentrates in bulk aseptic packaging and fruit juices, under the
Brand name Safal.

Vision and Mission:

Vision - Provide quality food and

beverages to

consumers at affordable prices while

ensuring fair

returns to the producers.

Mission - Mother Dairys heritage is intrinsically linked to the cooperative movement in
India. With determination & pride we will continue to serve our farmers, rural India & our
consumers. Our values reflect who we are & what we firmly believe in.
Awards and Recognitions:
1. 3rd Best Employer of India World HRD Congress (April-2010)
2. SAP Ace Award 2010 Best run award in Consumer Products.
3. Business Leadership (Fruit and vegetables).
4. Best Maintained Plant Award.
5. Safety Innovation Award : 2005.
6. Rajiv Gandhi Quality Award : 2005
7. Indian Innovation Award: 2005.
Quality Standards:
Mother Dairy is an IS/ ISO 9062, IS 15000 HACCP and IS 14001 EMS certified
organization. Mother Dairy, Delhi has been awarded ISO 9001:2000 s(Quality
Management Systems), HACCP, 2002 f 3A (Food Safety Management Systems) and
ISO 14001:2004 (Environmental Management Systems) Certifications. Moreover,
National Accreditation Board accredits its Quality Assurance Laboratory as per
ISO/IEC 17025:1999 for Testing and Calibration Laboratories, Department of Science
and Technology, Government of India.

Safal as a Fruit and Vegetable Unit:

Mother Dairy F&V Pvt. Ltd. (Safal) is a SBU of Mother Dairy. It was set up in 1988 as a pilot
project with the aim to provide remunerative prices to the farmers across the country
thereby giving a thrust to the co-operative culture. It achieves this mission by
establishing a direct linkage between farmers and customers.
Safal is the market leader in the organized F&V retail business in Delhi NCR where it sells
an average of 300 MT/day through a network of 400+ exclusive retail outlets under brand
name Safal/ Safal Pure Veg, supported by a state-of-the-art large and ultramodern CDF
located in Mangolpuri, Delhi. Retail Outlets are also present in Bangalore under the brand
name Safal Daily Fresh.
Safal has also a prominent presence in Export market spread across 40 countries viz.,
USA, Europe, Russia, Middle East, Asia and Africa and exports Fresh Fruits & Vegetables
(Grapes, Banana, Gherkin, Onion, etc.), Fruit Pulp & Concentrate, Frozen Fruits &
Vegetables etc.

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Frozen Juice & fruit




F. Peas




F. Corn




F. Mix



Orang Green

F. Aloo





Processed Foods


Groce cts:


l Rice


Product Quality at Safal:

Quality of Safal Produce starts from the field itself. Mother Dairy Quality
Assurance professionals constantly provide technical support to Farmers
during all stages of Supply chain (e.g harvesting, handling, transportation
and storage).
We, at Mother Dairy Monitor and Control the produce quality during
material receiving, processing and finished product stage against
Company Standards & Specifications.
Our state of the art Manufacturing Operations are certified for Quality
Management System (ISO 9001: 2008) and Food Safety Management
System (ISO 22000: 2005).
The Core purpose of Safal is to bring Fresh, Frozen and Processed Fruit
& Vegetable Quality products that form daily diet of the people.
Procurement Model:
Primarily all the items procured at the CDF (Collection and Distribution
Facility, Mangolpuri) are divided into two groups:

12 . R N e a g t i o n a l I t e m s


SafalsSupply Chain:

As the vision and mission of the company deals only with providing benefits to the
farmers directly, by eliminating the middle man in between. So, the produce is
procured in four different ways:

The first and most preferred procurement option is to buy directly from the
farmers and in case, if one farmer is not able to supply the desired quantity
with desired quality, then from farmers Associations.


The second preferred option is to employ a middleman between farmer and

company, called as a vendor.


The last preferred option is to procure from the Mandi, through a vendor; which
is explained in the following diagram:

Safal is only concerned with the A-grade produce procurement from vendors, thus
n Agent



minimizing companys risk.


Banana is an herbaceous plant of the genus Musa. Banana (Musa sp.) is the second
most important fruit crop in India next to mango.
Banana is an important fruit crop of many tropical and subtropical regions of India. It
is cultivated in India in an area of 830.5 thousand ha and total production is around
29,779.91 thousand tons.
Main banana growing states are Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh
and Karnataka.

