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Computer hardware (usually simply called hardware when a computing context is

implicit) is the collection of physical elements that constitutes a computer system.


Computer hardware is the physical parts or components of a computer, such as
the monitor, mouse, keyboard, computer data storage, hard disk drive (HDD), system
unit (graphic cards, sound cards, memory, motherboard and chips), and so on, all of
which are physical objects that can be touched (that is, they aretangible).[1] In
contrast, software is instructions that can be stored and run by hardware.
Software is any set of machine-readable instructions that directs a computer's processor
to perform specific operations. A combination of hardware and software forms a usable
computing system.[2]
Von Neumann architecture[edit]
Main article: Von Neumann architecture

Von Neumann architecture scheme.


The template for all modern computers is the Von Neumann architecture, detailed in
a 1945 paper by Hungarian mathematician John von Neumann. This describes a design
architecture for an electronic digital computer with subdivisions of a processing
unit consisting of an arithmetic logic unit and processor registers, a control
unit containing an instruction register and program counter, a memory to store both
data and instructions, external mass storage, and input and outputmechanisms.[3] The
meaning of the term has evolved to mean a stored-program computer in which an
instruction fetch and a data operation cannot occur at the same time because they share
a common bus. This is referred to as the Von Neumann bottleneck and often limits the
performance of the system.[4]
Sales[edit]
For the third consecutive year, U.S. business-to-business channel sales (sales through
distributors and commercial resellers) increased, ending 2013 up nearly 6 percent at
$61.7 billion. The impressive growth was the fastest sales increase since the end of the

recession. Sales growth accelerated in the second half of the year peaking in fourth
quarter with a 6.9 percent increase over the fourth quarter of 2012.[5]
Different systems[edit]
There are a number of different types of computer system in use today.
Personal computer[edit]
Hardware of a modern personal computer
1. Monitor 2.Motherboard 3.CPU 4. RAM 5.Expansion cards6. Power supply7. Optical
disc drive 8. Hard disk drive 9.Keyboard 10.Mouse
Inside a custom-built computer: power supply at the bottom has its own cooling fan.
The personal computer, also known as the PC, is one of the most common types of
computer due to its versatility and relatively low price. Laptops are generally very
similar, although may use lower-power or reduced size components.
Case[edit]
Main article: Computer case
The computer case is a plastic or metal enclosure that houses most of the components.
Those found on desktop computers are usually small enough to fit under a desk,
however in recent years more compact designs have become more common place, such
as the all-in-one style designs from Apple, namely the iMac. Laptops are computers that
usually come in a clamshell form factor, again however in more recent years deviations
from this form factor have started to emerge such as laptops that have a detachable
screen that become tablet computers in their own right.
Power supply[edit]
Main article: Power supply unit (computer)
A power supply unit (PSU) converts alternating current (AC) electric power to lowvoltage DC power for the internal components of the computer. Laptops are capable of
running from a built-in battery, normally for a period of hours. [6]
Motherboard[edit]
Main article: Motherboard
The motherboard is the main component of computer. It is a large rectangular board
with integrated circuitry that connects the other parts of the computer including
the CPU, the RAM, the disk drives(CD, DVD, hard disk, or any others) as well as any
peripherals connected via the ports or the expansion slots.

Components directly attached to or part of the motherboard include:

The CPU (Central Processing Unit) performs most of the calculations which
enable a computer to function, and is sometimes referred to as the "brain" of the
computer. It is usually cooled by a heat sink and fan. Most newer CPUs include an
on-die Graphics Processing Unit (GPU).

The Chipset, which includes the north bridge, mediates communication between
the CPU and the other components of the system, including main memory.

The Random-Access Memory (RAM) stores the code and data that are being
actively accessed by the CPU.

The Read-Only Memory (ROM) stores the BIOS that runs when the computer
is powered on or otherwise begins execution, a process known as Bootstrapping, or
"booting" or "booting up". The BIOS (Basic Input Output System) includes
boot firmware and power management firmware. Newer motherboards use Unified
Extensible Firmware Interface(UEFI) instead of BIOS.

