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1. What is load curve?
The curve drawn between the variations of load on the power station with reference to time is
known as load curve. There are three types, Daily load curve, Monthly load curve, Yearly load
2. What is daily load curve?
The curve drawn between the variations of load with reference to various time period of day is
known as daily load curve.
3. What is monthly load curve?
It is obtained from daily load curve. Average value of the power at a month for a different time
periods are calculated and plotted in the graph which is known as monthly load curve.
4. What is yearly load curve?
It is obtained from monthly load curve which is used to find annual load factor.
5. What is connected load?
It is the sum of continuous ratings of all the equipments connected to supply systems.
6. What is Maximum demand?
It is the greatest demand of load on the power station during a given period.
7.What is Demand factor?
It is the ratio of maximum demand to connected load.
Demand factor= (max demand)/ (connected load)
8. What is Load factor?
The ratio of average load to the maximum demand during a given period is known as load factor.
Load factor = (average load)/ (maximum demand)
9. What is Average demand?
The average of loads occurring on the power station in a given period (day or month or year) is
known as average demand.

System load variation load characteristics load curves and load-duration curve (daily,
weekly and annual) load factor diversity factor. Importance of load forecasting and simple
techniques of forecasting. An overview of power system operation and control and the role of
computers in the implementation.(Qualitative treatment with block diagram).

Daily average demand

= (no of units generated per day)/ (24 hours)
Monthly average demand = (no of units generated in month)/ (no of hours in a month)
Yearly average demand = (no of units generated in a year)/ (no of hours in a year)
10. What is Diversity factor?

11. What is Capacity factor?

This is the ratio of actual energy produced to the maximum possible energy that could have been
produced during a given period.
Capacity factor= (actual energy produced)/ (maximum energy that have been produced)
12. What is Plant use factor?
It is the ratio of units generated to the product of plant capacity and the number of hours for
which the plant was in operation.
Units generated per annum= average load * hours in a year
13. What is Load duration curve?
When the load elements of a load curve are arranged in the order of descending magnitudes the
curve then obtained is called load duration curve.
14. What is the necessity of voltage regulation?
All equipments in power system are designed to operate satisfactorily only when the voltage
level on the system correspond to their rated values. So voltage regulation is very important.
15. What are the disadvantages of voltage regulation?
The disadvantages of voltage regulation are,
i) If voltage variation is more then a pre specified value, the performance of equipments is poor.
ii) Life in most of the equipments is also sacrificed.
16. Give some category of load device
The categories of load devices are,
a. Motor devices 70%
b. Heating and lighting 25%
c. Electronic devices-5%
17. Why the frequency regulation is very important?
Since the speed of induction motors depend upon the system frequency, regulation of power
system frequency is very important.

The ratio of the sum of individual maximum demand on power station is known as diversity
Diversity factor = (sum of individual maximum demand)/(maximum demand).

18. How the multitudes of devices are characterized?

The multitude of devices are characterized by,
a. Size
b. Symmetry (single or three- phase)
c. Load constancy (in respect to time, frequency and voltage)
d. Use cycle (regular or random use).

The effects of load dependency on voltage and frequency are,

a. Serious problems are created in HP motors.
b. If efficiency and power factor increases, current decreases.
c. Generators are lead to shut down.
20. What is load management?
As generator capacity has increased in price (to as much as $1000 per kilowatt) and as the fuel
shortages put an extra squeeze on them, many electric utilities are finding it worthwhile to try to
slave the load peaks. This is referred to as load management.
21. Give the two major control loops of large generators?
The two major control loops of large generators are,
a. Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR)
b. Automatic Load Frequency Control (ALFC)
22. Write about AVR loop.
The automatic voltage regulator (AVR) loop controls the magnitude of the terminal
voltage (Vt). The latter voltage is continuously sensed, rectified and smoothed. This DC signal,
the resulting error voltage, after amplification and signal shaping serves as the input to the
exciter which finally delivers the voltage (Vf) to the generator field winding.
23. How the ALFC loop is affected by AVR loop?
AVR affect the magnitude of generated EMF (Eg). This generated EMF affects the generated real
power. Therefore changes in AVR loop affect ALFC loop.
24. Write about load frequency mechanism.
The frequency is closely related to the real power balance in the overall network. Under normal
operating conditions the system generators run synchronously and generate together the power at
each moment is being drawn by all loads plus the real.
25. Give an important reason for voltage control.
The real line losses depend as much upon the reactive as upon the real line power flow. It is
possible to minimize these losses by selecting an optimum power flow, in terms of real and
reactive powers. So the voltage control is very important.