Its year round availability, affordability, varietal range, taste, nutritive and medicinal
value makes it the favorite fruit among all classes of people. It has also good export


Bananas need warm subtropical climate, adequate moisture and protection from
Although banana is grown in a large variety of climates, optimal climatic
conditions for banana
Most varieties of Bananas grow best with 12 hours of bright light and high
humidity of 50% or higher.
The ideal temperature range is around 26-30C (78-86F) with RH regime of 7585%.
Growth begins at 18C, reaches optimal growth at 27C and stop entirely when
temperature reaches 38C.
Although Bananas grow best in bright sunlight, high temperature will scorch
leaves and fruit.
humidity and winds not stronger than 4 m/sec.


Bananas need rich, moisture and well-drained soil with 40% clay, 75% silt, 85%
Banana thrives in fertile, well-drained soils with high water holding capacity.
The optimal pH is between 5 and 7. Because banana is sensitive to salinity, the
EC should not exceed 1.0 ds/ m.
Low pH soil makes banana more susceptible to Panama disease.
. If soil is not in the most favorable condition, improve it! Light sandy soil can be
improved by placing mulch around the Banana plants. This will improve water
retention and prevent nutrients from percolating quickly into the soil.
Bananas do not tolerate water logging because its roots will rot. This however
can be resolved by planting the Bananas in raised beds
Banana has a shallow root system no deeper than 80 cm, with 60% of the
effective root zone in the top 30 cm


The Varietal Characteristics Of

Commercially Grown Banana Varieties
Is Given Below:



It is most accepted international variety. It is a tall statured plant and a heavy yielder
long cylindrical bunch. On an average it produces a bunch weighing 25 kg and may g
to 32-35 kg, with 8-10 hands with 200-220 fruits/bunch. The length of the fruit is 15-2
and girth is 12-13 cm.


It is normal statured with black brown blotches on the stem, bunches weigh around 2
having 8-10 hands/bunch. The length of the fruit is 15-20 cm and girth is 12 cm with
fruit skin

The plant stature is dwarf. Dark black brown blotches appear all along the stem. Bun
Cavendish are large with compactly arranged 8-10 hands weighing about 20kg. Length of fruit is
14 cm and girth 8-10 cm. Skin is thick and the fruit tapers gradually towards the tip.
not fit for export.


The plant is tall and robust statured. The colour of the fruit, pseudostem, petiole and
midrib is purplish red. The bunch weight is 20-25 kg with 6-7 hands and 80 fruits/bun
The length of the fruit is 16-18 cm.



There is considerable diversity in plant stature. Bunch has 5-6 hands weighing about
kg. Fruits have a distinct neck with thick green skin turning buff yellow on ripening. F
remain starchy even on ripening.

Nutritional value


Top 10 States in Banana Production

Grade Designation of Banana as

Per AGMARK Standards

Grade tolerances

Grade requirements

Extra class

Bananas shall be of superior quality. They

must be characteristics of the variety
and/or commercial type. The fingers must
be free of defects, with the exception of
very slight superficial defects, provided
these do not affect the general
appearance of the produce, quality, the
keeping quality and presentation in the

5% by number or weight of
bananas not satisfying the
requirements of the grade, but
meeting those of for Class I
grade or, exceptionally, coming
within the tolerances for that


Class I

Class II

Bananas shall be of good quality. They

must be characteristics of the variety
and/or commercial type. The following
slight defects of the fingers, however, may
be allowed, provided these do not affect
the general appearance of the produce,
quality, the keeping quality and
presentation in the package.
- slight defects in shape and colour;
- slight defects due to rubbing and other
superficial defects not exceeding 2
of the total surface area The defects must
not affect the flesh of the fruit.
This includes bananas which do not qualify
for inclusion in the higher classes, but
satisfy the minimum requirements. The
following defects may be there, provided
the bananas retain their essential
characteristics as regards the quality, the
keeping quality and presentation.
- defects in shape and colour provided the
product remains the normal characteristics
of bananas;
- skin defects due to scrapping, scabs,
rubbing, blemishes or other causes not
exceeding 4 of the total surface
The defects must not affect the flesh of
the fruit.

10% number or weight of bananas

not satisfying the requirements of
the grade but meeting those of
Class II or, exceptionally, coming
within the tolerances of that grade.