Buses connect the CPU to various internal components and to expansion cards
for graphics and sound.

The CMOS battery is also attached to the motherboard. This battery is the same
as a watch battery or a battery for a remote to a car's central locking system. Most
batteries are CR2032, which powers the memory for date and time in the BIOS chip.

Expansion cards[edit]
Main article: Expansion card
An expansion card in computing is a printed circuit board that can be inserted into an
expansion slot of a computer motherboard or backplane to add functionality to a
computer system via the expansion bus.
Storage devices[edit]
Main article: Computer data storage
Computer data storage, often called storage or memory, refers to computer components
and recording media that retain digital data. Data storage is a core function and
fundamental component of computers.
Fixed media

Data is stored by a computer using a variety of media. Hard disk drives are found in
virtually all older computers, due to their high capacity and low cost, but solid-state
drives are faster and more power efficient, although currently more expensive than hard
drives, so are often found in more expensive computers. Some systems may use a disk
array controller for greater performance or reliability.
Removable media
To transfer data between computers, a USB flash drive or Optical disc may be used.
Their usefulness depends on being readable by other systems; the majority of machines
have an optical disk drive, and virtually all have a USB port.
Input and output peripherals[edit]
Main article: Peripheral
Input and output devices are typically housed externally to the main computer chassis.
The following are either standard or very common to many computer systems.
Input
Input devices allow the user to enter information into the system, or control its
operation. Most personal computers have a mouse and keyboard, but laptop systems
typically use a touchpad instead of a mouse. Other input devices
include webcams, microphones, joysticks, and image scanners.
Output device
Output devices display information in a human readable form. Such devices could
include printers, speakers, monitors or a Braille embosser.
Mainframe computer[edit]

An IBM System z9 mainframe

A mainframe computer is a much larger computer that typically fills a room and may
cost many hundreds or thousands of times as much as a personal computer. They are
designed to perform large numbers of calculations for governments and large
enterprises.
Departmental computing[edit]
In the 1960s and 1970s more and more departments started to use cheaper and
dedicated systems for specific purposes likeprocess control and laboratory automation.
Main article: Minicomputer
Supercomputer[edit]
A supercomputer is superficially similar to a mainframe, but is instead intended for
extremely demanding computational tasks. As of November 2013, the fastest
supercomputer in the world is the Tianhe-2, in Guangzhou, China.[7]
The term supercomputer does not refer to a specific technology. Rather it indicates the
fastest computers available at any given time. In mid 2011, the fastest supercomputers
boasted speeds exceeding one petaflop, or 1000 trillion floating point operations per
second. Super computers are fast but extremely costly so they are generally used by
large organizations to execute computationally demanding tasks involving large data
sets. Super computers typically run military and scientific applications. Although they
cost millions of dollars, they are also being used for commercial applications where huge
amounts of data must be analyzed. For example, large banks employ supercomputers to
calculate the risks and returns of various investment strategies, and healthcare
organizations use them to analyze giant databases of patient data to determine optimal
treatments for various diseases and problems incurring to the country.
hardware and its function

POWER SUPPLY

Form a voltage box listirik that attaches to the back of each computer and have the CPU
power cable to be connected to a hardware component that is in the CPU. Power supply
also supplies electrical energy to one or more energy burden.
function

- Changing the AC voltage into DC


- DC supply voltage to a component that requires the current and voltage on the
motherboard.
- Controlling the electrical current / voltage to stay awake.
troubleshooting
Notification of problems that occur frequently regarded as a problem caused by a
hardware component in the form of memory, VGA card, or motherboard without
expecting an error occurs on the powersupply that we use. Here are examples of
problems that occur:
+ Computer restarts itself when the system is working.
+ The computer turns off after a while operated.
+ Intermittent parity check or other memory-type errors.
Harddrive and fan + sec. does not rotate synchronously.
+ Electrical shock is felt in the casing or connector
+ Power-on or system startup failure or lockups
Sometimes the boot itself + sec. spontaneous lockups during normal operation.
+ The system is fully dead.