19. What are the effects of load dependency on voltage and frequency?

26. What is the one distinct difference between P-f and Q-V control?
The surplus of MEGAVARS tends to increase the frequency of a system. The changes are not
uniform but will be greatest at the buses where the Q surplus is the greatest. This is one distinct
difference between P-f and Q-lVl control.

Real time control of power system means the system in working state. While the power
system is in process control the machine at that time in the working field.
The size of turbo generator units has increased. So it is difficult to operate them near critical
parameters. Hence, it is necessary to acquire a large volume of data pertaining to plant and to
process them immediately. It is essential to take necessary control actions within critical
time. Higher cost of fuels, environmental protection and rising inflationary spiral have placed
a strain on the utility return on investment. New plant equipment and construction costs rise
at an alarming rate. This means, more peak load demand must be met by older plants. Thus,
monitoring and control systems must be fast enough to protect generation equipments against
overloads, false and dangerous operating conditions, conventional electrical instruments can
handle the situation, if information receiving is one at a time. But when a flood of
information hit all at once, a fast data processing equipment or system is required. Thus the
computer is essential for the efficient and economic operation and control.
Some of the major benefits of computerized operation and control of plant are:

Increased plant safety.

More equipment life.
Increased plant availability.
Higher plant efficiency.
Minimum operating errors.

In 1982, the United States derived its electricity from the following sources. 72 % from coal,
gas, oil, 15 % from hydro power and 13 % from nuclear. But no energy form is entirely risk
free. Use of energy made possible our present life styles. Thus the major goals for the future
are to develop new primary resources which promote better means of generation and
transmission and emphasis less wasteful use of electricity.
Computer Configuration Trend:
The computer system used at power plant station has been undergoing continuous
development over the years. Formerly, all the functions such as data acquisition, logging
display, control and performance calculations were performer by computer processing unit
(CPU). In such system failure of any of the elegant leads to the total system breakdown.
Thus, the need for a dual computer configuration arose which is quite costly.

1. Discuss about the recent trends in real time control of power system?

The further advancement in communication technology and powerful microprocessors has

resulted in the cheap and reliable microprocessor based Distributed Processing System
(DPS). It is based on the principle of LAN. Today, in all process industries including power
plant, this system is employed for data acquisition and control. DPS consists of a number of
microprocessors connected through data highway, which is passive in nature. Each processor
is assigned a specific task independently. So, the failure of one of the processors does not
disturb the function of the other processors.

Better reliability.
Greater processing power.
More responsiveness.
Longer survivability.
Better modularity.
More system expandability.
Easier maintenance.

Functions and Facilities

The function of the data acquisition and control system is to provide the operator with current
plant information through graphic displays, group displays, alarms annunciations and so on,
for the safe operation of plant. The DPS further provides detailed historical information for
diagnostic / review purposes in case of outage and plant performance. The data acquisition
and control system performs the following general functions.

Data acquisition and validation.

Real time variable computations.
Alarm monitoring and display.
Performance and deviation calculation.
Trends, events, reports and logs.
Sequential control.
Modulating control.
Other related functions.

In order to carry out these functions, some facilities are required. They are:
Data Processing System:
The process input / output requirements are high resolution digital inputs, low resolution
digital inputs, analog inputs 4-20 mA DC, thermo-couple inputs, RTD inputs, pulse inputs,
analog outputs and contact outputs.
Computer System Design Requirement for Power Plant:
Power plant is a complex system which includes the boiler, turbo-generator, cooling tower
and the reheat system. The operating parameters of the plant are largely governed by the grid
connected to it. Thus, DPS at power plant must have the following features:

Advantages of DPS

High availability.
Good expandability.
High data rate.
Geographic distance spanning.
Ability to support several hundred independent devices.
Stability under high control.
Ease of reconfiguration and maintenance and low cost.

