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Chapter 3

Determinants
3.1 The Determinant of a Matrix
3.2 Evaluation of a Determinant using Elementary
Row Operations
3.3 Properties of Determinants
3.4 Introduction to Eigenvalues

3.5 Application of Determinants

3.1

The determinant is NOT a matrix operation


The determinant is a kind of information extracted from a
square matrix to reflect some characteristics of that square
matrix
In this chapter, for example, we will discuss that matrices
with zero determinant are with very different characteristics
from those with non-zero determinant
The motive to find this information is to identify the
characteristics of matrices and thus facilitate the comparison
between matrices since it is impossible to compare matrices
entry by entry

3.2

3.1 The Determinant of a Matrix

The determinant of a 2 2 matrix:

a11 a12
A

a
a
21 22
det( A) | A | a11a22

a21a12

Note:

1. For every square matrix, there is a real number associated


with this matrix and called its determinant
2. It is common practice to delete the matrix brackets
a 11 a 12
a11 a12

a 21 a 22
21 a22
3.3

Ex. : The determinant of a matrix of order 2

2 3
2(2) 1( 3) 4 3 7
1 2

2 1
4 2

2(2) 4(1) 4 4 0

0 3
2 4

0(4) 2(3) 0 6 6

Note: The determinant of a matrix can be positive, zero, or negative

3.4

Minor of the entry aij: the determinant of the matrix obtained


by deleting the i-th row and j-th column of A
a11 a12

a( i 1)1
M ij
a( i 1)1

a n1

a1( j 1)

a( i 1)( j 1)
a( i 1)( j 1)

an ( j 1)

a1( j 1)

a( i 1)( j 1)
a( i 1)( j 1)

an ( j 1)

a1n

a( i 1) n
a( i 1) n

ann

Mij is a real number

Cofactor of aij:

Cij ( 1)i j M ij

Cij is a real number


3.5

Ex:
a11 a12
A a21 a22

a31 a32

a13
a23

a33

a12 a13
M 21
a32 a33

M 22

C21 ( 1) 21 M 21 M 21

C22 ( 1) 22 M 22 M 22

a11 a13

a31 a33

Notes: Sign pattern for cofactors. Odd


positions (where i+j is odd) have negative
signs, and even positions (where i+j is
even) have positive signs. (Positive and
negative signs appear alternately.)

3.6

Theorem 3.1: Expansion by cofactors


Let A be a square matrix of order n, then the determinant of A
is given by
n

(a) det( A) | A | aij Cij ai1Ci1 ai 2Ci 2


j 1

ainCin

(cofactor expansion along the i-th row, i=1, 2,, n)


or
n

(b) det( A) | A | aij Cij a1 j C1 j a2 j C2 j


i 1

anj Cnj

(cofactor expansion along the j-th column, j=1, 2,, n)


The determinant can be derived by performing the cofactor
expansion along any row or column of the examined matrix
3.7

Ex: The determinant of a matrix of order 3

a11 a12
A a21 a22

a31 a32

a13
a23

a33

det( A) a11C11 a12C12 a13C13 (first row expansion)


a21C21 a22C22 a23C23 (second row expansion)
a31C31 a32C32 a33C33 (third row expansion)
a11C11 a21C21 a31C31 (first column expansion)
a12C12 a22C22 a32C32 (second column expansion)
a13C13 a23C23 a33C33 (third column expansion)
3.8

Ex : The determinant of a matrix of order 3

0 2 1
A 3 1 2 det( A) ?
4 0 1
Sol:
2
11 1 2
1 2 3
C11 (1)
1 C12 (1)
(1)(5) 5
0 1
4 1
1 3

C13 (1)

3 1
4
4 0

det( A) a11C11 a12C12 a13C13


(0)(1) (2)(5) (1)(4)
14
3.9

Alternative way to calculate the determinant of a matrix of


order 3:
Subtract these three products

a11
A a21
a31

a12
a22
a32

a13
a23
a33

a11 a12
a21 a22
a31 a32

a13
a23
a33

a11 a12
a21 a22
a31 a32

Add these three products

det( A) | A | a11a22 a33 a12 a23a31 a13a21a32 a31a22 a13


a32 a 23 a11 a33a21a12

3.10

Ex: Recalculate the determinant of the matrix A in Ex 3


4 0 6
0 2 1 0 2
A 3 1 2 3 1
4 0 1 4 0
0 16 0

det( A) | A | 0 16 0 (4) 0 6 14
This method is only valid for matrices with the order of 3

3.11

Ex : The determinant of a matrix of order 4

1 2
1 1
A
0
2

4
3

3 0
0 2
det( A) ?