MOTHERBOARD

Shaped board (board) that has several major electronic individual slots that can be
paired to another board, ranging from the processor, memory, sound card, display
adapter, and so forth. Between the slots on the mother board, there is a special slot for
the installation of the processor, called the socket and slot 1. Socket motherboards have
some kind of different, according to the development of the processor.
function
- The place to put or attach various components such as processors, memory, sound
card, vga card, etc..
- Media data transfer from the working components inside the computer.

- Set the power at each of the components on the motherboard


troubleshooting
Often there is a problem caused by motherboard hardware components installed on
motheboard or damage to the chipset used on the motherboard or I / O other.
+ The computer can not burn or often referred to as "motherboard + blank" when the
ON button has been pressed on the casing without any sound. Typically, this occurs
because of:
-Power supply is faulty or the motherboard power supply cable is placed in inaccurate or
loose
-BIOS is damaged
- Errors due to overclock the CPU clock on the computer
- The processor is mounted is damaged, or a socket that is used not in accordance with
the motherboard.

PROSSECOR (CPU)
Is a component of the IC chip or a rectangular shape of the brain and the computer
controlling the process performance, with the help of other components. Unit of the
processor speed is the MHz (Mega Hertz) or GHz (1000 Mega Hertz). The larger the
value, the faster the process of execution on the computer
function

- Place all of the instruction set computer program.


- Managing the performance of all activities on the computer.
troubleshooting
Problems on the processor typically causes the display to blank screen with no sound
whatsoever. This happens because:
1. Processor die or damaged
2. Burn from the processor temperature is too hot for doing Overlock or because the
processor fan is not working

1. Main memory
The processor can only store data and instructions in a register that is small so that it
can not store all the information needed for all the programs. To overcome this
processor should be equipped with larger storage capacity, the main memory. Memory
size is indicated by a byte unit.
function
1. As a data storage device and the program is temporary, it only works when the
computer live.
troubleshooting
1. The computer made a sound "beep" a long time without displaying the image on the
screen when the computer starts up
2. Installation of two pieces of RAM that do not fit often cause problems on computers,
among others:
The computer would often hang and blue screen appears when we work in an
application program or are playing games
-Computers are also often do not live or booting bias when lit
1. If installed with a capacity of RAM is not enough, the computer will be slower
performance in the reading of the data or run the application program.
2. Damage to the ROM memory type will result in blank computer or can not live at all

HARDDISK

Is the component that contains a rectangular platter or dish that is similar to


phonograph records, head, electronics board, motor, and other components, which are
coated or wrapped by a strong casing.

function
1. One of the computer booting tool.
2. Storage media operation system (OS) used on the computer
3. All of the data storage medium in a large capacity on a computer

Trobleshooting
Many computer problems due to damage to the hard drive so the computer can not be
used. Here are some of the problems caused by damage to the disk, namely:

1. The computer can not boot or startup


2. Computer hangs or restarts itself
3. Difficulty in reading and open data

1. Video adapter or GPU


Is a computer hardware component that connects the graphics processing equipment
with a monitor output equipment. On the old computer, the graphics processing
performed by the main processor. However, as the development of computer technology
today, has been designed
Video adapter with hardware components has its own processor, called GPU (graphics
processor unit) or the internal memory sehiingga chipset and load the main processor
performance becomes more reduced.

function

1. Port connecting the data processing equipment with a display output device / monitor
2. Maximize the function of the screen so it can display graphics in resolution and color
quality is best.
3. Can accelerate the performance of all software operation system (Windows)
And 2D and 3D software applications
1. Support the use of computers for games that are now widely based on 3D games
software
2. Display the best image quality for movie playback types of CD and DVD

troubleshooting

There are not any images on the screen because the screen is not attached to the
connector on the VGA card or plug is not installed properly