Non-Conventional Energy Resources:

i. Solar power.
ii. Wind, wave, geothermal and tidal power.
iii. Fossil fuel.
Future Generating Equipment:
Todays maximum generator unit size is exceeding 1 GW and is limited by the allowable
current densities used in rotor and stator windings. Major efforts are used to develop
superconducting machines, where the winding temperature is kept close to absolute zero. The
enormous current and flux densities achieved in such machines coiled possibly increase
1 GW size unit to(5 6) GW. This would mean better generating economy.
It is the term used to describe a broad array of processes, products and systems working in
harmony to automate manufacturing. It includes elements of factory and plant automation
such as robotics, drives, PLC and computerized numerical control, production, planning
process optimization, open control systems; human machine interfaces vision systems and
industrial networks. It is only in the last few years the companies have started incorporating
software systems at all levels of production.
Modularity & Reconfigurability:
Design of machinery demands, connectivity solutions, which are reliable and simple to use.
At higher levels of plant automation, it will become possible to run overseas factories on the
same web browser used to control domestic production.
Field Bus Networks:
In many factories, hard-wired control systems are still the norm. They are used to control
level to allow communication with the operation level.

Decentralized Control:
As control is being transferred to the field devices, electronic motor control can take place at
the motor itself. Electrical connections are integrated in connectors that largely eliminate

wiring errors and allow motors to be connected and disconnected without any use of tools.
All the components of a decentralized automation system will be fed by a continuous
common connection system for data and power.
2. What are system level and plant level controls?

A properly designed and operated power system should meet the following fundamental
1. Adequate spinning reserve must be present to meet the active and reactive power
2. Minimum cost with minimum ecological impact.
3. The power quality must have certain minimum standards within the tolerance or limit such
Constancy of frequency.
Constancy of voltage (Voltage magnitude and load angle).
Level of reliability.
Factor affecting power quality:

Switching surges.
Flickering of voltage.
Load shedding.
Electromagnetic interference.
Line capacitance and line inductance.
Operation of heavy equipment.
Welding machine operation.

The three main controls involved in powers are:

1. Plant Level Control (or) Generating Unit Control.
2. System Generation Control.
3. Transmission Control.
1. Plant Level Control (or) Generating Unit Control
The plant level control consists of:

Governor control or Prime mover control.

Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) or Excitation control.
Governor control or Prime mover control

Governor control or Prime mover controls are concerned with speed regulation of the
governor and the control of energy supply system variables such as boiler pressure,
temperature and flows. Speed regulation is concerned with steam input to turbine. With

The function of an electric power system is to convert energy from one of the naturally
available forms to electrical from and to transport it to points of consumption.

variation in load, speed of governor varies as the load is inversely proportional to speed.
The speed of the generator varies and the governor senses the speed and gives a
command signal, so that, the steam input of the turbine is changed relative to the load
Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) or Excitation control
The function of Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) or Excitation control is to regulate
generator voltage and relative power output. As the terminal voltage varies the excitation
control, it maintains the terminal voltage to the required standard and the demand of the
reactive power is also met by the excitation control unit.
These controls are depicted in given figure 1.

Figure 1: Plant and System Level Controls

2. System Generation Control
The purpose of system generation control is to balance the total system generation against
system load and losses, so that, the desired frequency and power interchange with
neighboring systems are maintained. This comprises of:

Load Frequency Control (LFC).

Economic Dispatch Control (EDC).


iii. System Voltage Control.

Security control.
i. Load Frequency Control (LFC).

ii. Economic Dispatch Control (EDC).