10% by number or weight of

bananas not satisfying the
requirements of the grade, but

Sequence of postharvest operations in



Cleaning, Delatexting & Fungicide treatment

Banana fruits are immersed in a huge tank of fresh water for about 30 min (Sodium
hypochlorate is an effective solvent) and delatexed - in other words the latex on them is
washed away. In order to protect fruit against fungal attack (especially during rainy season)
which causes crown rot during shipment, the crowns are treated with fungicide involving
spraying the banana fruit.

Care taken during fungicide spray:

Permissible (i.e. not prohibited) for use on the crop after harvest; effective in controlling the
post-harvest diseases; used in accordance with the manufacturers' instructions and at their
recommended concentrations (excessive residues on produce may lead to its rejection);
agitated continuously during use to prevent its settling out. Care must be taken that
employees using fungicides observe all the precautions applicable to their use and that they
wear the necessary protective clothing.

Sorting and Grading of banana


Diseased damaged and undesirable fruits are separated from the lot. Generally fruits are
categorized based on their size and colour and stage of maturity.

Grading in banana:

Mainly based on size, colour and maturity of the fruits.

Smaller fruits are separated from the larger ones to achieve uniform ripening.

Immature, overripe, damaged and diseased fruits are discarded.

The fruits are generally harvested early in the season at a pre-mature stage to
capture early market.

Ethylene application is the best method to hasten ripening without loss in fruit
quality and flavour.

Mature fruits are ripened with lower doses of ethrel for uniform colour development
(slow ripening under controlled condition at 150-180 C).


The process when the fruits and vegetable attain a certain age of maturity, marked by
increased sweetness and pulpiness, better texture and mouth feel, easy and clean
separation of the outer covering. This stage attained is said to be ripened.
Fruit ripening => starch sugar
This occurs due to various metabolic processes in the fruit most of which are enzymatically
regulated and catalyzed.
Depending on ripening behavior, fruits are divided into (1 ) climacteric fruits and (2) nonclimacteric fruits.
Banana being in the former category is known to continue ripening even after harvest.
Other examples of climacteric fruits are plum, mango, fig, passion fruit, papaya, guava,
pear, etc.
The other category, non- climacteric fruits, consists of those fruits which do not ripen once
harvested. Examples are cherry, strawberry, grapes, oranges, etc.

Major factors in commercial ripening

1. Equalization - bringing pulp temperature between 15 17C prior to gassing
2. Gassing with ethylene production of uniform air flow around produce, and uniform
exposure of ethylene
3. Temperature control inside the ripening chamber ; around 15- 18 C
4. RH (relative humidity) control around 90% is required
5. Adequate air circulation- uniform air circulation around produce, controlled CO2

The Ripening Process


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Stages in ripening

Amount of ethylene gas required for ripening room is normally

calculated on free air space after the bananas have been loaded in
the chamber
Image 1: descriptive of the earliest ripening stage after immediate harvest


Image 2: stage at which banana is imported to the Mother Dairy, Safals supply chain unit
for further processing
Image 3 & 4: ripening stage acquired within the ripening chamber / maybe the self ripe
fruits (defected) acquired on imports supply
Image 5: just ripe stage acquired after keeping in chamber in maintained ethylene, CO2,
air conditioning, temperature.
Image 6: ready-to-supply stage; best before 3 days from the date this stage is acquired
Image 7: fully ripened stage of banana; ready to be eaten.


Arrival date


July 13 2015

Chamber 23



Vehicle no.


Loading start at

0800 hrs

Self ripe fruit (banana)%


Quite a less % of self ripe

bananas are imported on
supply; less supply chain

Pulp temp. During unloading

Pulp temp. In process hall,
after 2 hrs of unloading (C)
Pulp temp. During loading in
chamber (C)

25.8, 25.9, 25.9, 26.7

Avg = 26.1
25.2, 25.1, 25.0, 24.9
Avg = 25.0

24.9, 22.9,24.7, 22.9

Avg = 23.85

The temperatures at which

the bananas are acquired
and after 2 hrs in the
unloading dock, are almost
the same.
Due to the maintained cold
temp. in the supply chain,
the temp. of import is



CO2 (ppm) during loading in

CO2 (ppm) after 48 hrs
loading in chamber


0.03% or 300ppm is the CO2

level in atmosphere (air)
Upto 3-4% is the max