Sound Card

Is a computer hardware components which form the chipset on the motherboard or card
PCB (printed circuit board) is mounted on a PCI slot on the motherboard, by having
four main components to translate analog and digital.

function
1. Process data in the form of audio or sound.
2. A connector audio output to speakers

3. As a liaison to the computer voice input through a microphone.

troubleshooting
Can not make a sound through the speakers or the sound coming out Akif not clear,
which is caused by:
1. Sound card drivers not installed
2. Installation of sound card in PCI slot on the motherboard that is not right and fitting
embedded in the slot.
3. Installation of the cable jack on the channel out on the sound card in the chassis and
speaker
4. There is a broken connecting cable between the sound card in the chassis and speaker
5. Sound card is damaged or defective active speaker

Heatsink Fan (HSF) or Cooling Device


Cooling equipment is box-shaped or round, made of aluminum material and on it there
is the fan that will spin when the computer is on. Kebbutuhan HSF become a staple in
almost any computer because of computer hardware components inside the casing using
the HSF respectively, from the processor, VGA card, hard drives dn competing to
provide the facility of high quality HSF components in competing in the market.

function
1. Cooling the hardware upon which is placed HSF.
2. Processors will not work if there is no heatsink fan on it.
3. Absorbing the heat generated by the processor at work and is equipped with a cooling
fan on it so that the processor temperature remains stable.
4.Guard air circulation inside the casing.

troubleshooting
Hanay usually occurs on the fan is not spinning or dead. This is a fatal problem that
makes the hardware does not function normally, especially if it occurs on the fan
attached to the processor. Processors will not live and work normally so that the
computer turns off completely.

casing
Brain is putting a wrapper or processing hardware components that serve to protect the
hardware components from outside interference. In general, often called the CPU
casing.

function
1. Putting a hardware component, such as power supply, motherboard, floppy disk, CDRom, DVD-Rom.
2. Sistemkarena performance determinants related to the temperature generated by the
hardware components.
3. Proponents of computer display. If the casing has an attractive design, one would be
more pleased and excited to work with the computer.
Trouble shooting usually occurs on the power supply attached to the rear casing
abgian.
Motherboard
by John Anthony
The motherboard is the main circuit board in a PC. It contains all the circuits and
components that run the PC.
Major Components found on the motherboard are:

CPU - the Central Processing Unit is often an Intel Pentium or Celeron


processor. It is the heart of every PC. All scheduling, computation and control
occurs here.

BIOS - Basic Input Output System is a non-volatile memory that contains


configuration information about the PC. It contains all the code required for the
CPU to communicate with the keyboard, mouse video display, disk drives and
communications devices.
When a PC is powered on it uses the BIOS 'boot code' to set up many required
functions that bring the PC to a point where it is ready to work.

RTC - the Real Time Clock chip keeps date, day and time in a 24 hour format just
like your watch. The PC uses this clock to 'time stamp' files as they are created
and modified. When you print a file it time stamps the pages as they are printed.

Chip Set - these are large chip(s) that integrate many functions that used to be
found in separate smaller chips on the motherboard. They save space and cost.
The functions performed by these chip sets often broken into two devices with
one providing an interface from the CPU to the memory and the other providing
controllers for IDE, ISA, PCI and USB devices (see below).

Primary Connectors found on the motherboard are:

Power - A 20 pin connector accepts a plug from the power supply. This plug
carry DC power to all the circuits on the motherboard.

Keyboard - A Mini-din 6-pin (round) connector found at the back of the


motherboard is where the keyboard plugs in.

Mouse - A Mini-din 6-pin connector found next to the keyboard connector is


where the where the mouse plugs in.

Display - This connector is not integrated into the motherboard but is included
in this list since its function is absolutely necessary. It is a 15-pin, D-shell type
connector found on a video card that plugs into the AGP connector of the
motherboard (see below).

IDE - stands for Integrated Drive Electronics. These are 40 pin connectors that
provide a place to connect the ribbon cables from the drives (hard and CD/DVD).
All data between the motherboard and the drives is carried in these cables. They
are not accessible unless the PC cover is removed.