When the economical load distribution between a number of generator units is considered,
it is found that the optimum generating schedule is affected when an incremental increased
at one of the units replaces a compensating decrease at every other unit, in term of some
incremental cost. Optimum operation of generators at each generating station at various
station load levels is known as unit commitment.
iii. System Voltage Control.
This involves the process of controlling the system voltage within tolerable limits. This
includes the devices such as static VAR compensators, synchronous condenser, tap
changing transformer, switches, capacitor and reactor.
The controls described above contribute to the satisfactory operation of the power system
by maintaining system voltages, frequency and other system variables within their
acceptable limits. They also have a profound effect on the dynamic performance of power
system and on its ability to cope with disturbances.
iv. Security control
The main objective of real time power system operation requires a process guided by
control and decisions based on constant monitoring of the system condition. The power
system operation is split into two levels.
LEVEL 1: Monitoring and Decision
The condition of the system is continuously observed I the control centres by protective
relays for faults or contingencies caused by equipment trouble and failure. If any of these
monitoring devices identifies a sufficiently severe problem at the sample time, then the
system is in an abnormal condition. If no such abnormality is observed, then the system is
in a normal condition.
LEVEL 2: Control
At each sample, the proper commands are generated for correcting the abnormality on
protecting the system from its consequences. If on abnormality is observed, then the normal
operation proceeds for the next sample interval.
Central controls also play an important role in modern power systems. Today systems are
composed of interconnected areas, where each area has its own control centre. There are

This involves the sensing of the bus bar frequency and compares with the tie line power
frequency. The difference of the signal is fed to the integrator and it is given to speed
changer which generates the reference speed for the governor. Thus, the frequency of the
tie line is maintained as constant.

many advantages to interconnections. The interconnected areas can share their reserve
power to handle anticipated load peaks and unanticipated generator outages. Interconnected
areas can also tolerated large load changes with smaller frequency deviations at spinning
reserve and standby provides a reserve margin.

3. Explain (i) Load Forecasting, (ii) Unit Commitment and (iii) Load Scheduling.
1. Load forecasting:
The load on their systems should be estimated in advance. This estimation in advance is
known as load forecasting. Load forecasting based on the previous experience without any
historical data.
Classification of load forecasting:

Lead Time


Few minutes to half an hour

Real time control, real time

security evaluation.

Short term

Half an hour to a few hours

reserve, unit commitment,
maintenance scheduling.

Medium term

Few days to a few weeks

Planning or seasonal peakwinter, summer.

Long term

Few months to a few years

To plan the growth of the

generation capacity.

Very short time

Need for load forecasting:

To meet out the future demand.
Long term forecasting is required for preparing maintenance schedule of the
generating units, planning future expansion of the system.
For day-to-day operation, short term load forecasting demand and for maintaining the
required spinning reserve.
Very short term load forecasting is used for generation and distribution. That is,
economic generation scheduling and load dispatching.
Medium term load forecasting is needed for predicted monsoon acting and hydro
availability and allocating.

The central control centre information including area frequency, generating unit outputs
and tie line power floes to interconnected areas. This information is used by automatic load
frequency control in order to maintain area frequency at its scheduled values.

2. Unit Commitment:

A short term load forecast.

System reserve requirements.
System security.
Startup costs for all units.
Minimum level fuel costs for all units.
Incremental fuel costs of units.
Maintenance costs.

3. Load Scheduling (Load Dispatching):

Loading of units are allocated to serve the objective of minimum fuel cost is known as load
scheduling. Load scheduling problem can be divided into:
i. Thermal scheduling.
ii. Hydrothermal scheduling.
i. Thermal scheduling.
The loading of steam units are allocated to serve the objective of minimum fuel cost.
Thermal scheduling will be assumed that the supply undertaking has got only form
thermal or from steam stations.
ii. Hydrothermal scheduling.
Loading of hydro and thermal units are allocated to serve the objective of minimum fuel
cost is known as hydrothermal scheduling.
Scheduling of hydro units are complex because of natural differences I the watersheds,
manmade storage and release elements used to control the flow of water are difficult.
During rainy season, we can utilize hydro generation to a maximum and the remaining
period, hydro generation depends on stored water availability. If availability of water is
not enough to generate power, we must utilize only thermal power generation. Mostly
hydroelectric generation is used to meet out peak loads. There are two types of
hydrothermal scheduling.
a) Long range hydro scheduling
b) Short range hydro scheduling.
a) Long range hydro scheduling
Long range hydro scheduling problem involves the long range forecasting of water
availability and the scheduling of reservoir water releases for an interval of time
that depends on the reservoir capacities. Long range hydro scheduling involves

The unit commitment problem is to minimize system total operating costs while
simultaneously providing sufficient spinning reserve capacity to satisfy a given security
level. In unit commitment problems, we consider the following terms.

from I week to I year or several years. Long range hydro scheduling involves
optimization of statistical variables such as load, hydraulic inflows and unit
b) Short range hydro scheduling.