0 3

0 2

3.12

Sol:

det( A) (3)(C13 ) (0)(C23 ) (0)(C33 ) (0)(C43 )


3C13

1 1 2
3(1)13 0 2 3
3 4 2

2
2

2 1 1
2 2 1
23 1 1
3(0)( 1)
(2)( 1)
(3)( 1)

2
3

2
3
4

30 (2)(1)( 4) (3)( 1)( 7)


(3)(13)
39
By comparing Ex 4 with Ex 3, it is apparent that the computational effort for
the determinant of 44 matrices is much higher than that of 33 matrices. In the
next section, we will learn a more efficient way to calculate the determinant. 3.13

Upper triangular matrix:


All entries below the main diagonal are zeros
Lower triangular matrix:
All entries above the main diagonal are zeros
Diagonal matrix:
All entries above and below the main diagonal are zeros

Ex:

a11 a12 a13


0 a22 a23
0 0 a
33

upper triangular

a11 0 0
a21 a22 0
a a a
31 32 33
lower triangular

a11 0 0
0 a22 0
0 0 a
33

diagonal
3.14

Theorem 3.2: (Determinant of a Triangular Matrix)

If A is an n n triangular matrix (upper triangular, lower


triangular, or diagonal), then its determinant is the product of
the entries on the main diagonal. That is
det( A) | A | a11a22 a33 ann

On the next slide, we only take the case of upper triangular matrices
for example to prove Theorem 3.2. It is straightforward to apply the
following proof for the cases of lower triangular and diagonal
matrices.

3.15

Ex : Find the determinants of the following triangular matrices


0
2
4 2
(a) A
5 6
1
5

0
0
1
3

0
0

0
3

Sol:

1
0

(b) B 0

0
0

0
3
0
0
0

0
0
2
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

4
0
0 2

(a) |A| = (2)(2)(1)(3) = 12


(b) |B| = (1)(3)(2)(4)(2) = 48

3.16

3.2 Evaluation of a determinant using elementary row operations

The computational effort to calculate the determinant of a square


matrix with a large number of n is unacceptable. In this section, I
will show how to reduce the computational effort by using
elementary operations

Theorem 3.3: Elementary row operations and determinants


Let A and B be square matrices

(a) B Ii , j ( A)

det( B) det( A)

(b) B M i( k ) ( A) det( B) k det( A)

(c) B Ai(,kj) ( A)

det( B) det( A)

Notes: The above three properties remains valid if elementary


column operations are performed to derive column-equivalent
matrices

3.17

Ex:

1 2 3
A 0 1 4 det( A) 2
1 2 1

4 8 12
(4)

A
1 M 1 ( A)
A1 0 1 4 det( A1 ) 8
det( A1) 4det( A) (4)(2) 8
1 2 1

0
A2 1
1
1
A3 2
1

1 4
A2 I 1, 2( A)
2 3 det( A2 ) 2
det( A2) det( A) (2) 2

2 1
2 3
( 2)

A
3 A1,2 ( A)
3 2 det( A3 ) 2
det( A3) det( A) 2
2 1

3.18

Row reduction method to calculate the determinant


1. A row-echelon form of a square matrix is always upper triangular
2. It is easy to calculate the determinant of an upper triangular
matrix

Ex 2: Evaluation a determinant using elementary row operations

2 3 10
A 1 2 2 det( A) ?
0 1 3
Sol:

2 3 10
1 2 2
I1,2
det( A) 1 2 2 2 3 10
1
0 1 3
0 1 3

Notes:
det( A1 ) det( A)
det( A) det( A1 )
3.19

1 2 2
1 2 2
1)
(

( 2)
1
A1,2
M2 7

0 7 14
( 1) (
) 0 1 2
(1/ 7)
2
3
0 1 3
0 1 3

1 2 2
( 1)
A2,3

7 0 1 2 7(1) 7
4
0 0 1

Notes:

det( A2 ) det( A1 )
1
1
det( A3 ) det( A2 ) det( A2 )
det( A3 )
7
(1/ 7)
det( A4 ) det( A3 )
3.20