FDD connector - it is similar in function to the IDE connector. It is a 34 pin


ribbon connector that carries data between the motherboard and any floppy drive
installed in the PC. Not accessible with PC cover on.

DRAM - Dynamic Random Access Memory connectors for SIMM and DIMM
type memory modules. Not accessible with chassis cover on.

Serial Connectors
o Standard Serial Connector - This connector has been around in PCs
since they first appeared. It was originally located on ISA expansion type
cards (see below). Today it is an integral part of newer motherboards. It is
a 9- pin, D-shell connector that allows you to connect external devices with
serial ports to your PC. The maximum data rate is 115 KB/s.
o USB - Universal Serial Bus This is a relatively new serial bus.
Originally specified as low speed, 1.2 Mb/s, it was enhanced to full speed,
12Mb/s. The latest version 2.0 is specified as high speed, 400 MB/s.
Someday USB will completely replace the standard serial connector that
has been the workhorse serial port in earlier PCs. USB is now a standard
connector on all new motherboards.
Unlike serial and parallel ports, the USB port is designed to power devices
connected to it. The devices must be low power devices and must be able
to reduce their current draw to less than 0.5uAmps when commanded to
do so by the PC.

Parallel Connectors
o Centronix or Standard Parallel - This connector has been around in
PCs since they first appeared. It has 37-pins and is now integrated on new
motherboards. It is usually used to connect your printer to the PC and
moves data at about 1MB/s.
o SCSI - Small Computer System Interface moves data at a maximum of up
to 80Mb/s. It not integrated into most PC motherboards. It can be added
to a PC as an Expansion card (see below). Some printers and hard disk
drives use SCSI interfaces.

Expansion Card Connectors - The CPU connects to expansion card


connectors through one of the chip set ICs mentioned above. They are located on
the motherboard near the rear of the PC. These connectors allow special function
cards to plug into and work with the PC.
Before motherboards integrated the serial and centronix connectors they were
found on expansion boards that plugged into ISA slots.
Most PCs have the following expansion connector types:

o ISA - Industry Standard Architecture connectors have been around since


1980 and first appeared in the IBM XT PC. This type of slot still appears
on some newer motherboards so that older expansion boards can still be
used. However, many motherboards no longer have ISA connectors on
them.
o PCI - Peripheral Component Interconnect is a newer and faster interface
that accepts all expansion cards that have a PCI interface.
o AGP - Accelerated Graphics Port is a connector that is designed to work
with video cards. Your video display plugs into and is controlled by one of
these video cards. Many modern video cards offer enhanced 3D-graphics
and fast, full motion video.
A Quick Introduction to PC Hardware
written by: M.S. Smithedited by: J. F. Amprimozupdated: 9/17/2011
For most people, the inside of a computer looks no different from the inside of any other
electronic device: circuits, cables, and connections. However, for the computer literate,
everything makes complete sense, and a quick hardware upgrade or diagnostic need not
cost an arm and a leg.

An Easy Approach to Hardware


With this list of important computer hardware components and their explanations, you
too can become computer literate. All it takes is a little knowledge, and knowledge need
not be complicated.

What are the Hardware Components of a Computer?


While different computers will have different hardware inside, there are similarities
between most PCs. Below are the components you'll always be sure to find.

Motherboard: The electronic skeleton of the entire system.

CPU: A powerful calculator The brains of it all.

RAM: The indispensable short-term memory.

Hard Drive: Where all permanent data is saved and stored.

Case: The shell that holds all components together.


In addition to these components, there are others that are found in many, but not all,
systems.

Optical Drives: DVD players, mini-disc readers, DVD


burners, CD readers and burners, and Blu-ray players.

Expansion Cards: Graphic cards, network adapters, fax


modems, sound cards, and other conveniently upgradable computer additions.
Usually they connect via a PCI or PCI Express slot.

Fans: Most computers have active cooling in the form of


fans. They keep critical components from overheating.