Assuming load, hydraulic inflows and unit availabilities are known, for a given
reservoir level, we can allocated generation of power using hydro plants to meet out
the demand, to minimize the production cost.
The largest category of hydrothermal system includes a balance between
hydroelectric and thermal generation resources. Hydrothermal scheduling is
developed to minimize thermal generation production cost.
4. Explain the need for voltage and frequency regulation in power system.
A power system is said to be well designed if it gives a good quality of reliable supply, which
means that the voltage levels must be within reasonable limits. Practically, all the equipments
on the power system are designed to operate satisfactorily within voltage variations of around
5 %. If the voltage variation is more than a pre-specified value, the performance of the
equipments is also sacrificed.
The voltage at the generating stations and the frequency decides the KW loading of the
generating stations and the loading through the interconnectors.
Need for Voltage Regulation in Power System:
Knowledge of voltage regulation helps in maintaining the voltage at the load terminals within
prescribed limits under fluctuating load conditions, by employing suitable voltage control
equipment. The following points are to be considered.
The transmission lines and the distribution lines need voltage control at various stages
to maintain the voltage at the last consumers premises within permissible limits.
Variations in supply voltage are detrimental in various aspects.
Below normal voltage substantially reduces the light output from incandescent lamps.
Above normal voltage reduces the life of the lamps.
Motors operated at below normal voltage draw abnormally high currents and may
overheat, even when carrying no more than the rated horse power load.
If the voltage of the system deviates from the nominal value, the performance of the
devices suffers and its life expectancy drops.
The real line losses depend as much upon the reactive line as upon the real time
power flow. The reactive line flow depends upon line end voltages.

Short range hydro scheduling involves from one day to one week or hour-by-hour
scheduling of all generation on a system to achieve minimum production cost foe a
given period.

By adjusting the excitation of the generator at the sending end below a certain limit
may result in instability of the system and excitation above certain level will result in
overheating of the rotor.
Service voltages are usually specified by a nominal value and the voltage maintained
is 5 % of the nominal value.

Knowledge of frequency regulation helps in maintaining the system frequency that is speed
of the alternator within prescribed limits under fluctuating load conditions, by using speed
governor and integral controller. In a network, considerable drop in frequency occurs due to
high magnetizing currents in induction motors and transformers. The following points to be
In any power system, if the frequency changes there wont be required receiving end
voltage. If we connected two systems in parallel, it will spoil the system.
The generator turbines, particularly steam driven ones are designed to operate at a
very precise speed.
Most of AC motors rub at speeds that are directly related to the frequency.
The overall operation of a power system can be much better controlled if the
frequency error is kept within strict limits.
A large number of electrically operated clocks are used. They are all driven be
synchronous motors and the accuracy of these clocks is a function not only of a
frequency error, but actually of the integral of this error.
Constant turbine speed is an important requirement. The velocity of the expanding
steam is beyond our control and the turbine efficiency requires perfect speed match.
Unusual deviations in the frequency can be detected earlier.
When two systems working at different frequencies are to be tied together to make
same frequency, frequency converting stations or links are required.
5. Draw and explain the basic P-f and Q-v control loops.
Static changes Pi in the real bus power affect the bus phase angle and not the bus
voltage magnitudes. This change affects the real line flows and not the reactive line
Static changes Qi in the reactive power affect the bus voltage magnitudes and the
phase angle. This change affects the reactive line flows and not the real line flows.
A static change in the reactive bus power affects the bus voltage at the particular bus
and has little effect on the magnitude of voltage.
QV Control Loop:
The automatic voltage regulator circuit or QV control loop as shown in given figure 2.
This loop is used for voltage control. This bus bar voltage is stepped down using a potential
transformer to a small value of voltage. This is sent to the rectifier circuit which converts the

Need for Frequency Regulation in Power System:

AC voltage into DC voltage and a filter circuit used in this removes the harmonics. The
voltage Vi, thus rectified is compared with a reference voltage Vref in the comparator and a
voltage error signal is generated. The amplified form of this voltage gives a condition for the
exciter to increase the field current based on its polarity. The output of the generator is
stepped up using a transformer and fed to the n=bus bar. Thus the voltage is regulated and
controlled in this control circuit.