Comparison between the number of required operations for the


two kinds of methods to calculate the determinant
Cofactor Expansion

Row Reduction

Order n

Additions

Multiplications

Additions

Multiplications

10

119

205

30

45

10

3,628,799

6,235,300

285

339

3.21

3.3 Properties of Determinants

Theorem 3.5: Determinant of a matrix product


det (AB) = det (A) det (B)

Notes:

det( A1 A2

An ) det( A1 ) det( A2 )

det( An )

det( A B) det( A) det(B)

3.22

Ex : The determinant of a matrix product

1 2 2
A 0 3 2
1 0 1

1
2 0
B 0 1 2
3 1 2

Find |A|, |B|, and |AB|


Sol:

1 2 2
| A | 0 3 2 7
1 0 1

2 0
1
| B | 0 1 2 11
3 1 2

3.23

1 8 4
1
1 2 2 2 0
AB 0 3 2 0 1 2 6 1 10
1 0 1 3 1 2 5 1
1
8 4
1
| AB | 6 1 10 77
5 1 1

Check:
|AB| = |A| |B|
3.24

Ex:

1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2
?
A 0 3 2 1 1 2 1 2 0 B C
1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1
Pf:

| A | 0(1)

2 1

| B | 1(1)
| C | 1(1)

2 2
22 1 2
2 3 1 2
3(1)
2(1)
0 1
1 1
1 0

2 1

2 1

2 2
2 2 1 2
2 3 1 2
1(1)
2(1)
0 1
1 1
1 0

2 2
2 2 1 2
2 3 1 2
2(1)
0(1)
0 1
1 1
1 0
3.25

Theorem 3.6: Determinant of a scalar multiple of a matrix

If A is an n n matrix and c is a scalar, then


det (cA) = cn det (A)
(can be proven by repeatedly use the fact that if B M i( k ) ( A) | B | k | A | )

Ex 2:

1 2 4
10 20 40
A 30
0 50 , if 3 0 5 5, find |A|
20 30 10
2 3 1
Sol:

1 2 4
1 2 4
3
0 5 (1000)(5) 5000
A 10 3
0 5 A 10 3

2 3 1
2 3 1

3.26

Theorem 3.7: (Determinant of an invertible matrix)

A square matrix A is invertible (nonsingular)

if and only if det (A) 0

3.27

Ex 3: Classifying square matrices as singular or nonsingular

0 2 1
A 3 2 1
3 2 1

0 2 1
B 3 2 1
3 2
1

Sol:

A 0

A has no inverse (it is singular)

B 12 0

B has inverse (it is nonsingular)

3.28

Theorem 3.8: Determinant of an inverse matrix


1
1
If A is invertible, then det( A )
det( A)
Theorem 3.9: Determinant of a transpose

If A is a square matrix, then det( AT ) det(A)

Ex 4:

1 0 3
A 0 1 2
2 1 0

(a) A1 ?

(b)

AT ?

Sol:
1 0 3
| A | 0 1 2 4
2 1 0

1 1

A 4
AT A 4

A1

3.29

The similarity between the noninvertible matrix and the real


number 0

Matrix A
Invertible

Real number c

det( A) 0
A1 exists and det( A1 )

Noninvertible det( A) 0

c0
1
det( A)

c 1 exists and c 1 =

1
c

c0

A1 does not exist

c 1 does not exist

1
1
1

det( A )
det(
A
)
0

1 1 1
c = =
c 0

3.30

Ex 5: Which of the following system has a unique solution?

3x1
3x1

2 x2
2 x2
2 x2

x3
x3
x3

4
4

3x1
3x1

2 x2
2 x2
2 x2

4
4

(a)

(b)

x3
x3
x3

3.31

Sol:
(a) Ax b (the coefficient matrix is the matrix A in Ex 3)

A 0 (from Ex 3)
This system does not have a unique solution

(b) Bx b (the coefficient matrix is the matrix B in Ex 3)

B 12 0 (from Ex 3)

This system has a unique solution

3.32