Now, let's delve deeper into each category of hardware so that you can fully understand
their function.
Image Credit: Dell

The Role of Motherboards


Motherboards allow for all the other components in the computer system to become
team players. By collecting and distributing information and power to and from all the
right places, motherboards allow for connection between all the other components.
While the mobo doesn't impact system performance directly, it does determine the
components that can be installed. If you want to install a high-performance graphics
card, for example, you need to have a PCI Express x16 slot on your motherboard. If you
don't, you can't use that card in your computer.
Every connection to and from the motherboard is labeled and coded. Making an error by
connecting the wrong cable to the wrong connection or inserting the CPU in the wrong
way is difficult to do, but not impossible, so be careful when plugging or unplugging
components into motherboard. Improper connections can result in a computer that
won't boot, and forcing a something that isn't supposed to fit somewhere or trying to do
so the wrong way can irreparably damage a component.

CPU - The Brain of the Entire Operation


All computer components are important, but try to start your computer after removing
the CPU and you will soon realize it is indeed the brain of the operation.
The most powerful component of your entire computer system is not the biggest one but
it is often the most expensive. With that said, choosing a fast CPU chip that is adequate
for your needs will pay you back in higher performance and less frustration.
Always make sure to read the instructions carefully on how to install the chip into the
motherboard and fasten the dedicated cooling fan. Also, if you intend to buy a new CPU,
make sure you know it will not just fit in the specific socket your motherboard has but
be otherwise compatible with your motherboard in terms of things like power
requirements.
Remember, the motherboard determines what you can connect - and that includes the
processor. You can't use one of Intel's new LGA1155 processors if you have an LGA775
socket.
Image Credit: Intel

RAM - Memories, Anything But Faded Pictures

Try to think of the size of your computer memory as your own


short-term memory. Anyone can do just one thing at a time. But if you're trying to
multi-task, your memory becomes strained. Where did I put that? What does that do?
Limited RAM in a computer has a similar impact. Because it can't store as much in
short-term memory, it has to more frequently pause and search the hard drive for data.
That takes time, and slows your computing experience.
I recommend installing four gigabytes of RAM in most systems, but two is enough for
some home computers that won't be used to multi-task frequently.
Image Credit: Kingston

Hard Drives - Watch the Spinning Platter: What Do You


Remember?
RAM is only for short-term use, which means that nothing in RAM is stored when the
computer is turned off. When the computer is on. as new programs are launched and
others closed, the information in RAM changes to provide access only to the data a user
is most likely to need.
Everything else is stored in the hard drive. Again, a comparison to your own memory is
apt. Every person knows many things, from the mundane to the specific. Imagine a
nuclear scientist who plays the piano as a hobby. He knows physics and how to play the
piano, but he doesn't keep all of this knowledge at the front of his mind. Smart as he
may be, he doesn't discuss physics with his colleagues while improvising a solo, and it
takes him a second to go from one to the other.
Hard drives have a similar disadvantage - or at least, mechanical hard drives do. They
take time to spin up and find date, resulting in a small but noticeable pause. One
solution is the solid state hard drive, which operates more like RAM but has much larger
storage capacity. However, SSDs are expensive, putting them out of reach for many
buyers.

The Right Case for the Right Motherboard


Not all motherboards will fit in a specific case, and not all cases are best suited for a
specific motherboard.
The right case will take advantage of all that a motherboard has to offer. For example, if
a case offers earphone and microphone jack connections on the front of the case, it is
best to take advantage of such conveniences. Front USB ports are always a helping hand

as well so that you do not need to reach to the back of your computer every time you
plug in your camera.
Motherboards come in a variety of different from-factors. The most common are, in
order of size from smallest to largest, mini-ITX, micro-ATX, ATX and extended ATX.
When buying a new motherboard or case, make sure that the two are of compatible size.
An ATX motherboard won't fit in a case designed for micro-ATX boards. The larger your
case the less it will heat up and the more easily you will be able to change or add parts
for repairs or upgrades. Of course, a larger case will take up more room and be heavier.