This control loop circuit is divided into primary and secondary Automatic Load Frequency
Control (ALFC) loop structures as shown in given figure 2.

Figure 2: Automatic load frequency and voltage regulator control loops

Primary ALFC:
The circuit primarily controls the steam valve leading to the turbine. A speed sensor senses
the speed of the turbine. This is compared with a reference speed, governor whose main
activity is to control the speed of the steam by closing and opening of the control valve. That
is, if the differential speed is low, then the control valve is opened to let out the steam at high
speed, thereby increasing turbines speed and vice versa. The control of speed in turn
controls the frequency.

PF Control Loop:

This circuit involves a frequency sensor that senses the frequency of the bus bar and
compares it with Tie line power frequencies in the signal mixer. The output of this is an Area
Control Error (ACE) which is sent to the speed changer through integrator. The speed
changer gives the reference speed to the governor. Integral controller is used to reduce the
steady state frequency change to zero. After this part of the circuit, is the introduction of the
Primary ALFC loop whose function has already been described.
Thus, the two loops together help in controlling the speed which in turn controls the
frequency, since N f.
120 f
Using the relation, Speed N
Where, f is frequency in Hz and P is number of poles.
6. Draw the load curve and load duration curve. Explain the importance of these curves in
connection with economic operation of power system?
The generating stations may be steam, hydro, nuclear, diesel or any other type. This factor
mainly depends upon the natural sources available in the areas. The power station should be
as near as possible to the centre of the load so that the transmission cost and losses are
minimum. The scheme employed should be such that extension could be made to meet with
the increase in demand in future, without incurring heavy expenditure.
Load Curves:
Load on the power system is seldom constant. It varies from time to time. The curve showing
the variation of load on the power station with respect to time is known as a load curve. It can
be plotted on a graph taking load on Y-axis and time on X-axis.
Daily Load Curve:
The curve showing the variation of load on a whole day i.e., 24 hours with respect to time is
known as daily load curve. The load variations are recorded half-hourly or hourly on a whole
day (24 hours). Typical daily load curve is as shown in figure 3.
Monthly Load Curve:
The curve showing the variation of load of the month with respect to time is known as
monthly load curve.
It can be obtained from the daily load curves of that month. It can be plotted by calculating
the average values of power over a month at different times of the day. It is used to fix rate of
energy tariff.

Secondary ALFC:

Yearly or Annual Load Curve:

The curve showing the variation of load of the year with respect to time is known as yearly or
annual load curve.

Figure 3: Daily load curve

The load curves supply the following informations:
The variation of the load during different hours of the day.
The area under the curve represents the total number of units generated in a day.
The peak of the curve represents the maximum demand on the station on the
particular day.
The area under the load curve represented is divided by the number of hours, gives
the average load on the power station.
The ratio of the area under the load curve to the total area of the rectangle in which it
contained, gives load factor.
This is another type of curve which indicated the variation of load, but with the loads arranged
in descending order of magnitude, i.e., the greatest load on the left and lesser loads towards
right. From this curve, the load factor of the station can also be determined. Typical load
duration curve is as shown in figure 4.

It can be obtained from the monthly load curves of that year. It is used to determine the
annual load factor.

Figure 4: Load duration curve

Important Terms for Deciding the Type and Rating of Generating Plant:
Connected Load:
For deciding the type and rating of generating plant, it is necessary that engineering may be
familiar with the following important terms.
The sum of the continuous ratings of all the electrical equipment connected to the supply
system us known as connected load.
Maximum Demand:
The greatest of all short time interval averaged during a given period on the power station is
called the maximum demand. It is the maximum demand which determines the sixe and the
cost of the installation.
Demand Factor:
The ratio of actual maximum demand on the system to the total rated load connected to the
system is called the demand factor. It is always less than the unity.
Demand Factor =

Maximum Demand
Connected Load

Average Load or Demand:

The average load or demand on the power station is the average of loads occurring at various
KWhr Supplied in a day
Daily Average Load =
KWhr Supplied in a month
Monthly Average Load =
24 30
KWhr Supplied in a year
Annual Average Load =
24 365
Load Factor:
Load factor is defined as the ratio of average load to the maximum demand during a certain
period of time such as a day or a month or a year is called the load factor.