Optical Drives and Their Benefits


Optical drives were once essential, because they were the primary method of installing
new software to a computer. CD-ROMs and then DVD-ROMs carried software data that
was transfered to the hard drive during installation.
Many programs can still be installed this way, and since optical drives are inexpensive,
they're still common on desktops. With that said, however, their importance is fading as
more software becomes available for download online. In some cases, installing from an
online executable is quicker than installing from a physical CD or DVD-ROM (if you
include driving to a store and back to get the disks, online is almost always faster).
Still, optical drives are useful for watching movies. It's now possible to install a Blu-Ray
drive in a computer, which can be a wise investment if you have a 1080p monitor.

Expansion Cards The Easy Upgrades


Simply place a card in an expansion slot, install the drivers and you are ready to go!
Expansion cards are one of the easiest upgrades to throw in a computer, as they don't
require as much mucking about with power cords and connection cables.
There are three types of expansion slots: AGP, ISA and PCI. PCI and PCI Express are the
newest technologies and also now the most common. AGP and ISA are virtually never
found on new computers, but if you have an older PC, you may still have to deal with
them. Unfortunately, new hardware generally does not conform to AGP or ISA
standards, so you may have trouble finding compatible products.
Video cards and sound cards are the most common upgrades found in expansion slots.
RAID controllers and even solid state hard drives are also sometimes connected via an
expansion slot.

Fans
Finally, we come to the cooling solution, and important part of any computer.

Most computers at least have a fan placed on the processor heatsink, and it's also
common for a desktop computer to have an intake and exhaust fan installed in the case.
This ensures proper airflow throughout.
There are many different sizes of fans, but 80mm and 120mm are the most common.
Larger fans are quiet when compared to small fans, because small fans have to spin
quicker to generate similar airflow.
Generally speaking, you won't have to mess with the cooling of a pre-built system. If
you're building your own computer or upgrade your PC, however, you should consider
cooling as well. A new video card can generate a lot of excess heat, so you may want to
install an extra case fan. Overclocking a processor is also a common source of extra
warmth, and may require the installation of a larger CPU fan.
Computer Hardware Components And Their Functions

Its an age-old question: hardware or software? On one hand, the hardware is what you
hold or have plugged in. Hardware has all of the components that make your Its the
software that makes your Mac or PC run, and its the software that allows We tackle the
five most pressing problems in each major component category five problems that could
impact each of your computers major hardware or software subsystems and our best
advice on how to fix them. This is our indepth computer repair the computer needs
power in order for its components to operate properly. The device responsible for
supplying power to the computer is the power supply. In short, we could say that the
main function of the power supply is to convert alternating voltage (a A fully optioned
version topped $6,000 with extra hardware PC and its imitators, Intel and Microsoft.
Apple's recommendation of raising the machine a few inches then dropping it to reseat
components and repeating until the machine regained its function NEWS ANALYSIS:
The latest iMacs feature looking to get their hands on a new computer. There are several
all-in-one PCs on the market, but Apple's new iMacs might just be tops. From the iMac's
new design to its outstanding internal components, Apple's Bio-engineers are working
on the development of biological computers with the aim of designing small circuits
made from biological material that can be integrated into cells to change their functions
for
bio-computer
components
that
serve
as
sensors
.

Many users have expressed their disapproval making single player components onlineonly, there isn't much mere mortals like us can do about it. What we can do, however, is
beat the hell out of Diablo III with today's finest hardware. A bunch of PC and
components in the system are, hardware and OS platform power management can begin
to align traffic better. Rather than everyone transacting data whenever it's ready, all of
the components in the system can begin to coalesce their On June 11, Hewlett-Packard
of cheap components. If a chip, hard drive, or stick of memory failed, it didnt matter;
automated software ordered another computer to pick up the work. These companies,
which by and large give away their services This rugged architecture and high processing
combines with a very modest power consumption of 40 W, enabling the new rugged
compact PC (RCP enclosures and hardware subsystem integration along with logistics,
configuration control, component .

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