Load Factor =

Average Demand
Maximum Demand

If the plant is operated for T hours,

Average Demand T
Units Generated in T hours

Maximum Demand T
Maximum Demand T

T = 24 for daily load curve.

T = 24 7 for weakly load curve.
T = 24 365 for annual load curve.
Significance of Load Factor:
Load factor is always greater than unity, because average load is smaller than
maximum demand.
It is used to determine the overall cost per unit generated.
If the load factor is high, cost per unit generated is low.
Diversity Factor:
The ratio of sum of the individual maximum demands of all the consumers supplied by it to
the maximum demand of the power station is called the diversity factor.
Diversity Factor =

Sum of individual maximum demands

Maximum Demand of power station

It is always greater than the unity.

Because of maximum demand of different consumers do not occur at same time. Therefore,

Sum of individual

Demand on the < maximum

power station demands

If diversity factor is more, the cost of generation of power is low.

Factors to improve the diversity factor:
Giving incentives to some consumers to use electricity in the night or light load
Using day-light saving.
Staggering the office timings.
Having two-part tariff in which consumer has to pay an amount dependant on the
maximum demand of consumer uses.
Coincidence Factor:
The reciprocal of the diversity factor is called the coincidence factor.

Load Factor =

Coincidence Factor =

Maximum Demand of power station

Sum of individual maximum demands

It is always less than the unity.

Capacity factor is defined as the ratio of the average load to the rated capacity of the power

Average Demand
Rated Capacity of the power plant
Units or KWhrs generated
Plant Capacity Number of Hours

Capacity Factor =

Utilisation Factor:
It is a measure of the utility of the power plant capacity and is the ratio of maximum demand
to the rated capacity of the power plant. It is less than the unity.
Utilisation Factor =

Maximum Demand on the power station

Rated Capactiy of the power station

Plant Operating Factor (or) Plant Use Factor:

It is defined as the ratio of the actual energy generated during a given period to the product of
capacity of plant and the number of hours the plant has been actually operated during the
Plant Use Factor =

Total KWhr Generated

Rated Capacity of the plant Number of operating hours

Reserve Capacity:
It is the difference between plant capacity and maximum demand.
Reserve Capacity = Plant Capacity Maximum Demand.
7. What is spinning reserve and does this reserve help in operating a power system
efficiently? How is clod reserve different from hot reserve?
In any area, the kind of fuel available cost, availability of suitable sites for a hydro station,
the nature of load to be supplied, are considered by choosing the type of generation. The
minimum capacity of the generating station must be such as to meet the maximum demand.
Installed Reserves:

Capacity Factor or Plant Factor:

Installed reserve is that generating capacity which is the power intended to be always
Installed reserve can be kept low by the achievement of good diversity factor.
Spinning Reserves:

Cold Reserves:
Cold reserve is that reserve generating capacity which is available for service but is not in
Hot Reserves:
Hot reserve is that reserve generating capacity which is in operation bus is not in service.

8. A generating station has the following daily load cycle :
Time (Hours) 0-6 6-10 10-12 12-16 16-20 20-24
Load (MW)
Draw the load curve and calculate,
(1) Maximum demand, (2) Units generated per day, (3) Average load, (4) Load factor.
9. A power station has to meet following demand:
Group A: 200 KW between 8 A.M and 6 P.M
Group B: 100 KW between 6 A.M and 10 A.M
Group C: 50 KW between 6 A.M and 10 A.M
Group D: 100 KW between 10 A.M and 6 P.M and then between 6 P.M and 6 A.M
Plot the daily Load curve and determine diversity factor, units generated per day and load
10. (i) The maximum demand on a power station is 100 MW. If the annual load factor is 40%,
calculate the total energy generated in a year.
(ii) If the maximum demand on the station is 2500 KW and the number of KWh generated
per year is 45 106, determine (1) Diversity factors, (2) Annual load factor.

Spinning reserve is that generating capacity which is connected to the bus and is ready to
take load